“Farmers as Entrepreneurs: The Case of Farm-Based Tourism

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 06/2008; 6(3). DOI: 10.1504/IJESB.2008.019130


Recent trends indicate that more farmers will diversify their activities, leading to 'pluriactivity'. Farmers that develop their farming enterprise by building tourism businesses based upon the resources of the farm can be seen as farm entrepreneurs who are entering the service sector. Based on a representative statistical data set from a survey conducted in 2006, where 1677 farmers responded to a broad set of questions, this paper identifies the characteristics of farm-based tourism and farmers as tourism entrepreneurs. Furthermore, this paper explores the impact of the additional activities associated with farm-based tourism for both the farm economy and the work situation for the farm household. The data set presents a unique opportunity to combine sociocultural data with data on alternative farm economic activities in the form of tourism. Trondheim. Her research themes focus on work, life quality, images of the rural life and rural tourism. She has published in international journals and books in the area of gender issues in agriculture and rural communities.

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Available from: Marit S. Haugen
    • "The shift towards multifunctionality substantially changes farmers' role in agriculture and requires them to develop new identities, knowledge, skills and networks [13] [42] [43]. Key, in this transition, is the development of 'multifunctional entrepreneurship' or the propensity, knowledge and skills to 'do multifunctionality' [9] [10] [14] [44]. In the present study, the development of multifunctional entrepreneurship is approached through the lens of entrepreneurial learning [45] [46] [47] [48] [49]. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper analyses women's roles in the learning process that accompanies the switch towards multifunctionality and multifunctional entrepreneurship: the process by which farmers gain the necessary knowledge and skills ‘to do multifunctionality’, develop and adapt their identity as ‘multifunctional entrepreneurs’, and re-establish the identity of the farm as a multifunctional one. Detailed inspection of men's and women's positions and functions in the learning process reveals women's leading roles in: 1) introducing new identities and practices onto the farm, 2) providing access to new networks and learning environments, and 3) initiating negotiation within the farming family regarding the farm's (future) orientation towards primary production or multifunctionality. All three aspects of learning are essential building blocks for the development of multifunctional entrepreneurship on family farms. The paper is based on a study of 120 Dutch multifunctional farms, with a detailed analysis of the genderedness of the entrepreneurial learning process in three specific farm cases.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · NJAS: wageningen journal of life sciences
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    • "The research project, which the article is part of, has been placed at the Nordic research institute Nordregio. farming, including tourism and hospitality, and local food production (Dessein and Neven, 2007), or combining farming with pluriactivity (Haugen and Vik, 2008)[1]. Björkhaug and Blekesaune (2008), however, underline that pluriactivity has more or less always been part of farming, through hunting, forestry and fishing. "
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    ABSTRACT: urpose – This paper aims to explore how gender is “done” on farms in Sweden in the context of increased tourism and hospitality activities. The authors seek to investigate how gender is done vis-à-vis women’s farm tourism entrepreneurship. They seek to answer the questions: What has motivated the farm women to become tourism entrepreneurs? How are the gendered divisions of labor changed through women starting businesses? How does the gendered associated symbolism, as well as the identities, change? Design/methodology/approach – Research has indicated that introducing tourism entrepreneurship at farms may challenge established gender relations, as many of these entrepreneurs are women. The empirical material consists of in-depth interviews with 15 women farm tourism entrepreneurs in central Sweden. Findings – The analysis suggests that the gendered divisions of labor are not changed through the interviewed women starting tourism businesses. The authors conclude that the women build their entrepreneurship and develop some of their products on an image of rural domesticity, including a representation of themselves as traditional farm women. At the same time they are changing how gender is done through identifying as entrepreneurs and changing the use of the farms. Originality/value – The authors seek to fill the research gap concerning women’s farm tourism entrepreneurship and the potential associated gendered changes. Their theoretical contribution is applying the perspective of “doing gender” and entrepreneurship, for delineating potential changes in gendered relations.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Gender in Management
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    • "Selon Dufour et Lanciano (2012), ces nouvelles formes d'échange modifient en profondeur les pratiques agricoles des exploitants. En particulier, alors que les hommes considèrent l'artisanat alimentaire et la vente directe comme étrangers à leur profession (Macken-Walsh, 2011), les femmes sont en moyenne plus motivées par ces pratiques (Haugen and Vik, 2008). En outre, Camou et Quelin (2010) constatent que les projets portés dans des installations hors cadre familial, souvent par des néoagriculteurs , sont plus fréquemment atypiques. "
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    ABSTRACT: Le présent travail analyse les circuits courts agroalimentaires à travers le cadre de l’économie de la proximité. Il s’appuie sur les données 2010 du Recensement Agricole ainsi que sur une enquête quantitative inédite en France menée en Limousin auprès de 500 producteurs pratiquant les circuits courts (700 variables), accompagnée de 40 entretiens libres auprès de producteurs, consommateurs, commerçants et acteurs institutionnels. Malgré une activité institutionnelle apparemment importante et fortement médiatisée, les circuits courts semblent se caractériser par le faible rôle des proximités institutionnelles. Les proximités spatiales et plus encore relationnelles jouent en revanche un rôle déterminant. En particulier, la proximité relationnelle qui caractérise les circuits courts en Limousin n’est pas un phénomène passager lié à une dynamique d’émergence mais une propriété durable qui induit un mode d’accompagnement particulier.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Géographie Économie Société
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