Article

High fructose corn syrup: Production, uses and public health concerns

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Abstract

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a liquid alternative sweetener to sucrose that is made from corn, the "king of crops" using chemicals (caustic soda, hydrochloric acid) and enzymes (-amylase and glucoamylase) to hydrolyze corn starch to corn syrup containing mostly glucose and a third enzyme (glucose isomerase) to isomerize glucose in corn syrup to fructose to yield HFCS products classified according to their fructose content: HFCS-90, HFCS-42, and HFCS-55. HFCS-90 is the major product of these chemical reactions and is blended with glucose syrup to obtain HFCS-42 and HFCS-55. HFCS has become a major sweetener and additive used extensively in a wide variety of processed foods and beverages ranging from soft and fruit drinks to yogurts and breads. HFCS has many advantages compared to sucrose that make it attractive to food manufacturers. These include its sweetness, solubility, acidity and its relative cheapness in the United States (US). The use of HFCS in the food and beverage industry has increased over the years in the US. The increase in its consumption in the US has coincided with the increase in incidence of obesity, diabetes, and other cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. This study examines literature on the production and properties of HFCS and the possible health concerns of HFCS consequent to its consumption in a wide variety of foods and beverages in the typical US diet.

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... Isomerization of d-glucose (Glc) into d-fructose (Fru) is implemented on the industrial level for production of high-fructose corn syrups for food industry [1,2]. This process presents one of the most optimized and the largest biotechnological manufactures. ...
... Finally, a generally accepted mechanism was formulated [67,68]. Scheme 1 shows the major steps of the mechanism, which includes (1) Glc deprotonation in the presence of base, (2) ring opening of Glc anion as a quasiequilibrium step with a dominance of a cyclic form (a share of an open form was estimated as 5% [67,69]), and (3) formation of the 1,2-enediol intermediate as the rate-determining step. Subsequently, (4) Fru is formed from the 1,2-enediol (ED 1,2 ), undergoes (5) ring closing and (6) re-protonation. ...
... ED 1,2 presents a highly reactive species, which is present in a very low concentration that can hardly be measured [67,68]. Therefore, ED 1,2 , Glc − open , and Fru − open are assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium with the other species and Scheme 1 is simplified according to Scheme 2 [68]. ...
Article
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We explored the isomerization of d -glucose into d -fructose using the simplest possible base catalyst, aqueous NaOH, to maintain a constant pH value during the reaction. Under the applied mild conditions ( T 50–90 °C, pH 9.5–11.5), yields of d -fructose of up to 31% were observed. Selectivity-conversion plots were not significantly influenced by variation of the temperature, pH value or substrate concentration. A reaction network for kinetic modelling includes d -glucose- d -fructose interconversion, co-production of d -mannose and d -allulose (also known as d -psicose) as well as decomposition paths after deprotonation of the hexoses. All four hexoses were employed as substrates in the isomerization. Thermodynamic ionization constants of the saccharides were measured by means of potentiometric titration. In the kinetic studies, pH-independent rate constants as well as activation energies were determined. The obtained kinetic and thermodynamic results as well as selectivity-conversion correlations present a useful benchmark for soluble and solid base catalysts.
... amyalcea. Most of the endosperm of this type of corn is starch [9]. Only a thin layer of hard endosperm contains this starch. ...
... Also, after enzymatic conversion, the syrup obtained from corn flour contains insoluble components in the amount of 0.1-2 microns. These components include gelatinized starch or amylose-lipid complexes that adversely affect the filtration properties [9,12]. In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. ...
... In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. Purification methods include the use of coagulants, centrifugation, filtration of vacuum cylinders by means of filtration and ultrafiltration to remove insoluble materials of syrup and the use of activated carbon, ion exchangers and coloring resins are used to separate soluble materials of syrup [6,7,9]. According to the above explanations, although in the glucose syrup industry soft corn starch is mainly used, but most of the imported corn is hard corn and hard corn is available all year round, so the syrup producer has to use both types of corn. ...
Article
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Floury (soft) corn (Zea mays var. amyalcea) is mainly used in glucose syrup industry, but most of the imported corn is flint or hard corn (Zea mays var. indurate). Considering the necessity and importance of using soft and hard corn flour mixture in the production glucose and fructose syrups and the impact of corn flour on the produced syrups properties, in this study, by replacing hard corn flour with soft corn flour (with percentages of 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%), glucose syrup was produced and the effect of corn flour substitution ratios on the sensory properties and colorimetric parameters of glucose syrup obtained from these flour mixtures was investigated. The results showed that increasing the ratio of hard corn flour up to 70% substitution, significantly affected the colorimetric and organoleptic properties of the produced glucose syrup including color parameters, flavor and taste, aroma, visual color, appearance and overall acceptance and reduced them (p<0.05). According to the obtained results, it is possible to use hard corn in different replacement amounts less than 70% in terms of appearance and organoleptic characteristics in the production of glucose syrup. Also, glucose syrup obtained from soft corn flour, which has been replaced with less than 50% hard corn flour has the ability to become fructose syrup as a substitute for sugar in the food industry in terms of appearance and organoleptic characteristics.
... Also, after enzymatic conversion, the syrup obtained from corn flour contains insoluble components in the amount of 0.1-2 microns. These components include gelatinized starch or amylose-lipid complexes that adversely affect the filtration properties [9,12]. In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. ...
... In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. Purification methods include the use of coagulants, centrifugation, filtration of vacuum cylinders by means of filtration and ultrafiltration to remove insoluble materials of syrup and the use of activated carbon, ion exchangers and coloring resins are used to separate soluble materials of syrup [6,7,9]. According to the above explanations, although in the glucose syrup industry soft corn starch is mainly used, but most of the imported corn is hard corn and hard corn is available all year round, so the syrup producer has to use both types of corn. ...
... Sweeteners have a different sweetness than the total sweetness of its ingredients [6]. An intensifying effect of between 20-25% between glucose and fructose and between 20-30% between glucose and sucrose has been observed [9]. Using flint corn leads to an increase in the fructose content of the syrups and is evaluated as less favorable due to their darker appearance, due to increased brown reactions which is due to reducing sugars [8,15]. ...
Conference Paper
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Floury (soft) corn (Zea mays var. amyalcea) is mainly used in glucose syrup industry, but most of the imported corn is flint or hard corn (Zea mays var. indurate). Considering the necessity and importance of using soft and hard corn flour mixture in the production glucose and fructose syrups and the impact of corn flour on the produced syrups properties, in this study, by replacing hard corn flour with soft corn flour (with percentages of 0%, 30%, 50% and 70%), glucose syrup was produced and the effect of corn flour substitution ratios on the sensory properties and colorimetric parameters of glucose syrup obtained from these flour mixtures was investigated. The results showed that increasing the ratio of hard corn flour up to 70% substitution, significantly affected the colorimetric and organoleptic properties of the produced glucose syrup including color parameters, flavor and taste, aroma, visual color, appearance and overall acceptance and reduced them (p<0.05). According to the obtained results, it is possible to use hard corn in different replacement amounts less than 70% in terms of appearance and organoleptic characteristics in the production of glucose syrup. Also, glucose syrup obtained from soft corn flour, which has been replaced with less than 50% hard corn flour has the ability to become fructose syrup as a substitute for sugar in the food industry in terms of appearance and organoleptic characteristics.
... amyalcea. Most of the endosperm of this type of corn is starch [9]. Only a thin layer of hard endosperm contains this starch. ...
... Also, after enzymatic conversion, the syrup obtained from corn flour contains insoluble components in the amount of 0.1-2 microns. These components include gelatinized starch or amylose-lipid complexes that adversely affect the filtration properties [9,12]. In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. ...
... In the production of glucose syrup from starch, browning reactions occur which lead to the production of undesirable color in the syrup. Purification methods include the use of coagulants, centrifugation, filtration of vacuum cylinders by means of filtration and ultrafiltration to remove insoluble materials of syrup and the use of activated carbon, ion exchangers and coloring resins are used to separate soluble materials of syrup [6,7,9]. According to the above explanations, although in the glucose syrup industry soft corn starch is mainly used, but most of the imported corn is hard corn and hard corn is available all year round, so the syrup producer has to use both types of corn. ...
... The increased culturing of corn led to a glut of corn-starch, whose conversion to HCFS presented a more lucrative alternative to traditional sweeteners such as sucrose. This in turn led to HFCS being increasingly used in US foods [5], [6]. ...
... AG 2 H NMR spectra had broad peaks (3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8). MAGL deuterium spectra obtained from the derivatization mentioned above had narrower signals (1)(2)(3). ...
Thesis
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Contemporary society abounds with cases of obesity and type 2 diabetes, with more incidence in developed countries, and the forecast for the upcoming years/decades is not bright. One of the key components of this epidemic is the consumption of fructose that exceeds the evolutionary basis in which humans exist, resulting in the unbalanced metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Here we propose to study the impact that fructose has on hepatic metabolism, using C57BL/6 mice: a strain that is susceptible to diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes. The approach is based on the use of stable isotope labelling, namely 2H (that allows metabolic fluxes from all nutrient precursors to be studied) and 13C (in order to study the specific destiny of the carbons of glucose and fructose, based on the isotopomer labelling profile). This study was realized by administrating acetaminophen (commonly known as paracetamol) that binds to the immediate precursor of glycogen (UDPG, uridine diphosphate glucose) via glycosidic bond, originating a glucuronide (AG, acetaminophen-glucuronide). AG is excreted in the urine as a part of a detoxification process that occurs in the liver, providing a non-invasive chemical biopsy that allows the study of hepatic metabolic pathways. For NMR analysis of the AG, the most commonly used process is the derivatization to MAGL (Monoacetone Glucuronic Lactone). Because the focus of this study will be on mice and the derivatization protocol is characterized by having low yields (approximate yield 30-50%), it would cause significant material loses during the derivatization process, invalidating the ability to progress in the study. To solve this problem we also propose developing and perfecting a purification process with a higher efficiency, namely using SPE-columns process (approximate yield 80-92%). We also show novel data on urine excretion in mice (2.5 ± 0.9 g and 3.4 ± 0.7 g, in the control and HS groups respectively), acetaminophen-glucuronide production (27.4 ± 9.9 μmol and 22.9 ± 9.5 μmol) and acetaminophen-sulphate (10.9 ± 3.1 μmol and 5.2 ± 4.4 μmol), as well as weight variation and body water deuterium enrichment (all data showed are respective to control and HS groups, in this order).
... Based on this information and our findings, we thought that this product (baklava 6) may contain high fructose corn syrup (HCFS). HCFS is produced from corn starch via enzymatic reaction and is preferred in the food industry because it is cheaper than sucrose (Parker et al., 2010). Many epidemiologic studies have reported that the consumption of HFCS is associated with increased obesity (Bray et al., 2004;Goran et al., 2013). ...
