ArticlePDF Available

Abstract and Figures

The study consists of two parts. The first briefly highlights the research methods used in library and information science (LIS). It identifies model development as an effective research method for LIS research. It also reviews different aspects of models and their use in LIS research in Pakistan. The second part illustrates an example of a draft model entitled “PAK-NISEA” recently proposed for a PhD project. Related issues of the proposed model, i.e. rationale, objectives, research methodology, data collection process, important characteristics of PAK-NISEA, are also discussed.
No caption available
Content may be subject to copyright.
Libraries at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)
University of Nebraska - Lincoln Year 
Model Development as a Research Tool:
An Example of PAK-NISEA
Farzana ShafiqueKhalid Mahmood
Islamia University, Bahawalpur,
University of the Punjab,
This paper is posted at DigitalCommons@University of Nebraska - Lincoln.
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Library Philosophy and Practice 2010
ISSN 1522-0222
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA
Farzana Shafique
Department of Library & Information Science
The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Khalid Mahmood
Department of Library & Information Science
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
Research is an inquiry process that has clearly defined parameters and has as its aim the
discovery or creation of knowledge, or theory building; testing, confirmation, revision, refutation of
knowledge and theory; and/or investigation of problem for local decision making (Hernon, 1991). Leedy
and Ormrod (2001) put it as “the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in
order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested”.
Research provides theoretical foundations for any discipline and helps in its development.
Unfortunately, research in librarianship is still in its embryonic stage and lack a body of knowledge
(evidence based). Keeping this in view, Haddow (1997) stressed that if librarians fail to build a body of
knowledge, it will be difficult to develop this profession. The status of librarianship‟s intellectual base, the
degree of scholarship, must be regarded with some suspicion. Librarians should actively seek to address
these criticisms by adding their research to the growing body of knowledge. Similarly, Busha and Harter
(1980) have pointed out that if librarianship is to merit the in demand designation “science,” a significant
number of scholars and research workers must regularly apply scientific method to analyze relationships
among the problems which librarians are obligated to explore and which they are qualified to solve.
Moreover, the study of library science can attain recognition as a true science only when a general body
of theory is developed.
Research Methods Used in Librarianship
Koufogiannakis and Crumley (2006) have reviewed the current trends of research in librarianship
and found that there are several areas which contain more research than others. Consistently, topics in
information storage/access/retrieval have greater amounts of research being published, as do collections-
related issues, and service activities. On the other hand, the areas of information seeking, LIS analysis,
LIS education, LIS theory, history, methodology, the profession, publishing and scientific and professional
communication all have less research being published. There are huge gaps in our evidence base in
these latter areas and they all require further exploration to move our profession forward. Busha and
Harter (1980) and Powell and Connaway (2004) have listed many research methods which are currently
used in librarianship. For example:
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Experimental Research
It is a research method, in which the researcher attempts to maintain control over all factors that
may affect the result of an experiment. In doing this, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what
may occur (Key, 2002). It is a collection of research designs which use manipulation and controlled
testing to understand causal processes. Generally one or more variables are manipulated to determine
their effect on a dependent variable (, 2009).
Survey Research
Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research.
The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking
questions of respondents. Surveys can be divided into two broad categories: the questionnaire and the
interview. Questionnaires are usually paper-and-pencil instruments that the respondent completes.
Interviews are completed by the interviewer based on what the respondent says (Trochim, 2006b).
Historical Research
Sometimes we gain the best knowledge by looking into the past rather than into the future.
Historical research attempts to do just that. Through a detailed analysis of historical data, we can
determine, perhaps to a lesser extent, cause and effect relationships. Historical research can also mean
gathering data from situations that have already occurred and performing statistical analysis on this data
just as we would in a traditional experiment. The one key difference concerns the manipulation of data.
Since historical research relies on data from the past, there is no way to manipulate it. Therefore,
historical research can often lead to present day experiments that attempt to further explore what has
occurred in the past (AllPsych & Heffner Media Group, 2003).
Operations Research
Operations research (OR) is the application of scientific method to management operations in an
effort to aid managerial decision-making. Techniques of operations research are concerned with the
activities of organizations, or systems, and are designed to provide management with a quantitative basis
for decision making (Busha & Harter, 1980).
Additional Research Methods in Librarianship
Observation and Description: Gorman and Clayton (2005) define observation studies as those
that "involve the systematic recording of observable phenomena or behavior in a natural setting" (p. 40). It
is a branch of anthropology that deals with the scientific description of specific human cultures and has a
long history. It permits researchers to study people in their native environment in order to understand
"things" from their perspective. Until recently, few library and information science studies have included
this method; however, observation is gaining favor as LIS researchers seek to understand better the role
of information in people‟s everyday lives (Free Library, 2009).
