Article

A recursive network architecture

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Abstract

1 The Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) explores the relationship of layering to protocol and network architecture. RNA examines the implications of using a single, tunable protocol for different layers of the protocol stack, reusing basic protocol operations across different protocol layers to avoid reimplementation. Its primary goal is to encourage cleaner cross-layer interaction and to support dynamic service composition, and to gain an understanding of how layering affects architecture. This document provides a preliminary description of RNA, its rationale, and discusses its features and challenges.

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... Although the clean-slate Internet architecture design has gained significant interest in the past years and many designs have been proposed [3,4,5] with increased flexibility, there are still hidden aspects of these architectures to be studied such as measurement, security and accountability to make these architectures a practical alternative to the current architecture. ...
... While some of these challenges are "patched" by short term solutions violating the architectural principles, the flexibility of the architecture is significantly reduced and growing concerns about the future of Internet led to thinking clean-slate approaches [10] such as Role-Based Architecture [3] proposing a non-layered approach with the idea of fine-grained roles organized in a non-ordered way, allowing packet headers as "heaps". The X-kernel [11] design is a reference by new architectures [4,5] due to its focus on the integration of modular messaging into the OS, where a protocol is an object using service interfaces between protocols. Using the popular object oriented modeling, Service-oriented Architecture [5] utilizes predefined and atomic functional blocks (FB), (such as CRC (Checksum Redundancy Code)) and enables run-time protocol instantiation while focusing on the relationships between different parts of the today's protocols. ...
... Using the popular object oriented modeling, Service-oriented Architecture [5] utilizes predefined and atomic functional blocks (FB), (such as CRC (Checksum Redundancy Code)) and enables run-time protocol instantiation while focusing on the relationships between different parts of the today's protocols. Another example is Recursive Network Architecture [4] addressing the challenges by providing a single, flexible architecture based on the reuse of a "meta-protocol", a protocol instance and the building block for layers, over different layers, stating that services should not belong to specific layers and should prevent repeating the same functionality. Another architecture following a different approach is GINA (Generalized Inter-Networking Architecture) [9] trying to solve the challenges by introducing concepts of objects, realms and zones with a focus on mobility and security. ...
Article
Full-text available
Future Internet architectural design has attracted much research attention recently, and many novel architectural ideas have been suggested. The software and hardware realization of these architectural vision is a complex task in itself, and is worthy of research attention. In this paper, we examine a recently proposed integration of a measurement architecture in our previously described SILO architecture, and examine alternatives in realizing this integration. We demonstrate, by actual implementation and quantitative investigation, the importance of considering realization in architectural research by showing that there are unexpected factors affecting the performance of these realizations, resulting in unintended consequences, and we identify the better alternative.
... Supporting arbitrary pairwise communication thus requires some sort of forwarding as well (Fig. 3). RNA demonstrated that forwarding is equivalent to tail recursion [56]. ...
... Finally, the desire to vary the association of groups dynamically itself leads to recursion, because each group can easily be considered a recursive component of the larger set, as a virtual subset (Fig. 4) [15] [56]. Such recursive virtualization was explored in the X-Bone [53], and is currently a fundamental part of several emerging extensions to the Internet, including Rbridges (TRILL in the IETF [60]) and LISP (in the IETF [21]). ...
... The DRUID architecture is based on the idea that all protocols can be expressed as varying recursive instances of a single, universal recursive block of code and data, a combined perspective of the metaprotocol (MP) of USC/ISI's Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) [56] [58] [65] and the distributed IPC facility (DIF) of Boston University's (BU) Recursive InterNet Architecture (RINA) [15] [16] [44] (Fig. 5). Example code for RNA's version of this block is also shown in Fig. 5. ...
Article
The Dynamic Recursive Unified Internet Design (DRUID) is a future Internet design that unifies overlay networks with conventional layered network architectures. DRUID is based on the fundamental concept of recursion, enabling a simple and direct network architecture that unifies the data, control, management, and security aspects of the current Internet, leading to a more trustworthy network. DRUID’s architecture is based on a single recursive block that can adapt to support a variety of communication functions, including parameterized mechanisms for hard/soft state, flow and congestion control, sequence control, fragmentation and reassembly, compression, encryption, and error recovery. This recursion is guided by the structure of a graph of translation tables that help compartmentalize the scope of various functions and identifier spaces, while relating these spaces for resource discovery, resolution, and routing. The graph also organizes persistent state that coordinates behavior between individual data events (e.g., coordinating packets as a connection), among different associations (e.g., between connections), as well as helping optimize the recursive discovery process through caching, and supporting prefetching and distributed pre-coordination. This paper describes the DRUID architecture composed of these three parts (recursive block, translation tables, persistent state), and highlights its goals and benefits, including unifying the data, control, management, and security planes currently considered orthogonal aspects of network architecture.
