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Marketing of library and information services: Building a new discipline for library and information science education in Asia



The concept of marketing is widely applicable in library and information environment. Marketing concept itself is changing and has different meaning for different people. Now marketing is whole organization concept and organization wide philosophy, which requires years of continual work. It is a way of working and a way of serving the customers in which every activity is committed to customer satisfaction. Marketing of library services is the effective execution of all the activities involved in increasing satisfaction of users by providing maximum value to them. It is a total solution for library and information centers. There have been enormous developments in marketing of library and information services around the world. The present paper explores the discipline of marketing of library services as a new academic subject in library and information education focusing on the Indian experience.
Malaysian Journal of Library & Information Science, Vol.8, no.2, Dec.2003:95-108
Dinesh K. Gupta
Department of Library & Information Science
VM Open University, Kota-324010, India
The concept of marketing is widely applicable in library and information
environment. Marketing concept itself is changing and has different meaning for
different people. Now marketing is whole organization concept and organization
wide philosophy, which requires years of continual work. It is a way of working
and a way of serving the customers in which every activity is committed to
customer satisfaction. Marketing of library services is the effective execution of
all the activities involved in increasing satisfaction of users by providing
maximum value to them. It is a total solution for library and information centers.
There have been enormous developments in marketing of library and
information services around the world. The present paper explores the discipline
of marketing of library services as a new academic subject in library and
information education focusing on the Indian experience.
Keywords: Library and information science education; Marketing of library services;
Information services; India,
Libraries and information centers are facing a time of unprecedented change and
challenge. Recent technological developments are creating new forms of
information, new sources of information and new ways of providing information
bypassing traditional institutional like libraries. There has been an increasing
pressure on libraries to mobilize resources and become self-reliant. Library users
are transforming into customers with rising expectations, diverse needs and
wants, and choices. Now, the real challenge for library and information
professionals is not to manage the collection, staff and technology but to turn
these resources into services. The notion of services has also changed, from
basic to value added, from staff assisted to self -service, from in-house to out-
reach, from free to priced, from reactive to pro-active, and from mass-
customization to individualized service.
As in such an environment librarians are finding new ways of serving users or
customers effectively and efficiently. The principles of marketing have gradually
Gupta, D.K
been accepted both as relevant and beneficial to the library environment.
Marketing provides an opportunity to see as to how they can offer effective and
efficient services to their users or customers. There have been many
developments at international level, which have directly or indirectly contributed
for the growth and development of marketing in library services in India.
Besides mentioning such international efforts in brief, the present paper
discusses the developments taking place in marketing of library and information
services in India. Further, it tracks the teaching of marketing of library services
and outlines an action plan for further diffusion. It also raises several issues for
further research.
This is the very first aspect of employing effective marketing in any kind of
libraries. Many librarians correlate marketing with profit and consider that
libraries are not for making profits. Basically because they were not taught
marketing at library schools and do not see marketing to have anything to do
with running a library. In 1996, the author presented a paper on an aspect of
marketing of library services at his first national conference. During the
discussion there were clear-cut division of the house, between people who
pleaded in favour of marketing and those who had their reservations about
applying business concept in libraries. Over the years, events have indicated that
marketing is important for libraries to live and survive. Its importance is often
not recognized there in libraries but we do not recognize it, and many see
marketing with suspicion and consider that it is a discipline that belongs to other
The interest in marketing has tremendously increased over the last two decades
in almost all kind of libraries throughout the world. Even the reasons for
applying marketing have not been much different. Some of the common reasons
identified are that: the founding missions are increasingly ill-suited for the
demands of the marketplace; budgets are becoming tight while units are claiming
for more support; the recruiting and fund-raising arenas having become
extremely competitive; and the rising competition among similar information
services providers. There are some other reasons which require marketing
orientation in library and information services, such as it helps in managing
libraries better; it brings commitment to customer focus; publicizes the benefits
of the library services and listening to customers needs; it helps in making users
feel better that they use library again and again; and it improves the library’s
image. As such there is always a need for LIS staff to develop a more
responsible attitude towards their customers, ensure credibility and a positive
attitude to face new challenges as well as opportunities. There is always a greater
need for appreciation and good understanding for marketing concept among
Marketing of Library and Information Services
librarians as what it can do for them. Reasons for applying marketing in any
library is not to increase profit but to increase in user satisfaction and increase of
funding in turn, since increased customer satisfaction will often result in their
increased willingness to use and pay for services offered. An enhanced
perception of the value of the library will translate into increased level of support
to the library.