... We thought that one of the baklava samples (sample 6) contained HFCS because the occurrence of MGO was considerably higher than that of the other samples. HFCS is preferred in the food industry due to its high sweetening power, long shelf life, and long-term hydration (Parker et al., 2010). The amount of fructose in HFCS is ranges from 42 to 55% of total sugar and is used as a sweetener in sodas, snacks, beverages, and bakeries (Aragno & Mastrocola, 2017). ...
Article
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Abstract This study aims to investigate the glyoxal (GO), and methylglyoxal (MGO), and the effect of the types of sugar components on GO and MGO formation in Turkish delight and baklava. The values of GO and MGO ranged from 326 to 1842 µg/100 g, and from 31 to 517 µg/100 g in Turkish delight, respectively. The values of GO and MGO in baklava ranged from 344 to 815 µg/100 g, and between 19 and 358 µg/100 g, respectively. One of the baklava samples may contained high fructose corn syrup (HCFS) given the presence of significantly higher amount of MGO than that of other samples. Increased sugar concentration, processing time, storage, and HCFS in Turkish delight and baklava may affect the GO and MGO formations. Longer storage time may influence the increase of MGO formation in Turkish delight. Therefore, these products should be consumed less or formulated with agents that reduce AGEs.
... Jarabe de maíz de alto en fructosa (JMAF) El proceso de elaboración fue desarrollado por Richard Marshall y Earl Kooi en 1957, que posteriormente fue modificado y mejorado por científicos japoneses en 1970, Se forma a partir de la hidrólisis del almidón del maíz. Existen 2 tipos: El JMAF 42, contiene fructosa 42%, glucosa 50%, otros carbohidratos 5%, se lo usa en productos procesados como cereales, panadería, galletas entre otros, y el JMAF 55 que contiene fructosa 55%, glucosa 41%, otros carbohidratos 4%, se emplea en bebidas deportivas, lácteos, yogures, bebidas sin alcohol [47][48][49] . ...
... Es más dulce que el azúcar de mesa, y los alimentos que contienen azúcar invertido retienen mejor la humedad y se cristalizan con menos facilidad que los que usan azúcar de mesa, presenta un poder endulzante 1.3 veces más que la sacarosa, y usa mayormente en la confitería, helados, panadería, pastelería, pues presenta una fermentación más fácil que la sacarosa 48 . ...
Article
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Obesity is a public health problem in most countries with industrialised lifestyles. Sweeteners are substances used to impart sweetness and flavour to foods. Their use is increasingly common in all regions of the world for weight control. However, their impact and efficacy is still unclear. As substances with a high level of sweetness, they invite consumption, which is not considered harmful, as long as it is done within the appropriate ranges. However, over-consumption can lead to metabolic disorders, especially when consuming those with a high caloric content such as sucrose or fructose. Despite this, the long-term effects of many artificial and natural sweeteners and which are best for managing obesity and other disorders such as type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Due to the great interest in sweeteners and their effect on body weight and their association with chronic degenerative diseases, this work aimed to describe and classify the most common sweeteners marketed today, as well as to explore the state of the art of the association between sweetener consumption and its influence on health, especially on obesity
... Compared with fructose, the cost of separation and drying processes can be avoided with HFCS as the reactant. However, the overconsumption of HFCS is related to diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases that makes the consumption of HFCS declined seriously in recent years, resulting the overproduction of HFCS [19]. Therefore, the HFCS-to-MLA process could solve the HFCS-overproduction issues. ...
... Compared with fructose, the cost of separation and drying processes can be avoided with HFCS as the reactant. However, the overconsumption of HFCS is related to diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases that makes the consumption of HFCS declined seriously in recent years, resulting the overproduction of HFCS [19]. Therefore, the HFCS-to-MLA process could solve the HFCSoverproduction issues. ...
Article
Full-text available
Methyl lactate (MLA), a versatile biomass platform, was typically produced from the catalytic conversion of high-priced fructose. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a mixture of glucose, fructose, water, etc., which is viewed as an economical substitute for fructose to produce MLA due to the much lower cost of separation and drying processes. However, the transformation of HFCS to MLA is still a challenge due to its complex components and the presence of water. In this work, the catalytic conversion of HFCS to MLA over CoO@silicalite-1 catalyst synthesized via a straightforward post citric acid treatment approach was reported. The maximum MLA yield reached 43.8% at 180 °C for 18 h after optimizing the reaction conditions and Co loading. Interestingly, adding extra 3% water could further increase the MLA yield, implying that our CoO@silicalite-1 catalyst is also capable for upgrading wet HFCS. As a result, the costly drying process of wet HFCS can be avoided. Moreover, the activity of CoO@silicalite-1 catalyst can be regenerated for at least four cycles via facile calcination in air. This study, therefore, will provide a new opportunity to not only solve the HFCS-overproduction issues but also produce value-added MLA.
... 20,43 ). Whereas HFCS-42 and HFCS-55 are commonly used in processed foods, HFCS-90 is only used in limited amounts due to its extreme sweetness 20,43 . In the intestine, the major transporter responsible for glucose absorption is SGLT1, while fructose absorption is mediated by GLUT5 (ref. ...
Article
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Reduced protein intake, through dilution with carbohydrate, extends lifespan and improves mid-life metabolic health in animal models. However, with transition to industrialised food systems, reduced dietary protein is associated with poor health outcomes in humans. Here we systematically interrogate the impact of carbohydrate quality in diets with varying carbohydrate and protein content. Studying 700 male mice on 33 isocaloric diets, we find that the type of carbohydrate and its digestibility profoundly shape the behavioural and physiological responses to protein dilution, modulate nutrient processing in the liver and alter the gut microbiota. Low (10%)-protein, high (70%)-carbohydrate diets promote the healthiest metabolic outcomes when carbohydrate comprises resistant starch (RS), yet the worst outcomes were with a 50:50 mixture of monosaccharides fructose and glucose. Our findings could explain the disparity between healthy, high-carbohydrate diets and the obesogenic impact of protein dilution by glucose–fructose mixtures associated with highly processed diets. Simpson and colleagues systematically interrogate the influence of dietary carbohydrate type and quality on the obesogenic impact of protein-diluted diets in mice.
... Inverted sugar syrups have many advantages compared to sucrose that makes them attractive to food manufacturers. These include its sweetness, solubility, acidity, and its relative cheapness (Parker et al., 2010). Starch produced from corn, wheat, or barley due to enzymatic hydrolysis is converted into glucose, and then due to isomerization into inverted sugar syrup (Ermolaeva et al, 2012). ...
... Chemically produced HFCS is classified into three groups depending on the amount of fructose it contains; 42%, 55%, and 90%. The first one is used in canned foods, bakery products, sauces, and soups; the second one is used in soda and fruit juices; the third one is used in small quantities in light products as a sweetener (Parker et al 2010). HFCS is also used to increase color brightness in products such as ketchup and jam (Palmer 1982). ...
... Corn syrup is preferred by manufacturers as an alternative liquid sweetener to sucrose and glucose syrups because it extends the shelf life of foods, is sweeter, prevents drying, crystallizes late, is suitable for fermentation, does not mask the original taste and is cheaper (1). High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is obtained by chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch containing amylose and amylopectin to corn syrup containing mostly glucose, followed by isomerization of glucose to fructose in corn syrup (2). ...
Article
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It is assumed that excessive fructose consumption is associated with the risk of developing various diseases, especially metabolic disease. The aims of this study were two fold: 1) Does liver and pancreatic damage occur due to excessive fructose consumption 2) If damage occurs, can we reduce this damage by using (ASA) and Vit. C. The rats were divided randomly into five groups of eight as follows: Group1-control; Group2-corn syrup (Fructose: F; 30% F solution); Group3-F and ASA (F+10 mg/kg/day, ASA, oral); Group4-F and Vit. C (F+200 mg/kg/day, Vit. C, oral); Group5-F, ASA and Vit C (F+A+C -same dose administration, respectively). The rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last application at the end of the 6th week, and their blood serum, liver and pancreas tissues were taken and evaluated histologically and biochemically. It was found that serum cholesterol and AST levels were significantly lower in the F+C and F+A+C groups, and ALT and TG levels were significantly lower in the F+A+C group compared to the F group (p
... Inflammation at that level can be promoted by a proinflammatory diet, to which FODMAPs may contribute; the localized inflammatory state could then expand on a systemic level (12,13) and potentially lead to cancer development at various other sites (1,3), apart from the colon-rectum (11). FODMAP intakes are increasing in Western countries (9), where diets notably include a large amount of industrialized foods [e.g., sugary beverages with "high-fructose corn syrup" (14), refined grains that are an important source of fructans (9)]. FODMAPs are also found in a large variety of foods (15): in particular, dairy products, fruit, garlic, onions, legumes, and chewing gum, which largely contribute to lactose, fructose, fructan, GOS, and polyol intakes, respectively. ...
Article
Introduction et but de l’étude Les oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides et polyols fermentescibles (FODMAPs) ont été impliqués dans l’étiologie des troubles gastro-intestinaux. Compte tenu de leur potentiel pro-inflammatoire et de leurs interactions avec le microbiote intestinal, leur contribution au développement d’autres maladies chroniques telles que les cancers a été postulée. Cependant, aucune étude épidémiologique n’a jusqu’à présent examiné cette hypothèse. Notre objectif était d’étudier les associations entre l’apport en FODMAPs (total et par type) et le risque de cancer (au global et par localisation : sein, prostate et colorectal) dans une vaste cohorte prospective. Matériel et méthodes Un total de 104 909 adultes français de la cohorte prospective NutriNet-Santé (2009–2020) ont été inclus dans nos analyses (âge moyen : 42,1 ± 14,5). Les apports en FODMAPs ont été obtenus à partir d’enregistrements alimentaires de 24 h répétés, liés à une table de composition alimentaire détaillée. Les associations entre les FODMAPs et les risques de cancer ont été évaluées par des modèles de Cox ajustés sur un large éventail de variables liées au mode de vie, sociodémographiques et anthropométriques. Résultats et analyse statistique La consommation totale de FODMAPs était associée à une augmentation du risque de cancer au global (n = 3374 cas incidents, HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1,21, intervalle de confiance à 95 % : 1,02–1,44, P de tendance = 0,04). Les oligosaccharides semblaient être plus particulièrement associés au risque de cancer : une tendance était observée pour le cancer au global (HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1,10 ; IC95 % : 0,97–1,25 ; p = 0,04) et le cancer colorectal (n = 272, HRQ5 vs. Q1 = 1,78 ; IC95 % : 1,13–2,79 ; p = 0,02). Les associations sont restées stables au cours des analyses de sensibilité. Conclusion Cette étude prospective à grande échelle suggère une association entre apports en FODMAPs et risque de cancer. Davantage d’études épidémiologiques et expérimentales sont nécessaires pour confirmer ces résultats et fournir des données sur les potentiels mécanismes sous-jacents.
