Determination of nitrogen species (Nitrate, Nitrite and Ammonia Ions) in environmental samples by ion chromatography

Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Water and Soil Analysis, Adam Mickiewicz University, 60-613, Poznań, Poland
Polish Journal of Environmental Studies (Impact Factor: 0.87). 01/2006; 15(1):5-18.


The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated development of all kinds of methods allowing determination of different pollutants in different elements of the natural environment, including methods for determining inorganic nitrogen ions. Many of the methods used so far have proven insufficiently sensi-tive, selective or accurate and recently much attention has been paid to ion chromatography, which seems most promising. This paper reviews applications of ion chromatography for determining nitrate, nitrite and ammonium ions in environmental samples and in food products along with ISO standards and the relevant methods proposed by the US EPA and Dionex. Literature examples describe the application of ion chromatography for determining NO 3 -, NO 2 -and NH 4 + ions in water, waste water, air, food products and other complex matrix samples. Critical analysis of the methods based on ion chromatography is presented.

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    • "Anions are ubiquitous throughout biological systems and play a significant role in the various areas such as medicinal [1], biological [2], catalysis [3] and environmental processes [4]. Selective recognition of a particular anion is an important challenge in the field of host–guest chemistry. "
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    • "Analytical methods for simultaneous determination of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate are scarce. The usual methods employ, for example, liquid chromatography with conductivity detection for anions and use of post-column derivatization to form indophenol blue, with subsequent spectrophotometric detection for ammonium [9]; other ionic chromatographic variants are also listed [10]. Apart from this, there are other methods based on flow injection systems that may employ redox conversion of species. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work presents the first study and development of an electronic tongue analysis system for the monitoring of nitrogen stable species: nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in water. The electronic tongue was composed of an array of 15 potentiometric poly(vinyl chloride) membrane sensors sensitive to cations and anions plus an artificial neural network (ANN) response model. The building of the ANN model was performed in a medium containing sodium, potassium, and chloride as interfering ions, thus simulating real environmental samples. The correlation coefficient in the cross-validation of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium was satisfactory in the three cases with values higher than 0.92. Finally, the utility of the proposed system is shown in the monitoring of the photoelectrocatalytic treatment of nitrate.
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