There is still considerable misunderstanding within the library and information
sector as to what constitutes marketing. To some it is still primarily equated with
selling and pursuit of sales, rather than customer satisfaction. To others for
example, it is viewed as production of brochures, advertising and low level
marketing communication. Even amongst those libraries that claim to have
developed more sophisticated marketing approach, only a few have capitalized
on full the potential of marketing. Much of the confusion arises because the
marketing concept has changed from selling concept to product development and
customer-focused concept. There is much discussion as what marketing is and
what marketing is not. Though it is an issue that is discussed time and again in
library and information circle but has never come to a conclusion. A soft
approach to marketing may be as follows:
Marketing equates management in service set up
Marketing in libraries is an organization wide philosophy
Marketing puts people to work
Marketing is not cliché it is every one's job
Marketing is not promotion or advertising, these are part of it
Marketing is not selling
Marketing is adaptable, flexible and open
Marketing really never ends
There are several different, yet views to the concept of marketing. They can be
broadly divided into four:
(a) Marketing as a set of techniques: It is a tool kit; a set of practical
techniques and proven processes which can be applied to all aspects of
the service planning, service delivery and service evaluation. Effective
service planning begins with market research; analysis of needs and
preferences of the user community. Effective service delivery requires
market awareness; a carefully planned strategy of promotional activity.
Effective service evaluation needs to start with the market response; the
views of users (and non-users) about service performance.
(b) Marketing as a philosophy: The premise of marketing is simple and
appealing as "the user or customer is the beginning and end of every
Gupta, D.K
library activity". The satisfaction of a customer is primary concern of
marketing and the entire ethos and shared values of the library owe the
responsibility of satisfying the customer. Everyone in the library, from
top to bottom has a role to play in rendering maximum satisfaction to the
customer. As such the attitude of service providers becomes important.
(c) Marketing as an approach: In libraries, marketing does not require the
creation of a separate department and the appointment of a person to
look after this department, but marketing is every one's function from
top management to the frontliners, it is a total organizational effort.
Inter-functional coordination and cross-cultural perspective becomes
important in order to remove communication barriers, work in teams and
empower the work force.
(d) Customer-driven marketing: The role of marketing is more than finding
customers for the available information sources, services and
technologies. Among others, marketing forms a partnership with the user
who becomes the central part of the total service efforts. It requires an
in-depth understanding, greater intimacy and mutual trust among library
and its users. This comes through increasing the benefits to users in
relations to the efforts and cost.
For a library that recognizes marketing concept and has this orientation in its
services will be the closest to its users. Marketing must be understood and
implemented in a comprehensive way. No one concept will serve the purpose.
Customer is at the heart of all marketing concepts.
Renborg (1997) considers that "marketing is not new to libraries, it is as old as
modern librarianship and the origin of marketing dates back in 1870s. The
approaches of library experts like Melvil Dewey, SR Ranganathan, and others
were marketing oriented. Even Ranganathan's Five laws have been seen in the
light of today's marketing concepts (Ranga, 1986). If we correlate Ranganathan's
Five Laws with the marketing concept of information and library services, in the
following manner (Jain et al, 1999b):
(a) Books are for use (Maximize the use of books/ information)
emphasizes on the idea that
(b) Every reader his/her book (Reader is prime factor and his/her need
must be satisfied)
(c) Every book its reader ( Find a reader for every book)
(d) Save the time of the reader ( Organize information in a way that the
reader finds the wanted information promptly)
(e) A library is a growing organism (Emphasis is on comprehensive and
evolutionary growth)
Marketing of Library and Information Services
However, the concept of marketing in libraries entered when Philip Kotler
formally propagated the marketing concept in non-profit organization in 1970s
and the concept was sharpened in 1980s when the concept of services marketing
There have been many changes in marketing of library and information services
with the passage of time. According to Freeman and Katz (1978), until the early
1970s, "most libraries did not see much of marketing. Most marketing-related
documentations were labeled with the concept of user needs, user training, and
economics of information and the majority of the literature was in the form of
practitioner's account." Tucci (1988) found that during 1978-1988, "the crop of
marketing of library services was growing but was not ready for harvesting.