... This is produced by using vast chromatographic columns of zeolites or the calcium salts of cation exchange resins to adsorb and separate the fructose from the other components. High fructose corn syrups are classified according to the fructose content (i.e., 42%, 55%, 90%) [125,126]. ...
Chapter
Microbial catalysts have gained tremendous popularity over the years in food biotechnology due to its capacity to assuage the demand for higher quality, safer and healthier food. The challenges associated with unearthing suitable microbial catalysts were enormous and a vast range of researches had to be performed to develop the high performance catalysts on which modern food biotechnology is based. Carbohydrate, protein and lipid hydrolyzing microbial catalysts along with some other less commonly used food catalysts are collected from different bacteria, fungus and yeast strains. Moreover, in recent times, attractive synthetic routes have been successfully established to generate industrially important microbial catalysts. This has resulted in further improvement in microbial catalyst technology making them more economically feasible and suitable for diversified applications. The first part of this chapter concentrates on different types of eminent microbial catalysts, their sources and development history. While the second part focuses on the applications of these catalysts in various food industries like starch processing, beer brewing, wine making, juice extracting, baking and dairy industry. Finally, a short discussion is given on recent advancements in food biotechnology regarding microbial catalysts.
... Currently, the isomerization is performed biotechnologically [4,5], though chemo-catalysis presents an economically attractive alternative for bio refining. In this regard, catalysis by bases, uncovered as long ago as in the 19th century [6,7], has been frequently addressed in recent studies [3,5,8,9]. The generally accepted reaction mechanism of the isomerization catalyzed by bases (B -) was proposed for the reaction in aqueous solution of KOH by de Wit et al. (Scheme 1) [10]. ...
Article
The isomerization of D-glucose into D-fructose presents a key transformation in the concept of cellulose valorization. Herein, we considered the isomerization of D-glucose into D-fructose and the reverse reaction in the presence of MgO, CaO, SrO, and Ba(OH)2 as catalysts. Our results suggest homogeneous catalysis by hydroxide ions OH⁻ released by partial dissolution of the materials. MgO (pKsp 9.8) steadily generates OH⁻ during reaction, whereas more soluble CaO (pKsp 5.3), SrO (pKsp 3.2), and Ba(OH)2 (pKsp 3.6) induce alkalinity directly upon immersion into the reaction solution. Very similar conversion-selectivity plots were obtained during isomerization in presence of the different metal (hydro)oxides indicating the common catalytically active species OH⁻. The applicability of filtration tests and contact tests to estimate the contributions of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis is comprehensively evaluated. For isomerization catalyzed by bases, deceptive results of these tests owing to in situ generation of hydroxide ions can be obtained.
... Glucose syrup and HFCS-90 are mixed for obtaining HFCS-55 (55% fructose) and HFCS-42 (42% fructose); thus, products with lower fructose content are manufactured. [1] Generally, 42% fructose syrup is used in foods and conserves where preservation of natural taste and moderate sweetness is desired, while 55% fructose syrup is used in soft drinks, ice cream, and desserts. 90% fructose syrup is used in foods where high sugar taste is desired with a small amount of sweetener. ...
Article
In the last century, eating habits have changed. Refined, unnatural, including high-carbohydrate and high-calorie, which have many chemical additives foods, are becoming our dietary habits. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is one of the most commonly used new generation foods, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of corn starch. It is increasingly used more frequently because it is cost-effective and gives a more sugary taste than sucrose. There are many doubts about the effects of HFCS on human health, especially obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease, and malignancy. This review will specifically explore the links between increased dietary fructose consumption and development of these diseases.
... HFCS has similar composition of fructose and glucose than sucrose. HFCS has been used extensively in a wide variety of processed foods and beverages and has been associated with an increase in incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (Parker, M., & Nwosu, 2010). ...
Article
Several studies have shown that consumption of honey is associated with various health benefits. However, there is scarce evidence on whether honeys modify the intestinal microbiota by preventing the inflammatory response in the host. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to study the effect of Melipona (Mel) and Mantequilla (Mtq) honeys, which contain different bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity on gut microbiota and metabolic consequences in comparison with other sweeteners, in particular sucrose (S) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in rats. The results of the present work showed that both honeys have polyphenols, flavonoids, antioxidant and bactericidal activities. Rats fed with both honeys gained less weight and body fat by increasing energy expenditure compared to S or HFCS and increased gene expression of antioxidant enzymes mediated by the transcription factor Nrf2. Analysis of the gut microbiota showed that consumption of both honeys modified the beta-diversity compared to those fed S or HFCS resulting in increased abundance of a specific cluster of bacteria of the Clostridium genus particularly Coprococcus eutactus, Defluviitalea saccharophila, Ruminicoccus gnavus and Ruminicoccus flavefaciens. As a result of the changes in the gut microbiota, there was a decrease in LPS- and TLR4-mediated low-grade inflammation and an increase in sIgA. Consumption of both honeys prevented glucose intolerance and increased adipocyte size compared to S or HFCS. In conclusion, consumption of MtqH or MelH can reduce metabolic endotoxemia by modifying the gut microbiota to prevent glucose intolerance.
... As a result of this process, the products obtained containing various amounts of glucose and fructose are called HFCS-90 (90% fructose and 10% glu-cose), HFCS-55 (55% fructose and 45% glucose), and HFCS-42 (42% fructose and 58% glucose). HFCS-90 is the major product and is blended with glucose syrup to obtain HFCS-42 and HFCS-55 [5] . Although being widely used in many processed products such as carbonated and fruit drinks, chocolate, cake, confectionery, jam, marmalade, and jelly, HFCS may cause various pathological changes, type-2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, hypertension, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases [6] . ...
Article
A novel liquid chromatographic analysis method with post-column detection for sugars was developed to improve existing methods in regard to operation time, selectivity, and sensitivity. This method involves separation of reducing sugars on HPLC column at 30°C and 0.8 mL min⁻¹ flow rate, post−column reaction of sugars with Cu(II)-neocuproine (Nc) reagent at 80°C and 0.3 mL min⁻¹ flow rate, and measurement of Cu(I)-Nc product at 450 nm. The proposed assay was applied to glucose, fructose, maltose, and lactose as reducing sugars. Non-reducing sucrose was determined indirectly, after conversion to its constitutive monomers glucose and fructose by hydrolysis, and analysis with a relative error from -2.41 to 2.09%. Honey, apple juice, and milk samples were evaluated as commercial products. The results obtained with the proposed assay compared to those of the alkaline Cu(II)−Nc reference method were found close to each other, and compatible with the label values of commercial products. The accuracy of the developed method was performed by spiking glucose to honey and lactose to milk samples using two different concentrations. The obtained recoveries with respect to the post-column HPLC method were between 97-105% for honey and 96-107% for milk. The method gave linear responses against sugar concentration with correlation coefficients greater than 0.996 for the four analytes (glucose, fructose, maltose and lactose) in a range of 9.0 - 342.3 mg L⁻¹ with LOD values ≤ 7.4 mg L⁻¹. With the developed method, it was possible to sensitively determine reducing sugars in various food samples at a lower temperature of post-column reaction (compared to literature values) with easy application of low cost reagents requiring minimal preliminary operation.
... The main added sugars in the human diet are HFCS and sucrose. HFCS forms are classified according to their fructose content as HFCS-55 (55% fructose and 45% glucose), HFCS-42 (42% fructose and 58% glucose) and HFCS-90 (90% fructose and 10% glucose) (4,5). Invert sugar is another of the most used sweeteners by the industries in sugary foods and beverages. ...
Article
Aim: The consumption of added sugars containing fructose has increased dramatically. Various studies have revealed that added sugar consumption may be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular, metabolic and neurocognitive disorders by triggering subclinical inflammation. The imbalance in the kynurenine pathway metabolites may be associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HFCS-55, invert sugar and sucrose intervention on the kynurenine pathway metabolite levels (tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, quinolinic acid and kynurenic acid) in Wistar rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four Wistar male rats (8-12 weeks old, weighting 300-350 g) were included in the study. After one week of conditioning, the animals were randomly divided into four groups: chow diet and tap water (control, n = 6), chow diet and tap water including 10% HFCS-55 (55% sucrose, 45% glucose), chow diet and tap water including 10% sucrose, chow diet and tap water including 10% invert sugar (33% sucrose, 66% glucose and fructose). At the end of the 3-month experimental period, serum kynurenines levels were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Serum kynurenine levels and kynurenine / tryptophan ratio were significantly higher (p
... The sweetness factor of yeasted and unyeasted pastry samples was equated to the sum of the sweetness of the individual components in the product. The relative sweetness values of the components that were used are averages of the relative sweetness values found in the literature (sucrose: 1.00; glucose: 0.70; fructose: 1.50; raffinose: 0.22; maltose: [21][22][23][24]. From related experiments with a trained sensory panel, we know there is a strong correlation between the calculated sweetness factor and the sweetness perceived by a trained sensory panel. ...
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Fermented pastry products are produced by fermenting and baking multi-layered dough. Increasing our knowledge of the impact of the fermentation process during pastry making could offer opportunities for improving the production process or end-product quality, whereas increasing our knowledge on the sugar release and consumption dynamics by yeast could help to design sugar reduction strategies. Therefore, this study investigates the impact of yeast fermentation and different sugar concentrations on pastry dough properties and product quality characteristics. First, yeasted pastry samples were made with 8% yeast and 14% sucrose on a wheat flour dry matter base and compared to non-yeasted samples. Analysis of saccharide concentrations revealed that sucrose was almost entirely degraded by invertase in yeasted samples after mixing. Fructans were also degraded extensively, but more slowly. At least ­23.6 ± 2.6% of the released glucose was consumed during fermentation. CO2 production during fermentation contributed more to product height development than water and ethanol evaporation during baking. Yeast metabolites weakened the gluten network, causing a reduction in dough stren­gth and extensibility. However, fermentation time had a more significant impact on dough rheology parameters than the presence of yeast. In balance, yeast fermentation did not significantly affect the calculated sweetness factor of the pastry product with 14% added sucrose. Increasing the sugar content (21%) led to higher osmotic stress, resulting in reduced sugar consumption, reduced CO2 and ethanol production and a lower product volume. A darker colour and a higher sweetness factor were obtained. Reducing the sugar content (7%) had the opposite effect. Eliminating sucrose from the recipe (0%) resulted in a shortened productive fermentation time due to sugar depletion. Dough rheology was affected to a limited extent by changes in sucrose addition, although no sucrose addition or a very high sucrose level (21%) reduced the maximum dough strength. Based on the insights obtained in this study, yeast-based strategies can be developed to improve the production and quality of fermented pastry.