The Case Study Method: Case study research excels at bringing us to an understanding of a
complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through
previous research. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or
conditions and their relationships. Researchers have used the case study research method for many
years across a variety of disciplines. Social scientists, in particular, have made wide use of this qualitative
research method to examine contemporary real-life situations and provide the basis for the application of
ideas and extension of methods (Yin, 1984).
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Library User Studies: According to King (2005), information needs and expectations are
continuously changing in the rapidly changing information scenario. Libraries need to re-orient their
collections, services, and facilities to keep pace with these advancements. User feedback is considered
as a more reliable factor in measuring the utility and effectiveness of any library. By making user surveys
a regular part of the library‟s functions, librarians can provide a comparative „snapshot‟ of usage in
various temporal contexts.
Evaluation Research: Evaluation is a methodological area that is closely related to, but
distinguishable from more traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies
used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational
context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders
and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much (Trochim, 2006a). According to
Busha and Harter (1980), studies conducted to obtain objective and systematic evidence of the success
or failure of library project and programs are often categorized as evaluation research. When a program is
evaluated, its relative effectiveness in terms of standards, goals, and objectives is determined and
Library Surveys: Research studies designed to survey library conditions and services with an aim
of improving their overall quality. Between 1930 and 1950, the library survey was among the most
frequently used methods to observe, analyze, compare, and describe general conditions in and related to
libraries. Many such efforts were status surveys, designed primarily to merely evaluate library conditions
rather than to test hypothesis or to explore specific research questions thoroughly (Busha & Harter,
Community Surveys: Closely related to library survey is another descriptive approach-the
community survey. Designed to allow careful inspections of the characteristics of communities and to
relate the features to library goals and objectives, community surveys are attempts to obtain a detailed
working knowledge of various pertinent dimensions, geographic areas, or publics served by libraries. A
purely descriptive community survey is designed to characterize properties and conditions of a group of
people living or working together in a district or within an institution. An exploratory community survey
devotes attention to interrelationships between these characteristics and the use of various library
resources, programs, and services. Some community surveys are attempts to accomplish both of these
tasks (Busha & Harter, 1980).
Comparative Librarianship: It is a systematic analysis of library development, practices, or
problems as they occur under different circumstances (most usually in different countries)-considered in
the context of the relevant historical, geographic, political, economic, social, cultural, and other
determinant background factors found in the situations under study (Collings, 1971).
Content Analysis: Content analysis is a research tool used to determine the presence of certain
words or concepts within texts or sets of texts. Researchers quantify and analyze the presence, meanings
and relationships of such words and concepts, then make inferences about the messages within the
texts, the writer(s), the audience, and even the culture and time of which these are a part. Texts can be
defined broadly as books, book chapters, essays, interviews, discussions, newspaper headlines and
articles, historical documents, speeches, conversations, advertising, theater, informal conversation, or
really any occurrence of communicative language. To conduct a content analysis on any such text, the
text is coded, or broken down, into manageable categories on a variety of levels--word, word sense,
phrase, sentence, or theme and then examined using one of content analysis' basic methods:
conceptual analysis or relational analysis (Colorado State University, 2009).
Delphi Method: Collaborative estimating or forecasting technique that combines independent
analysis with maximum use of feedback, for building consensus among experts who interact
anonymously. The topic under discussion is circulated (in a series of rounds) among participating experts
who comment on it and modify the opinion(s) reached up to that point (, 2009).
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Documentary Research: Documentary research is the use of outside sources to support the
viewpoint or argument of an academic work. The analysis of the documents in documentary research
would be either quantitative or qualitative analysis (or both) (Balihar, 2007). It involves the use of texts
and documents as source materials: government publications, newspapers, certificates, census
publications, novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other
written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other `hard copy' form (Scott, 2006).
Model: Another method or device often used by scientists is the model, a verbal, mathematical, or
graphical construct representing a phenomenon (Busha & Harter, 1980).
Model Development: A Challenging Research Method for LIS Researchers
Model development is considered an effective research method. It assists investigators and
scientists in relating more accurately to reality; it also aids them to describe, predict, test or understand
complex systems or events. Thus, models often provide a framework for the conduct of research and
might consist of actual objects or abstract forms, such as sketches, mathematical formulas, or diagrams.
