Article

From Message Posting to Learning Dialogues: Factors Affecting Learner Participation in Asynchronous Discussion

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Abstract

Generating true learning dialogue as opposed to a collection of loosely affiliated posted messages on a class discussion board can be challenging. This paper presents the results of a cross-case anal-ysis of nine naturalistic case studies of online classes, looking at how activity design and facilitation factors affected various dimensions of student participation. Findings show that use of guidelines, deadlines and feedback and type of instructor presence affect the resulting discourse in an online class. Additionally, the paper explores how particular types of learning activities are better suited to generating discussion than others and how the integration of discussion activities with the rest of the course activities and requirements impacts learner motivation and participation.

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... Ma, Han, Yang, and Cheng (2015) found that course design has an effect on how students access learning materials in an online course, but that interactions and guidance affect how students complete learning tasks. Further, the manner and frequency of instructor interaction with students can be planned and affects how students approach learning activities (Dennen, 2005). When instructors are absent from interaction spaces, students will assume their work in those spaces is not valued or monitored, likening it to busywork. ...
... Alternately, when instructors are overly dominant in the learning space, students will orient closely toward the instructor and may seek continuous instructor affirmation and place less value on peer interactions. Although this may sound like an ideal situation for students, as the dominant instructor in Dennen's (2005) study learned, it is not a sustainable solution. ...
... Instructors must establish their own identity through various channels (Dennen & Arslan, 2022), serving as a model for their students to do likewise. Their presence in learning spaces, whether direct or indirect, indicates to students the importance and expectation of participating in these learning activities (Dennen, 2005). When students share their identity, they establish presence. ...
Chapter
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Online instructors draw upon a complex set of skills, activities, and values to meet the needs of students who are separated from them by time and/or space, but united with them through digital technologies. Berge (1995) introduced the idea that the instructor’s job could be represented through four interrelated roles: pedagogical, managerial, social, and technological. Instructors who develop expertise in all four of these dimensions are well-situated for supporting online students, who similarly must navigate these dimensions. This chapter explores each of these roles and their relationship to online learning. Two additional areas of concern for online instructors, the ethical dimension and the networked dimension, are also discussed.
... It is not clear from the studies which highlighted this reason (Dennen, 2005 whether those students were actively reading, and thus subsumed within the group that felt that reading was sufficient. It is also not clear whether this was module-specific or whether students would hold this belief in all circumstances. ...
... were mentioned in three of the studies (Dennen, 2005. The nature of these barriers was not explored. ...
... A]. Learning or lurking?: Tracking the "invisible" online student. The Internet and Higher Education, 5(2), 147-155. https://doi:10.1016/S1096-7516(02)00086-6[B]Dennen, V.P. (2005). From message posting to learning dialogues: factors affecting learner participation in asynchronous discussion. Distance Education, 26(1), 127-148.[C]. Pedagogical lurking: student engagement in non-posting discussion behaviour.Computers in Human Behaviour, 24(4), 1624-1633. [D] Doyle, J. and Nieuwoudt, J. (2021). Is lurking working? T ...
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Asynchronous discussion boards are widely used as effective ways of facilitating learning and building online learning communities within online programmes in higher education (Levine, 2007; Lunsford et al., 2015). Large numbers of lurkers (non-posting students) are often considered problematic within these programmes for a variety of reasons. However, their non-posting behaviour means that it is difficult for practitioners to identify their reasons for lurking. This paper provided an integrative review of the main reasons identified in empirical research as to why some students lurk. Viewing these through an activity theory lens, tensions between the elements of the discussion board activity system were identified. These point to possible areas for intervention as well as suggesting a need for more qualitative research to examine the dynamic nature of lurking and investigate how tutors are responding to lurkers. It also identified institutional drivers which promote the tracking and monitoring of how much and how often students post and suggested that ways of tracking and capturing the less visible learning activity be explored.
... Work by Dennen (2005Dennen ( , 2007Dennen ( , 2011 looked not only at communication techniques but also at fi nding an appropriate balance to allow students to participate fully in the learning process. In one study, Dennen (2005) investigated instructor presence in online discussions. ...
... Work by Dennen (2005Dennen ( , 2007Dennen ( , 2011 looked not only at communication techniques but also at fi nding an appropriate balance to allow students to participate fully in the learning process. In one study, Dennen (2005) investigated instructor presence in online discussions. She found that an instructor's presence infl uenced student participation in online discussions. ...
... However, there is a fi ne line between being "there" (which some like to think of as being "present") and being an overly controlling instructor or being a completely absent instructor. Research has suggested that an instructor does not have to be online constantly (Dennen, 2005(Dennen, , 2011Dunlap, 2005) to establish instructor social presence; however, at the same time, an instructor's social presence is still infl uenced by the frequency, type, and quality of interactions between the instructor and the students (Richardson, Koehler, et al., 2015;Shea, Hayes, Vickers, Gozza-Cohen, et al., 2010;Swan, 2002;Swan & Shih, 2005). The following are a few strategies based on themes in the literature that online educators can use to establish and maintain instructor social presence in online courses. ...
Chapter
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Social presence theory was the term first proposed in 1976 to explain how telecommunications influence how people communicate (Short, Williams, & Christie, 1976). Short and colleagues (1976) defined social presence as the degree of salience (i.e., quality or state of being there) between two communicators using a communication medium. This theory became particularly important for online educators trying to understand how people communicated in primarily text-based online courses during the 1990s (Lowenthal, 2009). In fact, social presence was identified as one of the core elements of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework, a widely used guide for planning, developing, evaluating, and researching online learning (Boston et al., 2011; Kumar & Ritzhaupt, 2014; Swan, Day, Bogle, & Matthews, 2014). The CoI framework is a dynamic process model of online learning based on the theory that effective learning requires a community based on inquiry (Garrison, 2011,2015). At the heart of the model are the interdependent constructs of cognitive, social, and teaching presence (Swan, Garrison, & Richardson, 2009). Social presence, the first element, is the ability of participants "to project their personal characteristics into the community, thereby presenting themselves to other participants as 'real people'" (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000, p. 89). The second element, teaching presence, involves instructional management, building understanding, and direct instruction. And the third element, cognitive presence, is "the extent to which the participants in...a community of inquiry are able to construct meaning through sustained communication" (Garrison et al., 2000, p. 89).
... Recent studies have demonstrated that involving students in community-centric and collaborative activities can strengthen student connections with their peers (Kurucay & Inan, 2017;Riese, Samara & Lillejord, 2011;Shackelford & Maxwell, 2020). These activities include peer mentoring, peer feedback/reviews, and peer-graded projects (Dennen, 2007;Gomez & Lee, 2015;Riese, Samara & Lillejord, 2011;Shackelford & Maxwell, 2020;Tawfik et al., 2017) that allow students to share personal experiences, exchange resources, and create a mutually supportive network (Shackelford & Maxwell, 2020). When students build relationships through increased interactions, they are involved in knowledge acquisition and are exposed to more capable peers and complicated tasks that make them work better in group settings than in those that require only individual efforts (Dennen, 2007;Gomez & Lee, 2015;Tawfik et al., 2017). ...
... These activities include peer mentoring, peer feedback/reviews, and peer-graded projects (Dennen, 2007;Gomez & Lee, 2015;Riese, Samara & Lillejord, 2011;Shackelford & Maxwell, 2020;Tawfik et al., 2017) that allow students to share personal experiences, exchange resources, and create a mutually supportive network (Shackelford & Maxwell, 2020). When students build relationships through increased interactions, they are involved in knowledge acquisition and are exposed to more capable peers and complicated tasks that make them work better in group settings than in those that require only individual efforts (Dennen, 2007;Gomez & Lee, 2015;Tawfik et al., 2017). ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic forced students out of their traditional classrooms into the virtual learning milieu where they had little-to-no experience. To understand how the emergency shift impacted student relationships and how they adapted to the new learning environment, we drew on the transactional distance framework. In-depth interviews with 90 undergraduate students revealed transactional distance increased because of lack or delay in communication. Teachers’ lack of technical skills, class structure, procrastination and relaxation associated with home environment impacted learning. Students suggest that staying up-to-date on daily tasks and advancing learning tools to include simulation and augmented reality can improve online learning experience.