Article
Background With the advent of food additives centuries ago, the human race has found ways to improve and maintain the safety of utility, augment the taste, color, texture, nutritional value, and appearance of the food. Since the 19th century, when the science behind food spoilage was discerned, the use of food additives in food preservation has been increasing worldwide and at a fast pace to get along with modern lifestyles. Although food additives are thought to be used to benefit the food market, some of them are found to be associated with several health issues at an alarming rate. Studies are still going on regarding the mechanisms by which food additives affect public health. Therefore, an attempt has been made to find out the remedies by exploiting technologies that may convey new properties of food additives that can only enhance the quality of food without having any systemic side effects. Thus, this review focuses on the applications of nanotechnology in the production of nano-food additives and evaluates its success regarding reduction in the health-related hazards collaterally maintaining the food nutrient value. Methodology Ahorough literature study was performed using scientific databases like PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science for determining the design of the study, and each article was checked for citation and referred to formulate the present review article. Conclusion Nanotechnology can be applied in the food processing industry to control the unregulated use of food additives and to intervene in the biochemical mechanisms at a cellular and physiological level for the ensuring safety of food products. The prospective of nano-additive of chemical origin could be useful to reduce risks of hazards related to human health that are caused majorly due to the invasion of food contaminants (either intentional or non-intentional) into food, though this area still needs scientific validation. Therefore, this review provides comprehensive knowledge on different facets of food contaminants and also serves as a platform of ideas for encountering health risk problems about the design of improved versions of nano-additives.
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Human food is composed of loads of chemicals derived naturally as well as unintentionally through environmental sources. Food additives added purposefully, play an important role in the palatability of foods. Most additives are synthetic whose essentiality in food processing is well-known however their health risks are not overlooked. The palatability of food should not only stimulate our eating desire alone but, also assure sufficient quality and safety. Application of food additives varies from region to region due to cultural or ethnic differences and the local food availability. There are about more than ten thousand chemicals allowed in food whereas due to weak enforcement, it becomes onerous for regulatory bodies identifying chemicals that are inadequately or not tested at all for safety. The hiking population and urbanization in many industrialized and developing countries resulted in life-style changes including culinary and eating choices. Particularly, the modern way of this globalised life demands ready-to-cook or ready-made foods, snacks, sweets, soft drinks, desserts, confectionery and so on. These sorts of food would be most uninteresting unless processed with additives. This puts food industries under demand to robustly supply foods that are either partially, fully or ultra-processed using plenty of additives. Recent research warns consuming food additives may result in serious health risks, not only for children but also for adults. Growing body of studies on food additives in various experimental animals, cell cultures, and human population suggest elevation of number of obesity and diabetes risk factors i.e. adiposity, dyslipidemia, weight gain, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, energy imbalance, hormonal intervention etc. Hence, it is important to identify and explore food obesogens or obesogenic food additives posing potential impact. Based on the recent toxicological findings, the review aspires to establish the association between exposure of food obesogen and metabolic disruption which may help filling knowledge gaps and distributing more knowledge, awareness and effective measures to implement treatment and preventive strategies for metabolic syndrome.
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Background Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides and Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAPs) have been shown to be involved in gastrointestinal disorders. In view of their pro-inflammatory potential and their interactions with the gut microbiota, their contribution to the etiology of other chronic diseases such as cancer has been postulated. However, no epidemiological study has investigated this hypothesis so far. Objective Our objective was to investigate the associations between FODMAP intake (total and by type) and cancer risk (overall, breast, prostate and colorectal) in a large prospective cohort. Design The study was based on the NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009–2020); 104,909 adult participants without cancer at baseline were included in our analyses (median follow-up time = 7.7y, 78.7% women, mean age at baseline 42.1y (SD = 14.5)). Baseline dietary intakes were obtained from repeated 24h-dietary records linked to a detailed food composition table. Associations between FODMAP intake (expressed in quintiles, Q) and cancer risks were assessed by Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for a large range of lifestyle, sociodemographic and anthropometric variables. Results Total FODMAP intake was associated with increased overall cancer risk (n = 3374 incident cases, HR for sex-specific Quintile 5 versus Quintile 1: 1.21; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.44; P-trend = 0.04). In particular, oligosaccharides were associated with cancer risk: a trend was observed for overall cancer (HR Q5 vs. Q1: 1.10; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.25; P-trend = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (n = 272, HR Q5 vs. Q1: 1.78; 95%CI: 1.13–2.79; P-trend = 0.02). Conclusion Results from this large population-based study on French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort show a significant association between FODMAP intake and the risk of cancer development. Further epidemiological and experimental studies are needed to confirm these results and provide data on the potential underlying mechanisms.
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Flavors and fragrances have extensive application in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, feed, chemical, and food sectors. Most of the flavor compounds on the market are formed from animal and plant sources, through chemical synthesis or extraction; however, a prompt alteration for the bio-production and use of flavor compounds with (micro) biological origin—bioflavors—is occurring. Enzymatic flavor production is commonly preferred over fermentation due to their high yields of production. On the other hand, it is undeniable that food is important for mankind and there is not any way of living without eating. Although the need to feed has not changed during the years, the way of food preservation has seen a lot of changes in today’s global market which is highly competitive, and it is desirable to use the cheapest method of food preservation, such as food additives which can be a good choice. Among food additives, enzymatic process for longitude shelf life is one of the suitable choices. Using of bioprocesses involving enzymes in food processing can decrease the antinutritive factors and toxins of the by-products, besides solving the environmental issues, and increasing their consumer acceptance by enhancing their nutritive value. Although, it is important to select the proper fermentative processing technologies.
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What is artificial intelligence? What are the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)? How does AI affect the SDGs? Artificial Intelligence has a real impact on our lives and on our environment, and the Sustainable Development Goals enable us to evaluate these impacts in a systematic manner. This book shows that doing so requires us to understand the context of AI – the infrastructure it is built on, who develops it, who owns it, who has access to it, who uses it, and what it is used for – rather than relying on an isolationist theory of technology. By doing so, we can analyze not only the direct effects of AI on sustainability, but also the indirect – or second-order – effects. AI for the Sustainable Development Goals shows how AI potentially affects all SDGs – both positively and negatively.
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Isomerases are enzymes that induce physical changes in a molecule without affecting the original molecular formula. Among this class of enzymes, xylose isomerases (XIs) are the most studied to date, partly due to their extensive application in industrial processes to produce high-fructose corn sirups. In recent years, the need for sustainable initiatives has triggered efforts to improve the biobased economy through the use of renewable raw materials. In this context, D-xylose usage is crucial as it is the second-most abundant sugar in nature. The application of XIs in biotransforming xylose, enabling downstream metabolism in several microorganisms, is a smart strategy for ensuring a low-carbon footprint and producing several value-added biochemicals with broad industrial applications such as in the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, and polymer industries. Considering recent advancements that have expanded the range of applications of XIs, this review provides a comprehensive and concise overview of XIs, from their primary sources to the biochemical and structural features that influence their mechanisms of action. This comprehensive review may help address the challenges involved in XI applications in different industries and facilitate the exploitation of xylose bioprocesses.
Article
Two commercial enzymes, amylase and glucose isomerase, were applied in sequential and simultaneous enzyme reactions to produce D-fructose from starch. 80 U/g Fungamyl 800L, 35 U/mL glucose isomerase, and 20% of starch were the most effective concentrations for this reaction. In the sequential enzyme reaction, Fungamyl 800L maximally produced 56 g/L D-glucose from starch at pH 5.0 and 55°C for 2 h. Consequently, glucose isomerase was reacted with D-glucose produced from starch by Fungamyl 800L at pH 6.0 and 55°C for 2 h. This resulted in the production of 18.5 g/L D-fructose, however, the production of D-fructose did not increase any more after a 2 h enzyme reaction. In the simultaneous enzyme reaction, Fungamyl 800L and glucose isomerase were simultaneously reacted with starch at pH 5.0 and 55°C. In the simultaneous reaction, D-fructose production continued to increase as the reaction time increased and finally 39 g/L D-fructose was produced from starch after 18 h. Based on these results, the simultaneous enzyme reaction was found to be more efficient than the sequential enzyme reaction with respect to the production of D-fructose from starch using amylase and glucose isomerase.
Article
This work demonstrated the promise of using industrial-grade sugar syrups derived from corn and wood, i.e., high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose corn syrup (GCS) and wood-based sugar (TMP-Bio Sugar), as cheaper and competitive feedstocks for 5-HMF production using niobium phosphate as a heterogeneous solid acid catalyst in a biphasic continuous-flow tubular reactor. 5-HMF yield as high as 53.1% with 100% sugar (glucose and fructose) conversion was obtained from catalytic dehydration of HFCS-90 (containing 90 wt% fructose) at 150 oC, with feed concentration of 200 mg/ml (glucose and fructose) and aqueous to organic phase ratio of 1:5 (v/v). Catalyst stability with time was tested over 20 hours of continuous-time on stream, and the reusability of the catalyst was studied after in-situ regeneration of the used catalyst by calcination in the air for removing the deposited humins and coke on the surface of the catalyst particles. The regenerated catalyst showed good activity with almost constant selectivity, although at lower glucose conversion and reduced 5-HMF yield compared to the fresh catalyst, indicating that the in-situ regeneration process could recover a part of the acid sites on the catalyst surface. The produced humins during the reaction were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and elemental analysis (CHNS). The results showed high aromaticity and the presence of a high degree of unsaturated compounds in the structure of humins.
Article
The yeast strain Hanseniaspora vineae TW15 derived from local wine grapes lacks sucrose fermentation ability, confers palatable aroma and taste in breads made from dough with monosaccharides added instead of sucrose. In this study, strain TW15 was applied along with the baking strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the conventional dough containing sucrose. The liquid fermentation ability of sucrose was elevated with the increasing ratio of S. cerevisiae, which synthesizes external invertase. The baking strain was then inoculated along with H. vineae TW15 and the two strains were grown on sucrose. When the mixed cells were used for the conventional dough formula comprising sucrose, the baked breads showed a distinct and acceptable quality similar to those made using H. vineae TW15 alone. Thus, H. vineae TW15 can be applied to the conventional bread making method in mixed culture with a baking strain.