A model is an abstraction, a mental framework for analysis of a system. It involves simplified
representations of real-world phenomena (Busha & Harter, 1980; Powell & Connaway, 2004, p. 60). In
general terms different authors suggested the importance of:
A theoretical framework for the definition, criteria and characteristics of models;
Practical guidelines that describe the procedural aspects of model building;
The availability of data defining the factual situation for the model which is being constructed
(Deal, 1986; Adeyemi 1975).
Characteristics of Models
According to Leimkuhler (1972), following are the characteristics of models:
Relatedness, to other models and techniques;
Transparency, in terms of ease to interpretation;
Robustness or sensitivity to assumption made;
Fertility or richness in deductive possibility;
Ease of enrichment or ability to modify and expand.
Important Role of Models in Research
Models have an important role in research. These can be applied in research in terms of
theoretical constructs (Adeyemi, 1975); testing and understanding multifaceted system (Busha & Harter,
1980); and creating connections between research and society (Weiss, 1979). Models provide guidance
for the completion of work or the establishment of systems and refer to a representation of a real world
A model is a representation or abstraction of an actual object or situation. It shows the
interrelationships (direct or indirect) and interrelationship of an action and reaction in terms of a cause
and effect. Since a model is an abstraction of reality, it may appear less complex than reality itself. The
model, to be completed, must be representative of those aspects of reality that is being investigated
(Adeyemi, 1975, p.50). Busha and & Harter (1980) have stressed that when models have not been
properly validated, their employment as a knowledge source might be unwarranted. In addition, unless
care is taken, models often invite overgeneralizations.
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Use of Model Development in LIS Research in Pakistan
Very few efforts were made for developing and proposing models at doctorate level LIS research
in Pakistan. The efforts made include, a plan proposed by Khan (1991) to be executed under the aegis of
University Grants Commission (Now known as Higher Education Commission) to overcome the problems
faced by the university libraries in terms of inadequate materials and collections; slow and outdated
technical processing; shortage of funds; lack of manpower in quantity and quality; absence of coordinated
planning and lack of government attention; and social urgency. Khalid (1997) argued that co-operation
and networking in library and information systems are frequently applied in developed countries. These
countries are getting maximum benefits from these systems. Contrarily these systems are less used in
developing countries. Keeping this gap in view, Khalid proposed a model for the initiation of cooperation
and networking in countries with less developed systems. Similarly, Mahmood (2004) proposed an
„Alternative Funding Model for Libraries in Pakistan‟. He argued that to improve library services in
Pakistan, libraries need adequate finance, which is not available at the moment from the traditional
sources. This study is directed towards finding alternative sources of funding.
Other LIS professionals who have registered in PhD program and are working to develop a model
include, Khawaja Mustafa working on „„A model for network of health science libraries in Karachi‟‟ and
Syed Ataullah working on „„Digital library initiatives in Pakistan: A proposed digital library model for the
Aga Khan University‟‟ (Haider & Mahmood, 2007).
Model Development Approach for Proposing PAK-NISEA (Pakistan National Information System
for Educational Administrators)
In view of the significant global changes in almost every aspect of modern life brought about by
the science and technology, the role of education is increasing by being re-defined. In the new situation
education has come to be acknowledged as a vital factor for human development, which is the core of all
developmental efforts. Developed world achieved extraordinary socio-economic and technological
development because of the realization that education is an asset and that a sound educational system is
vital, which is capable of producing better human resources and could help in recognition of better
economic and social goals.
In the process of development, education is, therefore, an investment. This investment has to be
made well in time to get full benefits from the overall development efforts. Free flow of information is
obviously an essential requirement for achieving educational goals and objectives. Educational
administrators require various types of information and data for efficiently carrying out their official
assignments. They can only do this in a context which allows them to access, use, validate and
communicate required information. In this context, a number of factors are influencing building up of a
sound and reliable educational structure but the key factor is the user centered/user friendly information
system for educational administrators which is a neglected connection in Pakistan‟s national scheme of
things. On the other hand, yet no comprehensive study at the national or provincial level is conducted to
find out the information needs and seeking behavior of educational administrators which can assist in
designing an effective, efficient and user centered information system for educational administrators at
national level. Keeping this wide gap in view, this study aimed at finding the information needs and
seeking behavior of educational administrators and proposing a comprehensive and well integrated user
centered/friendly national information system for educational administrators for desired transformation in
the education of Pakistan. Following are the objectives of the study:
1. To review the existing information system of education in some developed and developing
2. To review the existing educational system and information system of education in Pakistan.
3. To study the information needs and seeking behavior of educational administrators.
4. To propose a model for the national information system for educational administrators in
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
5. To validate the proposed model.
Flow chart presented in figure 1 shows the research methodology of the study.