... However, it can be altered in such ways that it becomes easier to address. For example, RNA [144] is an approach to dealing with fundamental uncertainty associated with the deployment environment associated with a given protocol. By deferring protocol design decisions to runtime, the problem is shifted to the time and place where there is more information to determine the right design point. ...
... Gaps however are created due information and functional gaps between the protocols being composed. Choices [149] and RNA [144] aim to bridge the gaps through introduction of mechanisms at the intersection of protocols. Alternatives to layering such as RBA [26] have been proposed as well. ...
... Choices's [149] flexible stacks realize the selection and resolution functions of MDCM. Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) [144] builds flexible stacks from a single generalized protocol, called metaprotocol, that can be instantiated at every layer and customized at runtime. ...
Article
Protocol names such as IP address change over time, and such changes result in disruption of communication. This disruption is acceptable in most circumstances, but not all. In case of latter, additional approaches are required to deal with the fundamental problem associated with the disruption - uncertainty of scope, nature and timing of the impact. This paper suggests an architectural mechanism, called space-time contexts, to deal with this uncertainty. Space-time contexts allow conflicting distributions of names to co-exist, which enables an alternative model of change. The paper also describes the design issues associated with contexts and our current implementation.
... RNA [54] is another FIND proposal based on recursive composition of a single configurable protocol structure. RNA avoids recapitulation of implementation as well as encouraging a cleaner cross-layer interaction, since the use of a single meta-protocol module facilitates the inter-protocol interactions at different layers. ...
... They propose "rejuvenating the layering concept" by relaxing the traditional rigid boundaries and strict ordering among layers and allowing any set of services to be selected dynamically for a particular task. While in [54] the protocol layering is still the basic design but it provides freedom in protocol organization to create dynamic custombuild stacks. Although considered clean-slate architectures, we argue that by adhering to layered stacks as the underlying model, both proposals might suffer form shortcomings attributed to the Internet model. ...
... Some proposals seek to create services not only at the application level (for example, SOA4All [6]) but also at lower levels (network). Such relevant projects as 4WARD [7], RNA [8], SILO [9], RINA [10], and SONATE [11] composed functions that offer specific in-network operations. Although the projects defined the functions similarly, they referred to the functions using different terminology, that is, functionalities, services, protocol mechanisms, or building blocks. ...
... The whole development requires 1.5 MB of total memory space and 229 KB of RAM, which is very low for the core architecture and allows us to run it in very small devices (for example, sensors). In this testbed (Fig. 4), a total number of 13 nodes are used (1 RN,4 ESN,8 IN). All of them are Intel Pentium 4 540 (32 GHz, 1,024 KB L2 Cache) with 512 MB of RAM and the 32-bit OS Ubuntu 11.04. ...
... Besides that, it is also possible to implement existing approaches, like e. g. RNA [5] and SILO [6] as Netlets. ...
... While composition approaches in the past were mostly looking at dynamic composition at run-time with all its complexity, recent research shifted towards more structured approaches where the solution space is restrained and part of the decision process is done offline, either at design-time or at network configuration time. Examples for such approaches are F-CSS [7], RNA [5], SILO [6], and x-Kernel [8]. Another approach (RBA [9]) proposes a unified protocol header allowing that stored information can be used by several units of functionality, regardless on their order of operation or the layer they appear in. ...
Article
Full-text available
One possible key technology for the future Internet is network virtualization. It allows to run numerous virtual networks in parallel, each of which can be adapted towards different requirements, intended use, or applications used. When consequently using network virtualization, it allows not only to have very specialized networks but also allows to run new protocols and services in different networks. This can give opportunities for rapid service deployment, especially for services based on new protocols. Currently a lot of research is concerned with network virtualization or related aspects like management or signaling of network virtualization. This paper however is different, since it looks on network virtualization from another angle. We describe our Node Architecture for the Future Internet, which uses network virtualization as a fundamental concept. It has the goal to give users access to a vast number of virtual networks and exploit the possibilities of network virtualization.
