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Status of migratory wader populations in Africa and Western Eurasia in the 1990s

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  • Nick Davidson Environmental

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... those IBAs that are not covered by protected areas) wetlands supported the greatest number of wintering waterbirds throughout Europe and North Africa in the past 26 years, especially in C and NE Europe. This finding was expected given that the IBA criteria include thresholds based on the abundance of aggregative species such as waterbirds (Donald et al., 2018), and many PAs may have been designated on the basis of the waterbird populations that they support (Gleason et al., 2011;Green and Elmberg, 2014;Stroud et al., 2004). Unlisted wetlands (not identified as IBA nor formally designated as PA) hosted the lowest abundance of winter Pavón-Jordán et al. ...
... Nevertheless, the increase in the abundance outside protected areas has direct conservation implications. One of the criteria for designation of sites as protected areas under the Ramsar Convention and the EU Birds Directive is the presence of 1% of the biogeographical population of a species of conservation concern (Méndez et al., 2018;Stroud et al., 2004). Hence, some wetlands may gain conservation importance (and qualify for a legally protected area) if the numbers of such species increase due to the shifts while others might no longer qualify as IBA, typically at the SW edge of the distribution Johnston et al., 2013;Méndez et al., 2018). ...
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Migratory waterbirds require an effectively conserved cohesive network of wetland areas throughout their range and life-cycle. Under rapid climate change, protected area (PA) networks need to be able to accommodate climate driven range shifts in wildlife if they are to continue to be effective in the future. Thus, we investigated geographical variation in the relationship between local temperature anomaly and the abundance of 61 waterbird species during the wintering season across Europe and North Africa during 1990-2015. We also compared the spatio-temporal effects on abundance of sites designated as PAs, Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs), both, or neither designation (Unlisted). Waterbird abundance was positively correlated with temperature anomaly , with this pattern being strongest towards north and east Europe. Waterbird abundance was higher inside IBAs, whether they were legally protected or not. Trends in waterbird abundance were also consistently more positive inside both protected and unprotected IBAs across the whole study region, and were positive in Unlisted wetlands in southwestern Europe and North Africa. These results suggest that IBAs are important sites for wintering waterbirds, but also that populations are shifting to unprotected wetlands (some of which are IBAs). Such IBAs may, therefore, represent robust candidate sites to expand the network of legally protected wetlands under climate change in northeastern Europe. These results underscore the need for monitoring to understand how the effectiveness of site networks is changing under climate change.
... For example, the majority of shorebird species in our data set (n = 11) have reportedly recovered since the 1980s in areas of the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA 2009). In addition, the proportion of declining populations reduced between two studies in the late 1990s and 2013 ( Stroud et al. 2004Stroud et al. , Zöckler et al. 2013), with around half now considered to be stable ( Zöckler et al. 2013). There are problems with this comparison, however, as some of the difference in proportion may be attributable to differences in species composition between the two studies. ...
Technical Report
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Trend Indices of Arctic Birds using Living Planet Index methodology from 1970s up to 2010. Trend data quality varying also from region to region
... These two wetlands are separated by less than 100 km. Both are important feeding and roosting areas for birds using the East Atlantic Flyway (Sánchez et al., 2006) through which more than 15.5 million shorebirds migrate (Stroud et al., 2004). Dispersal of A. franciscana is strongly favoured by aquatic birds which can transport viable cysts over long distances (Green et al., 2005;Sánchez et al., 2012). ...