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This article describes the complex interactions occurring between diet, the gut microbiome, and bile acids in the etiology of fatty liver disease. Perhaps 25% of the world's population may have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and a significant percentage (∼20%) of these individuals will progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Currently, the only recommended treatment for NAFLD and NASH is a change in diet and exercise. A Western-type diet containing high fructose corn syrup, fats, and cholesterol creates gut dysbiosis, increases intestinal permeability and uptake of LPS causing low-grade chronic inflammation in the body. Fructose is a “lipogenic” sugar that induces long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) synthesis in the liver. Inflammation decreases the oxidation of LCFA, allowing fat accumulation in hepatocytes. Hepatic bile acid transporters are downregulated by inflammation slowing their enterohepatic circulation and allowing conjugated bile acids (CBA) to increase in the serum and liver of NASH patients. High levels of CBA in the liver are hypothesized to activate sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2), activating pro-inflammatory and fibrosis pathways enhancing NASH progression. Because inflammation appears to be a major physiological driving force in NAFLD/NASH, new drugs and treatment protocols may require the use of anti-inflammatory compounds, such as berberine, in combination with bile acid receptor agonists or antagonists. Emerging new molecular technologies may provide guidance in unraveling the complex physiological pathways driving fatty liver disease and better approaches to prevention and treatment. © 2021 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 11:1-12, 2021.
Article
There is debate about the metabolic impact of sugar-sweetened beverages. Here, we tested the hypothesis that ad lib consumption of glucose (Gluc) or high-fructose (HiFruc) syrups improves glucose tolerance in mice. We provided C57BL/6 mice with a control (chow and water) or experimental (chow, water and sugar solution) diet across two consecutive 28-day exposure periods, and monitored changes in body composition, glucose tolerance, cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR) and insulin sensitivity. The sugar solutions contained 11% concentrations of Gluc or HiFruc syrup; these syrups were derived from either corn starch or cellulose. In Experiment 1, consumption of the Gluc diets reliably enhanced glucose tolerance, while consumption of the HiFruc diets did not. Mice on the Gluc diets exhibited higher CPIR (relative to baseline) by the end of exposure period 1, whereas mice on the control and HiFruc diets did not do so until the end of exposure period 2. Mice on the Gluc diets also exhibited higher insulin sensitivity than control mice at the end of exposure period 2, while mice on the HiFruc diets did not. In Experiment 2, we repeated the previous experiment, but limited testing to the corn-based Gluc and HiFruc syrups. We found, once again, that consumption of the Gluc (but not the HiFruc) diet enhanced glucose tolerance, in part by increasing CPIR and insulin sensitivity. These results show that mice can adapt metabolically to high glucose diets, and that this adaptation process involves upregulating at least two components of the insulin response system.
Chapter
For centuries, enzymes are playing profound roles in food processing and are extensively employed in food manufacturing. Devoted research continues perpetually to analyze enzyme-specific properties including their isolation, purification, and characterization. Advanced developments in the field of enzyme technology have developed new enzymes with wider applications and properties and different application capacities are still being explored. Typically, enzymes are obtained from animal, plant, or microbial sources and due to several benefits such as simple, economical, and consistent production, microbial enzymes are more preferable in several food preparations for improving food properties. The number of enzymes commercially used in food processing is increasing constantly and field of application will be expanded progressively in near future. This chapter aims to provide an overview in enzyme technology for food industries including its current development. The representative of enzymes used in food processing including the wide range of their application has been extensively discussed. In addition, various sources of enzyme for food processing applications have also been briefly addressed.
Chapter
Nutraceuticals are food-based substances originating from herb and medicine formulations for the prophylaxis and therapy of diseases. Starting from fourteenth century till now, corn intake is important owing to its high content of vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, dietary fibres, bioactive compounds with health advantages. The corn phenolics like ferulic acid, syringic acid, caffeic acid exhibit antibacterial, antimicrobial and chemopreventive effects and alleviates oxidative stress, cytokine production, NFκB activation. The corn carotenoids like lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, α- and β-carotene exhibit antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic qualities, inactivating free radical antioxidants, enhance immune function. The corn fatty acids like linoleic acid, oleic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid enhance the levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids in plasma phospholipids, which improves cardiovascular health. Nearly all essential vitamins and minerals are present in corn byproducts which can aid in normal functioning of body. The corn dietary fibres can improve digestive health acting as prebiotic and laxative too. Regular consumption of corn byproducts can decrease risk of neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, type 2 diabetes, obesity, etc. improving overall health.KeywordsCornPhytochemicalsNeurodegenerative diseasesCardiovascular diseases
Article
Commercially packaged baked products such as breads and rolls, cookies, crackers, and pastry/doughnuts are an integral part of the American diet. However, there is general lack of information in scientific literature on the ingredients used in these foods. A prototype of IngID, a framework for parsing and systematically reporting ingredients used in commercially packaged foods, was recently developed, using ingredient statements of baked products mainly from USDA’s Global Branded Food Products Database. Our results show that baked products sold in the U.S. mainly use refined wheat flour, non-hydrogenated oils, nutritive sweeteners, and additive-type ingredients including emulsifiers, coloring agents, and fortificants. Only 5% of the top-selling baked products are wheat-free; hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils continue to be used; baked products use on average 16 additive-type ingredients (includes sweeteners and table salts) and majority use multiple sweeteners. Fortificants, lecithin, salt, sucrose, water, and wheat flour are the top co-occurring ingredients and the core of the ingredient network. Not all baked products are the same. For example, pastry/doughnuts have the highest proportions of use of refined grains, hydrogenated/partially hydrogenated oils, additive-type ingredients including coloring agents and emulsifiers. IngID enables characterization of what is in the food we eat in a systematic manner, beyond nutrient profiles.
Article
Citrus fruit is a global commodity that is decreasing in production, leading to adulteration and fraud of citrus juices. Here, a biomarker-free detection assay was developed using an optical nanosensor array to aid in the food safety of citrus juices. Coupling the machine learning capability of our computational process named algorithmically guided optical nanosensor selector (AGONS) with the fluorescence data collected using our nanosensor array, we studied hundreds of citrus juice adulterations. Over 707 measurements of pure and adulterated citrus juices were collected for prediction. Overall, our approach achieved above 90% accuracy on three data sets in discriminating three pure citrus fruit juices, artificially sweetened tangerine juice with various concentrations of corn syrup, and juice-to-juice dilution of orange juice using apple juice. This machine learning-enabled nanosensor array can be applied toward combating food fraud worldwide in the rising threat to food security.
Article
The global concept of conscious consumption and healthy life-style affects the development of the food industry. As a consequence, over the last several decades, a production of sugar substitutes has been increased, a search for and creation of new sweetening substances have been carried out. The paper presents a review of the domestic and foreign studies devoted to the use of sugar substitutes in various branches of the food industry. The information about new types of sugar substitutes from natural starch-containing raw materials and their properties is given. A possibility of replacing crystalline sugar with sugar substitutes in food production is described, their effect on the physico-chemical, sensory and organoleptic properties of foods and beverages is demonstrated. The development of the technologies facilitates an extension of the range of well-known and widely used high-calorie sugar substitutes from starch-containing raw materials, characterized by different carbohydrate composition and properties. It has been noted that out of quite a large number of sugar substitutes applied in the food industry abroad, glucose-fructose syrups (GFS) are among most promising. They are full-value sucrose substitutes and have several advantages. A proportion of GFS in the total volume of sugar syrup consumption is increasing worldwide every year. The main raw material for production of GFS in the USA is corn starch; in the CIS countries, starch obtained from wheat and potato is also used. Studies aimed to investigation and development of bioprocesses that ensure production of competitive enzymatic GFS and other sweetening syrups from alternative sources are gaining in importance. The information is presented about the development of the innovative technologies for production of sugar syrups from Jerusalem artichoke and chicory, agave, yacon, sorghum and rice. The results of the study of properties of these syrups and their effect on the physical and sensory, rheological and microstructural properties of products, in which technologies these syrups were used, are described. Due to the different carbohydrate composition, as well as physico-chemical properties (a degree of hygroscopicity, anti-crystallization properties, a level of sweetness, glycemic index and so on), sugar substitutes acquire increasing popularity among producers and consumers, and can be used in food and beverage manufacturing as a more technological replacement of crystalline sugar.
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Banana is a staple fruit because it is available all through the year and it also serves as a source of income and food to a great number of people. Banana peel is the major byproduct of banana processing which account for 30% of the banana fruit and also constitute to environmental hazard. Banana peels are promising byproduct for different applications in nutraceuticals and medicinal usage due to the high dietary fiber and phenolic content present in them. Numerous studies have identified banana peels as a rich source of phytochemical compounds, mainly antioxidants such as phenolics, flavonoids, gallocatechin, anthocyanins delphinidin and cyaniding, and catecholamines, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. This chapter consulted literature and presented scientific evidence of banana peels as a source of nutraceuticals.
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Mango fruit and its by-product contain an abundant source of beneficial compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids, dietary fiber and vitamin E. About 15–20% of the total weight of fresh mango represents by its peel. Likewise, peel wastes from the fruit may contain beneficial properties similar to that generally found in fruit. As one of the signifcant by-products of mango fruit, the peels rich in health-enhancing constituents, particularly phenolic compounds, can be incorporated into nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and functional food products. mango peel contains mangiferin, pectin, anthocyanins, β-carotene, gallic acid, galloyl glucose, and lutein. Comparative studies on mango peel indicate that higher total polyphenol content is found in the ripened than the unripe peel.
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Along with food processing, the production of agro-industrial waste in the world increases, despite the fact that it is a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. In developing countries, waste materials from the agricultural industry can significantly help in obtaining valuable components for the production of various types of bio-based products. The aim of the work is to manage potato peel waste from the agri-food processing industry and to propose new nutritional and industrial applications for them. Food processing by-products are an inexpensive, affordable, and valuable starting material for the extraction of value-added products such as dietary fiber, natural antioxidants, biopolymers, and natural food additives. Potato peel waste, which is produced by various processes, such as extraction, fermentation, and other processes, can be transformed into products such as biofuels, dietary fiber, bio-fertilizers, biogas, biosorbent, antioxidants and various food additives. This work explores the use of potato skins as a source of nutraceuticals for food and non-food purposes, e.g., extraction, use of bioactive ingredients, biotechnological use, livestock feed and other applications. The practical approach will be able to be used in developing awareness of the proper management of agricultural waste, as well as in their application for the synthesis of many compounds such as lactic acid, biosorbent, biohydrogen, enzymes, etc., which serve as a basis for developing links between industry and sharing with new ideas and technologies.