During the period of this review, long time theories and concepts for marketing
of goods, such as 4Ps and STP model dominated in marketing of library and
information services literature. The need for customer focus was felt but
promoting libraries was the main concern during this period." Cox (2000)
emphasized that "there was increase integration of marketing with planning
focus; continued examination of what marketing is and is not, specifically how it
differs from sales, promotion and public relations; and increased new tools and
methods for developing marketing research strategies. But, till now the service
quality concept started challenging the 4P approach." Presently, the focus of the
library and information services marketing is on relationship marketing (Besant
and Sharp, 2000), internal marketing (Dworkin, 2003), image building (Bass
Bridges and Morgan, 2000), and customer loyalty. Such concepts make
marketing a library wide philosophy and desire involvement of one and all from
front-line staff to board members. So, the marketing concept has changed from
selling concept to product development and customer focused concept. Concepts
like customer services, service quality, relationship management played a vital
role in development of marketing from boardroom concept to whole
organization concept.
Librarians are dealing with strategic important resource called “information” and
are well recognized for services. They have users who have a need for
information and are willing to use the library whenever need arises,
acknowledge if they are satisfied with the service, and can recommend others to
use the library that pay attention to their needs. The library and its users are
natural partners. But, the customer does not see what he or she will get prior to
being presented with the information. On taking the enquiry, the information
provider may not know for a fact that the information being requested is
available. The information provider may not know whether he or she will incur
Gupta, D.K
any charges in getting the information in the time required by the customer. In
short there are many uncertainties involved here but it is not just information a
customer gets when using the information department, it is also a service, service
from the staff, user friendly environment, or user supported facilities. An
information provider is unlikely to be able to answer every inquiry, absolutely
accurately in the time span the customer requires. However, if customers believe
that the service they have received is the best available then they will use it
again. It is by adding value to information through service delivery that
information managers can encourage usage of information service. The
marketing process will show where the service can be embraced.
Libraries are the best candidates for marketing among non-profit service
organizations. Here, the important thing is that can we see these benefits from
the point of view of users and communicate in the way they can understand. The
public image of the library comes through experiences or moments of truth when
users really come into contact. All promotion, advertisement, promises, will be
wasteful if we are unable to transform these experiences into pleasant ones and
that too from user's point of view. The deciding factors are our own attitude and
our commitment to the community. We who work in the library are the greatest
marketing forces in libraries. Marketing helps show a library staff’s expertise,
further an organization’s mission, promote productivity by quickly and
efficiently finding the right information at the right time, and add value to an
organization’s products. Without any promotional effort, some key individuals
may not be supporters or even users of the Information Centre. Libraries
therefore, will look impressive and the librarians will emerge as activists
fostering proactive services to the users. Every service activity must be
performed with a conscious mind to meet users’ needs exceptionally.
Some noteworthy factors for wider acceptance, popularity and development of
marketing concept in libraries and information centers are described below:
There is an increasing interest of international and national professional
associations and organizations such as in the US-based Special Library
Association ( that has been giving a wider coverage on marketing
in its programmes and activities. Its management division gives training and
publishes bibliographies on marketing from time to time. Its advertising and
marketing division has a discussion list on the subject (
Similarly, the role of London based ASLIB ( has been
tremendous, which published the first authentic text on Marketing of library and
information services (Cronin, 1981). It also organizes short term-courses for
working librarians and publishes papers in its Managing information, a monthly
Marketing of Library and Information Services
magazine. Such efforts are also employed by CILIP (formerly LA), to promote
marketing of library and information services.
American Library Association's (ALA, '@your library advocates
Campaign for the World's Libraries' launched at the International Federation of
Library Associations and Institutions, (IFLA, www.ifla,org) at the 2001 Annual
Conference in Boston. This initiative boldly enables IFLA and over 15 national
library associations who have embraced the campaign to make ALA's collective
and individual accomplishments better known across the world. ALA has also
published many useful texts on marketing.
The Newsletter-Marketing Library services (bi-monthly,
mls) started in 1988, gives specific coverage on marketing of library services.
Since 1987 Marketing Treasures ( ) has
offered tips, ideas and insights to librarians and others on how to promote and
apply marketing tools to their information services and products. Originally
published as a paper-based newsletter, Marketing Treasures articles span the full
range of marketing and promotion issues faced by all types of librarians around
the globe. Many of the American Library and Information Science journals have
brought out special issues on marketing of library and information services, such
as, Library Trend 43(3), Winter 1995, Journal of Library Administration in
1983, Information Outlook 6(11), 2002, Computers in libraries., 19(8) 1999, and
ASLIB Information 21(9), 1993. Such trend has spread in other countries as
Emergence of the IFLA Marketing and Management Section
( in 1997, which comprises library professionals
from all over the world who either work actively in marketing and management
in their libraries or teach the same to future librarians. It is working for
conceptualizing marketing in libraries, efforts for developing guidelines to teach
management and marketing, and other developments of interest to LIS
professionals and wider acceptability throughout the world. It organizes annual
conferences, training programmes, brings out publications, newsletter, and also
has a discussion list ( for marketing for academic
libraries. In order to recognize best practices in marketing of library and
information sector worldwide, it started IFLA-3M International Award in 2001.