... These approaches concentrate more on how the protocol stack at the edges can be designed and composed. Under the Future Internet flag (GENI, FIRE) newer projects aim at a broader scope, where also services within the network should be considered and where the deployment in experimental facilities is envisioned: 4WARD [7][8] ANA [9] AutoI [10] Network Service Architecture [11][12] Net-Silo [13] RBA [14] RNA [15] Self-Net [16] TinyXXL [17], NetServ [18] and SONATE [19]. Instead of presenting all contributions one by one we first want to explain the concepts, approaches and design issues of the projects and later on give a short introduction to some projects and papers. ...
... RNA The Recursive Network Architecture [15] uses a different approach by introducing a meta-layer which is a generic protocol layer offering basic services. Each protocol layer stack will then be instantiated from this meta-layer with an arbitrary amount of necessary layers which provides flexibility to insert more functionality into the stack. ...
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Network Functional Composition is an approach for a flexible Internet architecture which decomposes the layered network stack in functional building blocks which can be loosely coupled. Functional Composition therefore enables a customized composition of functionality at the edges and in the network in respect to application specific requirements. Functional Composition is an architecture for a Future Internet which provides solutions for many of the challenges that have been identified in the Future Internet debate. Several early and current projects have addressed Functional Composition with different aspects, which have been reviewed here as part of a state-of-the-art analysis. This review shall give an overview about the different projects and categorizes the different approaches.
... Some proposals seek to create services not only at the application level (for example, SOA4All [6]) but also at lower levels (network). Such relevant projects as 4WARD [7], RNA [8], SILO [9], RINA [10], and SONATE [11] composed functions that offer specific in-network operations. Although the projects defined the functions similarly, they referred to the functions using different terminology, that is, functionalities, services, protocol mechanisms, or building blocks. ...
Article
The ongoing proliferation of new services, applications, and contents is leading the Internet to an architectural crisis owing to its inability to provide efficient solutions to new requirements. Clean-slate architectures for the future Internet offer a new approach to tackle current and future challenges. This proposal introduces a novel clean-slate architecture in which the TCP/IP protocol stack is decoupled in basic functionalities, that is, atomic services (ASs). A negotiation protocol, which enables context-aware service discovery for providing adapted communications, is also specified. Then, we present how ASs can be discovered and composed according to requesters’ requirements. In addition, a media service provisioning use case shows the benefits of our framework. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the framework is described and analyzed. This paper describes the first clean-slate architecture aligned with the work done within the ISO/IEC Future Network working group.
... Other work focused more on formal aspects, like [10], [11]. While in the past the flexibility of protocol composition was often considered in the context of high-speed transmission protocols, current work has shifted more generically towards the Future Internet [12]- [14]. ...
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(visible in the upper design time part of the image), and the (on-line) selection and operation at run time of components in the image's lower part. The life-cycle starts in the image's upper right with an elaborate abstract service model, i. e. a formal description of the service, and its properties. Using specific design tools, a design as well as an implementation of components reflecting the service can be created. This may be an iterative process as design decisions may not only lead to refinements of the service model but also to changes of the respective properties.
... Other approaches stick to the layering principles. The recursive networking architecture [18] applies a generic metaprotocol to all layers to make cross-layer interactions cleaner and to avoid multiple instantiation of the same functionality at different layers. The metaprotocol is configured according to the individual requirements of the respective layer. ...
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Current architectures and solutions are about to reach the limits of sustainable developments. Over the years, many new requirements have emerged, and there are observations pointing to an ever-increasing diversity in applications, services, devices, types of networks at the edge and the access. Meanwhile, the infrastructures for internetworking, connectivity, and also management remain fairly the same. A new paradigm is needed that can support a continuous high pace of innovations in all the different parts and aspects of a communication system, while at the same time keeping costs of deployment and maintenance down. This new paradigm has to embrace current trends towards increased heterogeneity, but on the other hands provide support for co-existence and interoperability between alternative and various solutions all residing within a global communication system. This paper presents a new architectural framework called the Nth Stratum concept, and which takes a holistic approach to tackle these new needs and requirements on a future communication system
... Most approaches concentrate on re-arranging the protocol interaction. However, protocol reconfiguration has also been looked into, for example, the Recursive Network Architecture [8] proposed for this purpose by Touch et al., which applies the same tunable meta-protocol on all stack layers. ...