... Assessing student discussions did motivate participation yet students may still engage in discussions simply to fulfil the assessment requirements and not enrich their learning. However, the value of interaction between students cannot be underestimated (Dennen, 2005). ...
... One aspect of questioning effectiveness of online discussion is the reality that some students may simply read posts rather than actively participate. Dennen (2005) calls this behaviour 'lurking' and recognises that the student may have read and absorbed but not contributed to active discussion. Other educators (Tsiotakis & Jimoyiannis 2016) do not consider lurking as a lack of engagement. ...
Article
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As an alliance of academics undertaking blended delivery, we have experienced the challenge of tailoring teaching strategies to different learning styles. Our teaching has evolved, moving from traditional didactic delivery to the utilisation of online technology to accommodate both academic and student expectations. The pressure to teach within constrained resources and issues presented from the COVID-19 pandemic has provided opportunities to optimise educational technology. We identified a gap in genuinely engaged online discussions, observing that pedagogic value was often obscure. This cross-sectional study investigated the opinions and experiences of undergraduate students in four health science online units where asynchronous discussion boards were linked to summative assessment. By assessing discussion posts, students may be motivated to participate further, with student engagement influenced through educator involvement, the discussion purpose and group interactivity. Whilst some students were critical of the value of asynchronous discussion boards, others positively viewed discussions as a platform for peer engagement and information sharing. Discussion boards can provide active learning experiences particularly for online students; however, effective educator involvement and online supportive teaching strategies and practices are crucial to pedagogical success. Based on the key findings from this study we propose implications for practice in a higher education context. Practitioner Notes Practitioner Notes 1. Students provide valuable and insightful opinions regarding their discussion board experiences to be harnessed to improve higher education online learning and teaching practices. 2. Post COVID-19, the need for coherent interfaces to deliver and impact upon positive student experiences and effective interactive dialogue is essential. 3. Discussion board designers should consider the fit between unit learning outcomes and capability of students and educators to use technology interfaces to enhance student engagement. 4. The role and influence of educators has a positive impact on student learning, perceptions of their experience and work readiness. 5. Where student cohorts are diverse, representing different cultures, religions, nationalities and linguistic backgrounds, both educators and students should empathise with and venerate other learners.
... Discussion boards have shown to be enriching collaborative learning environments for knowledge construction (Wilson and Fairchild, 2011;Johnson, 2016;Sun et al., 2018), increased participation and learner satisfaction (Çelik, 2013;Zheng and Warschauer, 2015) as well as a space to foster student interaction and collaboration (Prestera and Moller, 2001). Nevertheless, student participation and engagement in the discussion board are often limited to course requirements (i.e., a post per week) and grading purposes; rarely their participation goes beyond the course requirements to develop a sense of belonging to their communities (Hara et al., 2000;Dennen, 2005). ...
... Therefore, if a member stopped or posted their contribution late, other members believed their participation grade would be affected by their tardiness or lack of participation. Indeed, this finding corroborates with other studies (Hara et al., 2000;Dennen, 2005;Lee and Martin, 2017) in which student participation in the discussion board is often motivated by course requirements and grading purposes. ...
Article
Although online learning has increased as a delivery method of instruction in higher education, learners may still feel isolated from the instructor and peers due to a lack of physical presence. Thus, intentional and purposeful online course design is necessary. To remediate feelings of isolation, cooperative learning strategies have been implemented in online courses, resulting in positive outcomes. A long-term cooperative learning project based on social interdependence theory (SIT) has been implemented into two asynchronous online courses at two different higher education institutions. A mixed-method, design-based research study was conducted to examine students’ attitudes towards cooperative learning. Participants of this study included undergraduate and graduate students who completed pre-and post-surveys. Classroom artifacts were also collected to analyze the group work and dynamics. Even though the quantitative results showed a decrease in students’ attitudes towards cooperative learning, qualitative data indicated that students benefited from this experience. Qualitative data also provided further insights on the group dynamics. Students’ high expectations of group work, faculty support, and shared sense of responsibility among group members could have affected their perceptions of cooperative learning. This study was the first cycle of a multi-cycle effort to develop a robust cooperative learning activity that will benefit learners in future courses.
... Introduction Social Cognitive Theory states: "Learning and performance are distinct processes although much learning occurs by doing, we learn a great deal by observing." - Zimmerman and Schunk 2014, p. 122 There is substantial extant scholarship dedicated to learner participation in both face-toface (F2F) and online academic spaces (Bunge and Garcia, 1976;;Lave and Wenger, 1991;Davies and Graff, 2005;Dennen, 2005;Hrastinski, 2008;Amichai-Hamburger et al., 2016). ...
... Learners reasons for participation are often a result of their (extrinsic motivation) desire to earn a particular grade (achievement) balanced against intrinsic (avoidance) motivations in the form of concerns about previous knowledge, interest, ability beliefs, interpersonal relationships, social comfort, peer participation levels, technology design or access challenges and/or the reward structure of the course (Alexander, 2001;Barnett-Queen et al., 2005;Bullen, 1998;Cheung et al., 2008;Concannon, Flynn, and Campbell, 2005;Thompson, 2007;Vonderwell and Zachariah, 2005;Vygotsky, 1978;Xie et al., 2006). Vanessa Dennen (2005) asserted that a major factor influencing learners' choice to participate was the perceived "relevance of discussion topics" and, "connection of online discussions to other course activities," (Deng and Tavares, 2013, p. 169). ...
Thesis
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Asynchronous Online Discussions (AODs) are often used to encourage online learner participation as they are believed to approximate the verbal interactions of face-to-face (F2F) learning environments while facilitating learners' metacognitive and critical thinking skills (Deng and Tavares, 2013). Despite mixed and somewhat context dependent research on the relationship between AOD participation and achievement, there appears to be a tendency among teachers and instructional designers to encourage greater participation as it is believed that greater participation promotes greater achievement. Additionally, the act of online participation itself is often measured using visible artifacts like discussion and assignment posts submitted by students and evaluated by instructors and/or peers. This can lead educators to infer that the learners who participate more will earn higher grades than those who participate less. To explore this tendency, this quantitative descriptive study examined students enrolled in an introductory college English course (n = 76) using Learning Management System (LMS) activity reports and survey results. This was done to better understand the relationship between (what may appear to be limited) participation and course achievement. Similarly, the study sought to better understand the relationship between the learners' reasons for participation and their actual achievement. The primary results contribute to a wide range of studies that examine the relationship between participation and achievement. The results share a finding with two other studies in particular; Graff, (2005) and Wikle and West (2019), namely that this study showed no statistically significant correlation between participation and achievement for students who finished the course. Meaning that students who completed the course saw no statistically significant change in achievement for over or under participating. An unexpected finding of this study was that reasons for not participating contributed more to student behavior than reasons for posting. This study also showed that learners’ primary self-identified reasons for participating favored performance, information seeking, UX and interest; however, empirical performance data suggests that the relationship between learners' reasons for participation and their actual level of achievement is strongest when those reasons revolve around topic complexity, UX, time management and social risk. The gap between learners’ metacognitive perception of participation reasons and their data-driven demonstrable reasons is explored in this paper.
... The results are also probably related to the fact that students may not get actively involved in using the WeChat platform if there are no clear expectations or no rewards (e.g., grades) given to them for their contribution. This corresponds to the finding of Dennen's (2005) study that students' contributions were plagued by unclear teacher expectations because students did not know how much they contributed or what their postings should look like. As a result, students may not post any messages throughout the semester if no grade is attached to the postings in online discussions. ...