Article
Although a substantial amount of research exists on pollution and biological invasions, there is a paucity of understanding of how both factors interact. Most studies show that pollution favours the establishment of invasive species, but pollution may also promote local adaptation of native species and prevent the establishment of new incomers. However, evidence for this is extremely limited because most studies focus on successful invasions and very few on cases where an invasion has been resisted. Here we provide evidence of local adaptation of native species to pollution combining life history and physiological data. We focused on the invasion of the North American brine shrimp Artemia franciscana, which is causing a dramatic biodiversity loss in hypersaline ecosystems worldwide, and one of the last native Artemia populations in SW Europe (A. parthenogenetica from the historically polluted Odiel estuary, SW Spain). Life table response experiments were carried out in the laboratory to compare the demographic responses of A. parthenogenetica and a nearby A. franciscana population to long-term Zn exposure (0.2 mg L−1). We also evaluated oxidative stress by measuring antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances). A high concentration of Zn induced strong mortality in A. franciscana, which also showed high levels of lipid peroxidation, suggesting relatively poor physiological resistance to pollution compared with A. parthenogenetica. The age at maturity was shorter in A. parthenogenetica, which may be an adaptation to the naturally high mortality rate observed in the Odiel population. Exposure to Zn accelerated age at first reproduction in A. franciscana but not in A. parthenogenetica. In contrast, Zn had a stimulatory effect on offspring production in A. parthenogenetica,which also showed higher reproductive parameters (number of broods, total offspring and offspring per brood) than A. franciscana. Overall, the results of this study strongly suggest that native Artemia from Odiel estuary is locally adapted (at both, reproductive and physiological levels) to Zn contamination and that A. franciscana is highly sensitive. This is a good example of how pollution may play a role in the persistence of the last native Artemia populations in the Mediterranean.
... Secondly, shorebirds have been the subject of extensive ecological and behavioral studies at Utqiaġvik, with the most intensive periods of study from the mid-1950s to 1980, in the early 1990s, and from 2003 to the present. Third, numerous studies imply declines in shorebird populations both in North America and globally (International Wader Study Group 2003, Stroud et al. 2004, Andres et al. 2012, Clemens et al. 2016, Piersma et al. 2016. Utqiaġvik is located on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska, where eight shorebird species are designated as being of "greatest concern" or "high concern" in the United States (USSCP 2016) and are listed as "priority" species in the Alaska Shorebird Conservation Plan (Alaska Shorebird Group 2008). ...
... Wetland always offers diverse habitats for a variety of fauna species, especially waterbirds, fishes, reptiles, mammals and aquatic invertebrates. They had attracted a wide array of waterbird species, that is, especially endangered and threatened waterbirds namely: Ciconia stromi, Tringa guttifer, Egretta eulophotes, Mycteria cinerea, Lepotilos javanicus, Euryorhynchus pygmeus, Pluvialis apricaria, Gallinago gallinago, Calidris alpine, Limosa limosa, Thinornis rubricollis and Vanellus vanellus, (Ishikawa et al., 2003;Stroud et al., 2004) as compared to other aquatic habitats and they need special attention for conservation. ...
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Waterbird species composition and habitat characteristics at two ecologically different wetlands (Paya Indah and Putrajaya) were compared in order to determine the habitat suitability of each particular habitat for waterbird species. A total of 30 waterbird species representing 10 families were recorded through direct observation in both wetland habitats (26 waterbird species in Paya Indah and 22 species in Putrajaya wetland habitats). Out of 30 waterbird species, 17 species were commonly recorded from both habitats, 4 species were absent in Paya Indah and 8 species in Putrajaya. Ardeidae was the dominant family based on the number species (11 waterbird species) while Charadriidae, Ciconiidae, Jacanidae, Pelicanidae and Podicipedidae were the rarest families (only one species was recorded) in both wetland habitats. This indicated that both wetland habitats may vary in waterbird species composition habitat characteristics, that is, a total of 34 aquatic plant species (21 species in Paya Indah and 18 species in Putrajaya wetland) belonging to 14 families were sampled during study period. Five plant species, namely, Water Chestnut-Eleocharis dulcis, Twig Rush-Lepironia articulate, Blue Lotus-Nymphaea nouchali, Common Reed-Phragmites karaka and Cattail-Typha angustifolia were commonly recorded from both habitats. However, 13 aquatic plant species were absent in Paya Indah and 16 species in Putrajaya wetland. The findings of this study, revealed that Paya Indah wetland is rich in waterbird species composition and habitat characteristics as compared to Putrajaya wetland habitat. This might be due to the richness and diversity of aquatic vegetation composition, occurrence of suitable foraging and breeding sites that had attracted the highest number of waterbird species to utilize the Paya Indah wetland habitat.
