Article

Les effets des réseaux transnationaux sur l'économie locale et régionale à Tataouine (Sud-Est tunisien)

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Abstract

La question migratoire est inscrite de nos jours sur tous les agendas. Ce sont en particulier les flux de déplacement des personnes en direction des pays dits développés qui retiennent l'attention, mobilisent hommes politiques et policiers et font l'objet d'analyses et de mises en perspectives permanentes par les spécialistes. L'analyse à vaste échelle de ces flux prend rarement en compte le fait que, derrière les " flots " de migrants, se profilent de multiples initiatives personnelles et des dynamismes individuels qui font de leurs auteurs des " leaders " dont l'étendue, géographique en particulier, des activités et des échanges peuvent les placer dans des rôles moteurs dans le développement d'activités productives ou de services sur plusieurs lieux, répartis aussi bien dans les pays émetteurs que dans les pays d'origine, ou encore dans des pays " intermédiaires ". Nous exposons ici deux " figures " d'entrepreneurs migrants originaires de Ghoumrassen (région de Tataouine, dans le Sud-Est tunisien) dont les activités et les entreprises sont situées sur plusieurs sites en France et en Tunisie.

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... Through changes in mobility patterns, territorial distribution, and household or clan structures these strategies have enabled a number of local entrepreneurs and youth to find opportunities for investment, employment, and income in the lucrative businesses associated with intensification of livestock production and its marketing towards increasingly demanding urban areas (Boubakri, 2002). Likewise, expanded and diversified livelihood patterns have reduced catastrophic animal losses in drought events, making it possible to keep larger herds that grow over time thereby contributing to rising grazing pressure (Rachik, 2009;Schilling et al., 2012b;Boubakri and Kadija, 2014;Sadiki, 2016). ...
... On the one hand, in some areas remittances represent a primary strategic financial source in support of pastoral livelihoods, specifically to face droughts or reconstitute herds afterwards. Cases are reported in mountainous Morocco and in Tunisian drylands where remittances may represent up to 75 per cent of the pastoral revenue (Boubakri, 2002;Mahdi, 2014;Sadiki, 2016). On the other hand, local availability of shepherding labour is admittedly a limiting factor for most pastoral systems: "les bons bergers ils sont tous partis chez vous" (good shepherds have all emigrated to your countries [in the EU), Nori, 2017a:11) thus jeopardizing effective pastoral production and its generational renewal (Chattou, 2016). ...
... Apart from absentee landlordism, this situation also gave rise to phenomena of 'substitutional' pastoralism (nomadisme par bergers interposés), whereby the livestock owner emigrates while his herd and the related control/appropriation of local natural resources is conducted through wage herders paid with remittance money (IFAD, 1995;Boubakri, 2002;Ben Saad and Bourbouze, 2010). Cases are reported where the wage herders are themselves migrants from other countries, thus reproducing and reinforcing patterns of mobility and migration. ...
Chapter
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PASTRES - exploring the uncertainty * pastoralism interfaces: Herding through uncertainties – regional perspectives, analysing the drivers of uncertainty for herders in six pastoral regions in the globe; available at: https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/64165
... Similarly, it is the money from livestock that finances emigration processes of pastoral family members. In the MENA context, the relationships between pastoralism and migratory processes are quite intimate and reciprocal: pastoral money supports emigration projects while, in turn, money from emigration projects supports and reinforces local pastoralism as shown by cases from southern Tunisia to eastern Morocco (Boubakri, 2002;Mahdi, 2014;Chattou, 2016). ...
... International mobility and migration are also important means for widening the exposure and outreach of pastoralists into the broader, global arena. Global diaspora networks are instrumental in providing financial support through remittances as well as in extending networks for business, trading, employment opportunities, and further migratory projects (Boubakri, 2002;Moritz et al., 2011;Mahdi, 2014). Refugee camps have also in places enabled the expansion of social, financial, and political networks (Horst, 2006;Volpato and Howard, 2014). ...
Chapter
PASTRES exploring the uncertainty * pastoralism interfaces: Herding through uncertainties – principles and practices, analysing pastoralists’ strategies to cope with and adapt to the uncertainties embedding their livelihoods. available at: https://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/64228
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