Article
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Despite its importance, interaction remains limited in MOOC-based flipped classroom (MBFC) Grounded in social learning theory, we proposed an MBFC approach supported by social media to facilitate students’ interaction with peers and learning performance. A quasi-experiment was conducted to compare the MBFC approach (N = 58) based on WeChat with the conventional MBFC approach (N = 52). The results revealed that the use of WeChat in an MBFC approach led to better performance in terms of watching video lectures and completing online exercises before the class; however, it did not significantly enhance student learning performance compared to the conventional MBFC approach. In addition, the study found that students were moderately satisfied with the MBFC approach supported by WeChat. According to a WeChat interaction quantity and quality analysis, students’ non-substantive postings are much higher than students’ substantive postings in WeChat interaction groups, but students’ contributions to the postings have no significant effect on the final marks. Findings from this study could be of valuable reference for practitioners and researchers who plan to leverage social media tools such as WeChat to support student MOOC learning.
... The result of the student's participation does not agree with some studies. They argue that students do not meet expectations for participation (Dennen, 2007;Palmer et al., 2008), discussions often suffer from low levels of student involvement (Hew et al., 2010) limited student contribution is defined as students making few or no postings, or students exhibiting surface-level thinking or low-level knowledge construction in online discussions (Wise et al., 2013). Thomson and Savan (2007) certain students who felt they needed more assistance from faculty or peers may have participated more and therefore brought their level of performance up to the level of their non participating peers. ...
Article
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The new normal has brought changes in the teaching-learning platform. Different modalities were implemented to ensure the continuation of education, but some nations had decided to close their educational system amidst the pandemic. The Philippines have decided to enter the synchronous and asynchronous modality of learning. This study aimed to know the role of online recitation through forum discussion in the synchronous learning modality. Thirty grade 11 STEM students were chosen purposely for this study. Google Classroom was the online platform used by the researchers, the classwork section of the google classroom was utilized where questions were posted, and responses were placed by the students. Rubric scoring was used to grade the works of students. The result of the study showed that there is no significant difference in the performance of students in terms of participation, quality of posts, plagiarism, and students' attitudes.
... Owing to the fact that the more the teacher posted messages, the lesser students' responded as response time for voluminous messages increased. Dennen (2005) also noticed that teachers posted about 50% of the messages themselves in an attempt to get back to every question. Subsequently, Dennen, Aubteen Darabi and Smith (2007) believes teachers' interaction become disruptive to some extent which causes students not to participate. ...
Article
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The study is in response to abrupt movement from the direct traditionally-centered classroom instruction to E-learning instruction in Ghana owing to the Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed at exploring the effect of E-learning interactivity on the effectiveness of E-learning in the Ghanaian context and ways of improving interactivity in E-learning models. The positivist research approach was adopted with cross-sectional survey as the research design. Using a web-based survey, a sample of 2,115 students were randomly selected from 194 different tertiary institutions in Ghana. Correlation and regression analysis was used as the statistical tools to answer the research questions set for the study. The results indicated that all the categories on E-learning interactivity (student-teacher interactivity, student-content interactivity, student-system interactivity, and student-student interactivity) correlated with course effectiveness, students' independent learning skills and student learning behaviour respectively. However, the best predictor for course effectiveness was student-system interactivity, best predictor for students' independent learning skills was student-student interactivity while the best predictor of students' learning behaviour was student-teacher interactivity. The study reiterated that the relationship between different forms of E-learning interactivity have significant impact on course effectiveness, students' independent learning skills and students' learning behaviour. Practical implications and suggestions were made in order to enhance the levels of interactivity within E-learning models.
... Normally, students do not start a collaborative task simply because they are interested in doing it although this type of highly autonomous learners has been acknowledged in some studies. Students tend to wait until the deadline or some kind of pressure from teachers to kick off their actual learning process in a place without the physical presence of their teachers (Dang & Robertson, 2010;Dennen, 2005). ...
Article
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Learners in the contemporary digital world tend to move from space to space during their learning process. However, transforming such spaces to effective learning places is not simple. This study aims to investigate Vietnamese EFL students’ appreciation for various learning spaces and their willingness in turning those spaces into places for learning purposes. The factors associated with this process are also explored. Employing a short questionnaire distributed to 226 undergraduate students and several follow up individual interviews, the study shows that most students travel across some spaces in their daily learning activities, but they do not try to control those spaces. They only appreciate their teacher-created and self-created solo learning spaces and accept these spaces as their learning places. They also agree that these are the spaces where they can best control their learning. These findings present a complex picture of students’ exercise of taking control in their learning. It appears that the initiation of their learning must start with trust and convenience in a learning space. The attempt to control a learning space does not start with careful considerations as often seen in autonomous learners. This emphasises the role of trust in nurturing and shaping learners’ capacity of space control for learning purposes.
... Participants might find timely feedback in these educational games insufficient. Past research has found that an informative feedback mechanism, which provides detailed and personal feedback, could improve learners' learning motivation, cognitive, and meta-cognitive performance in a rich ICT context (Chan et al., 2015;Sun, 2014;Dennen, 2005;Xie, Yu and Bradshaw, 2014;Abramovich, Schunn and Higashi, 2013;Aguilar, Holman and Fishman, 2015). It can be concluded that the digital board game had a lack of effective feedback systems such as the mechanism mentioned in previous studies. ...
Article
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Game-Based Learning (GBL) has been recognized as an essential tool for motivating students to engage in active and constructive learning. While there is a link between GBL and learning outcomes, current research evidence tends to undermine the interrelationships of concepts and oversimplify flow experience in the context of GBL. This study used a comprehensive Flow perspective to examine the roles of specific gaming characteristics affecting students’ self-regulated learning and acceptances of use in a higher education GBL context, with a path model based on data collected from 275 undergraduate university students. The model demonstrated an excellent fit of the data with interrelations among constructs about Flow Antecedents, Acceptance of Use, Motivation and Metacognition. The findings revealed that learners place a higher value on GBL with flow elements like Concentration and Challenge, which is linked to their learning motivation and metacognitive outcomes. Aid by GBL on knowledge gain and immersive experience are considered as the underpinnings of Performance Expectancy before students consider adopting GBL for their learning. In contrast to what is typical of serious games, learners primarily use GBL to improve their academic performance rather than for its immersive experience.
... Thought provoking questions and instructor facilitation are critical factors for active participation in online discussions (Maurino, Federman and Greenwald, 2007;De Smet, Van Keer and Valcke, 2008). Due consideration was given to my participation frequency and facilitation style during online discussions (Dennen, 2005;Mazzolini and Maddison, 2007). This is a facilitator guided discussion. ...
Conference Paper
Learning technologies are increasingly common in higher education institutions, but academics are frequently unsure how best to use these. Staff development activities focussed on technology skills are not sufficient for academics to design sound technology-based educational experiences. This research study explores this problem, seeking to increase understanding on how academic developers can support academics to make pedagogically-informed uses of learning technologies. An exploratory case study methodology was used for this 44-month research study. The data collection included class teaching observations, document analysis, semi-structured interviews and forum postings during a professional development (PD) course. The first phase of research involved the development and testing of a class teaching observation schedule, to understand current practice. The second phase of research included class teaching observations and interviews with participating academics to identify their learning needs. These research activities informed the design, development and delivery of the first part of a PD course. The final phase of research involved (a) interviews to understand the participants’ experience of the first part of the course and to identify their expectations for the remaining part of the course and (b) the delivery of the remaining part of the PD course. A thematic analysis of the participants’ forum posts and mid-course interviews led to the identification of five themes. The main contributions of this research study are related to (a) the process of academic development for learning technology use, and (b) the process of studying academic development. This study shows how the teaching development of academics can be addressed through flexible and just-in time academic development, and engaging academics in activities related to their teaching context. The student experience of technology-based teaching, the course learning resources and activities, the facilitator’s guidance, the diversity of participants’ experiences and peer discussions support academics to develop pedagogically-informed positions on teaching and learning technologies. Methodologically, the thesis suggests that researchers should use a diversity of data collection tools to gather and analyse evidence about academic development.
... Numerous studies recommend high instructor involvement in asynchronous internet discussion Blignaut (2003), and multiple studies in the literature review have backed up the importance of teacher presence. This is because student engagement is positively correlated with the teacher's constant participation in an online class (Dennen, 2005). Relatively, it reveals that learners may question the intructors' dedication for the improvement of the class, seek constant responses and reassurance, and resent any apparent deficiency in cooperation that is apparent with the physically absent instructor (Lynch, 2004). ...