The topic/module of Marketing of information and library services has been
included in the syllabi of many universities across countries. There are also
various institutions/ agencies/ associations running short-term training
programmes on different aspects of marketing. Guidelines for Teaching
marketing LIS (Unesco, 1988; Tees, 1993) are also important strides toward
making effective marketing in libraries and information centers.
Gupta, D.K
All sectors of the libraries feel the need for seeking their services marketing
orientation. Marketing is considered useful in academic libraries, parliament
libraries, multicultural libraries, medical libraries, agriculture libraries and public
The developments taken place world over influenced the Indian librarianship as
well. There has been a number of developments in marketing of library and
information services in the country and some of these are described below:
The beginning of publication of literature on marketing of library and
information science dates back in 1980. The Indian Library and Information
Science Abstract (ILSA) started abstracting on this area in early 80s. Although
literature reviews (Sewa Singh, 1991) assigned the key term Library Marketing
in its volume by 1985, earlier to it, literature on marketing of library services
was covered in library management. Currently a database on marketing of
library and information services is being developed at IIM, Ahmedabad, which
will be web-accessed and helpful to researchers in many ways.
It is an area that is being widely discussed in professional meetings, there is an
increasing interest of the national professional associations and organizations,
like Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centres (IASLIC),
Indian Library Association (ILA), Society for Information Science (SIS),
Medical Library Association of India (MLAI) and Management Libraries
Network (MANLIBNET). In 1988, the first national conference was organized
by IASLIC in 1988 (Kapoor & Chategree, 1988). SIS also selected the theme
Information Marketing for its conference in 1995 (Kuldip Chand, 1996). During
recent years it can be observed that marketing of library services has been
included as sub-theme in quite a good number of conferences and seminars.
Besides conferences many of the associations also conducted workshop and
training programmes on this area as and when such need arises.
DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology has brought out special issues on
marketing of library and information services twice in 1998 and 2002 besides
covering articles regularly in volumes of the journal. The other professional
journal which is bringing out a special issue on marketing of LIS in the near
future is Lucknow Librarian. Besides, these, almost all the leading professional
journals like Annals (New Delhi), SREL Journal of Information Management
(Bangalore), IASLIC Bulletin (Kolkata), ILA Bulletin (New Delhi), Herald of
Library Science (Lucknow) and others regularly publish articles on the area of
marketing of library and information services.
Marketing of Library and Information Services
There has been increasing interest of researchers in this area. The Universities so
far has awarded Ph. D. degree in this area. Some examples are "Marketing of
information products and services by libraries and information centers in
Jordon” (Khali Klaib, 1994), ”The role of marketing in the field of libraries and
information services: Future implications” (Mohan, 1998), "Effectiveness of
marketing of information in British Council library network in India” (Bhat,
2002), and "Marketing of Library and Information Products and Services: A
Study in Designing Economic Models with reference to Capital Markets in
India” (Hiremath, 2003)". Recently one researcher each has also submitted
theses on marketing area at the University of Rajasthan and Lucknow
University. There are many more new researchers registered in many universities
in the country.
The topic of Marketing of Information and Library Services has been included in
the syllabi of many universities in the country. The Indian National Scientific
Documentation Centre’s (INSDOC) MLIS programme of the Indira Ghandhi
National Open University (IGNOU) has a block on Marketing of Information
Products and Services. Some other universities also gives emphasis on this area
in the syllabi, but to a limited extent.
Besides, associations, various agencies and institutions are organizing training
programmes. To cite a few: A workshop on marketing of information products
and services was organised on 27 November –01 December 1989 at CSIR, New
Delhi by Unesco, on 26th April, 1997 and Training Programme on Marketing of
S and T Information Services, 28th January- 1st February, 1991 at INSDOC. A
one day seminar was organized by UTI Institute of Capital Markets in
association with Bombay Science Librarians Association at Navi Mumbai to
discuss the issues involved. IIM Lucknow, has been offering training
programmes on Marketing of Library and Information Services/Products.
There have been in-depth studies on marketing of library services in specific
group of libraries and information units, such as National level study on
marketing of library services in management education institutions (Jain, et al,
1995, 1999a, 1999b). Similarly, the study conducted by the Institute of the
Public Enterprises, Hyderabad keeps in view the marketing needs of science and
technology information facilities (Institute of Public Enterprise, 1989).
