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A framework for enhancing multicultural counselling competence

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Abstract

Canadian counsellors are increasingly called upon to work with diverse client populations whose needs may not be met through traditional counselling models. The question for many is how to development the attitudes, knowledge, and skills for competent and ethical practice. This article introduces core competencies designed to assist counsellors to effec-tively infuse culture into all aspects of the counselling process. It then describes how these competencies are combined to enhance the multicultural competence of counsellors. Prac-tical strategies are then introduced to provide a starting place for counsellors who identify the need for further professional development to increase their multicultural competence.
Canadian Journal of Counselling / Revue canadienne de counseling/2007, Vol. 41:1 31
A Framework for Enhancing Multicultural
Counselling Competence
Sandra Collins
Athabasca University
Nancy Arthur
University of Calgary
abstract
Canadian counsellors are increasingly called upon to work with diverse client populations
whose needs may not be met through traditional counselling models. The question for
many is how to development the attitudes, knowledge, and skills for competent and ethical
practice. This article introduces core competencies designed to assist counsellors to effec-
tively infuse culture into all aspects of the counselling process. It then describes how these
competencies are combined to enhance the multicultural competence of counsellors. Prac-
tical strategies are then introduced to provide a starting place for counsellors who identify
the need for further professional development to increase their multicultural competence.
rÉsumÉ
Les conseillers canadiens sont appelés de plus en plus souvent à travailler avec des clients
provenant de populations diverses, dont les besoins peuvent ne pas être satisfaits par les mo-
dèles de counseling habituels. Pour plusieurs, la question est de savoir comment acquérir les
attitudes, connaissances, et habiletés nécessaires à une pratique compétente et éthique. Cet
article présente des habiletés de base conçues pour aider les conseillers à imprégner effi cace-
ment la culture dans tous les aspects du counseling. Il décrit ensuite comment les combiner
les unes aux autres pour améliorer la compétence multiculturelle. Puis, des stratégies prati-
ques sont présentées comme point de départ pour les conseillers qui ressentent le besoin de
se perfectionner davantage afi n d'augmenter leurs compétences multiculturelles.
A lot has been written in the last 25 years about the importance of attending
to culture in all aspects of counselling practice. Solid arguments have been made
that, to a large degree, all interactions with our clients should now be considered
multicultural in nature (Pedersen, 1991). The population of Canada continues to
change and the defi nition of culture has expanded to include other factors like age,
gender, sexual orientation, ability, religion, and socioeconomic status (Arredondo
& Perez, 2006; Arthur & Collins, 2005; Mollen, Ridley, & Hill, 2003). It is also
widely recognized that culture is not something that applies only to non-domi-
nant populations. Rather, all of us carry with us our personal cultural identities
that impact the way in which we interact with our clients (Ho, 1995; James,
1996). This article starts from the assumption that these arguments are now well
substantiated in the literature and that the key question now is how counsellors
enhance their multicultural counselling competence.
In other articles, we have refl ected on the historical debates related to multi-
cultural counselling competency and provided detailed theoretical analyses of the
32 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
current frameworks of multicultural counselling competencies (Collins & Arthur,
2005b, 2006a). We have also proposed our own model for culture-infused coun-
selling competencies, arguing that culture is a factor that must be continuously
infused into work with all clients (Collins & Arthur, 2005b, 2006a, 2006b).
The purpose of this article is more practical in nature: to explore what it means
to be competent and to describe what we see as the basic competencies that will
provide Canadian counsellors with the ability to work effectively with a wide
range of diverse clientele. The fi rst few sections of the article will describe the core
competencies we have identifi ed through previous theoretical work and literature
reviews. The next section will discuss how these competencies combine to support
multicultural competence. The fi nal section will look at practical ways in which
each of us can work toward increasing our competency in these areas. We hope
that you can incorporate some ideas to enhance your work with all clients.
a framework for cultural competence
A number of multicultural competency frameworks have been proposed
(Arredondo et al., 1996; Hansen, Petitone -Arreola-Rockwell, & Greene, 2000; Sue,
Arredondo, & McDavis, 1992; Sue et al., 1982). We explore the criticisms of these
earlier models elsewhere (Collins & Arthur, 2005b, 2006a). The discussion here is
based on our model, which is summarized in Table 1. There are three competency
domains, each with a number of core competencies. A detailed description of the
specifi c attitudes and beliefs, knowledge, and skills in each competency area is
provided in Collins & Arthur (2005b, 2006b).
In this section we will discuss each of these core competency areas, highlight-
ing some of the key targets for Canadian counsellors who wish to learn to more
effectively infuse culture into their work with their clients.
Domain I: Cultural Awareness of Self: Active Awareness of Personal Assumptions,
Values, and Biases
The person of the counsellor is consistently identifi ed as the starting point
for the development of cultural competence (American Psychological Associa-
tion [APA], 2002; Arredondo et al., 1996; Sue et al., 1992). This emphasis on
self-awareness is not new, but, as Wong-Wylie (2006) points out, the counselling
profession has been slow to fully embrace the power of refl ective practice relative to
other disciplines. Many of us may believe that we know ourselves, but our know-
ing goes only as far as the types of inquiry we make of ourselves. Kiselica (1999),
for example, describes the painful and very personal process of coming to know
himself and his cultural privilege as a White male counsellor. As we extend our
defi nition of culture to include other factors, the depth of our personal inquiry
must also expand. There are fi ve areas of self-awareness that we consider as central
to multicultural counselling competence.
Core Competency 1: Demonstrate awareness of your own cultural identities. The
rst step toward multicultural competence is to acknowledge that you are in fact a
cultural being (Ho, 1995; James, 1996). For members of non-dominant popula-
tions in Canada, this fact is refl ected back to them continuously in their interac-
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 33
tions with the dominant culture. But for those who are privileged by virtue of their
colour, ethnicity, language, physical and mental abilities, gender, sexual orientation,
religion, or socio-economic status, the infl uences that have shaped personal cultural
identities may be much less obvious (Kiselica, 1999). For example, how deeply have
you explored the impact of being able-bodied on your view of yourself, your view of
healthy functioning, or your view of the world around you? Unless you have been
confronted with physical disability, you are less likely to really engage in the level of
self-refl ection necessary to understand how your own worldview has been shaped
by the privilege of ability. One’s personal worldview is shaped by numerous such
factors (Arredondo & Glauner, 1992; Ho; James; Sue, 2001), including personal
identity factors (e.g., genetics, family, personality); cultural identity factors (e.g.,
cultural heritage, gender, social class, ethnic identity, sexual orientation, ability);
and contextual factors (e.g., historical context, environment, social norms). Each
of these factors can have a dramatic impact on how we view client problems, what
we see as possible solutions to those problems, and the models we choose to follow
in addressing those concerns (Collins & Arthur, 2005b).
Self-refl ection on these factors is critical to effective practice (APA, 2002; Arre-
dondo et al., 1996). Yet this is perhaps one of the most challenging undertakings
because their infl uence is often subtle and is built into our assumptions, values, and
beliefs from an early age (Pedersen, 2001). Our learning in this area is life-long and
Table 1
A Framework of Culture-Infused Counselling Competencies
Competency Description
Domain I: Cultural Awareness—Self: Active awareness of personal assumptions, values, and biases
Core Competency 1
Core Competency 2
Core Competency 3
Core Competency 4
Core Competency 5
Demonstrate awareness of your own cultural identities.