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The stability and the predictability of a computer network algorithm's performance are as important as the main functional purpose of networking software. However, asserting or deriving such properties from the finite state machine implementations of protocols is hard and, except for singular cases like TCP, is not done today. In this paper, we propose to design and study run-time environments for networking protocols which inherently enforce desirable, predictable global dynamics. To this end we merge two complementary design approaches: (i) A design-time and bottom up approach that enables us to engineer algorithms based on an analyzable (reaction) flow model. (ii) A run-time and top-down approach based on an autonomous stack composition framework, which switches among implementation alternatives to find optimal operation configurations. We demonstrate the feasibility of our self-optimizing system in both simulations and real-world Internet setups.
... One such unified approach, known as the Recursive Network Architecture, was proposed by Touch et al. [79]. RNA presents an attractive blueprint for the design of the Quantum Internet, which Van Meter et al. named the Quantum Recursive Network Architecture (QRNA) [87]. ...
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Entangled quantum communication is advancing rapidly, with laboratory and metropolitan testbeds under development, but to date there is no unifying Quantum Internet architecture. We propose a Quantum Internet architecture centered around the Quantum Recursive Network Architecture (QRNA), using RuleSet-based connections established using a two-pass connection setup. Scalability and internetworking (for both technological and administrative boundaries) are achieved using recursion in naming and connection control. In the near term, this architecture will support end-to-end, two-party entanglement on minimal hardware, and it will extend smoothly to multi-party entanglement and the use of quantum error correction on advanced hardware in the future. For a network internal gateway protocol, we recommend (but do not require) qDijkstra with seconds per Bell pair as link cost for routing; the external gateway protocol is designed to build recursively. The strength of our architecture is shown by assessing extensibility and demonstrating how robust protocol operation can be confirmed using the RuleSet paradigm.
... Many researchers and projects have addressed the possibility to use this paradigm in the network domain such as RBA [2], RNA [3], and SILO [4]. A State of Art about the functional composition approaches is presented in [5]. ...
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The modularizing of the functionalities from a network stack and then to compose a desirable service on demand is relatively new in the network architecture however the modularizing is being practiced in the software engineering since few decades now. The composition of functionalities to achieve a desired result can be performed at various time-phases (e.g. run-time, design-time, deployment-time), but it is not clear which phase is the most suitable one in terms of performance, complexity and flexibility. It is most likely that a single approach will not be appropriate in every circumstance. In this paper, an intermediate approach so called template based composition is proposed to find a compromise between complexity and flexibility.
... Several approaches for a new network architecture have been introduced in the last years which aim on providing greater flexibility in the networks. Some of those are Role-Based Architecture (RBA) [9], Service Integration, con-troL and Optimization (SILO) [10], Recursive Network Architectures (RNA) [11], "Netlet-based Network Architecture" (NENA) [12] and "Service Oriented Node Architecture" (SONATE). ...
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The Internet can not keep up with changing application requirements and new network technologies as its network architecture makes it hard to introduce new functionality because existing functionalities in the Architecture are inherently tightly coupled. This article describes how the principles of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can help to develop more flexible network architecture. We argue that the SOA paradigm can be applied to networks by utilizing the concepts of self-contained building blocks, dynamic protocol graphs and selection and composition methods. In order to make use of flexible networks, applications must be decoupled from the protocols they use. We give a brief overview, of how some of these concepts are already implemented, by presenting few approaches. Finally we describe some challenges of service oriented network architecture.
... One of these clean-slate approaches is functional composition, which decomposes the network stack into functional building blocks and reorganizes the functionalities in a composition framework. Functional composition has been and still is in the focus of multiple projects and papers – ANA [6], RBA [5], 4WARD [1], AutoI [7], Self-Net [3], Net-Silo [10], TinyXXL [9], RNA [11], Network Service Architecture [8], and NetServ [2]. Functional composition facilitates the management and integration of new functionalities and also enables the dynamic composition of network functions based on the application requirements. ...