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In line with global paradigm shift towards the promotion of environmentally friendly and sustainable solutions to prevailing challenges in all facets of human endeavor, it has become increasingly paramount to explore and exploit naturally-occurring sources of nutraceuticals available in plants such as fruits and vegetables for their physiological and pharmacological benefits in promoting human health and wellbeing as well as prevention and management of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Research evidence has shown that citrus fruits, particularly orange peel, which contains significantly high quantity dietary fibers, phenolic compounds, and phytochemical agents, promote wellbeing due to its extensive anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic and anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. These properties, as well as considerably little to no side effects in comparison to pharmaceuticals (medicinal drugs) continues to endear the global population to the health benefits of nutraceuticals.KeywordsNutraceuticalsCitrusOrange peelHealth benefits
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Nutraceuticals are foods with nutritional and health-promoting benefits. Sorghum and its products are veritable and invaluable sources of nutraceuticals. Sorghum species (sorghum valgare and sorghum bicolour) are members of the poaceae grass family and major source of cereals and foods in West Africa, India, China and North America. Their nutritive benefits are connected to their starch and protein contents, while their therapeutic potentials are traceable to the high concentration of phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins and polyphenols present in them. This chapter focuses on the phytochemical composition, nutritional, health promoting benefits and various applications of sorghum and its bye products.
Article
Chlorine disinfection is widely applied in drinking water treatment plant to inactivate pathogens in drinking water, but it unintentionally reacts with organic matter present in source waters and generates halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Sugar is one of the most commonly used seasoning in our diet. The addition of sugar could significantly improve the taste of the beverages; however, the effects of sugar on DBP formation and transformation remain unknown. In this study, the effects of sugar type and dose on the halogenated DBP formation in chlorinated boiled real tap water were evaluated during making hot beverages. We found that sugar can react with chlorine residual in tap water and generate halogenated DBPs. As the most commonly used table sugar, the addition of sucrose in the water sample at 100 or 500 mg/L as C could increase the level of total organic halogen (TOX) by ∼35%, when compared with the boiled tap water sample without sugar addition. In addition, fifteen reported and new polar brominated and chlorinated DBPs were detected and proposed from the reaction between chlorine and sucrose; accordingly, the corresponding transformation pathways were also proposed. Moreover, the DBP formation in the chlorinated boiled real tap water samples with the addition of xylose, glucose, sucrose, maltose and lactose were also investigated. By comparing with the TOX levels in the water samples with different sugar addition and their calculated TOX risk indexes, it was suggested that applying xylose as a sweetener in beverages could not only obtain a relatively high sweetness but also minimize the adverse effect inducing by halogenated DBPs during making hot beverages.
Article
High fructose corn syrup (HFCS), which is produced by the conversion of one sugar into another (glucose to fructose), has a marketing value. Hence, different glucose isomerases [(GI) (D-xylose ketol isomerase, EC 5.3.1.5)] isolated from different sources (macro-and microorganisms) were researched until today. In addition, the cost reduction of GI production for industrial applications has been investigated and applied with different techniques. Enzyme immobilization approaches have prominent features because they allow enzymes to be used repeatedly. In the current study, Anoxybacillus gonensis G2T glucose isomerase (AgoGI) (wild type) were immobilized with ionic and covalent binding on DEAE-sepharose matrix. Afterward, kinetic and biochemical parameters of the immobilized enzymes were evaluated. The pH and temperature parameters, in which the ionic and covalent immobilized enzymes showed the best activity, were determined as 6.50 and 85 °C, respectively. The kinetic data (Vmax and Km) of ionic bound AgoGI on DEAE-sepharose were 4.85±2.09 μmol/min/mg protein and 130,57±5,42 mM, as covalent immobilized AgoGI on the same matrix were 40.51± 0.81 μmol/min/mg protein µmol/min and 127,28±2,96 mM, respectively. Consequently, the usage of DEAE-sepharose for both covalent and ionic immobilization as immobilization matrix did not exhibit any negative effects on biochemical and kinetic parameters of glucose isomerase. Therefore, immobilized AgoGI on DEAE-sepharose was an excellent and promising tool for HFCS production.
Article
Researchers continue to search for efficient processes to reduce the production costs of rare sugars. In this paper, we report a novel D-xylose isomerase from Shinella zoogloeoides NN6 (SzXI) and its application for efficient rare sugar production. Purified SzXI did not show remarkable properties when compared with those of a previously reported D-xylose isomerase. However, NN6 was found to express inducible SzXI and constitutive D-allulose 3-epimerase (SzAE) when cultivated with D-xylose as the sole carbon source. These two enzymes were partially purified and immobilized onto HPA25L, an anion exchange resin. The co-immobilized SzXI and SzAE (i-XA) showed optimal activity at 65°C in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and 90°C in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), respectively. i-XA produced D-ribulose via D-xylulose from D-xylose at a conversion ratio of D-xylose:D-xylulose:D-ribulose of 72:18:10. Furthermore, D-allulose was also produced via D-fructose using D-glucose as the substrate, with a D-allulose yield of 11.2%. This is the first report describing a bacterium expressing D-xylose isomerase and D-allulose 3-epimerase that converts readily available sugars such as D-glucose and D-xylose to rare sugars.
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The aims of the chapter is to introduce sugar and confectionery products (S&C). The chapter is divided into five sections: (1). Introduction, the sugar and confectionery industries, commercial sugar supplies, uses of sugar. (2). Cane sugar manufacturing, sugar cane, processing cane sugar. (3). Beet sugar manufacturing, sugar beet, processing beet sugar. (4). Other sugar sources, maple syrup, corn syrup or glucose syrup, invert sugar, (5). Sugar confectionery, global confectionery sales, confectionery art and science, Candy making. With 17 references.
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Introduction: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) contain significant amounts of free sugars. SSBs consumption is strongly associated with overweight/obesity, dental caries, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and other illnesses. The aim of this work was to evaluate the content of free sugars in Argentinian SSBs. Methods: fructose, glucose and sucrose concentrations were measured in 53 samples from carbonated and non-carbonated SSBs through colorimetric techniques; regular (n=26) and low-calorie (n=27) beverages, classified according to nutritional label, were included. The total amount of sugars was calculated and compared with the declared value. Results: regular and low-calorie SSBs differ in their glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations, but do not differ in their free fructose concentrations. Furthermore, SSBs display higher concentrations of fructose compared to glucose, with a fructose/glucose ratio of 1.45. Conclusions: Regular and low-calorie SSBs differ respect of the free fructose content. This study, also, provides evidence of the variability in sugar composition in similar beverages of different brands, which can be a confounding factor for consumers. Besides the importance of the sugar content of food, it is necessary to evaluate the other components present to assess comprehensively their nutritional quality.
Conference Paper
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Amaç: Obstrüktif uyku apne sendromu (OUAS), hastaların sağlıkla ilgili yaşam kalitesini ve duygusal durumunu etkileyen bir uyku bozukluğudur. Hastalık şiddetinin sağlıkla ilgili yaşam kalitesi, depresyon ve anksiyete için etkisi ise henüz net değildir. Çalışmanın amacı OUAS şiddetine göre hastaların yaşam kalitesi ile depresyon-anksiyete düzeyleri ve etkileşiminin incelenmesidir. Yöntem: Polisomnografi izlemi ile OUAS tanısı almış 60 hasta, hafif (n= 20), orta (n= 20) ve şiddetli (n= 20) uyku apne şikâyeti olan üç gruba ayrıldı. Hastalardan Kısa Form-36 ve Hastane Anksiyete Depresyon Ölçeğini doldurmaları istendi. Gruplar arası karşılaştırma ve korelasyon incelemesi için analizler gerçekleştirildi. Sonuç: Hastaların %66.7’si erkekti ve katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 45.4±9.7 yıldı. OUAS şiddetine göre hem anksiyete-depresyon hem de yaşam kalitesi skorlarında istatistiksel olarak gruplar arası anlamlı farklılık gözlenmedi (p>0.05). Sırasıyla hastaların depresyon ve anksiyete düzeyleri ile yaşam kalitesi alt başlıkları; fiziksel fonksiyon (r =-.364, r=-.652), fiziksel problemler nedeniyle olan kısıtlanma (r = -.468, r = -.693), emosyonel problemler nedeniyle olan kısıtlanma ( r = -.460, r = -.646), enerji / yorgunluk (r = -.579, r = -.649), emosyonel iyilik hali (r= -.437, r= -.543), sosyal fonksiyon (r = -.409, r = -.547), vücut ağrısı (r= -.582, r = -.815), genel sağlık algısı (r = -.688, r = -.738) arasında negatif yönlü ilişkiler olduğu belirlendi (p<0.05). Yorum: Araştırma sonuçları OUAS hastalarının biyopsikososyal iyilik hallerinin hastalık şiddetine göre farklılaşmadığını gösterdi. Bu hastalarda yaşam kalitesinin anksiyete ve depresyon ile yüksek düzeyde ilişkili olduğu, hastaların anksiyete ve depresyon düzeyleri arttıkça yaşam kalitelerinin düştüğü sonucu ortaya çıktı.
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With increasing strict regulation on single-use plastics, lactic acid (LA) and alkyl lactates, as essential monomers for bio-degradable polylactic acid (PLA) plastic products, have gained worldwide attention in both academia and industry. While LA is still dominantly produced through fermentation processes from start, chemical synthesis from cellulosic biomass remains a grand challenge, owing to poor selectivity in activating C-H and C-C bonds in sugar molecules. To our best knowledge, recent publications have been focused on hydrothermal conversion of glucose to LA, while this review summarizes the highlights on direct thermal conversion of fructose as starting material to LA and derivatives. In particular, the synergies of metal/metal cations and acid/base catalysts will be critically revised on retro-aldol and dehydration reactions. This work will provide insights into rational design of active and selective catalysts for the production of carboxylic acids from biomass feedstocks.
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The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is crucial for energy homeostasis in mammals; mice and humans without it suffer from a voracious appetite and extreme obesity. The effect on energy balance of variations in plasma leptin above a minimal threshold is uncertain, however, particularly in humans. Here we examine a group of individuals who are genetically partially deficient in leptin, and show that differences in circulating leptin levels within the range found in normal human populations can directly influence the laying down of fat tissue (adiposity).
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Mercury cell chlor-alkali products are used to produce thousands of other products including food ingredients such as citric acid, sodium benzoate, and high fructose corn syrup. High fructose corn syrup is used in food products to enhance shelf life. A pilot study was conducted to determine if high fructose corn syrup contains mercury, a toxic metal historically used as an anti-microbial. High fructose corn syrup samples were collected from three different manufacturers and analyzed for total mercury. The samples were found to contain levels of mercury ranging from below a detection limit of 0.005 to 0.570 micrograms mercury per gram of high fructose corn syrup. Average daily consumption of high fructose corn syrup is about 50 grams per person in the United States. With respect to total mercury exposure, it may be necessary to account for this source of mercury in the diet of children and sensitive populations.