Demonstrate awareness of differences between your own cultural identities and
those of individuals from other dominant or non-dominant groups.
Demonstrate awareness of the impact of culture on the theory and practice of
counselling/psychology.
Demonstrate awareness of the personal and professional impact of the discrep-
ancy between dominant and non-dominant cultural groups in North America.
Demonstrate awareness of your level of multicultural competence.
Domain II: Cultural Awareness—Other: Understanding the worldview of the client
Core Competency 1
Core Competency 2
Core Competency 3
Demonstrate awareness of the cultural identities of your clients.
Demonstrate awareness of the relationship of personal culture to health and
well-being.
Demonstrate awareness of the socio-political infl uences that impinge on the
lives of non-dominant populations.
Domain III: Culturally Sensitive Working Alliance
Core Competency 1
Core Competency 2
Core Competency 3
Establish trusting and respectful relationships with clients that take into ac-
count cultural identities.
Collaborate with clients to establish counselling goals that are responsive to
salient dimensions of cultural identity.
Collaborate with clients to establish client and counsellor tasks that are respon-
sive to salient dimensions of cultural identity.
34 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
is enhanced through deliberate and focused attention to self-refl ection (Collins,
Arthur, & Wong-Wylie, 2006). Following a recent presentation at the bilingual
(English–French) National Consultation on Career Development [NATCON]
conference in Ottawa, we were approached by a participant who pointed out that
although we identifi ed ourselves as women of privilege in a number of areas, we
failed to acknowledge the additional privilege that comes from being English-
speaking. She was absolutely right, of course. Our question to you is, “What
personal and cultural identities shape your worldview and how do White, male,
able-bodied, heterosexual, or other statuses of privilege impact your worldview?”
Until you can answer this question honestly and comprehensively, you may not
bring the person of the counsellor fully into the counselling process, and you may,
in fact, be introducing barriers to effective practice by virtue of unexamined cul-
tural assumptions and ethnocentric perspectives (Pedersen, 1995; Ridley, 1995).
Core Competency 2: Demonstrate awareness of differences between your own cultural
identities and those of individuals from other dominant or non-dominant groups.
Acknowledgement of difference is critical to culturally sensitive practice. Culture
is important in understanding both our clients and ourselves. Culturally sensi-
tive practice requires us to not only recognize, but value, respect, and appreciate
these differences (Parham, 2001). This means letting go of our tendency to view
ourselves as normal and to welcome rather than simply tolerate diversity.
As counsellors, we are inevitably called upon to make judgements as part
of ethical and competent practice. The challenge for each of us is to recognize
where our own values and assumptions come into play in our judgements of oth-
ers (APA, 1993; Canadian Psychological Association, 2000; Merali, 1999). The
more subtle and unexamined the judgements, the more dangerous they are in the
counselling context. This can be as simple as what we read into a persons body
language. We all make these quiet assumptions in our interactions with others,
but we often fail to deliberately hold only tentatively to these assumptions and
actively explore their cultural roots. A simple challenge in this regard is to choose
one day to actively self-monitor your internal self-talk as you interact with people
in various contexts and ask yourself this one question: “What do I assume about
this person based on what I have just observed and what does that tell me about
my automatic reactions to difference?”
Core Competency 3: Demonstrate awareness of the impact of culture on the theory and
practice of counselling/psychology. The infl uence of collective culture is also strongly
evident in the discipline of psychology in North America. Some authors continue
to argue that there are Western theoretical models that can be applied generically to
all clients (Patterson, 2004). However, both feminist and multicultural writers argue
that each of these models is rooted in monocultural and ethnocentric perspectives.
The underlying assumptions inherent in these models are not compatible with all
client worldviews (APA, 2002; Cheatham et al., 2002a, 2002b; Merali, 1999).
Pedersen (1991) argued that multicultural counselling represents a fourth major
theoretical force. However, this does not mean that we should toss out earlier mod-
els and conceptual frameworks. Rather, we are invited to apply the same standard
of active and critical awareness to these models that we apply to our own cultural
identities. The question then becomes, “What are the underlying values and as-
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 35
sumptions that drive your personal theoretical models and how might those need to
be modifi ed to work with clients who hold different worldviews and values?” This
is actually a more diffi cult challenge than simply presenting a new model and say-
ing “Here, try this out.” This continuous process of self-examination, examination
of ones models for counselling, and refl ection on their relevance and applicability
for particular clients requires us to hold less fi rmly to our professional knowledge
base and recognize that each of us is responsible for adding to that knowledge base
through our experience in active refl ective practice (Collins et al., 2006).
Core Competency 4: Demonstrate awareness of the personal and professional impact
of the discrepancy between dominant and non-dominant cultural groups in North
America. A step beyond simply recognizing and valuing the differences that exist
across cultural groups is acknowledgement of the degree to which resources, op-
portunities, and options are differentially available based on group membership
(Kiselica, 1999). We pride ourselves in Canada on being a multicultural nation
and in having inclusive federal and provincial policies related to gender, ability,
and other cultural identity factors. However, the reality is that what we, as authors
of this article, are able to dream of for our lives remains largely a function of our
privileged association with particular groups and less a function of our inherent
worth or hard work. Our intent is not to downplay or devalue self-responsibility
and active pursuit of ones goals and dreams but rather to emphasize that the same
doors are not open to everyone in society (Parham, 2001).
If we fail, as counsellors, to acknowledge the fundamental reality of societal
inequities, oppression of non-dominant populations, and our own tendencies,
however subtle, to think and behave in racist, sexist, elitist, heterosexist, ableist,
and ageist ways, we risk inadvertently supporting these continued discrepancies
(Pedersen, 1995). We also are much more likely to consciously or sub-consciously
blame our clients for things that are beyond their control and to miss that the target
of change must sometimes be these larger social, economic, and political systems
(Coleman & Wampold, 2003; Sue & Sue, 1999). It is not an easy thing to openly
acknowledge that we hold stereotypes of individuals based on group membership
or that prejudice and discrimination slip into our practices in subtle ways. How-
ever, unless we are willing to do so, we may continue to engage in unintentional
oppression of our clients (Collins & Arthur, 2005b; Pedersen, 1995).
What we must also acknowledge are the ways in which the current system
serves to uphold a privileged position for many counsellors and psychologists.
Although some of us hold non-dominant identities, there are probably other
ways in which we have experienced privilege. In a just society, opportunities,
resources, and worth are distributed equally and fairly, with no individuals or
groups holding particular advantages or disadvantages in access or advancement
(Fouad, Gerstein, & Toporek, 2006).