Article
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The increasing demand for the implementation of an alternative learning scheme to aid the sudden setback in the field of education has been one of the most debated topics among the government and educational sectors worldwide. With the impossibility of face-to-face learning, the government had to devise an attainable learning substitution plan which resulted in the birth of online education. This study is one of the few studies that seek to determine the challenges and strategies used by freshman language learners in online education in the midst of a pandemic. Furthermore, a descriptive-qualitative design was employed in the study. Hence, the data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The respondents for this study were identified by means of a purposive sampling technique. On that account, the respondents were handpicked in consideration to the inclusion criteria. Moreover, in depth individual interviews were conducted to seven respondents, five females and 2 males. To analyze the data, thematic analysis was utilized. The challenges that emerged in the study are the following: High-cost internet access, less social engagement and inactive class discussion, unfamiliarity of the new learning modality, internet connectivity, stress inducing school-works, lack of technological resources, location-related stressors and unpredictability of power outages. The paper concludes with the four emerging themes concerning the strategies freshman language learners use in online education and how those strategies aid the aforementioned challenges.
... Communication on a forum of MOOC (Massive open online course) also has an obvious learning purpose, but can be less formal, since, most likely, the teacher has no obligation to answer all the students' requests. At the same time, students' activity on forums of online courses is a rare phenomenon and the teacher should facilitate discussion (Dennen, 2005;Martinho et al., 2014;Mazzolini & Maddison, 2007). But student-led discussions on forums lead to peer involvement (Seo, 2007;Zulfikar et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Technology-mediated communication has expanded the possibilities of communicative support of the educational process. Even 10 years ago, students used communication for social and entertainment purposes, but today e-communication related to education is widespread. This research is based on a qualitative analysis of the content of the peer-discussion and survey of Swiss and Russian students (N=1069). Peer-communication serves many purposes, from clarifying work/duty and sharing useful information to collaborative activity. When a student faces a problem while completing an assignment, seeking help from other students prevails over communication with the teacher. Students in Russia communicate more often with fellow students (68% do it at least once a week) on a wide range of issues, Swiss students communicate less often (44%– at least once a week) primarily on the assignment topic. Swiss students prefer to use for peer-communication messengers (76% “definitely” and 13% “likely” choose it) and Russian ones like social media chat (61% “definitely” and 12% “likely”). Some activities require specific features of communication channels, in particular, some students prefer a videoconference for active joint interaction, and emails for a file transfer. Taking into account the fact that students are united and ready to work together for learning purposes can help in building a new collaborative educational environment, where communication technologies play an important role.
... (Nunes et al., 2014;Shaul, 2007). Furthermore, as a result, the forum can become a receiver of fragmented messages and little bite articulated (Dennen, 2005). Like this, the forum as a collaborative learning tool may be underutilized (Dunlap, 2005). ...
... Research question 1 explored how instructors interact in discussion boards in online courses. Research suggests that instructors should play an active role in online discussions and research indicates that regular interaction between students and instructors encourages discussion and improves learner satisfaction (Darabi et al., 2013;Dennen, 2005;Moller, 1998;Nandi et al., 2012). Results from this study showed that instructor interaction varies greatly from course to course. ...
Article
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Discussion boards can provide a glimpse into the regular and substantive interaction required in online courses. Advances in technology and an increased interest in learning analytics now provides researchers with billions of data points about instructor and student interaction within a learning management system (LMS). This study used LMS data to explore the frequency of interaction between instructors and students in discussion boards in online courses at one institution. Overall, 415 courses were analyzed spanning two semesters. Results from the study found that the average number of posts by an instructor was 32.9. The average instructor interaction was 1.49 instructor posts per student. 23% of courses had no instructor posts. Student posts averaged 470 per course and the average posts per student was 19.9. Based on the discussion board activity, the most discussion interaction occurred during the first two weeks of the semester. Results also suggested that there is no relationship between student satisfaction and the number of total posts in a course. The paper concludes with implications for research and practice.
... Therefore, some pedagogical modifications are required to actively motivate students to participate and use Padlet for projectbased learning activities. For example, the level of participation by instructors shall be reasonable; not too little, or not too many participations (Dennen, 2005;Murphy & Fotner, 2014). Another way is by providing a scoring rubric for discussion to students during the introductory course (Murphy & Fotner, 2014). ...
Article
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Padlet is a collaborative online tool that is widely used to complement online learning. This study investigates students' perception of using Padlet while executing project-based learning activities in the learning of entrepreneurship content and skills. Participants were assigned to use Padlet to facilitate remote group work discussions. Once the activities were completed, they filled out an online survey to capture their opinions and perceptions of the use of Padlet in their respective projects. The quantitative findings revealed that more than half of the participants agreed that Padlet is a useful online tool to support project-based learning activities. They also agreed Padlet can be used to nurture students’ soft skills. Less than half still wanted to use Padlet if their internet connections were reliable. However, the rest were unsure of continuing using Padlet, and they indicated a preference to use other online tools. A few factors were identified to have also influenced the correlation between Padlet usage and assignments. Based on qualitative findings, although Padlet was viewed as a great collaborative tool supporting project-based learning activities in entrepreneurship education, it must be used with other online tools to overcome its technical shortcomings. Hence, modifying pedagogical strategies shall also be considered for making students participate actively in online discussion. In future, an in-depth investigation should focus on understanding the effectiveness of Padlet in entrepreneurship education in post-pandemic scenarios.
... This opportunity helped lowachieving students to improve their understanding of materials. Dennen (2005) stressed that feedback given during the learning process better motivates students. ...
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Assessment of the learning process refers to assessing the quality of students' learning as they complete learning activities, such as how much time they spend reading materials, how many times they repeat quizzes when they get low scores, or whether their posts in a forum are helpful for other students. Assessment of process is more appropriate for online learning, and the use of a rubric has been suggested to ensure the objectivity of learning process assessment (Wilen, 2004). The objective of the present study was to validate such a rubric for the assessment, proposed by Mustafa et al. (2019) on the basis of feedback solicited from students. Sixty percent of the students who had successfully completed and passed a compulsory online class, English as a foreign language (EFL), were recruited to participate in the study (N = 72). The data consisted of a questionnaire which explored whether the rubric grades (for each criterion and the overall passing grade) were adequate from the perspective of students. It also explored whether or not the rubric grade they received matched students' expectations; significant differences between the rubric and students' expectations were determined quantitatively. Both grades were compared using the one-sample Wilcoxon sign rank test at the significance level of 0.01. The results showed that the grades for seven out of twenty criteria in the rubric required revision because they were significantly different from the grades proposed by the students. The new revised version of the rubric can be used to improve student satisfaction with their assessment results in an online learning classroom.
... One that instructor presence is important for student satisfaction. And two that too much interaction and posting by the instructor during the course may lead to decreased participation and posting by the students (Wang and Liang, 2011 , the students perceive the instructor as an authoritarian figure and studies have found that if the instructor has frequently posted in the discussion forums, then it is found that there is lesser frequent and shorter were the posts by the students (Dennen, 2005, Mazzolini & Maddison, 2003. According to (Wang and Liang, 2011), it was found that students need time to feel confident in sharing their views and opinions with each other before the instructor begins to interact with them, otherwise they will just reply to the instructor, and not to each other. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has become a global health issue and has had a major impact on education. Consequently, half way through the academic year, teaching-learning happened in online mode using Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). This transition was challenging for both, students as well as faculty. A VLE is an online platform used for educational purposes. It consists of online environment that acts as supplement to the course, whether they are online courses, reading resources and informational sites with stand-alone skill assessments. There are several factors that influence student satisfaction in virtual mode. Collaborative learning is also another aspect in Virtual learning Environment that is found important by students. This empirical paper, in which the researchers have collected data from 115 management students aims to study the relationship between students' level of collaborative learning and the level of satisfaction. The study also aims to uncover factors that influence collaborative learning among students in online mode. This study will help Faculty to design and deliver courses that will enable collaborative learning and thus lead to higher satisfaction level of students.