This clearly depicts that the interest of LIS professionals in marketing and makes
it very clear that the discipline of marketing of library services must emerge as a
new academic and research area in library and information sector.
Gupta, D.K
Reflecting the changed scenario, library schools in the country have started
including this area in their syllabi to train future librarians. But, the progress so
far has not been satisfactory in regards to developing marketing of library
services as a discipline. This need is being expressed by the following
"Periodical orientation has to be provided to the librarians regarding digital
information products and services for better marketing" (Chandraiah,1996 )
"Identification of marketing education as the……influencing factor in the
factor analysis the importance of formal education in marketing of services.
It was interesting to note that 95.6% of the respondents do not posses any
formal education in marketing management. Only 4.4% of them had formal
education in marketing…. However one cannot deny the advantages of
formal education.” (Manjunatha and Shivalingaiah , 2001)
"The concept of information marketing has significant scope in the libraries;
however it is not finding proper place in the curriculum. Time has come
when the libraries will have to work as information sellers/brokers. They
will have to collect information from each and every source in order to
maintain their existence." (Chopra,1996).
"Marketing of information is described as being an immature stage of
development and one of the reasons being the relatively low level of
knowledge and lack of agreement on user requirements, wants and needs.
Therefore, the study of information consumer behaviour and factors relating
to his decision making, in other words his mind has become the central focus
of current research." (Inder Mohan, 1996).
"Literacy in the marketing concepts and techniques is another important
prerequisite which must be addressed seriously if information marketing is
to become a permanent feature of library operations." (Dhawan, 1998)
"It is also known that librarians are not oriented to marketing of services in
their graduate/post graduate library and information science education
programmes. Hence, it is suggested to introduce a topic “Information
Practitioner” at the master's degree level." (Siddamaliah, 1998).
The need for acquiring capabilities of adopting changes (societal, economic,
technological, and educational and their implications on managing libraries) in
the courses of teaching due to their imminent application in practice is expressed
Marketing of Library and Information Services
as follows: "Library and information entering into new phase so that in the
modern economy the importance of information has increased and which calls
for better use of existing services, and continuous improvement of information
serves to meet the explicit and implicit needs." (UGC,2001). The report
includes many facets of marketing at different places in different courses, but
does not recommend for any specialized paper/ module on marketing LIS. Of
course such need has long been felt and there are suggestions for model syllabi/
modules (Gopinath, 1988 and Gopalkrishnan, 1990).
There is a growing need for understanding and employing marketing in libraries
and information services throughout the world. There have been numerous
efforts on this area even in developing countries like India. But unplanned
growth and the gap between the academics and practitioners hinders the
development of the discipline. Emergence of this contemporary area involves
enormous opportunities for further research. Some of which could be visualized
Tracing the growth of literature: information sources, review of literature,
creation of web based resources and databases.
Tracing the stage of LIS marketing with regard to conceptual framework,
acceptance, applications and barriers,
Assessing the role of professional associations and institutions in bringing
out marketing orientation in library services
Status of marketing of library services in different kind of libraries and their
comparative studies and future improvement
Finding avenues for manpower development
Identifying best practices and making an environment to replicate these.
Minimizing gap between theory and practices
There is a strong need to re-energize researchers, teachers, practitioners, and
policy makers to consolidate efforts to develop the marketing of library and
information services as an academic discipline.
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UGC (India). 2001. Model curriculum: library and information Science. UGC.
... This is as a result of some challenges or forces which tend to frustrate or undermine their operations. Such challenges have been identified to include a growing user population, information explosion, complexity in information needs, increasing prices of information resources, mounting competition from allied information service providers, rising library costs, declining budgets and its competing needs from various library departments, networking challenges, widelyavailable information services and sources, the mismatch between library founding missions and marketplace demands, increasingly-competitive employment and fundraising initiatives, change in user's mode of satisfaction, emerging new technologies and services (Chegwe & Anaehobi, 2015;Gupta, 2003;Jestin & Parameswari, 2005;Madhusudhan, 2008). These challenges or forces tend to gather momentum and seem to persist. ...
... The impetus to put the idea to practice is probably drawn from the fact that libraries and information centers have started to recognize the importance of marketing of information products and services as an essential part of administration, especially as a means for enhancing user's satisfaction and promoting the use of library services by present and prospective clients (Jestin & Parameswari, 2005). Consequently, there has been a massive growing interest in marketing among nearly all types of libraries across the globe in the past twenty years (Gupta, 2003). Thus, librarians are involved in marketing various information products and services. ...