Most of us would stand together and wave
the fl ag of social justice. But if social justice means that the playing fi eld really is
levelled and we can no longer count on our privilege to ensure us priority access to
services, resources, and status, we need to ask ourselves what we are really willing
to change. For us, as authors, our privilege as White women in academia likely
means our voices are given more public space and credence than those of many
other women in Canadian society. Although many of us would agree that social
36 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
justice is an important concept, it demands that we seriously examine the prin-
ciples and practices of counselling. Many of these principles have challenged the
structures of organizations. However, as part of the self-awareness competencies,
we need to refl ect upon the implications of personal privilege. The question we
ask ourselves is “How far are we willing to go to ensure that others have equal op-
portunity regardless of cultural identities if it means that our own level of comfort
and privilege may need to change?” It is important that we continue to ask this
question of ourselves, and we invite you to do the same.
Core Competency 5: Demonstrate awareness of your level of multicultural competence.
The fi nal area where we suggest counsellors focus their attention in terms of their
own self-awareness is in honest refl ection about their level of multicultural compe-
tence. First and foremost, this means making a decision about whether you believe
that enhancing multicultural competence is a priority. The emphasis on cultural
awareness and sensitivity is refl ected in Canadian codes of ethics (Pettifor, 2005), and
many, like us, now argue that multicultural competence is necessary for professional
competence generally (Arredondo & Toporek, 2004). If you accept this premise,
then we hope that this article provides you with continued steps along that path.
One of the areas that receives little attention in the professional literature is the
relationship between the personal and professional lives of counsellors (Collins
et al., 2006). Feminist writers have taken the lead in their focus on the personal is
political as a metaphor for the importance of playing out in our personal lives those
values that we hold in our professional roles and vice versa (Feminist Therapy In-
stitute, 1999). It is often more diffi cult to confront racist comments, for example,
among our families and friends because we have more to lose in these contexts.
However, the more we, the authors, personally learn about multiculturalism, the
more we feel challenged to deeper levels of integrity in our personal and professional
lives. The emphasis on self-awareness in this section of the article is a reminder,
though, that the most important target of consciousness raising and competency
development related to culture is ourselves. As a point of refl ection, then, you might
ask yourself, “What are the cutting edges of your own multicultural competence
and how are those manifest in both your personal and professional lives?”
Domain II: Cultural Awareness of Others: Understanding the Worldview of the Client
Once you have begun the process of developing self-awareness about the impact
of culture on you as a person and on you as a professional, it is time to turn the
cultural lens toward the clients you serve. The second domain of culture-infused
counselling competency is understanding the worldview of the client(s). The
competencies that we consider core to this domain are explored in this section.
Core Competency 1: Demonstrate awareness of the cultural identities of your clients.
Just as your own cultural identities are shaped through historical, social, and cul-
tural experiences and contexts, your clients each bring with them a complex and
idiosyncratic cultural history that affects their worldview, values, assumptions, and
beliefs (Arthur & Stewart, 2001; Collins & Arthur, 2005b). There are two levels on
which your awareness of your clients’ cultures come into play. The fi rst has to do
with general knowledge of various client groups that you are likely to encounter in
your practice. Client cultures should be explored from a non-judgemental stance,
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 37
recognizing that worldviews are social constructs that are not inherently good or
bad/right or wrong. They are simply the lenses through which each of us views
the world around us (Ibrahim, Roysircar-Sodowsky, & Ohnishi, 2001).
The second level of exploration of client culture relates to the cultural iden-
tity of the specifi c client with whom you are interacting (Ho, 1995). Differences
within groups are often larger than differences between groups. So, in spite of your
group-level knowledge above, you cannot assume that any or all of it applies to a
particular client until you directly explore with that client the implications of group
membership (Ridley & Kleiner, 2003). It is also possible that you may not be able
to ascertain group membership without direct discussion with the client (as in the
case of sexual orientation) or that your assumptions are incorrect (as with ethnic mi-
nority group members who appear white). This is another reason why we support
the position that all encounters with clients must be considered multicultural in
nature (Pedersen, 2001). We recommend that you assume differences in worldview
exist; then you are less likely to inadvertently impose your own perspectives on the
client. What is most important is to keep in the forefront of your own mind the
question, “Who is this client and what aspects of her/his cultural identities does
the client feel are relevant to explore within the counselling context?”
Core Competency 2: Demonstrate awareness of the relationship of personal culture
to health and well-being. Understanding the worldviews of your clients leads you to
a better understanding of the meaning of wellness and healthy functioning within
that cultural context. Culture also impacts the development and conceptualization
of problems and expressions of distress (APA, 2002; Fischer, Jerome, & Atkinson,
1998; McCormick, 1996). Without an understanding of the impact of culture on
both healthy and unhealthy functioning, it is possible to completely misinterpret
client meanings. For example, in cultures where a collective rather than an indi-
vidualistic perspective is assumed, it would not be seen as unhealthy or lacking in
independence or differentiation for a university student to include, and even defer
to, a parent in a counselling session aimed at career planning. However, a counsel-
lor lacking in cultural awareness might jump to inappropriate conclusions about
familial relationships or about the students maturity level for decision-making.
There are also common presenting concerns that can be identifi ed for particular
cultural groups, often stemming from the types of discrimination and oppression
that individuals from these groups experience within the dominant culture. For
example, gays and lesbians may present with issues related to the coming-out proc-
ess or struggles with both internalized and external homophobia (Alderson, 2005;
Collins & Oxenbury, 2005). Understanding these common issues can sensitize you
to the types of questions you might ask or areas of exploration you might initiate
to ensure that important cultural factors are not overlooked.
We caution you, however, not to assume that group membership means a par-
ticular client is experiencing a particular issue or that cultural identity is necessarily
related to the clients presenting concerns. It is up to you to assess the salience of
various cultural identities to the clients issues. A woman of colour presenting with a
work-related communication problem, for example, may not see gender or ethnic-
ity as relevant but rather may focus on a lack of previous training in a particular skill
area. However, when she later wants to address her discomfort with particular work
38 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
policies and practices, both of these cultural identities may be important to explore.
What we are cautioning against here is moving from a position of cultural blind-
ness where you fail to attend to relevant aspects of culture in counselling practice,
to the opposing position of over-applying cultural hypotheses, where you assume
that all presenting concerns are impacted by group members or personal cultural
factors (Collins & Arthur, 2005b; Pedersen, 1995). The question to continually ask
yourself is, “What aspects of this particular client’s cultural identities are relevant
to our understanding of these specifi c presenting concerns?”
Core Competency 3: Demonstrate awareness of the socio-political infl uences that im-
pinge on the lives of non-dominant populations. It is important for us, as counsellors,
to be informed about the types of social, economic, and political forces in Canada
that shape the lives of members of non-dominant populations. Although Canada
has made great strides toward its goals of becoming a multicultural nation (Depart-
ment of Canadian Heritage, 2003), there still exists considerable inequity between
various groups. Discrimination based on gender, age, sexual orientation, ethnicity,
nationality, language, ability, and other cultural factors continues to be a source of
distress for many. According to the Statistics Canada (2003) Ethnic Diversity Survey,
8% of the Canadian population (1.8 million people) felt out of place or uncomfort-
able in Canada some of the time because of their ethnicity, culture, race, skill, col-
our, language, accent, or religion. Systemic barriers also limit access to services and
resources (Multicultural Coalition for Access to Family Services, 2000; Williams,
2002). For example, lack of access to translators, supports for education or training,
or appropriate childcare services may limit opportunities for immigrants. It is our
responsibility both to be aware of and to work toward changing some of these larger
systems that are at the core of many of our clients’ presenting concerns.