... Pacific oysters are ecosystem engineers (Padilla, 2010), and reef formation can transform benthic invertebrate assemblages (Herbert et al., 2016;Lejart & Hily, 2011), yet the potential impact of these oyster reefs on coastal bird populations is largely unknown. In the UK and elsewhere in Europe, soft-sediment intertidal habitats are key feeding areas for overwintering migratory birds on the East Atlantic flyway (Goss-Custard, West, et al., 2006;Stroud et al., 2004), and many areas are protected. Winter survival and fitness determine the number of birds able to return to breeding grounds and reproduce successfully (Goss-Custard, Burton, et al., 2006). ...
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• A combined empirical and modelling approach was used to investigate the value of a Pacific oyster reef to feeding shorebirds and to observe and predict the impact of reef clearance on bird populations in the Colne Estuary, a protected area in south‐east England. Macro‐invertebrate biomass and numbers of feeding birds were measured on a Pacific oyster reef, an adjacent uncolonized mudflat, and an area of mudflat that had been cleared of oysters 6 months previously. These data were used to parameterize an individual‐based model (MORPH) to predict the impact of clearance of the reef on winter bird survival. Feeding success and intake rates of Eurasian oystercatcher, Eurasian curlew, and Eurasian common redshank were also recorded during the course of a winter. • The macro‐invertebrate diversity and biomass within both the oyster reef and the cleared area were significantly greater than the adjacent uncolonized mudflat. The density and biomass of large invertebrate prey in the mudflat were low, yet the Pacific oyster reef had much higher densities and biomass of large prey, especially annelids and shore crabs. • The winter assemblage of feeding birds differed significantly between each of the areas. The mean total number of feeding birds was significantly greater on the uncolonized mudflat; however, mean peak counts, feeding success rate and prey intake rate of Eurasian oystercatcher were greater on the reef. Significantly greater intake rates and feeding success rates were also observed on the reef for Eurasian curlew, a species of conservation concern. • Field data and model predictions show that Pacific oyster reefs can provide valuable supplementary feeding areas for some shorebirds, yet other species avoided the reef. However, as estuaries vary in available feeding resources, it is important that the value of reefs and their management is determined regionally.
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Wetlands are important areas in the conservation of biodiversity and play a key role in the ecosystems regulation. Thus, considering that climate change effects combined with anthropogenic pressures on natural resources are causing loss of biodiversity in Sahelian countries such as Senegal, we need to do regular stock assessments. For this, we aimed at studying the Black winged-stilt (Himantopus himantopus himantopus) in the urban wetland of Technopôle in the Niayes of Dakar (capital of the republic of Senegal). Our study is focused on the spatial distribution and nesting of the Black winged-stilt (Himantopus himantopus himantopus) in Technopole, which is classified in the list of Important Bird Areas (IBAs) by Birlife International since 2001 under A4i criteria and is an important biodiversity hotspot. The Niayes of Dakar constitute a particular ecosystem of wetland, they play a determining role in the reproduction and the survival of manies birds' species. The nesting study was conducted from May to August 2012 and from May to August 2017. The maximum numbers of Black winged-stilt count during these periods are 531 individuals for 2012 and 766 individuals for 2017. However we highlight a decrease of the number of Black winged-stilt in the Technopole after the onset of the rains. Breeding data (25 nests in 2012 and 79 in 2017) show that this urban wetland is a preferred nesting site for Black winged-stilt. We report for the first time in this paper, so many Black winged-stilt nests in Senegal. Despite the disturbances related to anthropogenic factors, the breeding success of the Black winged-stilt reached 89.6% in May 2017. Thus, we believe that a strengthening of a conservation action plan of this site is urgent for a better preservation of the biodiversity, particularly the avian resources.