... In Nigerian university libraries, some of the information services mostly marketed include online services, photocopying services, lending services, seating and study facilities and reference services (Nwegbu, 2010;Odine, 2011). These information products and services have been marketed by libraries using different approaches including relationship marketing (Besant & Sharp, 2000), internal marketing (Dworkin, 2003), image building (Peggy & Morgan, 2000) and customer loyalty (Gupta, 2003). Marketing of library and information products and services is executed by human beings in libraries. ...
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The study investigated perception of and attitude to marketing of library and information products and services by librarians in public university libraries in Bayelsa and Rivers States of Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised eighty-one (81) librarians. However, sixty-nine librarians participated in the study. Survey Monkey was used for data collection. Eighty-one soft copies of the questionnaire were distributed to the librarians via their email addresses. Sixty-nine questionnaires were properly completed by the librarians and returned, resulting in a response rate of 85.19%. The data collected were transferred into Google sheets and analyzed by means of weighted mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the extent to which the librarians marketed library and information products and services was low; the librarians had widely-varied positive perceptions about marketing of library and information products and services, while the librarians’ displayed virtually same negative attitude towards marketing of library and information products and services. The study concluded that a large number of librarians in public university libraries in Bayelsa and Rivers States of Nigeria attach importance to marketing of library and information products and services, yet many librarians have unfavorable approach to it. The study recommended that the librarians should utilize social media and promotional strategies to market library and information products and services in university libraries. It also suggested that the librarians should cultivate a favourable attitude towards the process.
... Also Staff (2010), opines that the 21 st century is faced with numerous challenges on one hand while on the other hand, humans strive to arrive at safer, more democratic, more prosperous and more equitable world. Needless to say that libraries and information centers are equally facing a time of unprecedented change and challenges (Gupta, 2004). The libraries and librarians, who are considered as gate keeper of knowledge (Chandratre & Chandratre 2010), remain the veritable solution to positively influence the managerial gear to meet information needs of the community, the nation and the world at large. ...
... Similarly Ibrahim (2010), defines marketing as processthat can satisfy the needs of c7ustomer.Thus, it implies sales rather than customer satisfaction? However, only a handful of LIS workers have capitalize on full potentials of marketing (Gupta, 2004). A veritable tool to understand what marketing entails are as follows: ...
... -Marketing is not selling -Marketing is open-ended and never really ends Gupta (2004), categorized marketing concept into four groups: ...
In a rapidly changing world, the perception to adapt to change is inexplicable and a constant as well. There is virtually the possibility of upturning many assumptions such like the issue of marketing library information services (LIS) which many libraries/librarians deemed to be unsellable. The scope of marketing in itself is evolving and portray different connotations; to different personalities. The marketing of LIS is an ongoing project determined to give the customer a place of pride in terms of providing much needed satisfaction. This is because the whole essence of library and information set up is to serve the clientele also referred to as the king, or the master. Most library staff of developing countries have low compliance level to change or innovation especially as it pertains to ICT and use of modern gadgets in performing their duties. All these could be linked to the lack of skills/ knowledge needed to handle the sufisticated facilities. There's no doubt that some of the Librarians are well equipped in terms of ICT compliance level, but there is urgent need to train vast majority of the others who are lagging behind.
... To Kotler (1995) quoted in Rowley (2015), marketing is very important to organizations such as museums, universities, libraries and charitable organizations in order to gain political and social support as well as economic supremacy. Gupta (2017) pointed out that marketing is important to identify the information needs of potential users. In his opinion, library and information managers should not only be interested in the group of people who do use their services. ...
... According to Kaane (2016) marketing is necessary component of any organization, be it public or private, due to then three basic reasons; helps institutions to achieve high levels of customer satisfaction, helps institutions to enhance the perceived value of their service and to ensure survival of the institutions. Gupta (2017) summarized the reasons for marketing in the following points; to focus on providing an environment in which users can study and work, to focus on the believe that each user has unique needs, requirement and expectations when he or she visits the library, and commitments to helping the user develop skills in order to acquire information from various sources. In a nutshell, information explosion, technology revolution and escalating costs are responsible for encouraging the library profession to develop marketing strategies in its operations and services. ...