We must also be willing to hold a space for clients to express their distress and to
react against an oppressive system, even though we may identify with that system
and may naturally tend to respond with guilt and denial of our own roles in their
oppression (Neville, Worthington, & Spanierman, 2001). Acknowledging our own
privilege was noted above as a central component of our developing self-awareness
and a key to our ability to really be able to hear the depth of impact of these factors
on our clients. As we listen, we must also attend to the internalization of these
systemic messages (e.g., homophobia, racism, or sexism) by our clients so that we
can support them in recognizing and externalizing this oppression. A key question
for self-refl ection in this area is, “How are the concerns expressed by this particular
client impacted by social, economic, or political factors, and how might I create a
safe space for her to freely express her experiences of systemic oppression?”
Domain III: Culturally Sensitive Working Alliance
The point of connection between our self-awareness and our awareness of
our clients’ culture is the working alliance that we establish with each client.
The working alliance is composed of three core components: (a) a relationship
of trust and respect, (b) agreement on goals, and (c) agreement on tasks (Collins
& Arthur, 2005a, 2006a). As we work collaboratively with clients on these three
aspects of the counselling relationship and process, we apply the cultural sensitiv-
ity we have gained in exploring our own culture and her/his culture. There are
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 39
three core competencies that we encourage counsellors to master in this area.
Core Competency 1: Establish trusting and respectful relationships with clients that
take into account cultural identities. Considerable evidence exists that one of the
key factors in therapeutic success is the relationship between the counsellor and
the client (Coleman & Wampold, 2003; Fischer et al., 1998; Roysircar, Hubbell,
& Gard, 2003). Establishing a relationship of trust and respect across cultures
presents additional challenges to establish common understanding and build
bridges across worldviews. This may require fl exibility in both communication
and counselling styles (Sue & Sue, 1999) and a willingness to adjust some of the
cultural norms associated with applied practice in Canada, such as offi ce setting,
time for counselling appointments, and expectations implicit for both counsellor
and client roles (Amundson, 1998).
Counsellor credibility has been noted as a signifi cant factor in both client
willingness to continue with the counselling process and expectations for success
(Fowers & Richardson, 1996; Sue & Zane, 1987). In the context of cultural dif-
ferences, establishing credibility requires active attention to client expectations and
cultural norms. We encourage counsellors to engage in cultural inquiry with all
clients to explore the ways in which client cultural identities impact their view of
the counselling process. It is through this open exploration that you will be able
to build a bridge between your worldviews and establish credibility with your cli-
ent. Ask yourself as you begin your work with each new client: “From the cultural
perspective of my client, what verbal or non-verbal behaviours, approaches to the
counselling process, or foci for our dialogue might serve to increase my credibility
and trustworthiness as a helping professional?” Building a strong working alliance
in which your client feels heard and understood provides a solid foundation to
then engage in the counselling process in a way that respects and values cultural
infl uences (Collins & Arthur, 2005a).
Core Competency 2: Collaborate with clients to establish counselling goals that are
responsive to salient dimensions of cultural identity. Cultural identities will impact
how both you and your client understand human nature, problem development,
and appropriate targets for change (APA, 2002; Fischer et al., 1998; Pedersen,
2001). You bring your expertise in the change process to the working alliance; your
client brings expertise in her/his own cultural context and presenting concerns.
Failure to truly understand the meaning of cultural identities for your client will
likely result in early termination, dissatisfaction, and lack of success in the coun-
selling process (Collins & Arthur, 2005a).
Assessment instruments and processes that are culturally appropriate should be
selected (Stewart, 2005). In most cases, this means taking existing processes and
examining the underlying assumptions upon which they are built to see if they are
an appropriate match to the worldview of your client. In many cases, you may need
to adapt them to ensure that the information you receive is free of cultural bias.
This is also a point at which you should examine carefully the external infl uences on
the client’s presenting concern and determine the most appropriate target of change
(Cheatham et al., 2002a, 2002b). You may fi nd that effecting change in oppressive
familial, social, organizational, or other systems is a more appropriate goal than the
traditional focus on changing the individual (Fouad et al., 2006).
40 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
Failing to attend to important information related to client cultural perspectives
or experiences could lead to a mismatch in the goals you set for the counselling
process (Collins & Arthur, 2005a). If you sense that you are off track, take a mo-
ment to ponder, “Whose agenda is driving the counselling process and how might
I ensure that the goals we have established are not being biased by my own beliefs
or values about healthy functioning and about success in counselling?”
Core Competency 3: Collaborate with clients to establish client and counsellor tasks
that are responsive to salient dimensions of cultural identity. Once you have come to
agreement on goals, the next step is to work with the client to establish appropri-
ate and culturally sensitive interventions, strategies, and techniques to accomplish
those goals (Collins & Arthur, 2005a). Depending on the nature of the presenting
concern and the salience of cultural factors to the goals of counselling, you may
need to draw on a wider range of counselling interventions and resources, including
indigenous or group-specifi c strategies or cultural healers (Coleman & Wampold,
2003). This may require you to engage in further training to ensure that you have a
broad set of skills and strategies that can be adapted to work with the types of clients
that you commonly encounter in your practice. A common theme is counsellor
exibility and adaptability, along with a willingness to engage with the client as a
co-contributor to all aspects of the counselling process.
In this particular model, what is traditionally viewed as client resistance must
be reframed as a mismatch between the client and the counsellor in terms of the
goals or tasks of counselling (Collins & Arthur, 2005a). This puts the responsibility
on you as the counsellor to be continuously monitoring client responses to ensure
that the counselling processes fi t with their worldview, values, and beliefs. It is well
recognized that many Western counselling approaches are based on assumptions
that are culture-bound and ethnocentric (Sue, Ivey, & Pedersen, 1996). To use
these approaches with clients from diverse cultural backgrounds, you must take
the additional step of examining those assumptions and ensuring that a match
can be established with the client’s worldview or adapting the approaches to be
more culturally responsive. While this certainly presents a challenge compared to
manualized approaches to therapy, it is more ethical responsible and will bring
about greater rewards in terms of client satisfaction and success.