Figure 1. Flow Chart of the Research Methodology
Model Development Process
This section explains the process of model development including procedures used for literature
search, instrument development, data collection, and analysis.
Literature Review
To understand different theoretical and practical aspects of the study, a thorough search of the
relevant literature was conducted. For this purpose, different aspects of information system were
reviewed in detail. Literature related to education system of Pakistan; information systems especially in
education at international and national level; user studies conducted for finding the information needs and
seeking behavior of intended users especially educational administrators; role of such studies in the
development of effective information systems and their implementation were collected and reviewed
thoroughly. For literature search standard sources were used e.g., Library literature, theses, online
Keeping in view the objectives of the study, a selected group of experts from the public sector
institutes, who, in their discharge of day to day administrative work, had to depend upon the information
system in education, were identified with the help of reviewed literature and discussion with experts. The
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
educational administrators i.e., Registrars/ deans/ heads of departments in universities and principals of
schools and colleges were identified as the target population for the questionnaire survey. The
respondents were from the Punjab province and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT). The choice of the
Punjab for the questionnaire survey and interviews is based on three main grounds: (1) The researcher is
based in Punjab and logistic support for the PhD fieldwork was most conveniently available in this region;
(2) Circumstances in Balochistan and NWFP provinces are not in favor of field survey; (3) The province is
home to over half the population of Pakistan. About 50% educational institutes are situated within Punjab
province and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT).
For sampling purpose the Punjab province was divided into clusters and sub clusters and each
district was designated as a primary cluster. It was tried to get response from each district. Then each
district was divided in sub clusters i.e. tehsils. Sub clusters (tehsils) were randomly selected. Elements
(i.e. schools, colleges and universities) were selected according to a defined criterion. To get the
reasonable response, 300 (in total) responses were targeted from three groups of respondents i.e.
schools, colleges and universities. Three separate questionnaires for school, college and university
administrators along with cover letter were distributed through mail, email and personal visits. Many follow
up letters, emails, telephone calls and personal visits made the achievement of 97.6 percent response
possible. The quantitative data were analyzed with the help of SPSS version 15. Descriptive statistics
such as Mean, Mode, Median, Standard Deviation etc. were used. Further inferential statistics such as
Paired Sample T-test, ANOVA and MANOVA were used to reach at conclusions.
Semi structured interviews were also conducted. Sample for interviews was chosen through
purposive sampling. Interview of three different categories of experts were conducted i.e., educational
administrators (i.e., ex Vice Chancellors, EDOs, DEOs, Deputy Chiefs of Education in Planning
Commission of Govt. of Pakistan etc.); Information and library professionals (working on executive
positions of well known institutes); and Information system experts. In total 55 interviews were audio
recorded. The data acquired through open ended questions and interviews; were analyzed qualitatively.
These interviews and review of the related literature helped in the overall understanding and designing of
the system. A pilot study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the instruments developed
for the study.
Important Features of the Proposed Model
Centralization: Due to its characteristics of reduced duplication, utilization of resources, more
centralized control and better standardization, the proposed model is centralized. Interview with
information system, and library and information science experts made it very clear that the proposed
model should be centralized.
Pooling the Existing Information Systems/Services: Keeping in view, the interview findings and
existing practices of the world information systems, the proposed information system will pool the existing
information systems and services.
Access and Services based on Knowledge Environment Model: Keeping the survey and interview
findings in view, the proposed products, services and access will be based on the knowledge
environment model. Keeping in view the diversity of information needs of different level of educational
administrators, the proposed system seeks to offer both a sophisticated technological environment and
also a more traditional set of services.
Development in Phases: The use of Spiral Model Approach: All three categories of interview
respondents mentioned that as the proposed model will cover all three levels of education i.e. school,
college and university education, thus the model should emerge in phases and with the successful
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
completion of one phase, the other should be started. The approach for this purpose used is “Spiral
Model” in which the objectives, alternatives and constraints are determined, mechanism is developed for
risk analysis, and then prototypes (sample models) are developed and implemented. If successful, the
next level plan is developed and executed.