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Our laboratory has investigated 2 hypotheses regarding the effects of fructose consumption: 1) the endocrine effects of fructose consumption favor a positive energy balance, and 2) fructose consumption promotes the development of an atherogenic lipid profile. In previous short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with 3 meals results in lower 24-h plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin in humans than does consumption of glucose-sweetened beverages. We have also tested whether prolonged consumption of high-fructose diets leads to increased caloric intake or decreased energy expenditure, thereby contributing to weight gain and obesity. Results from a study conducted in rhesus monkeys produced equivocal results. Carefully controlled and adequately powered long-term studies are needed to address these hypotheses. In both short- and long-term studies, we showed that consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages substantially increases postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations compared with glucose-sweetened beverages. In the long-term studies, apolipoprotein B concentrations were also increased in subjects consuming fructose, but not in those consuming glucose. Data from a short-term study comparing consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, and sucrose suggest that high-fructose corn syrup and sucrose increase postprandial triacylglycerol to an extent comparable with that induced by 100% fructose alone. Increased consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages along with increased prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes underscore the importance of investigating the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in carefully controlled experiments.
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Whether insulin acutely regulates plasma leptin in humans is controversial. We examined the dosage-response and time-course characteristics of the effect of insulin on leptin in 10 men (age 42+/-2 years [mean+/-SE]; BMI 29.3+/-2.0 kg/m2). Each individual underwent four 9-h euglycemic clamps (insulin at 20, 40, 80, and 400 mU x m[-2] x min[-1) and a control saline infusion. Although plasma glucose and insulin levels remained constant, leptin diminished from 9.1+/-3.0 to 5.9+/-2.1 ng/ml (P < 0.001) by the end of the control experiment. Conversely, plasma leptin showed a dosage-dependent increase during the insulin infusions that was evident within 30-60 min. The insulin-induced increase in leptin was proportionately lower in obese insulin-resistant men. Free fatty acids (FFAs) decreased during insulin and did not change during saline infusions. ED50 (the dose producing half-maximal effect) for insulin's effect on leptin and FFA was similar (138+/-36 vs. 102+/-24 pmol/l, respectively; P=0.11). To further define the role of physiological insulinemia, we compared the effect of a very low dosage insulin infusion (10 mU x m[-2] x min[-1]) with that of a control saline infusion in another group of 10 men (mean age 39+/-3 years; BMI 27.1+/-1.0 kg/m2). Plasma leptin remained stable during that insulin infusion, but fell by 37+/-2% in the control experiment. Thus physiological insulinemia can acutely regulate plasma leptin. Insulin could mediate the effect of caloric intake on leptin and could be a determinant of its plasma concentration. Inadequate insulin-induced leptin production in obese and insulin-resistant subjects may contribute to the development or worsening of obesity.
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Fructose has been shown to have a catalytic effect on glucokinase activity in vitro; however, its effects on hepatic glycogen metabolism in humans is unknown. To address this question, we used (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to noninvasively assess rates of hepatic glycogen synthesis and glycogenolysis under euglycemic (approximately 5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic conditions (approximately 400 pmol/l) with and without a low-dose infusion of fructose (approximately 3.5 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1)). Six healthy overnight-fasted subjects were infused for 4 h with somatostatin (0.1 micromol. kg(-1). min(-1)) and insulin (240 pmol. m(-2). min(-1)). During the initial 120 min, [1-(13)C]glucose was infused to assess glycogen synthase flux followed by an approximately 120-min infusion of unlabeled glucose to assess rates of glycogen phosphorylase flux. Acetaminophen was given to assess the percent contribution of the direct and indirect (gluconeogenic) pathways of glycogen synthesis by the (13)C enrichment of plasma UDP-glucuronide and C-1 of glucose. In the control studies, the flux through glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase was 0.31 +/- 0.06 and 0.17 +/- 0.04 mmol/l per min, respectively, and the rate of net hepatic glycogen synthesis was 0.14 +/- 0.05 mmol/l per min. In the fructose studies, the glycogen synthase flux increased 2.5-fold to 0.79 +/- 0.16 mmol/l per min (P = 0.018 vs. control), whereas glycogen phosphorylase flux remained unchanged (0.24 +/- 0.06; P = 0.16 vs. control). The infusion of fructose resulted in a threefold increase in rates of net hepatic glycogen synthesis (0.54 +/- 0.12 mmol/l per min; P = 0.008 vs. control) without affecting the pathways of hepatic glycogen synthesis (direct pathway approximately 60% in both groups). We conclude that during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia, a low-dose fructose infusion causes a threefold increase in net hepatic glycogen synthesis exclusively through stimulation of glycogen synthase flux. Because net hepatic glycogen synthesis has been shown to be diminished in patients with poorly controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes, stimulation of hepatic glycogen synthesis by this mechanism may be of potential therapeutic value.
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This review explores whether fructose consumption might be a contributing factor to the development of obesity and the accompanying metabolic abnormalities observed in the insulin resistance syndrome. The per capita disappearance data for fructose from the combined consumption of sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup have increased by 26%, from 64 g/d in 1970 to 81 g/d in 1997. Both plasma insulin and leptin act in the central nervous system in the long-term regulation of energy homeostasis. Because fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, the consumption of foods and beverages containing fructose produces smaller postprandial insulin excursions than does consumption of glucose-containing carbohydrate. Because leptin production is regulated by insulin responses to meals, fructose consumption also reduces circulating leptin concentrations. The combined effects of lowered circulating leptin and insulin in individuals who consume diets that are high in dietary fructose could therefore increase the likelihood of weight gain and its associated metabolic sequelae. In addition, fructose, compared with glucose, is preferentially metabolized to lipid in the liver. Fructose consumption induces insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriacylglycerolemia, and hypertension in animal models. The data in humans are less clear. Although there are existing data on the metabolic and endocrine effects of dietary fructose that suggest that increased consumption of fructose may be detrimental in terms of body weight and adiposity and the metabolic indexes associated with the insulin resistance syndrome, much more research is needed to fully understand the metabolic effect of dietary fructose in humans.
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Obesity is a major epidemic, but its causes are still unclear. In this article, we investigate the relation between the intake of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and the development of obesity. We analyzed food consumption patterns by using US Department of Agriculture food consumption tables from 1967 to 2000. The consumption of HFCS increased > 1000% between 1970 and 1990, far exceeding the changes in intake of any other food or food group. HFCS now represents > 40% of caloric sweeteners added to foods and beverages and is the sole caloric sweetener in soft drinks in the United States. Our most conservative estimate of the consumption of HFCS indicates a daily average of 132 kcal for all Americans aged > or = 2 y, and the top 20% of consumers of caloric sweeteners ingest 316 kcal from HFCS/d. The increased use of HFCS in the United States mirrors the rapid increase in obesity. The digestion, absorption, and metabolism of fructose differ from those of glucose. Hepatic metabolism of fructose favors de novo lipogenesis. In addition, unlike glucose, fructose does not stimulate insulin secretion or enhance leptin production. Because insulin and leptin act as key afferent signals in the regulation of food intake and body weight, this suggests that dietary fructose may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain. Furthermore, calorically sweetened beverages may enhance caloric overconsumption. Thus, the increase in consumption of HFCS has a temporal relation to the epidemic of obesity, and the overconsumption of HFCS in calorically sweetened beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.
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Type 2 diabetes is an epidemic that is affecting an ever-increasing proportion of the US population. Although consumption of refined carbohydrates has increased and is thought to be related to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, the ecologic effect of changes in the quality of carbohydrates in the food supply on the risk of type 2 diabetes remains to be quantified. The objective was to examine the correlation between consumption of refined carbohydrates and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the United States. In this ecologic correlation study, the per capita nutrient consumption in the United States between 1909 and 1997 obtained from the US Department of Agriculture was compared with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In a univariate analysis, a significant correlation with diabetes prevalence was observed for dietary fat (r = 0.84, P < 0.001), carbohydrate (r = 0.55, P < 0.001), protein (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), fiber (r = 0.16, P = 0.03), corn syrup (r = 0.83, P < 0.001), and total energy (r = 0.75, P < 0.001) intakes. In a multivariate nutrient-density model, in which total energy intake was accounted for, corn syrup was positively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (beta = 0.0132, P = 0.038). Fiber (beta = -13.86, P < 0.01) was negatively associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, protein (P = 0.084) and fat (P = 0.79) were not associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes when total energy was controlled for. Increasing intakes of refined carbohydrate (corn syrup) concomitant with decreasing intakes of fiber paralleled the upward trend in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes observed in the United States during the 20th century.
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High-fructose diet stimulates hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and causes hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in rodents. Fructose-induced insulin resistance may be secondary to alterations of lipid metabolism. In contrast, fish oil supplementation decreases triglycerides and may improve insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effect of high-fructose diet and fish oil on DNL and VLDL triglycerides and their impact on insulin resistance. Seven normal men were studied on four occasions: after fish oil (7.2 g/day) for 28 days; a 6-day high-fructose diet (corresponding to an extra 25% of total calories); fish oil plus high-fructose diet; and control conditions. Following each condition, fasting fractional DNL and endogenous glucose production (EGP) were evaluated using [1-13C]sodium acetate and 6,6-2H2 glucose and a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was performed to assess insulin sensitivity. High-fructose diet significantly increased fasting glycemia (7 +/- 2%), triglycerides (79 +/- 22%), fractional DNL (sixfold), and EGP (14 +/- 3%, all P < 0.05). It also impaired insulin-induced suppression of adipose tissue lipolysis and EGP (P < 0.05) but had no effect on whole- body insulin-mediated glucose disposal. Fish oil significantly decreased triglycerides (37%, P < 0.05) after high-fructose diet compared with high-fructose diet without fish oil and tended to reduce DNL but had no other significant effect. In conclusion, high-fructose diet induced dyslipidemia and hepatic and adipose tissue insulin resistance. Fish oil reversed dyslipidemia but not insulin resistance.
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The marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in the United States has recently been attributed to the increased fructose consumption. To determine if and how fructose might promote obesity in an animal model, we measured body composition, energy intake, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and several endocrine parameters related to energy homeostasis in mice consuming fructose. We compared the effects of ad libitum access to fructose (15% solution in water), sucrose (10%, popular soft drink), and artificial sweetener (0% calories, popular diet soft drink) on adipogenesis and energy metabolism in mice. Exposure to fructose water increased adiposity, whereas increased fat mass after consumption of soft drinks or diet soft drinks did not reach statistical significance (n = 9 each group). Total intake of energy was unaltered, because mice proportionally reduced their caloric intake from chow. There was a trend toward reduced energy expenditure and increased respiratory quotient, albeit not significant, in the fructose group. Furthermore, fructose produced a hepatic lipid accumulation with a characteristic pericentral pattern. These data are compatible with the conclusion that a high intake of fructose selectively enhances adipogenesis, possibly through a shift of substrate use to lipogenesis.