You may also be required to step outside of your traditional counselling roles to
act as teacher, advocate, organizational consultant, social activist, and other roles
designed to impact the systems of oppression that precipitate client distress and ill
health. Ask yourself, “What type of professional roles might I assume to be opti-
mally effective in bringing about change in this clients current experiences?” This
particular challenge is one that faces the profession as a whole. We believe that it
is time to move beyond the feminist call for the person is political to a recognition
of the professional is political (Collins & Arthur, 2005c). Many traditional Western
counselling practices simply maintain the status quo and, in so doing, contrib-
ute directly or indirectly to the continued oppression of non-dominant groups
in Canada. Many writers are now advocating for social justice to become a more
central focus in counselling and psychology (Fouad et al., 2006). While not every
counsellor will become a social activist, every counsellor could benefi t from add-
ing social justice activities to their repertoire of skills and strategies, even in small
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 41
ways. It may be as direct as initiating change in organizational policies that appear
to discriminate, or at least present barriers to access, for particular populations.
defining multicultural competence
The majority of this article has focused on describing some of the core compe-
tencies that counsellors may require to work effectively with clients from culturally
diverse backgrounds. There is more to multicultural competence, however, than
adding a series of competencies to your existing repertoire of counsellor attitudes
and beliefs, knowledge, and skills. As Fowers and Davidov (2006) point out, mul-
ticultural competence is closely tied to the character of the counsellor:
[C]ultural competence is not simply the possession of self-knowledge, information about culture,
and behavioral capacities that may or may not alter the psychologist as a person. Rather, one
must internalize and embody this knowledge in a profound way, making it part of one’s character,
not just an addition to ones behavioral repertoire. (Openness to the Other, ¶ 6)
In another article (Collins et al., 2006), we explore the importance of bringing to
the forefront the person of the counsellor through the process of refl ective practice.
The questions for refl ection throughout this article are intended to prompt such
transformative exploration.
The emphasis on the person or character of the counsellor highlights the con-
nection between intention and actions (Fowers & Davidov, 2006). To be able to
effectively and ethically translate your learning into application with each of your
clients, two additional qualities are required—judgement and diligence. Drawing
on the defi nition of competence by the College of Alberta Psychologists (2003), we
suggest that culture-infused counselling competence involves
judgement (ability to assess when to apply particular knowledge or skills—e.g., with which cli-
ent, under which circumstances, focused on which particular presenting concern) and diligence
(consistent self -refl ection and attention to both ones own level of multicultural competence and
the appropriate application of the multicultural competencies in all areas of practice). (Collins
& Arthur, 2005b, p. 48)
These are processes that you are already expected to apply on a daily basis in your
counselling to ensure that you maintain high standards of ethical practice. They
are even more important as you begin to both acknowledge the diversity of your
clientele and practice in a culturally sensitive way.
building multicultural competence
At this point, you may be in complete agreement with the need to enhance
your competencies in some or all of the areas noted above but may be asking the
question we commonly hear from students and colleagues: “How do I actually
go about gaining these culture-infused counselling competencies?” One of the
major criticisms of the multicultural counselling competency literature is the lack
of information about how to move from identifi cation of professional develop-
ment goals to attainment of multicultural counselling competence (Mollen et al.,
2003). We have reviewed the strategies and techniques noted in the literature to
date (Alvarez & Miville, 2003; Ancis, 1998; Arredondo et al., 1996; Pope-Davis,
Breaux, & Liu, 1997; Vazquez & Garcia-Vazquez, 2003) and added some ideas
of our own to provide a starting place for Canadian counsellors to enhance their
42 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
multicultural counselling competence. Table 2 outlines these strategies as they
relate to each of the core competencies discussed in this article. We welcome any
additional ideas that you may add to this list and challenge each of you to select
even one or two of these strategies and see what impact it has on your awareness
of culture (both in yourself and in others) and your sensitivity to culture as you
build effective working alliances with your clients.
The strategies outlined in Table 2 are intended to provide a starting point for
increasing your multicultural competence. They may also be used for planning
professional development training or as activities incorporated into graduate
education programs.
Table 2
Strategies for Developing Cultural Competence
Cultural awareness—Self: Demonstrate awareness of your own cultural identities.
Create a personal cultural genogram (family tree).
Include generation perceptions toward members of diverse cultural groups, including issues of
gender and sexual orientation.
Note messages received about the dimensions of your personal cultural identity from members of
your family.
Interview extended family members for insights into your cultural heritage.
Identify factors infl uencing your cultural heritage and conduct further research into the history
of ancestral ethnic and other cultural affi liations.
Develop a model of your cultural identity or identities, drawing on personal, cultural, and contex-
tual dimensions.
Introduce yourself to individuals or groups according to salient dimensions of personal culture.
Create a developmental timeline of your experiences from childhood through to adulthood, high-
lighting signifi cant events that have impacted your worldview, values, and assumptions.
Analyze your level of cultural identity development (bearing in mind that you may have different
levels and processes of identity development across ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation).
Write your personal cultural story, highlighting socialization and contextual infl uences.
Cultural awareness—Self: Demonstrate awareness of differences between your own cultural identities
and those of individuals from other dominant or non-dominant groups.
Research a cultural group in the community where you grew up or where you now live.
Write a fi ctitious letter to a cultural group in your community outlining your opinions of the
group, your perceptions of its strengths, and your concerns about the group.
Immerse yourself in an environment in which you are the only person who is non-white, non-
female, able-bodied, heterosexual, or other applicable cultural dimension.
Record your experiences and debrief them with a trusted colleague or supervisor.
Write a fi ctional narrative or create a piece of art or music designed to express your understanding of the
experience of racism, sexism, heterosexism, ageism, ableism, and other forms of cultural oppression.
Cultural awareness—Self: Demonstrate awareness of the impact of culture on the theory and practice
of counselling/psychology.
Describe the values and assumptions underlying the theories you personally use in counselling.
Critically evaluate a theory based upon its cultural assumptions and implications for counselling
practice.
Prepare a written statement for distribution to clients about the theories that inform your work.
Read theoretical and applied practice books and articles written from other cultural perspectives.
Access resources that describe feminist and gay-affi rmative counselling.
Interview counsellors and other healers who adopt a non-Western or non-traditional theoretical
perspective.
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 43
Cultural awareness—Self: Demonstrate awareness of the personal and professional impact of the
discrepancy between dominant and non-dominant cultural groups in North America.
Analyze newspapers, magazines, TV commercials, and other popular media sources for incidents of
racism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, ageism, or elitism.
Conduct a cultural audit of services and resources available in your community to assess for barriers
to access for members of non-dominant populations.
Create a list of the privileges you have experienced throughout your life by virtue of your cultural
identity (identities).
Discuss the emotional reactions that you have to this list with a colleague or supervisor.
Identify one or two areas in your personal and professional life where you can take an active stance
against racism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, ageism, or elitism.
Develop an action plan, implement that plan, and refl ect on both your personal reactions and
the outcomes of your actions.
Cultural awareness—Self: Demonstrate awareness of your level of multicultural competence.
Journal about your experiences with counselling clients, noting highlights, successes, and areas for
future learning.
Develop a plan for continued competency development, specifying attitude, knowledge, and skill
targets, strategies for increasing competence in those areas, and outcomes evaluation criteria.
Develop a multicultural competence portfolio to track your progress.
Work with a mentor who is culturally similar to yourself and who can serve as a model and source
of feedback for multicultural competence.
Engage in multicultural supervision.
Incorporate cultural auditing in work with all clients.
Debrief regularly with colleagues to share your learning with clients.
Cultural awareness—Other: Demonstrate awareness of the cultural identities of your clients.
Become actively involved with individuals from non-dominant groups outside the counselling set-
ting (e.g., community events, social and political functions, celebrations, friendships).
Find opportunities to interact with individuals and groups in healthy contexts to gain a balanced
perspective.
Consult with cultural guides from within non-dominant populations.