Clearly Defined Objectives and Activities of PAK-NISEA: The new system requirements are
defined in the coming section, after a comprehensive system study of the various education enterprise
processes in Pakistan, in as much detail as possible. It involved survey and interviewing internal and
external users, preparation of detailed flow diagrams showing the process or processes for which the IS
is to be developed, the inputs and outputs in terms of how the data is to be recorded/ entered and the
form in which the results are to be presented. Following are the objectives of the proposed model:
To provide information with easy access
To provide update and current information in the field of education
Training of Educational Administrators
To ensure availability of valid, reliable and needed information
Training of other staff members i.e., Information providers/librarians etc.
To have linkage within educational institutes of the country
To provide information according to the administrators‟ specific needs
To develop and maintain an online full text database of educational documents related to
administrators‟ information needs
To generate and maintain adequate media of information
To have linkage within educational information systems of the world.
Risk analysis: Ongoing monitoring, maintenance and evaluation: It is important part of the system
development from initial stage to complete implementation of each step. It includes addressing any
factors which may risk the successful completion of entire project of PAK-NISEA development including
alternative strategies and constraints. Prototyping: Based upon the finalized strategy and the preliminary
design, the first prototype (sample model at a small scale) of the new system will be developed.
Prototype 1: PAK-NISEA Phase I
The system will be developed in phases. As a first prototype only the system will prepare a
module for higher education sector of the Punjab province and Federal Area of Pakistan. As the results of
the survey and reviewed literature reveals that universities are fewer in number and enjoying better ICT
facilities so the first prototype would cover higher education sector only.
Development and verification of next-level product: The prototype prepared will be tested against
benchmarks based on end users‟ expectations and evaluated risks to verify the various aspects of the
development. Refinements and rectifications of the prototype will be undertaken until target users‟
satisfaction is achieved before development of the next level of the system.
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Prototype 2: PAK-NISEA Phase II
The second prototype will cover a module for secondary & higher secondary education sector of
the Punjab province and Federal Area of Pakistan. The prototype 2 will be tested and verified.
Prototype 3: PAK-NISEA Phase III
The third prototype will cover a module for primary education sector of the Punjab province and
Federal Area of Pakistan. The prototype 3 will be tested and verified.
Plan of next phase for other provinces: The preceding steps are iterated until the end user is
satisfied that the refined IS represents the final product desired. The final IS will be constructed based on
the refined prototypes. The final system (An information system for Punjab Province and Federal Area of
Pakistan, covering school, college and university sectors) will be thoroughly evaluated and tested.
Routine maintenance will be carried out on a continuing basis to prevent large-scale failures. In the next
phase of the plan applying above three prototyping approaches the NISEA will be developed in NWFP &
AJK, Sindh, and Baluchistan provinces as well. A final product will be a National Information System for
Educational Administrators in Pakistan.
Components of PAK-NISEA
The components of the proposed information system include: a) geographic acquisition
and distribution coverage and type of information acquired, b) primary users, c) media classification, d)
information acquisition, e) information selection, f) information processing, g) information storage, h)
products and services, and i) management structure and funding.
Validation of the Model
The draft model is sent to the experts of education, information system and library and
information science for validation. For this purpose some national and international experts/professionals,
who are well known in their respective fields were contacted through mail/e-mail and were requested to
give their comments on the draft of proposed model. Observations received will be qualitatively analyzed
and ideographically summarized (Till the writing of this paper, the model is in validation phase). In the
light of experts‟ opinion, necessary amendments will be made to the model before final presentation in the
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
The model development is an effective research method which provides a logical guideline to the
researchers in proposing any new system or services etc. This tool helped, in this study, to propose a
user centered/friendly information system for educational administrators in Pakistan. Following
recommendation are made on the basis of this study:
As research provides theoretical foundations for any discipline and helps in its development, the
LIS professionals should engage themselves in research for the development of their profession.
Model development has proved to be an effective research tool. It should be used more
frequently in LIS research as well. LIS researchers in Pakistan should pay special attention on it.
The example of PAK-NISEA explains the logical steps of model development. Other researchers
should take help from this experience.
Adeyemi, N. M. (1975). Cooperation among libraries of Nigeria: A pilot study. Unpublished PhD thesis,
University of Pittsburgh.
AllPsych & Heffner Media Group. (2003). Historical Research. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Answers Corporation. (2009). Purposive sampling. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from:
Balihar, S. (2007). Qualitative research methods: Documentary research. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Busha, C. A. & Harter, S. P. (1980). Research methods in librarianship: Techniques and interpretations.
New York: Academic Press. (2009). Delphi method. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Collings, D. C. (1971). Comparative librarianship. In Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science, Vol
5, p. 492.