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The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S. population. The Center for Food, Nutrition, and Agriculture Policy convened an expert panel to discuss the published scientific literature examining the relationship between consumption of HFCS or "soft drinks" (proxy for HFCS) and weight gain. The authors conducted original analysis to address certain gaps in the literature. Evidence from ecological studies linking HFCS consumption with rising BMI rates is unreliable. Evidence from epidemiologic studies and randomized controlled trials is inconclusive. Studies analyzing the differences between HFCS and sucrose consumption and their contributions to weight gain do not exist. HFCS and sucrose have similar monosaccharide compositions and sweetness values. The fructose:glucose (F:G) ratio in the U.S. food supply has not appreciably changed since the introduction of HFCS in the 1960s. It is unclear why HFCS would affect satiety or absorption and metabolism of fructose any differently than would sucrose. Based on the currently available evidence, the expert panel concluded that HFCS does not appear to contribute to overweight and obesity any differently than do other energy sources. Research recommendations were made to improve our understanding of the association of HFCS and weight gain.
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We have reported that, compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consuming fructose-sweetened beverages with meals results in lower 24-h circulating glucose, insulin, and leptin concentrations and elevated triacylglycerol (TG). However, pure fructose and glucose are not commonly used as sweeteners. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose as the predominant sweetener in beverages in the United States. We compared the metabolic/endocrine effects of HFCS with sucrose and, in a subset of subjects, with pure fructose and glucose. Thirty-four men and women consumed 3 isocaloric meals with either sucrose- or HFCS-sweetened beverages, and blood samples were collected over 24 h. Eight of the male subjects were also studied when fructose- or glucose-sweetened beverages were consumed. In 34 subjects, 24-h glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and TG profiles were similar between days that sucrose or HFCS was consumed. Postprandial TG excursions after HFCS or sucrose were larger in men than in women. In the men in whom the effects of 4 sweeteners were compared, the 24-h glucose and insulin responses induced by HFCS and sucrose were intermediate between the lower responses during consumption of fructose and the higher responses during glucose. Unexpectedly, postprandial TG profiles after HFCS or sucrose were not intermediate but comparably high as after pure fructose. Sucrose and HFCS do not have substantially different short-term endocrine/metabolic effects. In male subjects, short-term consumption of sucrose and HFCS resulted in postprandial TG responses comparable to those induced by fructose.
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Several myths and facts of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the sweetener used in most carbonated beverages in the US, are discussed. HFCS is not high in fructose but the name was given to acknowledge its fructose content and to differentiate it from regular corn syrup. It is nearly identical in fructose-to-glucose ratio to sucrose and honey, which explains its comparable metabolism and sweetness. HFCS, sugar, and honey are composed of nearly equal amounts of fructose and glucose and the human body cannot distinguish these sweeteners from one another. HFCS is made from corn and the process begins by steeping corn to soften and separate the kernel into its starch, corn hull, protein, and oil components. HFCS is also a caloric ingredient like other carbohydrates, fats, proteins and alcohol and over-consumption will bring the weight gain.
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As carbohydrates are used more and more as fat replacers in foods, a knowledge of how they affect flavor becomes increasingly important.
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In the United States, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood production, after bees have been moved for commercial pollination, and when field-gathered nectar sources are scarce. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed contaminant and is the most noted toxin to honey bees. Currently, there are no rapid field tests that would alert beekeepers of dangerous levels of HMF in HFCS or honey. In this study, the initial levels and the rates of formation of HMF at four temperatures were evaluated in U.S.-available HFCS samples. Different HFCS brands were analyzed and compared for acidity and metal ions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Levels of HMF in eight HFCS products were evaluated over 35 days, and the data were fit to polynomial and exponential equations, with excellent correlations. The data can be used by beekeepers to predict HMF formation on storage. Caged bee studies were conducted to evaluate the HMF dose-response effect on bee mortality. Finally, commercial bases such as lime, potash, and caustic soda were added to neutralize hydronium ion in HMF samples, and the rates of HMF formation were compared at 45 degrees C.
Article
It has been suggested that increased fructose intake is associated with obesity. We hypothesized that chronic fructose consumption causes leptin resistance, which subsequently may promote the development of obesity in response to a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-free control or 60% fructose diet for 6 mo and then tested for leptin resistance. Half of the rats in each group were then switched to high-fat diet for 2 wk, while the other half continued on their respective diets. Chronic fructose consumption caused leptin resistance, while serum leptin levels, weight, and adiposity were the same as in control rats that were leptin responsive. Intraperitoneal leptin injections reduced 24-h food intake in the fructose-free group (73.7 +/- 6.3 vs. 58.1 +/- 8 kcal, P = 0.02) but had no effect in fructose-fed rats (71.2 +/- 6.6 vs. 72.4 +/- 6.4 kcal, P = 0.9). Absence of anorexic response to intraperitoneal leptin injection was associated with 25.7% decrease in hypothalamic signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the high-fructose-fed rats compared with controls (P = 0.015). Subsequent exposure of the fructose-mediated, leptin-resistant rats to a high-fat diet led to exacerbated weight gain (50.2 +/- 2 g) compared with correspondingly fed leptin-responsive animals that were pretreated with the fructose-free diet (30.4 +/- 5.8 g, P = 0.012). Our data indicate that chronic fructose consumption induces leptin resistance prior to body weight, adiposity, serum leptin, insulin, or glucose increases, and this fructose-induced leptin resistance accelerates high-fat induced obesity.
Article
Most of the metabolic effects of fructose are due to its rapid utilization by the liver and it by-passing the phosphofructokinase regulatory step in glycolysis, leading to far reaching consequences to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These consequences include immediate hepatic increases in pyruvate and lactate production, activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, and a shift in balance from oxidation to esterification of nonesterified fatty acids, resulting in increased secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL). These effects are augmented by long-term absorption of fructose, which causes enzyme adaptations that increase lipogenesis and VLDL secretion, leading to triglyceridemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and hyperinsulinemia. Acute loading of the liver with fructose causes sequestration of inorganic phosphate in fructose-1-phosphate and diminished ATP synthesis. Consequently, the inhibition by ATP of the enzymes of adenine nucleotide degradation is removed and uric acid formation accelerates with consequent hyperuricemia. These effects are of particular significance to potentially hypertriglyceridemic or hyperuricemic individuals.
Article
High-fructose syrups (HFS) are now manufactured and used in many countries throughout the world. They are produced from a variety of starch raw materials including corn, rice, tapioca, wheat, cassava, and sugar beet pulp. Production of HFS is highly dependent on local sucrose and economics of agricultural raw materials. HFS is produced and consumed in the largest quantity in the United States by using corn starch as the raw material. Eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, and Asia are major growth areas for HFS production. Crystalline fructose is now being used in a growing number of food applications but its production represents a small percentage of total fructose sweeteners.
Article
High-fructose syrups (HFS) comprise fructose, dextrose, and minor amounts of oligosaccharides. The predominant syrups of commerce contain 42% and 55% fructose. HFS production was made possible by concurrent developments in refining, isomerization, and separation technologies in the 1960s. Fructose contributes many useful physical and functional attributes to food and beverage applications, including sweetness, flavor enhancement, humectancy, color and flavor development, freezing-point depression, and osmotic stability. HFS is used extensively in carbonated beverages, baked goods, canned fruits, jams and jellies, and dairy products. The use of crystalline fructose and crystalline fructose syrup have recently expanded from pharmaceutical and specialty food products to mainstream food and beverage applications.
Article
Fructose has been implicated in obesity, partly due to lack of insulin-mediated leptin stimulation and ghrelin suppression. Most work has examined effects of pure fructose, rather than high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), the most commonly consumed form of fructose. This study examined effects of beverages sweetened with HFCS or sucrose (Suc), when consumed with mixed meals, on blood glucose, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and appetite. Thirty lean women were studied on two randomized 2-d visits during which HFCS- and Suc-sweetened beverages were consumed as 30% of energy on isocaloric diets during day 1 while blood was sampled. On day 2, food was eaten ad libitum. Subjects rated appetite at designated times throughout visits. No significant differences between the two sweeteners were seen in fasting plasma glucose, insulin, leptin, and ghrelin (P > 0.05). The within-day variation in all four items was not different between the two visits (P > 0.05). Net areas under the curve were similar for glucose, insulin, and leptin (P > 0.05). There were no differences in energy or macronutrient intake on day 2. The only appetite variable that differed between sweeteners was desire to eat, which had a higher area under the curve the day after Suc compared with HFCS. These short-term results suggest that, when fructose is consumed in the form of HFCS, the measured metabolic responses do not differ from Suc in lean women. Further research is required to examine appetite responses and to determine if these findings hold true for obese individuals, males, or longer periods.
Article
Widespread use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in beverages has been linked to rising obesity rates. One hypothesis is that HFCS in beverages has little satiating power. The objective of the study was to compare the relative effect of commercial beverages containing sucrose or HFCS on hunger, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal with the use of a within-subject design. Thirty-seven volunteers (19 men, 18 women) aged 20-29 y consumed isocaloric cola beverages (215 kcal) sweetened with sucrose, HFCS 42, or HFCS 55. HFCS 42 contains 42% fructose, and HFCS 55 contains 55% fructose. Diet cola (2 kcal), 1%-fat milk (215 kcal), and no beverage were the control conditions. The 5 beverages were consumed at 1010 (2 h after a standard breakfast). Participants rated hunger, thirst, and satiety at baseline and at 20-min intervals after ingestion. A tray lunch (1708 kcal) was served at 1230, and energy intakes were measured. The free sugars content of sucrose-sweetened cola was assayed at the time of the study. We found no differences between sucrose- and HFCS-sweetened colas in perceived sweetness, hunger and satiety profiles, or energy intakes at lunch. The 4 caloric beverages tended to partially suppress energy intakes at lunch, whereas the no-beverage and diet beverage conditions did not; the effect was significant (P<0.05) only for 1%-fat milk. Energy intakes in the diet cola and the no-beverage conditions did not differ significantly. There was no evidence that commercial cola beverages sweetened with either sucrose or HFCS have significantly different effects on hunger, satiety, or short-term energy intakes.
Physiological insulinemia acutely modulated plasma leptin Fructose-induced leptin resistance exacerbates weight gain in response to subsequent high fat feeding
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