Enroll in a cultural anthropology, ethnic studies, human sexuality, rehabilitation, or gender studies
course.
Read newspapers, magazines, or novels specifi c to particular non-dominant populations.
Participate in cultural fi lm festivals or rent culture-specifi c or international fi lms.
Access information about various cultural groups via the Internet, paying particular attention to
websites generated by rather than simply about various non-dominant populations.
Advocate for training opportunities through professional associations, educational institutions, and
other organizations.
Organize a workshop or session at a conference for discussions about multicultural counselling.
Cultural awareness—Other: Demonstrate awareness of the relationship of personal culture to health
and well-being.
Analyze characters in fi lm or literature according to some of the key concepts related to cultural
identity development, cross-cultural transition, culture shock, acculturation, assimilation, or
bicultural identity.
Apply this analysis to members of both dominant and non-dominant groups.
Assess your personal reactions to each character in terms of your cultural identity development.
Compare your observations with others who have done a similar assessment.
Videotape your sessions with clients and then analyze the tapes for examples of cultural blindness
and cultural consciousness.
Invite feedback from others on your attention to salient cultural factors.
Obtain training videos for counsellors and conduct a similar analysis.
Select a client who presents with multiple cultural identities and develop a diagram to conceptual-
ize the intersection and interplay of these factors.
44 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
Interview members of non-dominant groups on their views of healthy human development and
functioning.
Note the relationship of culture to health.
Identify differences in worldview and the impact those might have on how they approach change.
Cultural awareness—Other: Demonstrate awareness of the socio-political infl uences that impinge on
the lives of non-dominant populations.
Research provincial and federal legislation that affects the client groups you commonly encounter.
Talk to your municipal, provincial, or federal government representatives about their views on
cultural diversity and their political platform in this regard.
Join a social or political organization to fi ght for the rights of non-dominant populations in Canada.
Visit a school, health centre, or community group in an impoverished area of your town or city.
Volunteer to participate in an event in the school or community aimed at improving social,
economic, or educational conditions. Take a follower rather than a leadership role.
Select one client population or counselling issue to devote professional time to for social advocacy.
Culturally sensitive working alliance: Establish trusting and respectful relationships with clients that
take into account cultural identities.
Work with a cultural mentor from a non-dominant group and solicit feedback on your attitudes,
knowledge, and skills.
Engage in counselling services as a client and actively seek out a counsellor with a different ethnic
background, sexual orientation, gender, age, or other cultural identity variables.
Track your experiences as a client, noting the counsellor attitudes, behaviours, and skills that are
helpful to your personal growth.
Participate in other forms of culture-specifi c healing processes or practices to gain experience from
the perspective of the client.
Initiate case conferences and discussions in peer supervision about cultural infl uences on the work-
ing alliance.
Videotape a client session and solicit feedback from your cultural guide/supervisor on verbal and
nonverbal behaviours.
Solicit direct feedback about your credibility, ability to communicate empathy, empowerment of
others, and other issues of communication and counselling style from clients who are similar and
dissimilar to you in cultural background.
This may be done informally as part of debriefi ng individual sessions or as part of an exit inter-
view or questionnaire with clients who are terminating counselling.
This may also be done informally as part of a consultation session with leaders of community
groups in learning how to increase your professional credibility and work effectively.
Conduct an environmental and organizational cultural audit to assess the monocultural, ethnocen-
tric messages communicated through offi ce décor, marketing or intake materials, service norms,
and other contextual factors.
Learn another language common to your client populations.
Research service provision patterns in local organizations to identify barriers to access for non-
dominant populations.
Conduct surveys or interviews with clients and potential clients to assess facilitators and barriers
to service provision.
Visit community agencies to learn more about client needs and potential sources of resources and
referral.
Culturally sensitive working alliance: Collaborate with clients to establish counselling goals that are
responsive to salient dimensions of cultural identity.
Use role plays and simulated counselling interviews to obtain feedback on your ability to match
counselling goals and processes to clients’ worldview and needs.
Engage a colleague from another cultural group or a cultural guide to play the role of the client
and to exaggerate points of cultural difference to enhance your learning.
Transcribe the interview to further analyze your areas of strength and weakness.
Read case studies developed by practitioners from or working with non-dominant populations to
explore differences in case conceptualization.
Enhancing Multicultural Counselling Competence 45
Request information during professional training sessions or from marketing representatives about
the cultural relevance of assessment tools and procedures.
Conduct a cultural audit of your personal or agency assessment policies and procedures to iden-
tify cultural limitations.
Attend various religious or spiritual ceremonies and rituals to expand your understanding of the
impact of cultural belief systems on conceptualization of problems and change processes.
Present case studies to colleagues and supervisors with a view to expanding your perspectives on the
multiple and often systemic factors impacting clients from non-dominant groups.
Seek out opportunities for consultation with members of other professional groups who may also
be involved in client care.
Culturally sensitive working alliance: Collaborate with clients to establish client and counsellor tasks
that are responsive to salient dimensions of cultural identity.
Seek out professional training in the use of non-Western, indigenous healing practices or interven-
tions designed to work effectively with other non-dominant populations.
Provide opportunities for client feedback related to intervention strategies and outcomes of the
counselling process, specifi cally addressing issues related to the fi t with client worldview.
Engage in gender role analysis and power analysis of your work with clients.
Meet with organizations servicing non-dominant groups to see how to support and learn from their
services.
Create a resource and referral bank for your personal work with clients or for your organization
as a whole.
Advocate for multicultural training within your organization.
Start an advisory group aimed at promoting multicultural competence at the organizational level.
Seek out training to support the adoption of other roles—consultation, advocacy, education,
facilitator of indigenous healing processes—as culturally appropriate.
Engage in social advocacy at multiple levels, including:
helping clients advocate for their circumstances,
advocating directly on behalf of a client in a specifi c context,
advocating on behalf of a group of clients,
advocating to change situations that impact clients with common issues, and
advocating for broader social change.
Travel to other parts of the world to meet with practitioners and lay healers.
Request opportunities to directly observe their work with clients.
Actively recruit colleagues, students, and paraprofessionals from non-dominant cultural groups to
work with on a daily basis.
Seek out volunteer, practicum, internship, or continued professional development opportunities
that allow you to work directly with clients from cultural backgrounds different from your own.
Engage in a continuous process of cultural auditing at all levels and in all areas of professional
practice.
conclusion
Canada has strong policies on multiculturalism and we pride ourselves on our
acceptance of diversity and our welcoming of difference. However, this does not
mean that we have arrived. There are still many ways in which non-dominant
populations in Canada are underserved, underprivileged, underresourced, and
underappreciated. As Canadian counsellors, we have a responsibility to contribute
to the well-being of all members of society, which means becoming competent in
working across various cultural differences. This article has provided some starting
points for Canadian counsellors to increase their multicultural counselling compe-
tence. While this may at fi rst appear overwhelming, Parham (2001) provides the
following invitation: “Rather than attempt to be 100% better on 50 elements of
multicultural competence, try being 5% better on 1 element” (p. 881).