Article
Full-text available
Functional composition is an approach of a future Internet architecture that decomposes the network stack in functional blocks that can be dynamically composed upon connection request. This decomposition resembles the idea of web and telecommunication service in the SOA world. In this paper we will present an architecture to integrate functional blocks from different domains and describe different communication scenarios that demonstrate the advantages and flexibility of such an approach.
... The need for a more rigorous design framework has been recognized in many research efforts. For instance, work from Touch [9] and Day [21] introduces a scientific approach to the assembly of distributed systems while the field of network economics is increasingly introducing economic models into the network area [22]. Even processes observed in evolution theory are applied on the level of system design [23]. ...
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A fundamental disagreement in the Future Internet debate concerns architecture design and value. Should an architecture incorporate inherent values that have been widely accepted through societal debate or be adaptable once deployed to a wider range of stakeholder values put forward within an evolving societal context? This disagreement is reflected in many debates about the current and future Internet, such as over network neutrality. This article outlines the concrete viewpoints relating to this disagreement and describes its impact on the wider context of architecture design.
... RINA applies this concept recursively, whereby the processes that make up a DIF can themselves act as application processes to request services from lower level DIFs. Recursion has been recently promoted in network architectures, but to the best of our knowledge, this has been limited to tentative proposals of repeated functions of existing layers, and how one may either reduce duplication or create a meta-function (e.g., error and flow control) that could be re-used in many layers, e.g., Touch et al [27]. Independently, we have pursued a general theory to identify patterns in network archi- tecture [5,6], which the RINA architecture embodies. ...
Article
As the Internet has evolved and grown, an increasing number of nodes (hosts or autonomous sys-tems) have become multihomed, i.e., a node is con-nected to more than one network. Mobility can be viewed as a special case of multihoming—as a node moves, it unsubscribes from one network and subscribes to an-other, which is akin to one interface becoming inac-tive and another active. The current Internet archi-tecture has been facing significant challenges in effec-tively dealing with multihoming (and consequently mo-bility), which has led to the emergence of several cus-tom point-solutions. The Recursive InterNetwork Ar-chitecture (RINA) was recently proposed as a clean-slate solution to the current problems of the Internet. In this paper, we present a specification of the process of ROuting in Recursive Architectures (RORA). We also perform an average-case cost analysis to compare the multihoming / mobility support of RINA, against that of other approaches such as LISP and Mobile-IP. Ex-tensive experimental results confirm the premise that the RINA architecture and its RORA routing approach are inherently better suited for supporting mobility and multihoming. Keywords Routing · mobility support · Multihoming · Loc/id split · recursive architecture · performance analysis · simulation.
... The latter two operate at arbitrary distance. They can be composed recursively [33] to build high-fidelity Bell pairs in a nested fashion across any nodes in a network, but doing so requests resources which depend critically on the route chosen in the network. The operations of these protocol stack elements are therefore the ones we vary in the present work. ...
Article
Full-text available
Quantum networks will support long-distance quantum key distribution (QKD) and distributed quantum computation, and are an active area of both experimental and theoretical research. Here, we present an analysis of topologically complex networks of quantum repeaters composed of heterogeneous links. Quantum networks have fundamental behavioral differences from classical networks; the delicacy of quantum states makes a practical path selection algorithm imperative, but classical notions of resource utilization are not directly applicable, rendering known path selection mechanisms inadequate. To adapt Dijkstra's algorithm for quantum repeater networks that generate entangled Bell pairs, we quantify the key differences and define a link cost metric, seconds per Bell pair of a particular fidelity, where a single Bell pair is the resource consumed to perform one quantum teleportation. Simulations that include both the physical interactions and the extensive classical messaging confirm that Dijkstra's algorithm works well in a quantum context. Simulating about three hundred heterogeneous paths, comparing our path cost and the total work along the path gives a coefficient of determination of 0.88 or better.
... The main motivation for RBA was to address the frequent layer violations that occur in the current Internet architecture, the unexpected feature interactions that emerge as a result [8], and to accommodate " middle boxes. " The second is the recursive network architecture (RNA) [29], [43] project, also funded by FIND. RNA introduces the concept of a " meta-protocol " which serves as a generic protocol layer. ...