... Asynchronous discussion forums provide an unrestricted place for learner-learner and learner-instructor interactions (Dennen, 2005). An instructor as discussion leader is a vital person who questions, evaluates, responds to and encourages the discussion process (Orsolini & Pontecorvo, 1992). ...
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Forum discussions have been utilised widely as a means of facilitating learning interaction and social-knowledge construction in online learning. Much research has been conducted on the instructional interventions that benefit asynchronous discussions. Role-playing, or assigning roles to discussants, has been proven effective in promoting interactivity and knowledge construction in the context of both face-to-face and online learning. However, assigning and rotating roles to thousands of learners in massive open online courses (MOOCs) and preparing them to act properly in their roles sounds impractical to MOOC instructors due to work overload. The present study provided three types of role assignment in a MOOC during various course offerings: fall offerings with no role-assignment, spring offerings with partial role-assignment and summer offerings with full role-assignment. Through the examination of the discussion patterns and role-assignment differences among 4,239 students and 5,439 posts in 56 forums, we suggest that partial role-assignment is as effective as full-role assignment. By assigning as few as 10 students with rotating roles, MOOC instructors can leverage this effective strategy while minimising their effort in preparing the discussants and moderating the discussions. These students act behind the scenes and improve the behavioural patterns of asynchronous discussions. Implications for practice or policy: MOOC instructors and teaching assistants can leverage a partial role-assignment strategy to improve asynchronous discussion quality with manageable effort. MOOC platform leaders and instructional designers may explore work-smart teaching strategies that are viable in practice without overburdening instructors.
... The use of asynchronous videos for the virtual classroom appears to work best when: (a) there are strict guidelines and deadlines that drive student interactivity, (b) when the instructor facilitates but does not dominate the classroom discussion, and (c) the students receive regular feedback on their class performance during the school term [17][18][19][20][21]. A general consensus is that course content created by student-produced video assignments generates more student engagement and learning opportunities than more passive learning in watching and learning from instructor created videos [22][23][24]. ...
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A 400-level undergraduate oral presentation and discussion course in Systems Neuroscience was delivered asynchronously online during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enrolled students banked their narrated oral presentations in video format online then engaged in peer evaluation in virtual classrooms through the course website. Student delivered their oral presentation and responded to peer questions at their leisure and convenience, without the stress and anxiety associated with a “live” performance delivery in front of their peers. A remote and asynchronously delivered course facilitated much more peer contact than “live” versions of the course, which included a total of 62 uploaded presentations, 301 video responses uploaded to 1985 questions posed by peers, a total of 1159 feedback questionnaires submitted, 1066 rankings submitted of viewed oral presentations, and 1091 scores submitted evaluating the quality of questions posed by reviewers of oral presentations. A major drawback in the remote, asynchronous deliver was the enormity of peer engagement through the course website portal, which was mostly blind to the instructor because of the inability to effectively cross-index data linked between the student entries in the LEARN course website and the uploaded videos stored within BONGO Video Assignment tool. Nonetheless, a consistent engagement of students, and the positive feedback from enrolled students, indicate that a future version of this oral/written discussion course will be delivered, in part, remotely and asynchronously, even without a mandated delivery of the course by a remote and asynchronous method due to the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions in 2020–2021.
... The challenge that has always been there as long as the use of digital tools were introduced [2]. Therefore, considering influencing factors and roles on participation is as important as the choice of the digital tools to motivate students to participate [63]. ...
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It has been argued that participation as involvement as well as taking part in decision making is a fundamental part of learning. The first large arena for experiencing this for many young people is the school. This paper investigates how 16 pupils at grade eight view their own and their teacher’s role when it comes to facilitating participation. The pupils are interviewed the semester after a long researcher led participation project and the interviews are analyzed using thematic analysis. The analysis identifies four different types of participation from the pupils’ responses. These four types can be connected to passive and active participation as well as participation as involvement and participation as influence.
... Within-Discussion Prompts. As Dennen [38] affirms, "generating true learning dialogue as opposed to a collection of loosely affiliated posted messages on a class discussion board can be challenging" (p. 127). ...
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The recent emergency remote teaching experiences caused by the Covid-19 pandemic have placed a forced attention on existing online pedagogical tools and intelligent ways of combining them to reinforce student presence in the learning environment. In higher education, where students’ autonomy is even more desired, the design of online learning experiences that focus on reflective thinking has always been a principal focus, due to the relation between reflection and self-regulated learning. This study focuses on a technically non-demanding way of combining two existing online tools and appropriating their use towards a two-fold pedagogical goal: (a) students’ creation and sharing of reflective narrations on their experience of a practice-oriented social science methods introductory course using JustPaste.it; and (b) their subsequent meta-reflection on these narrations using the course’s online Discussion Forum. The study highlights two main factors in the success of this combination, namely the importance of structuring guidelines and prompts for both reflection and meta-reflection to take place, and taking into account the age (average 17 years old) and multiple national backgrounds of the participants. An assessment rubric for students’ reflective and meta-reflective texts was also designed and tested as part of the study.
... (Galusha, 2001). Due to this barrier students can feel uncomfortable, tensed, depressed, and isolated (Dennen, 2005 ...
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Background: Communication is a functional element of life. It transmits information, ideas, feelings and mutual understanding among people. Everyone has different capabilities to interact with others. There are specific barriers that restrict people's expression. The key objectives of this study were to elaborate on the communication barriers in distance education and their effects on the learning achievement of distance learners. Methods: Stratified random sampling technique was used for 380 M.Ed Students from the five central regions of AIOU. The Academia in the Faculty of Education, Allama Iqbal Open University and all the Regional Heads were included in the study while 300 tutors of M.Ed program were also included in the sample. Four different set of questionnaires were used for data collection based on a five-point Likert scale. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistical techniques, mean score and standard deviation. Findings: Cultural barriers and psychological barriers showed no effect on academic achievement of distance learner. However, findings depicted that social barriers, cultural barriers, temporal barriers, technical barriers, psychological barriers, contextual barriers and collaborative barriers showed effect on academic achievement. It is clear from findings that communication gap had showed effect on academic achievement of distance learners. Results: It was concluded that distance learners faced challenges in communication that effect the achievements of distance learners. Conclusion: By providing better communication facilitates the distance learners through digital support services, immediate and timely feedback can enhance the teaching-learning process.
... In this course, I frequently posted on Slack in an o cial way (assignments and links to related content), as well as informally (comments on student posts, pictures, memes, and gifs in uno cial channels), and I read all student biweekly discussions on the assigned poems. However, consistent with Dennen's (2005) ...
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This study used the commognitive framework (Sfard, 2009) to study the learning of preservice teachers in a collaborative digital environment, examining a case of commognitive conflict around using informal and multimodal representations to discuss poetry as opposed to formal academic English. The analysis shows the complexity of power relationships around language use in collectively owned online spaces and the difficulty of shifting the leading discourse when teachers step back and allow students to drive digital discussions.
... Korucu ve Karalar (2017) (Dennen, 2005;Hamann vd., 2006;O'Connor-Petruso, 2010). Bu durumda öğretmenlerin bu alanda kendilerini geliştirmeleri faydalı olacaktır. ...
... Alternatively, educators may use asynchronous discussions that allow students to reflect on their responses prior to posting them (Nandi et al., 2012). Asynchronous student-student interaction can afford students to be more reflective learners (Dennen, 2005) but will take away the dynamic nature of just-in-time spontaneous synchronous conversations. We advise educators to implement an array of learning opportunities for students that foster peer-peer interaction and consider the needs of each learner (Curtis and Werth, 2015). ...