Colorado State University. (2009). An introduction to content analysis. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from: (2009). Experimental research. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Free Library. (2009). Observation: A complex research method. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from:
Gorman, G. E & Clayton, P. (2005). Qualitative research for the information professionals: A practical
handbook. 2nd ed. London: Facet Publishing.
Gorman, G. E., & Clayton, P. (2005). Qualitative research for the information professional (2nd ed.).
London: Facet.
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Haddow, G. (1997). The nature of journals of librarianship: A review, LIBRES, 7(1).
Haider, S. J., & Mahmood, K. (2007). MPhil and PhD library and information science research in Pakistan:
An evaluation. Library Review, 56(5), 407-417.
Hernon, P. (1991). The elusive nature of research in LIS. In McClure, C.R., & Hernon, P. (Eds.). Library
and information science research: Perspective and strategies for improvement (pp. 3-4). Norwood, NJ:
Ablex Publishing.
INFORMS. (2006). Operations Research. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Key, P. J. (2002). Research design in occupational education. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
King, D. B. (2005). User surveys: Libraries ask, „Hey, how am I doing?‟. Law Library Journal, 97(1), 103
Koufogiannakis, D. & Crumley, E. (2006). Research in librarianship: Issues to consider. Library Hi Tech,
24(3), 324-340.
Leedy, P. D. & Ormrod, J. E. (2001). Practical research: Planning and design (7th ed). Upper Saddle
River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.
Leimkuhler, F. F. (1972). Library operational research: A process of discovery and justification. In
Swanson, D.R., & Bookstien, A. (Eds.), Operations research. (pp. 84-96). University of Chicago.
Mahmood, K. (2004). Alternative funding model for libraries in Pakistan. Unpublished PhD thesis,
University of the Punjab, Lahore.
O‟Leary, Z. (2004). The essential guide to doing research. New Delhi: Vistaar Publications.
Powell, R. R. & Connaway, L. S. (2004). Basic research methods for librarians (4th ed.). London:
Libraries Unlimited.
Prior, L. (2003). Using documents in social research. London: Sage.
Scott, J. (2006). Documentary research. London: Sage.
StatPac. (2009).Sampling Methods. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from:
TexaSoft. (2007). Paired t-test. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from:
Trochim, W. M. K. (2006a). Introduction to evaluation. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Trochim, W. M. K. (2006b). Survey research. Retrieved June 19, 2009, from:
Model Development as a Research Tool: An Example of PAK-NISEA, Farzana Shafique, Khalid Mahmood. Library Philosophy
and Practice 2010 (September)
Wikipedia. (2009). Cluster sampling. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from:
Yin, R. K. (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
... A model is a mental framework and abstraction used to analyze systems and phenomena. [15] The present study was conducted through modeling and seeking to develop a conceptual model for dynamic empowerment of medical science education managers through three micro-studies including the conceptual stage, the modeling, stage, and the validation stage. The research was conducted at Iran's university of medical sciences during 2020. ...
BACKGROUND: Educational managers at universities of medical sciences are the suppliers of human resources to the healthcare system. Thus, attention to their professional empowerment can play a prominent role in improving the quality of medical science education. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was implemented through the method of modeling and in the three stages of conceptual, modeling, and validation. The research environment was the medical science universities of Iran and the sampling method was purposive. The two qualitative approaches of literature review and semi-structured interview were used to develop the components of the model. The results were then integrated, the relationships between the components were investigated, and the model was eventually finalized. The resulting scores were analyzed using MicMac software. RESULTS: Twelve categories and 20 subcategories were identified in the first micro-study (desk research). Qualitative analysis of the interviews in the second stage led to the identification of 21 subcategories and seven categories. Components of the conceptual model were extracted from the results of the two first stages, both of which were aimed at the extraction of concepts relevant to dynamic empowerment of medical science educational managers, and the conceptual model for dynamic empowerment of medical science education managers was designed in the six categories of education, decision-making, organization, belief, dynamic capabilities, and environment after the interactions between the components were studied. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study revealed that dynamic empowerment of the managers is a multifaceted and multidimensional concept, and all of the factors incorporated in the conceptual model for dynamic empowerment of managers must receive special attention.