This study examined the effectiveness of information service delivery through marketing of library resources and services. A descriptive survey design was used for the study with a population of 119 library staff. Complete census was adopted as the entire population was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was structured questionnaires. In analyzing the data, descriptive statistics such as percentages, mean and frequency tables were used. The findings of the study showed that the library services that are available for marketing in the university library include lending services, reservation services, interlibrary loan, document delivery services, current awareness services amongst others. The study also revealed that the respondents showed mixed attitude towards marketing of information. Findings also discovered that different methods are used in marketing of library information resources and services which ranges from exhibition and display, organizing trainings, seminars and workshop, media release through radio and television amongst others. The findings equally showed that the problems militating against marketing of library information resources and services include lack of effective communication between librarians and users, inadequate fund, lack of facilities to market library resources and services, network problem andpoor access to information technologyamongst others. It was recommend that more funds be allocated to developing libraries by the parent organization, that library management should expose librarians to marketing library services through trainings, conferences, seminars, workshop and symposiums and that facilities that are needed for effective marketing of library services should be provided to libraries.
... According to Waite (1989), different ways are suggested for acquiring library materials, and these include purchases, exchange, and donation. Waite (1989) adds that, once the library resources are acquired they have to be classified and catalogued for the purpose of assembling the available knowledge to be known and easily accessible, stored, and disseminated to meet end users' information needs (Gupta, 2003 ). Schiller and Schiller (1998) associate effective access and use of information resources in academic environments with better student learning outcomes in a given institution. ...
... Also, a library creates an opportunity of interacting with the society's wealth and accumulated knowledge (ibid). A library can be seen as an extension of business education (Gupta, 2003). ...
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This paper assesses students’ access and use of library resources in promoting business education and development in Tanzania. Specific objectives were to identify the types of information resources used by students at the College of Business Education (CBE) so as to determine the extent to which students are satisfied with the available library resources; another object was to identify the challenges which CBE students face in accessing and using library resources. The study was carried out at CBE main campus library in Dar es Salaam. Simple random sampling was used to select 25(twenty five) respondents from each of the six selected department making a total of 150 respondents. The study employed case study design and used a combination of methods in collecting both quantitative and qualitative data. Data were collected by using interviews and personal observations. Questionnaires and Interview Guides were the tools used for data collection. Quantitative data were processed and analysed using SPSS, while content analysis was adopted for data qualitatively. The findings reveal that books, past papers, journals and electronic resources are the major resources used at the main library. Also, the findings revealed the challenges facing library users which include restriction of reading hours, inadequacy of reading space, problems of internet connectivity, insufficient number of computers as opposed to the number of students, insufficient number of qualified library staff to assist users in searching for both print and electronic information. The study concludes that, for the effective use of library resources, there is need for the library to be expanded (to improve reading environment), and ensures a stable internet connectivity. There is also need to increase the number of qualified library staff. The study demonstrates the need for academic institutions to have libraries and resources that are proportionate to students, population. However, the study recommends to the CBE management to increase the library budget that will be adequate for acquiring relevant educational materials. The significance of allocation of funds to libraries and other educational resource centres is critical for the provision of adequate and quality services to students and other library users.
... Unfortunately, to this day, marketing is still linked to selling and the pursuit of sales, rather than customer satisfaction (Gupta, 2003). However, selling is only a part of a bigger overall business strategy an institution can adopt to make a profit. ...
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This research investigated the most appropriate time for the University of Malta Library to provide information literacy workshops. This study looked into the student’s willingness to attend workshops at various points during the academic year by organizing monthly workshops and compare attendance. Additionally, different marketing channels were used and assessed to promote such sessions. As a result, information on the usefulness of the sessions was collected from participating students to identify whether an introduction to information literacy was enough or if the Library should develop a more detailed workshop/or series of workshops. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of research were used for this study. Bookings for different sessions were recorded together with year of study and students details. A short anonymous questionnaire provided feedback on the sessions including identifying aspects of marketing the students are more likely to engage with. The research will directly impact the University of Malta Library as it will guide future development with regards to workshops and marketing the Library may wish to create. Keywords: Information Literacy Sessions, Point of Need, Promoting Information Literacy, University of Malta, Case Study, Information Literacy Skills, Academic Libraries, Library Instruction, User Needs Assessment, Library Promotion Strategies, Information Literacy Programs, Student Success, Information Seeking Behavior, Library User Education, Library Outreach, Library Marketing, Effective Library Instruction, Library User Engagement, Information Literacy Assessment, Library Services Evaluation
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Social media is the finest method for reaching library patrons since it allows them to easily share and receive information. Social media has a significant influence on libraries as well. Social media is becoming more recognizable to LIS workers as a flexible platform to contact potential library users.