Conference Paper
The design of the SILO network architecture of fine-grain services was based on three fundamental principles. First, SILO generalizes the concept of layering and decouples layers from services, making it possible to introduce easily new functionality and innovations into the architecture. Second, cross-layer interactions are explicitly supported by extending the definition of a service to include control interfaces that can be tuned externally so as to modify the behavior of the service. The third principle is ldquodesign for change:ldquo the architecture does not dictate the services to be implemented, but provides mechanisms to introduce new services and compose them to perform specific communication tasks. In this paper, we provide an update on the current status of the architecture and the prototype software implementation. We also introduce the concept of ldquosoftware defined opticsrdquo (SDO) to refer to the emerging intelligent and programmable optical layer. We then explain how the SILO architecture may enable the rapid adoption of SDO functionality as well as evolving optical switching models, in particular, optical burst switching (OBS).
... Most of these approaches either limit the communication to linear data processing or limit the functionality of building blocks by defining a fixed set of building block categories. Other approaches like RNA [16], Silo [5] and especially ANA [9] offer a more flexible building block interaction model but they can not provide a fully automatic composition. This is an important difference since automatic composition is not an additional feature of an architecture that can easily be added later, instead it heavily influences and in parts defines the architecture. ...
Conference Paper
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Today's Internet has a static architecture that makes introducing new functionality a complex and costly task, so the Internet can not keep pace with rising demands and new network capabilities. Therefore, evolvability and flexibility are the keys to a future Internet architecture. In this paper we propose a building block interaction model that can be used to build highly flexible and evolvable network architectures. The paper also explains how the interaction model can be used as a basis for automatic protocol selection and composition.
... An interesting new paradigm to allow the natural integration of virtualized network contexts implementing newer services is presented in the "Recursive Network Architecture(RNA)" proposed by Touch et al. [200,201]. RNA allows protocol instances to be dynamically created, bottom-up to implement a new networking context. It is argued that the present networking protocol stack is static although it operates in a dynamic environment wherein the protocol stack might need to change over time due to addition of new services and capabilities through newer protocols, different versions or implementations of existing protocols, etc. ...
Article
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Networking research funding agencies in USA, Europe, Japan, and other countries are encouraging research on revolutionary networking architectures that may or may not be bound by the restrictions of the current TCP/IP based Internet. We present a comprehensive survey of such research projects and activities. The topics covered include various testbeds for experimentations for new architectures, new security mechanisms, content delivery mechanisms, management and control frameworks, service architectures, and routing mechanisms. Delay/disruption tolerant networks which allow communications even when complete end-to-end path is not available are also discussed.
... Some of the projects that use the idea of composing functional blocks into protocol graphs are ANA [2], Silo [3], RNA [4], and SONATE [5]. While each of these projects uses different terms, the main ideas are similar. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Future Internet research activities try to increase the flexibility of the Internet. A well known approach in this area is to build protocol graphs by connecting functional blocks together. The protocol graph that should be used is the one most suitable to the application's requirements. This paper presents a Multistep Process Model to find the most suitable protocol graph. We evaluate our proposed method by conceptual review in combination with a defined evaluation scenario using loss reduction.
... The main motivation for RBA was to address the frequent layer violations that occur in the current Internet architecture, the unexpected feature interactions that emerge as a result [5], and to accommodate " middle boxes. " The second is the recursive network architecture (RNA) [28], [23] project, also funded by FIND. RNA introduces the concept of a " meta-protocol " which serves as a generic protocol layer. ...
Article
The architecture of the modern Internet encom- passes a large number of principles, concepts and assumptions, that have evolved over several decades. In this paper, we argue that while the current architecture houses an effective design, it is not itself effective in enabling evolution. To achieve the l atter goal, we introduce the SILO architecture, a meta-design framework within which the system design can change and evolve. We list some insights about architectural research that guided our work, and also state the goals we formulated for our architecture. We then describe that actual architecture itself, connecting it with relevant prior and current research work. We show how the promise of enabling change is validated by showing our recent work on supporting virtualization as well as cross-layer research in optics using SILO. We present an early case study on the usefulness of SILO in lowering the barrier to contribution and innovation in network protocols, and we conclude with a list of open research problems. I. TOWARD A NEW INTERNET ARCHITECTURE
... With 30 years of development, Internet itself got an unprecedented development and prosperity. However, new protocols involving core network layer or core network forwarding equipment (mainly refers to switches or routers) such as Differentiated services, IP Multicast, RBA [1], RNA [2], SILO [3], secure routing are suffering from the large-scale deployment embarrassment: ...
