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The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

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In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC) on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004). These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution; due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss) [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002). Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 age-model supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i) 8.6-8.0 ka, (h) 60-5.2 ka, (iii) 4.2-4.0 ka and (iv) 3.1-2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RC time intervals; based on detailed C-14-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.
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... Changes in Holocene palaeoenvironments and climate played a crucial role in the lateral spread, pathways, and evolution of human societies (Weninger et al., 2009(Weninger et al., , 2014Berger, 2021). The Balkans represent a central root for the Neolithic spread, which had started at about 9000 y BP from Anatolia to Southern Europe (Greece) towards central and western Europe (Bogucki, 1996;Weninger et al., 2009;Fort, 2015). ...
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1 The Annealing Algorithm: A Preview.- 1.1 Combinatorial optimization.- 1.2 Moves and local minima.- 1.3 Hill climbing.- 1.4 Simulated annealing.- 1.5 Applications.- 1.6 Mathematical model.- 1.7 Discussion.- 2 Preliminaries from Matrix Theory.- 2.1 Matrices. Notation and basic properties.- 2.2 Pseudo-diagonal normal forms.- 2.3 Norms and limits of matrices.- 2.4 Quadratic forms.- 2.5 Discussion.- 3 Chains.- 3.1 Terminology.- 3.2 Linear arrangement, an example.- 3.3 The chain limit theorem.- 3.4 Reversible chains.- 3.5 Discussion.- 4 Chain Statistics.- 4.1 Density Functions.- 4.2 Expected values.- 4.3 Sampling.- 4.4 Maximum likelyhood densities.- 4.5 Aggregate functions.- 4.6 Discussion.- 5 Annealing Chains.- 5.1 Towards low scores.- 5.2 Maximal accessibility.- 5.3 The acceptance function.- 5.4 Properties of annealing chains.- 5.5 Discussion.- 6 Samples from Normal Distributions.- 6.1 Characteristic functions.- 6.2 Quadratic forms and characteristic functions.- 6.3 Sampling distributions.- 6.4 Asymptotic properties of sampling distributions.- 6.5 Discussion.- 7 Score Densities.- 7.1 The density of states.- 7.2 Weak control.- 7.3 Strong control.- 7.4 Three parameter aggregates.- 7.5 Discussion.- 8 The Control Parameter.- 8.1 Initialization.- 8.2 Decrements in the control parameter.- 8.3 A stop criterion.- 8.4 Proper convergence.- 8.5 Discussion.- 9 Finite-Time Behavior of the Annealing Algorithm.- 9.1 Rate of convergence of chains.- 9.2 Minimum number of iterations.- 9.3 Finite-time optimal schedules.- 9.4 Discussion.- 10 The Structure of the State Space.- 10.1 Chain convergence.- 10.2 The topography of the state space.- 10.3 The set of moves.- 10.4 Global convergence.- 10.5 Discussion.- 11 Implementation Aspects.- 11.1 An implementation.- 11.2 The selection function.- 11.3 Other speed-up methods.- References.
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