... The prevailing situation in an environment usually dictates how and in what forms a model is shaped or designed. According to Shafique & Mahmood (2010), model development is an effective research method that provides the essential ingredients in designing new systems or services. Indicators of good models are productivity, efficiency, stability, durability, compatibility and equity (Mandal, Khandekar, Singh & Khandekar, 2005:876). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
owadays, universities have embarked on expanding access to agricultural advisory service to communities through extension outreach strategy. The paper presents how a university-based extension could facilitate rapid technological change at the farm level and bridge the agricultural information gap for sustainable food security and improved livelihoods through partnership. The study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted on 357 household heads purposively selected to represent different farm families and socio-economic categories. Findings show that the major survival factor for partnership with the university is the need for food. The study provides lessons on how partnership and collaboration could greatly alleviate the socio-economic challenges of small farmers in a sudano/sahelian- savannah ecosystem.
... Hasil dari angket sebagaian besar peserta didik termotivasi dalam pembelajaran pada saat pembelajaran menggunakan model pembelajaran SAT. Hal ini sesuai dengan pendapat (Shafique & Mahmood, 2010) yang menyatakan bahwa pengembangan model dianggap sebagai metode penelitian yang efektif dalam membantu pendidik mengembangkan system pembelajaran. Ditinjau dari tingkat efektivitas, model pembelajaran SAT merupakan model pembelajaran yang efektif digunakan dalam proses pembelajaran manajemen pemasaran pada semester 4 prodi pendidikan ekonomi UNIPA Kampus Lamongan. ...
Full-text available
This study aims to develop the SAT learning model in marketing management. The purpose of developing the SAT model is to help direct students' attention to focus more on understanding the material and improve student learning outcomes in accordance with learning objectives. Research on the development of the SAT learning model in the marketing management course will use the ADDIE development procedure to design the learning system. The trial design used was an empirical trial with a one-group pretest-posttest design model, in which there were two groups in the study, namely the control group and the experimental group. The results of the limited trial and the broad trial state that students responded with an average score of 85.56% and 86.75% for the attractiveness of the SAT learning model. Then the SAT learning model is effective when viewed from the posttest and pretest scores of students. The SAT learning model is efficient when viewed from the target time specified in the RPS.
... For this qualitative document analysis, data was analysed by following the model of Shafique and Mahmood (2010): identification of themes from both Document 1 and Document 2; combination of overlapping themes from both Document 1 and Document 2; placing themes in logical order; and finally ensuring that the developed model (see Figure 1) is related to other models, transparent and easy to interpret, easily understandable, and adaptable to various school contexts. ...
... The utilization of assumptions made during model development, simplifies the model development, though had described model development as involving an iterative process which is complex [2]. Models are a research tool or a research method, which deputizes in formation extraction [3]. The concept of equilibrium, if properly formulated in the form of a mathematical model, can give solutions to corresponding problems. ...
Full-text available
This work is aimed at rendering a tool suitable to assign the limit or range to which a change in operation could be termed safe. It adopted techniques like determination of constraining situation using the equilibrium principle and establishment of a safety limit using factors of safety. The work is based on the physical laws of equilibrium which posit that at all times, system equilibrium is constant. The importance of factor of safety is also an integral associate of the safe limit model. It utilizes 80 percent as a degree to which every operation is seen to be manifestly present and beyond which system failure occurs. It therefore derives an impetus in the direction that induces system failure and resistance is captured as the maximum system value. The work gives an allowance for adjustment of the factor safety to the safe range and or limit offered by the component, system or situation. The model was tested on mud waste recovery in a well drilling operation and on patients in the medical industry to know when to administer blood transfusion. Results showed that at the given factor of safety, the number of times to recycle the mud was determined. Also, the point at which blood transfusion is required was also found. This result compared favourably with results from other medical sources. The safe limit model finds great applicability in limit determination problems.
... A theory is a model or framework that aids in analysing, explaining, understanding, assessing, and predicting very accurately real-world phenomena or systems (Powell & Connaway, 2004;Shafique & Mahmood, 2010). Similarly, it provides a framework for researchers in conducting research and it could be in the form of a diagram, mathematical formula, or sketch (Powell & Connaway, 2004;Kissi, 2016). ...
... Documentary research is the use of outside sources (texts and documents), in order to support the viewpoint or argument of an academic work (Shafique & Mahmood, 2010). According to Scott (2006), examples of documents as source materials include: government publications, newspapers, certificates, census publications, novels, film and video, paintings, personal photographs, diaries and innumerable other written, visual and pictorial sources in paper, electronic, or other hard copy form. ...