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Aim Many species are showing distribution shifts in response to environmental change. We explored (a) the effects of inter‐annual variation in winter weather conditions on non‐breeding distributional abundance of waterbirds exploiting different habitats (deep‐water, shallow water, farmland) and (b) the long‐term shift in the population centroid of these species and investigate its link to changes in weather conditions. Location Europe. Methods We fitted generalized additive mixed Models to a large‐scale, 24‐year dataset (1990–2013) describing the winter distributional abundance of 25 waterbird species. We calculated the annual and long‐term (3‐year periods) population centroid of each species and used the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index to explain the inter‐annual and long‐term shifts in their location. Results (a) Year‐to‐year southwestwards shifts in the population centroids of deep‐ and shallow‐water species were linked to negative NAO values. Shallow‐water species shifted northeastwards associated with positive NAO values and the distance shifted increased with increasing NAO. Deep‐water species shifted northeastwards up to zero NAO indices, but showed no further increase at higher NAO values. (b) Deep‐water species showed long‐term northeastwards shifts in distributional abundance throughout the 1990s and the 2000s. Shallow‐water species, on the other hand, shifted northeastwards during the 1990s and early 2000s, but southwestwards thereafter. There were no significant links between the NAO and year‐to‐year movements or long‐term shifts in farmland species’ population centroid. Main Conclusions We provide evidence for a link between both year‐to‐year and long‐term changes in waterbird winter distributional abundances at large geographical scales to short‐ and long‐term changes in winter weather conditions. We also show that species using shallow water, deep‐water and farmland habitats responded differently, especially at high NAO values. As well as important ecological implications, these findings contribute to the development of future conservation measures for these species under current and future climate change.
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Birds are the most conspicuous component of wetland habitats, i.e., they are highly motile and sensitive to multitude habitat variables. Various avian species were surveyed using a distance sampling point count method and were assigned into different foraging guilds based on food selection, foraging techniques and habitat preferences. The results of foraging guilds indicated that the marsh swamp habitat was most productive, i.e., heavily utilized by avian species (i.e. 143.00 ± 23.86 birds ha-1) and the dryland with scattered trees was less productive, i.e., less preferred by them (i.e. 65.03 ± 9.79 birds ha-1). Overall, guild Frugivore/Insectivore birds were the most dominant (149.89 ± 20.25 birds ha-1) and Carnivore (0.40 ± 0.19 birds ha-1) were less abundant in five habitats. Likewise, resident birds were the most dominant in each habitat and vagrant birds were rarely observed. For migrant bird, guild Insectivore was the most dominant in five habitats such as marsh swamp; 1.24 ± 0.08 birds ha-1 , lotus swamp; 1.28 ± 0.32 birds ha-1 , open water body; 0.74 ± 0.12 birds ha-1 , dryland with scattered trees; 2.05 ± 0.20 birds ha-1 and scrubland; 1.44 ± 0.15 birds ha-1. The findings of foraging guilds indicated that birds are specialize in food selection, i.e., foraged on a wide array of animals through employing various foraging techniques to catch their prey and select the available wetland and adjacent habitats in different ways depending on availability of food resources, foraging behaviour and niche. Hence, birds are bio-indicators of wetland and adjacent habitats and can be ascertained the productivity (health) of the particular habitat.
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Abstract The EUFORA fellowship programme ‘Livestock Health and Food Chain Risk Assessment’ was proposed by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA), a British governmental institution responsible for safeguarding animal and plant health in the UK. The working programme, which was organised into four different modules, covered a wide range of aspects related to risk assessment including identification of emerging risks, risk prioritisation methods, scanning surveillance, food production exposure assessment and import risk assessment of animal and human infectious diseases. Over the course of the year, the Fellow had the opportunity to work for international projects with experts in these disciplines. This allowed for significant opportunities to ‘learn‐by‐doing’ the methods and the techniques that are employed to assess animal health and food safety risks. Moreover, he consolidated his knowledge by attending several training courses and academic lessons, submitting scientific papers to peer‐reviewed journals and conferences, giving presentations and using modelling software.
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THE PROCESS OF REVIEWING POPULATION ESTIMATES AND TRENDS.......ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. Timetable for future international reviews....................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Populations in need of more urgent re-evaluation......................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. Population definitions.......................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined. MAKING PROGRESS: TARGETED GAP-FILLING RESEARCH..........................ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED. 1. Better regular awareness of the state of monitoring................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.