We all are on Live in the Digital world. And this digital world everything runs from the strategy of item's marketing. And that's why we can say that in the digital world, any of the items if marketing is strong then we can cell any of the items and the economy will boost automatically. Marketing increases the value of information in the Marketplace ( Today we will see Marketplace is Mart). Marketing is not only increasing business but also promoting business also and into the field of library, marketing perspective, it is important for people to be aware of library service. Library marketing is effective not only for the regular user but also for a new user to know our library service, and as a result of this marketing, a new user will be coming to the library. Library Marketing serves a chain between library users and library services. Today's digital world, due to the marketing of the library. Academic as well as public library making good relations with users. In this paper, we will look at how university libraries should adopt a marketing approach. With the help of this approach provide information on what changes should be made to the library service. This paper discusses how to market a library in the digital world. In this paper, we also focus on how can we use our library with a social media platform like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube, etc. With a good library marketing method we were able to provide a good library service and with this marketing library service and study will be increased.
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Marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably. It is an inherent part of library services for collection development and user-friendly service. For maximum use of electronic information resources and services, library has to take initiative in advertising the activities of the library through interactive web tools or technologies. A review of the literature provided accounts of various tools and technologies available for marketing library resources and services. Marketing of information resources through web based services helps the libraries to reach a vast audience and serve more people in an interactive mode. The growth of participatory webs like web 2.0 allows users to blend their role as writers, readers and editors of the web content. This paper provides an overview of marketing library resources by means of emerging tools and technologies in the digital era. KeyTerms: Marketing, Electronic information resources, Web 2.0, Digital era, technologies, Tools
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The Covid-19 pandemic has created intense competition in the world of education and has transformed the focus of education management from a simple way to serve the institutional education process, to a way to transform users of education services (user education) into customer education (customer education). Private educational institutions experienced a decrease in the number of students for the 2021-2022 school year due to the pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic tested the marketing strategies of every educational institution. Schools that have the opportunity to survive are those that have strategies to create competitive and sustainable advantages. This research uses a qualitative approach with the design of case studies. The subjects of this study consisted of the Principal, Deputy Principal, teachers, administrative staff, parents of students and students. Data collection techniques include documentation studies, field observations and in-depth interviews. In this study to analyze data using Creswell's data analysis model. Partnership marketing strategies are considered the most appropriate to support school targets in acquiring new customers of educational services in the 2021/2022 school year. The school strives to embrace and establish partner relationships with the community as a front liner marketing school education services
The paper outlines the marketing approaches used in the British Council Library Network in India. The market analysis is done in order to get a profile of the customers in these libraries. Excellent customer relations are maintained by delivering quality service. Customer interaction is a continuous process and this is ensured by conscious listening to the customers, meet the members programmes, questionnaires, surveys, and suggestion boxes. The libraries use promotional techniques such as mailshots, distribution of -publicity material, publicity through press and advertising in order to increase the customer base. Extension activities such as lectures and seminars attract the target customers to the library apart from furthering the social cause.
Ces principes ont ete prepares sous les auspices de la section sur les ecoles de bibliothecaires et ont pour but de fournir une introduction a la theorie de l'enseignement du management et de fournir egalement quelques elements pratiques pour cet enseignement. Les principes sont fondes sur une approche marketing et comprennent la planification, l'organisation et la gestion des personnes et des ressources. Ils couvrent trois aspects principaux de l'enseignement du marketing: 1) la theorie, 2) le travail pratique dans les etablissements et 3) des activites scolaires, qui donnent aux etudiants une experience du management. Les principes fournissent egalement un cadre pour un enseignement de management
In the spring of 1982, I published an article in Reference Services Review on marketing libraries and information services. The article covered available literature on that topic from 1970 through part of 1981, the time period immediately following Kotler and Levy's significant and frequently cited article in the January 1969 issue of the Journal of Marketing, which was first to suggest the idea of marketing nonprofit organizations. The article published here is intended to update the earlier work in RSR and will cover the literature of marketing public, academic, special, and school libraries from 1982 to the present.
Marketing information products and services: A primer for librarians and information professionals
  • Abhinandan Jain
Jain, Abhinandan et al. 1999b. (eds.) Marketing information products and services: A primer for librarians and information professionals. New Delhi: Tata Mc-Grawhill
Marketing of information products and services by libraries and information centers in Jordon
  • Khali Klaib
  • Fadel Jamil
Khali Klaib, Fadel Jamil A. 1994. Marketing of information products and services by libraries and information centers in Jordon (PhD. thesis,), Jiwaji University, Gwalior (Unpublished)
Economics of information marketing, In: Information marketing
  • R Inder Mohan
Inder Mohan, R. 1996. Economics of information marketing, In: Information marketing, edited by H. S Chopra, Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 25-34