... Artificial neural networks are a common tool that have proven to be effective for signal processing. With the development of deep learning, modified neural network models have been proposed for time-varying signal analysis, including deep convolutional neural networks [9], deep autoencoder neural networks [10], deep recursive networks [11], deep recurrent networks, and Markov chains [12]. Deep recurrent networks have exhibited particularly good adaptability for the classification and analysis of time-varying signals [13] and they have successfully been applied to speech recognition [14], natural language processing [15], and document analysis [16]. ...
Article
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This study presents a modified recurrent neural network (RNN) model designed as a parallel computing structure for serial information processing. The result is a novel parallel recurrent neural network (P-RNN), proposed for application to time-varying signal classification. The network uses gated recurrent units (GRUs) for basic information processing and consists of a multi-channel time series signal input layer, parallel processing structure units, a signal feature fusion layer, and a softmax classifier. The P-RNN expands the existing RNN serial processing mode for multi-channel time-varying signals into parallel mode and realizes the embedding of multi-channel signal structure features. In these parallel processing units, the input signal for each channel corresponds to a GRU recurrent network. Feature extraction and attribute association of single-channel signals were performed to achieve parallel processing of all-channel signals. In the feature fusion layer, feature vectors from each channel signal were integrated to generate a comprehensive feature matrix. On this basis, the softmax function was used as a classifier for multi-channel signals. With this mechanism, the P-RNN model achieved independent feature extraction of single-channel signals, characteristic fusion of each channel signal, and signal classification based on an integrated feature matrix. This approach maintained characteristic combination relationships that improved serial modes for existing RNN multi-channel signal processing, reduced the loss of structural feature information, and improved the representation ability of combined feature in local time region and the efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the properties of the proposed P-RNN are analyzed and a comprehensive learning algorithm is developed. Seven disease classification types commonly diagnosed using 12-lead ECG signals were used to validate the technique experimentally. Results showed the computational efficiency improved by a factor of 11.519, compared with existing RNN serial processing times, producing a correct recognition rate of 95.976%. In particular, the resolution of signal samples with similar distribution characteristics improved significantly, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
... A recursive network architecture reuses single flexible protocol for the different layer of protocol stack to avoid recapitulation of implementation and dynamic composition of services. [5] Before we introduce recursive quantum network with cloud system it's essential to know why new network architecture like RNA is needed. Current classical internet architecture has been remodeled by adding different extension layer, protocol and facilities such as, SHIM6, HIP, SCTP, TLS, BEEP etc. [6] But in many cases these extensions affects the nature of conventional protocol stack and sometimes it repeats services which are available at existing layer. ...
Article
Cloud computing system is based on a vast network. They provide different services, transmit valuable data and store them in remote storage. Making the network security system stronger and faster is one of the greatest challenges to secure the cloud. Since recent trends are going on quantum technological research, there is a way to secure cloud system using quantum internet. However, recently developed recursive quantum repeater networkfor large-scale internetwith cloud system could bring revolutionary change in cloud computing services. Our paper's main view is to show recent progress of quantum internet and recursive quantum network. In addition, we will review a simple model to integrate quantum processor services in cloud with recursive quantum network architecture for reliable, secure and faster cloud computing services. Abstract-Cloud computing system is based on a vast network. They provide different services, transmit valuable data and store them in remote storage. Making thenetwork security system stronger and faster is one of the greatest challenges to secure the cloud. Since recent trends are going on quantum technological research, there is a way to secure cloud system using quantum internet.However, recently developed recursive quantum repeater networkfor large-scale internetwith cloud system could bring revolutionary change in cloud computing services. Our paper's main view is to show recent progress of quantum internet and recursive quantum network. In addition, we will review a simple model to integrate quantum processorservices in cloud with recursive quantum network architecture for reliable, secure and faster cloud computing services.
... There is a difference between methodical design at one end and desire of the community at the other end. This difference led to a design and development of a new framework in accordance with the need of society; as scientific approach forced to introduce economic models into the network (Day, 2008;Touch et al., 2006;Vaishnav, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Service oriented network architecture (SONATE) is one of the outcome of many architectures being explored to evolve as future network architecture. The architecture describes about the importance of flexibility to solve the short term as well as the long term requirements of the consumer (Manu et al., 2012; Rudra et al., 2011a). Flexibility is the solution for solving the architectural problems but raises many security problems. It is important to consider security must be considered as the integral part of design level rather than at the development stage of the architecture. This paper discusses various security requirements for the entities of the architecture and the importance of authentication.Apublic key based infrastructure (PKI) mechanism is proposed and discussed in detail.