The transition towards an environmentally sustainable society involves a substantial transformation of the configuration of the energy system, and therefore, it entails a significant shift in planning process strategy. Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), an instrument which is strategic in nature, is recognised internationally as a systematic decision support process, aiming to ensure that environmental and possibly other sustainability aspects are considered effectively in Policy, Plan and Programme (PPP) making, i.e., in those planning tools that precede the project in the decision-making process and surpass it in terms of spatial and thematic scope and level of abstraction. From this perspective, and taking into consideration the current state of environmental assessment in Mexico as a basis of knowledge and understanding, this research proposes an innovative Strategic Environmental Assessment methodological framework applied to renewable energy, while looking upon the current transition process as a matter of interest, as well as the strategies and public policies proposed by governmental bodies. All this aimed at creating mechanisms that allow the effective execution of policies in the field of green energies. It can be assumed that this doctoral dissertation supports the need for further experimentation on SEA, developing an alternative approach that integrates knowledge and tools of Collective Intelligence, Complexity Theory and Geoprospective, via the implementation of a technological Group-Spatial Decision Support System (GSDSS) usable for decision support and/or scenario building for infrastructure project planning, that operates through interdisciplinary consensus of a multidisciplinary group of experts, without strict dependency on a spatial analysis based on a single cognitive stance, not either retrospective analysis using only existing historical data. Thus, this work addresses a study case on planning of wind energy in Mexico, which has been developed through a collaborative Geoweb application, functioning in a distributed and asynchronous real-time way, so-called Geospatial System of Collective Intelligence (SIGIC).
This research was carried out in NA Metal and Engineering in Ethiopia's, which is a metal producing company. The goal of this research is to create an improvement conceptual model by looking into the aspects that influence employee productivity . Employee productivity is a ratio of how much a person's knowledge and skills, as well as his work, influence the outcome. According to the collected corporate data, the company's production plan capacity was 1196 trailers per year, whereas actual production during the last five years averaged 284 trailers per year. The discrepancy between actual and planned trailer production is 912 trailers per year, indicating that the company is producing below capacity. The cause of producing below capacity has been attributed to a variety of factors, one of which is a lack of employee productivity, which accounts for 18 percent of the company's productivity loss. Workplace environment, workplace safety, information technology, human resource management, and organizational culture were chosen from a literature analysis as five elements that have a high impact on employee productivity. A well-structured questioner has been designed and distributed to all employees to study the influence of those elements on the selected case company. Software such as SPSS, Microsoft Excel, and Mind Manager were used to analyze the obtained data and display the results. The study's findings reveal that factor such as work environment and workplace safety have a low impact on the case company, however human resource management and organizational culture have a strong impact. Meanwhile, the investigation reveals that technology has an equal good and negative impact on the selected case company's staff productivity. It is recommended that a future examination be undertaken on other elements, including a detailed investigation of the technology component. Key words: Employee productivity, Employee productivity impairing and enhancement factor, conceptual model.
Full-text available
Purpose – Attempting to incorporate research into decision making raises several questions about the research that currently exists in librarianship, areas that are most in need of research, obstacles to conducting research, and possible solutions for nurturing a professional environment in which conducting and using research becomes an accepted and expected part of our practice. This article attempts to answer some of those questions. Design/methodology/approach – A general overview of the research base in librarianship is given. Compilation of content analyses and systematic reviews present an argument relating to the need of further research in librarianship. Further examination of potential research questions is conducted, and potential obstacles and solutions to research barriers are presented. Findings – There is still a need to establish a solid evidence base within our profession. With support from all sectors of librarianship, progress can be made. Originality/value – This paper points out gaps in our research knowledge, and areas that need to be explored via research in library and information studies. It is hoped that this paper will encourage librarians to think about how they can incorporate research into their daily practice.
In matters of social research sociologists and other social scientists have tended to view documents primarily as sources of evidence and as receptacles of inert content.The key strategies for data exploration have consequently been associated with various styles of content or thematic analysis. Even when discourse analysis has been recommended, there has been a marked tendency to deal with records, files, and the like, primarily as containers — things to be read, understood, and categorized. In this article, however, the author seeks to demonstrate that by focussing on the functioning of documents instead of content, sociology can embrace a much wider range of approaches to both data collection and analysis. Indeed, the adoption of such a programme encourages researchers to see documents as active agents in the world, and to view documentation as a key component of dynamic networks rather than as a set of static and immutable `things'.
This article begins with a discussion of the broad role of operations research (O. R.) in a society undergoing change. The nature of O. R. teams in a library environment is then considered. The function of models in O. R. is analyzed, the development of a model being contrasted with its formal presentation. Criteria for good models are suggested. This article then focuses on storage models for libraries, first considering the Dewey classification system from this perspective and then summarizing more current research carried out under the direction of the author with a grant from the National Science Foundation.