46 Sandra Collins and Nancy Arthur
We hope that this article prompts continued research in the area of multicultural
counselling competence. The lack of empirical validation of the traditional framework
of multicultural competencies is commonly noted (Atkin son & Israel, 2003; D’Andrea,
Daniels, & Noonan, 2003; Reynolds & Pope, 2003). It will be important to assess
the external validity of the model proposed here. There are also diverse perspectives
in the literature about the mechanisms for increasing multicultural competence that
warrant further study. We have suggested that without careful attention to the person
of the counsellor and the application of judgement and diligence, changes in attitudes,
knowledge, and skills may not translate into increased competence. Exploration of other
facilitators and barriers to developing and maintaining competence would increase
our understanding of how to translate accumulation of specifi c competencies into
competent practice. For example, research needs to better account for the teaching and
learning processes that support competency development. Now that we have identifi ed
what competencies, it is important to emphasize how they are developed. Although
there is an accumulating body of literature involving student perspectives, the call for
continuing professional education for multicultural competence has not been matched
by research efforts (Parham & Whitten, 2003).
The development of competence involves a process of life-long learning. As each
of us increases our multicultural competence, we become a force for change at the
professional level. As a professional group we are then in a position to effect change in
the broader social, economic, and political systems that ultimately bring about client
distress and present challenges to their emotional and psychological well-being. If each
of us takes a few small steps in this direction, we may as a whole have a dramatic
impact on the attainment and maintenance of well-being for all Canadians.
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About the Authors
Sandra Collins is an associate professor and Director of Graduate Education in Applied Psychology
at Athabasca University. She has recently co-edited the book Culture-infused counselling: Celebrating
the Canadian Mosaic with Dr. Nancy Arthur. Her research focuses on the impact of culture,
including gender and sexual orientation, on counselling practice.
Nancy Arthur is a professor in the Division of Applied Psychology, Faculty of Education at the
University of Calgary, appointed as a Canada Research Chair in Professional Education. She focuses
on career development, multicultural counselling, and social justice. In addition to co-editing
Culture-infused Counselling, she has written the book Counseling International Students.
Address correspondence to Sandra Collins, 917 Drury Ave NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 0M3, e-mail
<sandrac@athabascau.ca>.
... Psychosocial factors, organizational culture, and work for organizations have been gaining attention in recent years. Organizations have developed criteria that include these areas to ensure the psychological well-being of professionals (Kasser & Ryan, 1993;Fong, 2020;Collins & Arthur, 2007;Delsignore et al., 2010;Pedersen, 1990;Manchanda, 2012). ...
... The literature in the field has increasingly argued for the importance of considering a broader definition of culture that takes into account diversity issues such as gender, race, ethnicity, linguistic heritage, sexual orientation, and age (Daya, 2001;Pedersen, 1990). By including social-cultural and contextual factors and identity factors, they proposed a more multi-dimensional approach to understanding one's cultural identity (Collins & Arthur, 2007;Collins & Arthur, 2010;Daya, 2001 (Delsignore et al., 2010;Luthans et al., 2006;OECD, 2020). Like many of such research literature in this area, while the study provided insights into the importance of Counsellor's self-awareness to multicultural competency. ...
... In the last few decades, Muslim communities across the globe have undergone numerous social and economic challenges, including but not limited to Muslim minorities and immigrant Muslims. In order to serve this fast-growing need, developing multicultural counseling competence is imperative for effective and ethical professional practice (Collins & Arthur, 2007). ...
... 1. Specific racial/cultural group perspectives, 2. Components of cultural competence, and 3. Foci of cultural competence Collins and Arthur (2007) have also developed a similar framework that emphasizes a cultural-infused working alliance; their framework consists of further core competencies to be developed as part of each of the three main domains. The domains in this model are: ...
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The chapter highlights the importance of ethics and ethical codes in the light of the existing literature. It explains the various ethical dilemmas that can arise in the context of therapy. Moreover, it specifically explains the various ethical dilemmas experienced by Muslim psychologists with case examples to strengthen the argument. The worldview of the Muslim therapist is emphasized and the religious sensitivity in the outlook explained. The importance of professionals to safeguard their religious identity and also uphold the ethical precepts of the profession are discussed. The chapter also addresses difficulties and challenges faced by non-Muslim therapists while dealing with Muslim clients. The concept of cultural competence perspective is further highlighted stressing on the continuous self-reflection and educating oneself. The chapter concludes by stressing on the importance of incorporating knowledge of both religion and psychology for furthering the scope and vision of therapy.
... Counselors should provide comfort in building interpersonal relationships with clients (Brodley, 2013;Lemoire & Chen, 2005;Poyrazli, 2003;Wickman & Campbell, 2003). Collins & Arthur (2007) state that counselors need to develop attitudes, knowledge, and skills for competent and ethical practice. Counselors need to instill cultural values into the counseling process. ...
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... Counselors should provide comfort in building interpersonal relationships with clients (Brodley, 2013;Lemoire & Chen, 2005;Poyrazli, 2003;Wickman & Campbell, 2003). Collins & Arthur (2007) state that counselors need to develop attitudes, knowledge, and skills for competent and ethical practice. Counselors need to instill cultural values into the counseling process. ...
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Semar is an Indonesian wayang figure, a servant to other wayang characters Pandawa. Semar's personality is shown as a good, wise and wise individual, so he is suitable to be used as a counselor's personality model. This qualitative study applied Gadamerian hermeneutics, an objective type of hermeneutic research. The primary data in this study were texts discussing Semar, namely “Apa dan Siapa Semar” by Sri Mulyono and “Semar Dunia Batin Orang Jawa” by Tuti Sumukti. The data were also collected through an interview with Indonesian wayang expert, Ki Manteb Sudarsono. This study found that Semar’s (1) advisor, (2) congruent, (3) honest, and (4) empathetic personalities could be used as a counselor’s personal model.
... Fakta yang didapatkan dilapangan, bahwa masih ada beberapa siswa yang menunjukkan karakter yang kurang produktif yaitu karakter yang gagal menggerakan individu pada kebebasan untuk berbuat hal-hal positif dan tidak memiliki kemampuan membangun realisasi diri (Feist, 2012). (Collins & Arthur, 2007) menyebutkan bahwa dalam melakukan layanan bimbingan konseling, konselor perlu menanamkan nilai budaya secara efektif kedalam semua aspek layanan bimbingan konseling. Dalam proses pelaksanaan focus group discussion ini mengikuti langkah-langkah konseling model KIPAS yang terdiri dari; kabar gembira, integrasi data, perencanaan tindakan, aktualisasi tindakan, dan selebrasi. ...