... Some solutions do not rely on the current Internet architecture, e.g. [10,16,19], while others augment the TCP-IP layers, e.g. [26,33]. ...
Research
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Management is a vital component for delivering requested network services. The inability of the current Internet architecture to accommodate modern requirements has spurred attempts to provide novel network management solutions. Existing approaches often restrict the range of policies that can be employed to adapt to diverse network conditions. They are also tailored either to a specific set of (management) applications, or to the current Internet architecture, inheriting its shortcomings, for example adopting its incom- plete (static) addressing architecture or ad-hoc solutions that result in so-called “layer violations.” In this paper, we describe a novel management architec- ture developed from first principles to enable the specification of various policies. To this end, we identify common underlying mechanisms, based on the unifying principle that any management application consists of processes maintaining and sharing distributed states of information objects for the purpose of delivering a network service. This principle underlies our Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA), where the notion of a “layer” represents such state sharing among processes and such layers can be repeated over different scopes and stacked to provide more effective wide-area services. We present a management framework that enables application programmers to specify four types of policies for managing a layer, the network, the naming of services, and an application, and use our prototype implementation to demonstrate adaptation to changing communication and load requirements. --- BU-CS-TR 2013-014 http://www.cs.bu.edu/techreports/
... Significant efforts in this area already devoted to define, build and validate the future Internet all around the world are role-based architecture [17,18], service integration and control optimisation [18,19], Recursive Network Architecture [10,20,21] and Autonomic Network Architecture [22][23][24]. However, the aforementioned architectures are not suitable for the short-term and long-term demands, its security obligations related to information security, entities identity and so on. ...
... A recursive network architecture reuses single flexible protocol for the different layer of protocol stack to avoid recapitulation of implementation and dynamic composition of services. [5] Before we introduce recursive quantum network with cloud system it's essential to know why new network architecture like RNA is needed. Current classical internet architecture has been remodeled by adding different extension layer, protocol and facilities such as, SHIM6, HIP, SCTP, TLS, BEEP etc. [6] But in many cases these extensions affects the nature of conventional protocol stack and sometimes it repeats services which are available at existing layer. ...
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Cloud computing system is based on a vast network. They provide different services, transmit valuable data and store them in remote storage. Making the network security system stronger and faster is one of the greatest challenges to secure the cloud. Since recent trends are going on quantum technological research, there is a way to secure cloud system using quantum internet.However, recently developed recursive quantum repeater network for large-scale internet with cloud system could bring revolutionary change in cloud computing services. Our paper's main view is to show recent progress of quantum internet and recursive quantum network. In addition, we will review a simple model to integrate quantum processor services in cloud with recursive quantum network architecture for reliable, secure and faster cloud computing services.
... Some recently completed and ongoing projects are working on Network Functional Composition. Those projects are Automatic Network Architecture (ANA) [1], NetServ [25], Recursive InterNetwork Architecture (RINA) [5], eXpressive Internet Architecture (XIA) [3], Forwarding on Gates (FoG) [26], Net-Silo [24], 4WARD [27], Self-Net (Self-Management if Cognitive Future Internet Elements) [28] and the Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) [29]. Descriptions of some of the aforementioned projects has been comprised in a state-of-the-art paper [30]. ...
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As the number of future network architectural approaches in-creases, the possibility of offering many similar services with different qualities of service is increasing. Therefore, it will be required to select a suitable, or the best, service from the set of alternative services. This paper proposes a matching process and an adapted analytic hierarchy process to accom-plish this task. The matching process is used to determine if a service is suitable. When more than one suitable service is available, the adapted analytic hierarchy process is used to select the best service.
... Recursive network architectures constitute a very different, but no less fitting use case. These architectures-the Recursive Internetworking Architecture (RINA) [10], the Recursive Network Architecture (RNA) [11] and the RINA-based compositional architecture described in [12]-all assume that all layers have to carry out the the same basic functions (albeit possibly instantiated in different ways, depending on the environment), and that layers can be organized at will, in a way that is suitable for a specific network scenario. ...
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