Article

Cechin, S.Z., and M. Martins. Eficiência de armadilhas de queda (pitfall traps) em amostragens de anfíbios e répteis no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia

Revista Brasileira de Zoologia (Impact Factor: 0.54). 09/2000; 17(3). DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752000000300017

ABSTRACT

Effectiveness of pitfall traps for sampling amphibians and reptiles in Brazil. The etfectiveness 01' pittàll traps associated with drift fences to capture amphibians and reptiles in three field studies, in Rio Grande do Sul (extreme southern Brazil), São Paulo (São Paulo, southeastern Brazil), and Amazonas (Amazonas, northern Brazil) is described. At Santa Maria, a total of 2040 amphibians and reptiles were caught in 30 pitfalls (200 L, with drift fence) during 18 months ofstudy (capture efficiencies of 3.78 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall /month and 0.14 snake/pi-ttà ll/month). At Itirapina, São Paulo , 1262 amphibians and reptiles were obtained in 72 pittà ll s (100 L, with drift fence) during six l110nths (capture efficiencies of I 1,9 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month and 0,38 snake/pitfall/month). At Rio Pitinga, Amazonas, over 600 amphibians and reptiles were caught in 50 pittàlls (100-I 50 L, with drift fence) during three months (capture efticiencies ofca. 4.00 amphi bians and reptiles/pitfall/month and 0.87 snake/pittàll/month). Capture efficiencies of 1.25 to -3.92 amphibians and reptiles/pitfall/month were obtained in four other unpublished studies made by other authors in Brazi l, ali ofthem using 20-35 L traps, either with or without drift fences. Higher capture efficiencies for snakes were obtained in those studies in which larger containers (100-200 L) were used. The resuJts presented here indicate that pitfall traps are extremely useful to sall1 ple all1phibians and reptiles in Brazil, especially anurans and lizards. From these results, it is possible to preview the capture of 125 to 1200 all1phibians and reptiles with 100 pitfàlls during one 1l10nth, regardless ofthe size ofthe pitlàlls and sall1pling design ofthe trap arrays. The main advantages and disadvantages ofthc method and detai led guide lines on how to design, install , and use the traps is disc ussed. Armadilhas de interceptação e queda consistem de recipientes enterrados no solo (pitfalls) e interligados por cercas-guia (driftlences; CORN 1994). Quando um pequeno animal se depara com a cerca, geralmente a acompanha, até eventualmente cair no recipiente mais próximo. Estas armadilhas são amp lamente utilizadas para a amostragem de anfíbios, répteis e pequenos mamíferos (e.g. SEMLITSCH et aI. 1981; MENGAK & GUYNN 1987; WILLIAMS & BRAUN 1983). Uma das vantagens do método é a captu ra de animais que raramente são amostrados através dos métodos tradicionais que envo lvem procura visual (CAMPBELL & CHRISTMAN 1982).

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    • "We collected P. diplolister specimens by pitfall traps with drift fences and by hand, in a gallery forest near a temporary river during and after one of the few rains occurred in that year. Four sets of pitfalls traps were placed, each set is composed by 4 buckets (20 l) organized in a " Y " form (Cechin and Martins, 2000) with the central bucket connected to three buckets at extremities by a drift fence about 8 m in lenght and 50 cm in height. "
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    • "Small flightless arthropods and rodents are also not comparable in vagility and home range (Roshier et al., 2008; Alcock, 2013; Hillman et al., 2014). Furthermore, the size and presence of drift fences may also influence in the capturing probabilities (e.g., Cechin and Martins, 2000). As a result, we expect that in the near future this model could be improved adding more variables, both from drift fence morphology, and those from the environment and from target species natural history. "
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    ABSTRACT: Biodiversity inventories well acknowledge as key to conservation planning. One widely used method for sampling terrestrial fauna is traps with drift fences. Such drift fences, however, may be configured in several arrays, varying the height, length of the fence, space between conjugated traps (e.g., buckets or funnels), and it can be arranged in linear (I) or radial (Y) formats. Consequently, some criticism arose questioning which drift fence arrangement should be employed. Therefore, we made use of geometrical models to test the probability of capturing terrestrial tetrapods (as model organisms) using traps associated along with both I and Y drift fence arrays. With distances varying from 8 to 100 m from the fence, the capturing rate of the I format was in average 1.16 times higher than the Y format. Besides this, we also present data that may enable field ecologists to better decide the minimum distance between two traps with drift fences, ensuring accurate statistics. Correct decisions in ecological and management studies may prevent wastes and fundament efficient conservation policies.
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    • "Lizard species were sampled over 16 collection days in September 2011 (dry season), using three sampling methods: diurnal and nocturnal visual searches; interception and one meter deep pitfall traps (Cechin and Martins 2000; Ribeiro-Jr et al. 2008); and incidental collections (Sawaya et al. 2008). Diurnal and nocturnal visual searches consisted of a researcher walking slowly along the trails, looking for specimens. "
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