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Purpose Immediately following the declaration of the national emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA, the purpose of this study was to examine one month of social media, news media, school district websites’ continuity plans and educational affiliate organizations, to unveil K-12 stakeholders’ initial response to K-12 remote teaching. Design/methodology/approach Framed by connectivism theory, the authors used a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design to conduct a systematic content analysis of 43,870 tweets, news media, school district websites’ continuity plans and educational affiliate organizations. Findings Initial responses focused on community lockdown procedures, sustaining education, adapting to a remote lifestyle and political tension. The authors revisited included tweets one week later to measure their connectedness, which revealed that educational organizations, which have the largest number of followers, also have the greatest outreach and visibility. Practical implications Based on the collective decision-making of education stakeholders, the authors provide three remote teaching recommendations and pedagogical implications for sustainable remote teaching practices. Originality/value The authors construct a blueprint from some of the largest school districts, and consequently the COVID-19 hotspots, to broadly examine emergency preparedness and remote instruction plans.
... However, AODs need sufficient content (i.e., discussion posts generated by students) to be useful for learning (Dennen, 2005). As shown in Hew et al.'s (2010) review study, low levels of student contribution in AODs have been a persistent issue. ...
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Asynchronous online discussion has been widely used in higher education settings to create blended learning environments. Students form intricate social networks in asynchronous online discussions that promote help-seeking and help-providing. However, we know little about how students seek and receive help in asynchronous online discussions in blended engineering classes. This study employed a mixed-method approach by combining social network analysis and content analysis to describe students' interactions and help-seeking behaviors and to estimate their predictive power for academic performance on an asynchronous online discussion across several semesters of the same course. Social network analysis was performed to analyze the students' interactions, and content analysis was conducted to analyze the substance of their posts. The findings of this study showed variation in the structure of the social network across semesters, which is further explained by taking into account the content of the posts and the people present, both in class and online. There was a statistically significant difference in Asking for Answer Verification behavior between high-performing students and low-performing students in one semester. In addition, most of the students across all of the semesters were inclined to engage with the asynchronous online discussion by exhibiting Asking Technical Questions behavior. Based on the study findings, instructors should take on an authority role both in the classroom and on the online discussion forum itself and support students' help-seeking behaviors in asynchronous online discussions.
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Most of the scholarship on teaching children’s literature has focused on teaching fiction in university literature courses (Bedford & Albright, 2011; Butler, 2006). While there is a vast literature associated with online teaching dating back more than 20 years (e.g., Palloff & Pratt, 2005), and there is increasing use of online teaching in university contexts (Rapanta et al., 2020), there are very few published descriptions or analyses of the online teaching of children’s literature. In this article we document and discuss the development of a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) to be delivered in mid-2021 focusing on picturebooks developed at a university, in partnership with a popular MOOC provider. The development of the MOOC is analysed with respect to supporting the presence of the educators, creating clarity in the delivery of the content, providing spaces for reflection and interaction, and generating human connections in an online environment. These features are linked to the notion of storytelling (Bietti, Tilston & Bangerter, 2019). The contribution of picturebooks to supporting these aspects of effective online teaching is also discussed.
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The COVID-19 pandemic seriously impacted the ability of educational institutions to deliver in-person instruction. A pragmatic solution was remote teaching, which in most cases was essentially in-person courses delivered synchronously via computer-mediated technology and videoconferencing. Student reaction to, and faculty experience of, remote teaching and learning was varied but generally less than enthusiastic. There was a growing realization that, pedagogically, emergency remote teaching could not satisfactorily replicate either well-delivered in-person instruction or well-designed distance online courses. With the anticipation that higher education will increasingly focus on online delivery, there has been renewed interest, at both the institutional and faculty level, in how effective distance learning online courses are conceptualized, designed, and facilitated. This chapter attempts, briefly but comprehensively, to explore the theoretical and practical issues involved in purposefully designing and mindfully facilitating online distance learning courses.
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The community of inquiry (CoI) framework was developed by researchers at the University of Alberta who were interested in exploring the learning that took place among participants in online discussions. Garrison, Anderson, and Archer grounded their thinking in Dewey's progressive epistemology which placed inquiry within a community of learners at the center of the educational experience. The CoI model they created conceptualizes learning in online environments as supported by three interacting presences – social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. This chapter will describe the CoI framework, briefly review research supporting its efficacy in online course design and implementation, and explore how the framework can be applied to blended and online learning environments in general and the i2Flex model in particular.
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This chapter considers the functions of online discussion and concludes that discussion alone does not guarantee deep and lasting learning. Discussion should be rooted in a sound andragogical design practice to promote meaningful learning. Online discussion requires effective instructional design to enable adult learners to be engaged and to achieve learning outcome. The chapter explores discussion board design linked with adult learning traits and preferences as well as practical strategies to assist instructors and moderators as they facilitate instruction.
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This chapter addresses the potential of learning analytics for intervention in ODL. It first reviews intervention in ODL as a basis of the discussion, covering the relevant theoretical foundation, as well as intervention practice in terms of the problems to be dealt with, existing approaches, and the emerging use of learning analytics over the past decade. It then discusses the potential of learning analytics within ODL and the challenges which should be tackled. The review findings suggest the development of an emerging approach of intervention in the past decade which is driven and supported by learning analytics. The findings highlight the ongoing trends of intervention practice in ODL, which cover the changing modes of ODL with technological advances, the cost-effectiveness of intervention, and personalisation in intervention. Despite such developments, it should be noted that intervention remains one of the most challenging areas in learning analytics. Future areas of focus to address the challenges include, inter alia, advances in human-algorithmic interaction, the relationship with and application to learning analytics of historical ODL models and theories and developing appropriate measures to evaluate the effectiveness of learning analytics interventions to maximise the benefits in ODL contexts.
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Due to the current situation of lock-down and social distancing, many educational institutions have shifted to online learning. This study aims to identify the key factors that should be present for successful online discussion and explores the advantages of merging two activities, e-mentoring and online discussion, to improve the quality of the online discussion. A mixed methods design-based was conducted in the setting of the online program in health professions education. Several success factors were identified by the current study: merging of mentorship and online discussion, shifting of roles, structuring of the discussion, assessment, and the use of guides. The study also magnified the role of supervision as moderation and mentorship and suggested solutions to deal with silent participants. Finally, the use of a student guide and shifting of roles between the students play a crucial role in the success of the ODFs.
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This case study explores the revision process and experience learned by teaching 12 sections of an asynchronous online graduate Homeland Security Law course over a two-year period from 2018 to 2020. The chapter charts the transition of the course from a traditional format with high-stakes episodic assessments (midterm, final, and a lengthy research paper) to a discussion board-centric class using curated reading materials, case study analysis, role-playing, structured debates, and the scaffolding of shorter, low-stakes writing assignments predominately completed in the online discussion boards increased both student engagement and satisfaction as reflected by student evaluations and feedback. The chapter further argues that a collection of low-tech, low-cost design and delivery tips derived from the insights provided from scholarship and online teaching experience can create a rich and transparent online learning environment.
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As colleges and universities continue their commitment to increasing access to higher education through offering education online and at scale, attention on teaching open-ended subjects online and at scale, mainly the arts, humanities, and the social sciences, remains limited. While existing work in scaling open-ended courses primarily focuses on the evaluation and feedback of open-ended assignments, there is a lack of understanding of how to effectively teach open-ended, university-level courses at scale. To better understand the needs of teaching large-scale, open-ended courses online effectively in a university setting, we conducted a mixed-methods study with university instructors and students, using surveys and interviews, and identified five critical pedagogical elements that distinguish the teaching and learning experiences in an open-ended course from that in a non-open-ended course. An overarching theme for the five elements was the need to support students' self-expression. We further uncovered open challenges and opportunities when incorporating the five critical pedagogical elements into large-scale, open-ended courses online in a university setting, and suggested six future research directions: (1) facilitate in-depth conversations, (2) create a studio-friendly environment, (3) adapt to open-ended assessment, (4) scale individual open-ended feedback, (5) establish trust for self-expression, and (6) personalize instruction and harness the benefits of student diversity.