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div align="center"> Abstract: This a research constructs of the focus group discussion with moral values in Panton Aceh to develop a new technique based on local culture, namely the Panton Aceh culture so that this a technique can be an effective and attractive to be used in the group counseling of setting service, so that guidance counseling teachers can helped to do group counseling services at the school. In the process of implementing focus group discussion technique containing Panton Aceh, following the model counseling steps KIPAS consisting of kabar gembira (good news), integrasi data, perencanaan kegiatan (plan of action), aktualiasi kegiatan (actualization of plan), and selebrasi (celebrtion). The focus of this research is how the description of moral values that can be taken in Panton Aceh and how the construction of moral values in Panton Aceh that can be adopted becomes the content of the focus group discussion technique to modify student character. The method used in this study is qualitative with the type of research Hemeneutika Gradamerian. The results of a research study, there are found that five moral values contained in Panton Aceh, namely humility, honesty, hard work, self control, and love to share. Next, the researcher constructs the implementation of focus group discussion techniques with moral values in the Panton Aceh. Abstrak: Penelitian ini mengonstruksikan teknik focus group discussion bermutan nilai moral dalam Panton Aceh untuk menggembangkan teknik baru yang berbasis budaya lokal yaitu budaya Panton Aceh supaya tenik ini dapat menjadi salah satu teknik yang efektif dan menarik untuk digunakan dalam setting layanan konseling kelompok, sehingga guru bimbingan konseling dapat terbantu untuk melakukan layanan konseling kelompok di sekolah. Dalam proses pelaksanaan teknik focus group discussion bermuatan Panton Aceh mengikuti langkah-langkah konseling model KIPAS yang terdiri dari kabar gembira, integrasi data, perencanaan kegiatan, aktualisasi kegiatan dan selebrasi. Fokus penelitian ini adalah bagaimanakah deskripsi nilai moral yang dapat diambil dalam Panton Aceh dan bagaimanakah konstruksi nilai moral dalam Panton Aceh yang dapat di adopsi menjadi isi teknik focus group discussion untuk memodifikasi karakter siswa. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian Hemeneutika Gradamerian. Hasil kajian penelitian, peneliti menemukan ada lima nilai moral yang terdapat dalam Panton Aceh yaitu rendah hati, kejujuran, kerja keras, kontrol diri, dan gemar berbagi. Selanjutnya peneliti mengkonstruksi pelaksanaan teknik focus group discussion bermuatan nilai moral dalam Panton Aceh. </div
... Menurut (Collins & Arthur, 2007) konselor harus menyadari warisan budaya mereka sendiri. Oleh karena itu, konselor harus mampu untuk memahami cakupan pandangan peserta didik terkait budayanya pada proses pelaksanaan konseling di sekolah. ...
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... All people have unique personal, political, and historical cultures (Arredondo et al., 1996;Collins & Arthur, 2007), and their nonverbal behaviors are affected by these various factors. In this regard, all process consultation is multicultural: When a group of people comes together, the interactions among the individuals result in an additional layer of uniqueness (Burgoon et al., 2016). ...
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The purpose of this study is to consider how process consultants can effectively manage challenges both within and across cultures. This study investigates the multidimensional aspects of process consultation for workgroups that consist of diverse individuals in postmodern organizations. A proposed conceptual framework is developed to include factors that are useful for process consultants to consider when working in multicultural contexts. The micro-multicultural framework integrates the cultural mosaic with Schein’s ORJI (Observation, Reaction, Judgment, and Intervention) cycle. The framework represents the multidimensional aspects of cultural identities and explores verbal and nonverbal communication patterns during process consultation. A checklist for micro-multicultural process consultation is also proposed to demonstrate how a process consultant can perform his or her primary role comprehensively while considering process consultation as group-level phenomena.
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Reflective practice is integral for developing counsellors to maintain self- awareness and to recognize influences upon one’s personal theory of counselling. In this exploratory narrative inquiry research, four doctoral level counselling psychologists participated to uncover “What are the personal stories of developing counsellors and in what ways are lived stories reflective of counsellors' personal theories of counselling?" The researcher employed a butterfly metaphor, and photographs to illustrate lived stories. Dawn, East, Crystal, Sean, and the researcher’s own lived stories elucidated personal counselling theories and approaches. The view that all theories are constructed portraits of theorists' lives is substantiated. A strong link between lived stories and preferred theories in counselling is demonstrated. Directions for future research are provided.
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Anti-oppressive social work must address equity and social justice issues across a wide range of social difference. Practitioners and theorists often struggle to negotiate the multiple forms of oppression that operate simultaneously in a given practice context. This paper attempts to engage with that challenge by building a rationale for anti-oppressive action in the mental health care system to be focused on anti-racist change. It demonstrates that an achievable goal for social work is to be able to articulate and substantiate claims that systemic oppression affects service delivery, and has particular consequences for specific populations.
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Social justice and counseling psychology in context Social justice may be defined as “the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society” (Webster's Dictionary, 2004). Related to the legal notion of equity for all within the law, social justice also connotes that the distribution of advantages be fair and equitable to all individuals, regardless of race, gender, ability status, sexual orientation, physical makeup, or religious creed. Social justice within the context of counseling psychology focuses on helping to ensure that opportunities and resources are distributed fairly and helping to ensure equity when resources are distributed unfairly or unequally. This includes actively working to change social institutions, political and economic systems, and governmental structures that perpetuate unfair practices, structures, and policies in terms of accessibility, resource distribution, and human rights. Social justice activities for counseling psychologists have included such actions as working to promote therapists' multicultural competence; working to combat racism, ...
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This article explores the moral sources that give multiculturalism the potency to move psychology to reassess itself. The power of the multicultural perspective appears to derive from its ability to show how psychology's tendency toward monocultural universalism has undermined its aims as a science of human behavior and a promoter of human welfare. The multicultural critique also draws on Euro-American moral traditions and ideals, such as individual rights, authenticity, respect, and tolerance. In spite of the importance of these ideals, multiculturalists often criticize Euro-American culture without acknowledging their debt to it. Moreover, these particularist moral sources undercut multiculturalism's universalist appeal. There is a paradoxical tendency among some advocates ofmulticulturalism to encourage cultural separatism and an inarticulateness in dealing with intercultural value conflict. We present some recommendations for dealing with these dilemmas from philosophical hermeneutics, including the contextualization of multiculturalism, an approach to sifting and evaluating cultural values, and an ontological account of the dialogical nature of humans.
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The adoption of the Competencies is indicative of ethical and culturally responsive practices. Historical marginalization based on ethnic, racial, cultural, and socioeconomic differences and scientific racism have adversely affected the mental health professions and clients deserving of services.A rationale for the adoption of the Competencies is articulated based on existing research and examples of application of the Competencies. Rebuttals are made to criticisms about the Competencies by Weinrach and Thomas (2002). Viewing the Competencies as a living document indicates their future evolution as a set of culturally universal and culturally relative guidelines for the mental health professions.
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Weinrach and Thomas (2002) have shown rather conclusively that the Competencies are irreparably flawed. The attempt to develop such a document was misguided in the first place. There is no need for such a document, and thus no purpose in attempting to remedy its flaws. In the present discussion, I consider the more general problems with multicultural counseling. In addition, I propose a general solution to the problems of counseling clients who are members of a wide variety of culturally distinct groups. The Competencies are lacking any philosophical or theoretical foundations and are based on two untenable assumptions.
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Outlines and challenges some prevalent myths and misunderstandings that have made it difficult to develop appropriate curricula and relevant counseling/therapy competencies for the different cultures in the US. Cross-cultural counseling/therapy is defined, and the adoption by the American Psychological Association of specific cross-cultural counseling and therapy competencies is recommended as a guideline for accreditation criteria. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)