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Asynchronous discussions have been widely used in education to support learning. Exploring the reasons why threads in asynchronous discussion forums die may help us improve our understanding of asynchronous discussions and lead to a more effective learning process. This study explored why threads in asynchronous discussion forums shut down. Two analytical methods, namely, content analysis and statistical analysis, were employed. The discussion postings were coded into various behavior patterns based on the work of Lu et al. (Computers in Human Behavior 27:946–955, 2011). Differences of behavior patterns between long lifespan threads and short lifespan threads were investigated and reasons why some threads die quickly was explored. The shortest lifespan threads that died after one or two comments were statistically analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the disagreement with added justification between long lifespan threads and short lifespan threads. Explanation oriented questions, disagreement against justification, fact oriented questions, new claim, thumbs up and thanks, to some extent, were significantly different between long lifespan threads and short lifespan threads. Agreement played a large part in shortest lifespan threads. Based on the results and further content analysis, many educational implications have emerged for designing asynchronous discussion activities and asynchronous discussion rules. For example, it is necessary to continuously encourage learners to express fresh ideas; rewards can be a way of encouraging high quality replies; learners need to give the reason or explanation why they agree or disagree with others’ postings; learners should be encouraged to ask more explanatory questions or factual questions; and off topic comments should not be forbidden.
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One criticism about qualitative research is that it is difficult to generalize findings to settings not studied. To explore this issue, I examine three broad arguments for generalizing from data: sample-to-population extrapolation, analytic generalization, and case-to-case transfer. Qualitative research often uses the last argument, but some efforts have been made to use the first two. I suggest that analytic generalization can be very helpful for qualitative researchers but that sample-to-population extrapolation is not likely to be.
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Discusses conversation as a medium for school change, a way to build community, and as a means for designing new systems of learning. Examines the value of conversation and dialog, and suggests strategies for conversations that differ from traditional argument and debate. Notes that in design conversation, the group shares the responsibility for the outcome. (AEF)
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Examines three integrated-courseware systems for Web-based online courses and considers the integration of pedagogy in courseware authoring systems. Topics include knowledge; learning; motivation; and pedagogy based on effective use of electronic learning environments for the development of cognitive skills through access to information, interactivity with tools, and communication. (Author/LRW)
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With the increase of Internet and WWW usage in the classroom, instructional activities are now being implemented that use online conversation for knowledge building. Current research with The WEB Project, an Innovation Challenge Grantee, subtitled "Creating a WEB of Evidence of Student Performance in Nonverbal Inquiry and Expression" can help inform practice in this area. This paper presents a synthesis of current research on face-to-face and online conversation and a short analysis of episodes of online conversation, together with a few perceptions from a student focus group. Lessons learned and implications for practice are then presented. What Is Conversation? The Purpose of Conversation When addressing online conversation, the terms "dialogue", "discussion" and "conversation" are often used interchangeably. This paper will attempt to clarify some of the subtle distinctions among them, describe how they work, and present some current research findings regarding both online and fac...
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This study investigated the effects of teacher discourse in a computer-mediated discussion. Three different styles of discourse were established: questions only; statements only; and conversational. Results supported the hypothesis that a conversational style of discourse produced higher levels of student participation with a more complex interaction pattern. In addition, there was a higher frequency of peer-peer interaction with more complex responses. This study suggests that a conversational style of discourse is both possible and desirable within a computer-mediated discussion. Further research is needed on the effects of a conversational style and newer interface designs on student participation and achievement.
Article
So many times we hear from faculty that they started a threaded discussion area and the students never used it. With such a great classroom tool, we had to ask ourselves, "why?" Threaded discussions allow for assimilation, reflection, critical thinking… this just did not make sense. In investigating the situation, we found that students need a little more guidance when is comes to residential asynchronous tools. There need to be accountability and guidelines in order for the experience to truly be a learning experience. Granted, there are students who will learn on their own in any situation, but for the most part we need to coach or guide them with asynchronous tools. Learner Control. In an asynchronous learning environment, the instructor provides the leadership, designs the environment and manages the process; the learner engages the environment, collaborates with other learners, resources and experts to construct knowledge. Research on learner control purports the more the learners control the elements of instruction, the more rewarding the experience will be. That does not mean total learner control, nor does it insure that students can take control without guidance. Your task as an instructor or faculty member is to find a balance between total instructor control and total learner control. You will want to create strategies, assignments or environments in which key decisions are delegated to the learner, while designing them in such a way that your learning outcomes can be achieved. So, there is control on your part, there is direction, but both are a function of the design of the task. How you as an instructor design the task is what will gauge the success, not the technology. The inherent design of the Web and the ability to provide flexible links to information facilitates the conceptual interconnectedness and associations that are central to knowledge. Free from pressure for immediate response, asynchronous activities such as online discussion tools provide learners with time to reflect, formulate ideas, and produce more thoughtful responses.
Article
Encouraging students to be autonomous is an important goal of the scaffolded knowledge integration framework. Knowledge integration requires students to expand their repertoire of ideas but unless those ideas are reflected upon, they cannot be linked to and reconciled with current ideas. Students are capable of doing this kind of reflection but, many need scaffolding. Scaffolding here in the form of reflection prompts can help students be autonomous integrators of their knowledge. This research investigated learning and design questions. It determined whether reflection prompts promote knowledge integration for students working on science projects and investigated the effects of students' different dispositions on their reflection. It explored which characteristics of prompts best support students in knowledge integration. The learning results indicate that prompting students to reflect significantly increases knowledge integration in science projects. Yet similar prompts elicit qualitatively diverse responses from students. Students who focus on their ideas perform significantly better on the end product than do other students who focus on their actions or activities. Furthermore, students who indicate that they understand everything perform significantly worse on the final project than do other students. The design results show that self-monitoring prompts, which encourage planning for and reflection on activities, help students to demonstrate an integrated understanding of the relevant science; while activity prompts, which guide the inquiry process, are less successful in prompting knowledge integration.
Article
Summary The instructional design process provides the framework for planning. It is essential that the instructor take the time to plan and organize the learning experience prior to implementation when engaged in teaching at a distance. The instruction will be at a standard that is acceptable in all venues. The students will be engaged and the instructor will be satisfied. Planning makes the difference in a successful learning environment
Article
Any analysis of constructivism is difficult because there is a great range of ideas and a great variety of theoretical positions whose proponents call “constructivist”. The idea that is common to all these flavors of constructivism is that students construct knowledge for themselves. The divergence of opinion among constructivists arises from differences in perception of the instructional implications of this basic tenet. For some, knowledge construction requires little more than the addition of coaching or help systems to traditional instructional strategies. For others who take a more radical position, knowledge construction implies that each of us knows the world in a different way, that there is therefore no shared objective world to teach about, and that consequently instructional analysis and prescription make no difference to what and how students learn. I must also point out that there is great diversity in the opinions and theoretical stances of instructional designers. These range from hard-core behaviorism to a cognitive orientation which, adopting the same tenet of knowledge construction, coincides with the position of “moderate” constructivists, as Merrill (1991) has pointed out. Only at their extremes are the positions of constructivists and instructional designers truly adversarial.
Article
Computer-mediated discussion forums (such as newsgroups or those in instructional management software environments) are becoming common in higher education. Such forums are interesting because they ate not only one of the easiest technologies to add to a class but may also provide an important learning opportunity for students. However, simply making a discussion forum available does not mean that it will be used effectively to enable learning. In this paper, we explore the idea that specific features of a discussion forum may increase the likelihood of effective discussions taking place within the forum. We define effective discussions as those that are sustained and are focused on topics related to class learning goals. We then describe the specifications for an electronic discussion forum-a computer-mediated anchored discussion forum-that we propose makes sustained on-topic discussion more likely. We report on the results of two studies that support this proposal. We end by exploring implications for research into computer-supported discussion tools for learning and their design.
Article
Contents: M. Riel, Foreword: Conceptual Order and Collaborative Tools--Creating Intellectual Identity. Preface. C.J. Bonk, K.S. King, Introduction to Electronic Collaborators. Part I:Theoretical and Technological Foundations. C.J. Bonk, K.S. King, Computer Conferencing and Collaborative Writing Tools: Starting a Dialogue About Student Dialogue. C.J. Bonk, D.J. Cunningham, Searching for Learner-Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Educational Learning Tools. T.M. Duffy, B. Dueber, C.L. Hawley, Critical Thinking in a Distributed Environment: A Pedagogical Base for the Design of Conferencing Systems. Part II:Stand-Alone System Collaboration. C. Angeli, D.J. Cunningham, Bubble Dialogue: Tools for Supporting Literacy and Mind. J.R. Savery, Fostering Ownership for Learning With Computer-Supported Collaborative Writing in an Undergraduate Business Communication Course. Part III:Asynchronous Electronic Conferencing. W.A. Sugar, C.J. Bonk, Student Role Play in the World Forum: Analyses of an Arctic Adventure Learning Apprenticeship. S-M. Chong, Models of Asynchronous Computer Conferencing for Collaborative Learning in Large College Classes. R. Althauser, J.M. Matuga, On the Pedagogy of Electronic Instruction. S.E. Kirkley, J.R. Savery, M.M. Grabner-Hagen, Electronic Teaching: Extending Classroom Dialogue and Assistance Through E-mail Communication. E. Zhu, Learning and Mentoring: Electronic Discussion in a Distance Learning Course. Part IV:Multiconferencing: Asynchronous and Synchronous Classrooms. D.H. Cooney, Sharing Aspects Within Aspects: Real-Time Collaboration in the High School English Classroom. C.J. Bonk, E.J. Hansen, M.M. Garbner-Hagen, S.A. Lazar, C. Mirabelli, Time to "Connect": Synchronous and Asynchronous Case-Based Dialogue Among Preservice Teachers. I. King, The Use of Computer-Mediated Communication: Electronic Collaboration and Interactivity. Part V:Looking Back and Glancing Ahead. M.A. Siegel, S.E. Kirkley, Adventure Learning as a Vision of the Digital Learning Environment. K.S. King, Designing 21st-Century Educational Networlds: Structuring Electronic Social Spaces.
Book
This book presents a disciplined, qualitative exploration of case study methods by drawing from naturalistic, holistic, ethnographic, phenomenological and biographic research methods. Robert E. Stake uses and annotates an actual case study to answer such questions as: How is the case selected? How do you select the case which will maximize what can be learned? How can what is learned from one case be applied to another? How can what is learned from a case be interpreted? In addition, the book covers: the differences between quantitative and qualitative approaches; data-gathering including document review; coding, sorting and pattern analysis; the roles of the researcher; triangulation; and reporting.
Article
This study examined the influence of group structures upon six groups of distributed graduate students as they pursued a six-week problem-based learning activity by communicating in an asynchronous computer conference. Henri and Rigault's (1996) content analysis framework and Howell-Richardson and Mellar's (1996) guidelines for interconnectedness of messages were used to analyze the messages. In addition, learners' perceptions of interdependence and intersubjectivity were gauged from a self-reported survey developed by the researcher. Overall comparisons revealed that group conferences with role assignment had higher levels of interconnected messages. Weekly comparisons also indicated higher perceptions of intersubjectivity and deep processing for the role assignment group during the initial weeks of the activity. Over time, however, these levels equalized across group structures.
Article
THE PROLIFERATION OF WEB COURSEWARE TOOLS has yet to match the pedagogical needs of higher education. Just how much do Web tools foster the development of student thinking skills, collaboration, and active learning? Before pointing to various ways to embed such pedagogical techniques in on-line instruction, some of the costs and benefits related to the use of these tools are documented. Many of the benefits are made apparent within a ten level Web integration continuum as well as from the clarification of potential on-line interactions between instructors, students, and practitioners. To further illustrate these benefits, ideas related to teaching on the Web from a learner-centered point of view are described. Next, ways to embed critical and creative thinking as well as cooperative learning or teamwork in standard and customized Web course development tools are detailed. Sample Web courses and tools developed at Indiana University are presented along with a review of several types of Web courseware and conferencing systems. Finally, key pedagogical implications and recommendations for the near future are outlined.
Chapter
Providing a complete portal to the world of case study research, the Fourth Edition of Robert K. Yin's bestselling text Case Study Research offers comprehensive coverage of the design and use of the case study method as a valid research tool. This thoroughly revised text now covers more than 50 case studies (approximately 25% new), gives fresh attention to quantitative analyses, discusses more fully the use of mixed methods research designs, and includes new methodological insights. The book's coverage of case study research and how it is applied in practice gives readers access to exemplary case studies drawn from a wide variety of academic and applied fields.Key Features of the Fourth Edition Highlights each specific research feature through 44 boxed vignettes that feature previously published case studies Provides methodological insights to show the similarities between case studies and other social science methods Suggests a three-stage approach to help readers define the initial questions they will consider in their own case study research Covers new material on human subjects protection, the role of Institutional Review Boards, and the interplay between obtaining IRB approval and the final development of the case study protocol and conduct of a pilot case Includes an overall graphic of the entire case study research process at the beginning of the book, then highlights the steps in the process through graphics that appear at the outset of all the chapters that follow Offers in-text learning aids including 'tips' that pose key questions and answers at the beginning of each chapter, practical exercises, endnotes, and a new cross-referencing tableCase Study Research, Fourth Edition is ideal for courses in departments of Education, Business and Management, Nursing and Public Health, Public Administration, Anthropology, Sociology, and Political Science.
Article
This classroom study, involving 178 middle school science students, investigates ways of prompting students for reflection. Reflection refers to both metacognition and sense-making. The primary research question is "Do students merely need to be prompted to reflect, or do they need guidance in reflecting productively?" Two types of reflection prompts are contrasted. The first type, called generic prompts, represents a view that asking students to "'stop and think" will encourage reflection. The second type, called directed prompts, assumes that a generic request for reflection is insufficient, and that students should instead be provided with hints indicating potentially productive directions for their reflection. (Students in both conditions received identical activity prompts that helped them complete the project.) The results show that students in the generic prompt condition develop more coherent understandings as they work on a complex science project. Students reflect unproductively more often in response to directed prompts as compared to the generic prompts. These poor reflectors are less successful on the project than are other better reflectors. Students with some autonomy who received generic prompts develop more coherent understandings than do their similarly autonomous peers who receive directed prompts. The role of reflection in promoting multiple, complementary knowledge integration processes is described. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for both instruction and cognition, including strategies for promoting productive reflection in classroom situations.
Article
In this article we focus on educational ideas and enabling technology for knowledge-building discourse. The conceptual bases of computer-supported intentional learning environments (CSILE) come from research on intentional learning, process aspects of expertise, and discourse in knowledge-building communities. These bases combine to support the following propositions: Schools need to be restructured as communities in which the construction of knowledge is supported as a collective goal, and the role of educational technology should be to replace classroom discourse patterns with those having more immediate and natural extensions to knowledge-building communities outside school walls. CSILE is described as a means for refraining classroom discourse to support knowledge building in ways extensible to out-of-school knowledge-advancing enterprises. Some of the most fundamental problems are logistic, and it is in solving these logistic problems that we see the greatest potential for educational technology.
Article
Obra que desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria estudia el desarrollo cognoscitivo del niño, a la luz del contexto sociocultural; pone de manifiesto los procesos socioculturales mediante los que el niño adquiere y amplia sus habilidades y como desarrollo su inteligencia, a partir del contacto con el pensamiento compartido con otras personas.
147 practical tips for teaching online groups
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Blackboard product strategy and vision: White paper on building blocks (B 2 ) initiative Getting by with a little help from my pedagogical friends
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Naturalistic inquiry Next steps in design experiments with networked collaborative learning environments: Instructional interventions in the curriculum
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Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. 148 V. P. Dennen Oshima, J., & Oshima, R. (2001). Next steps in design experiments with networked collaborative learning environments: Instructional interventions in the curriculum. In T. Koschmann, R.
Next steps in design experiments with networked collaborative learning environments: Instructional interventions in the curriculum
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Oshima, J., & Oshima, R. (2001). Next steps in design experiments with networked collaborative learning environments: Instructional interventions in the curriculum. In T. Koschmann, R. Hall, & N. Miyake (Eds.), CSCL 2: Carrying forward the conversation (pp. 99–109). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
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