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Meta-studies of the effectiveness of ICT (information and communication technology) in education indicate that it has about as much impact as any other innovation (Parr 2000). However, there are great expectations about ICT having as significant an influence ...
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... Many online distance learning environments are developed based on "instructionist" principles. Portals, instructional management systems, computer assisted instruction and most online courses are artifacts of instructionism (Cannings and Stager, 2003). It is no wonder why "distance learning" is not a popular approach in design studio education in architecture, as the current commercially available virtual learning environments (VLEs) do not have the necessary features to address the necessary cognitive demands. ...
... During her career, Mary had accumulated a wealth of content knowledge, and her experiences had convinced her that the best way to share that knowledge was through explaining. Thus, her teaching patterns reflected an instructivist approach to education, which emphasized the value of content and ''makes the learner the target of instruction'' (Cannings & Stager, 2003, p. 2) rather than facilitating the personal construction of knowledge through experiences. Her lectures presented facts, principles, and concepts she wanted students to know for the test. ...
The value and effectiveness of formative assessment in the classroom has gained an increasing amount of attention during the past decade, especially since the publication of seminal work by Black and Wiliam titled Assessment and Classroom Learning. Since that time, there has been a renewed interest in describing and evaluating teacher practices related to formative assessment. Based on evidence of its effectiveness in the classroom and on improving standardized test scores, many prominent educational entities have initiated reform efforts to promote the use of formative assessment, yet these practices have not been embraced by classroom teachers. This case study investigated internally constructed and externally imposed contextual elements that constrained or facilitated the use of formative assessment by three high school science teachers. Cornett’s curriculum development model of personal practice theories was modified to include assessment, termed personal practice assessment theories (PPATs), and chosen as a framework for the study. This research revealed distinct differences among the three teachers’ PPATs and several different factors that constrained or facilitated the use of formative assessment in their instruction. Most notable of these factors were the forms of teacher knowledge that played a critical role in shaping their assessment practices and had a bearing on their ability to convert espoused theories about assessment into actual classroom practice. Other externally imposed barriers that constrained the use of formative assessment included expectations, habits, and dispositions of students; the pressure that teachers felt to “cover” all of the curriculum in order to prepare students for the end-of-year, high-stakes exam; and an instructivist rather than constructivist approach to teaching and learning. Results from this study add to the growing body of knowledge about the complex terrain teachers negotiate in making teaching and assessment decisions and provides a framework for future studies.
This chapter continues to follow three secondary biology teachers and reveals their Personal Practice Assessment Theories (PPATs)—those constructs based on beliefs, values, forms of knowledge, mental model of learning, experiences, and assessment goals that undergird their decision making. These PPATs are placed in an Assessment Development Model (ADM) that serves as a theoretical framework for analysis of the dynamic interactions between PPATs and contextual elements and their impact on the purpose, planning, implementation, and reflection on assessment practices. Forms of knowledge, whether propositional, theoretical, or strategic, served as an internally constructed contextual element that played a significant role in the teachers’ ability to translate theory into practice. Other constraining and facilitating contextual elements are discussed as well.
Ante los problemas de aprendizaje que se presentan en los nuevos escenarios digitales son necesarias algunas estrategias para el desarrollo de competencias. Estas se entienden desde una doble perspectiva: 1) saber actuar (o reaccionar), responsable y válido, y 2) saber movilizar, integrar y transferir recursos (conocimientos, capacidades, etcétera) en un contexto profesional, que les permita a los usuarios interactuar en la redes de manera asertiva de cara a no sentirse excluido, basados en teorías como el construccionismo y el conectivismo. Todo ello para que se inserten en el mundo de las redes, se inicien en el uso de tecnologías web 2.0 y sean creadores de productos que distribuirán, compartirán y difundirán en una cultura de colaboración y cooperación, con implicancias en la gestión del conocimiento.
Online distance education is quickly growing across the globe. As more move to this mode of education, instructors are beginning to look towards their teaching practices and techniques of instruction when looking at this new environment. This study, through interviewing and analysis of archived course documents, examines the experiences of one participant in the Making the Virtual Classroom a Reality program designed to increase knowledge and abilities in online instruction. Her personal traits, social influences, and course content/dynamics were explored to find several factors she attributes to her successes in this program. Anecdotes were explored to further discern her experiences within the program. An ability to transfer knowledge obtained in and intended for an online teaching and learning environment to her face-to-face practice is paid particular attention. From this study, it would appear that the two modes of instruction are not as difference as many might think. Furthermore, social influences were not seen as a major contributing factor in knowledge transfer for our participant.
This article refers to the application of Web mining in the Remote Education, and on the base of Web mining puts forward the concept which designs the management system of Remote Education based on Constructivism, and in order to improve Distance Learning Systems also discusses how to optimize the Constructivism learning environment in this system by Web mining techniques, such as clustering analysis, topic detection and tracking, knowledge map and soon.
For nearly a decade, my colleagues and I at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology have played a leading role in designing online learning environments for post-graduate courses intended for mid-career professionals. These successful programs, notably the Educational Technology EdD and Online Master of Arts in Educational Technology, incorporate progressive teaching practices and rely on Socratic dialogue, peer mentoring, collaboration and access to primary resources. The primary difference between the Pepperdine approach and others is our embrace of constructionism, the notion that knowledge is constructed through the active engagement of a learner and shared within an active community of practice. All theory presented in courses is expected to be useful in the life or workplace of each student since knowledge in use is an important tenet of constructionism. Our courses enforce an expectation of collaboration, peer-review and making thinking public. Student diversity is supported by the sharing of resources and requests for clarification by fellow students. The educational experience is framed by an ongoing conversation and exhibitions of student work rather than based on the delivery of content.
The presence of computers and other new technologies in learning will play a determining role in the way that both technology and culture evolve in the coming generation. The future of computer could be made in many different forms. It will be determined not by the nature of the technology, but by a host of decisions of individual human beings. Thinking of the future as an information age certainly focuses on some exciting new developments. There is more access to more information than there has ever been before. But, there is also a dangerous side to it from an educator's point of view—the danger of seeing the most important aspect of education as the provider of information or even the provider of access to information. The chapter presents a critique of technocentrism in thinking about the school of the future. The author has coined the word technocentrism from Piaget's use of the word egocentrism. Technocentrism is the fallacy of referring all questions to the technology. Questions regarding whether technology have this or that effect, whether using computers to teach mathematics increases children's skill at arithmetic, or whether it will encourage children to be lazy about adding numbers because calculators can do it, reflect technocentric thinking. The issues about how to use the computer in education reflect deeper issues of educational theory and philosophy.
The Internet is another powerful resource for providing pre-and in-service training of mathematics teachers. The traditional boundaries of time and distance are gone as teachers communicate in global learning communities to review content, teaching practices, and share new ideas and concepts for teaching secondary mathematics. The ability to use Newsgroups, MOOS, MUDs, and the World-Wide-Web presents great opportunities for mathematics educators as schools enter the new millennium. One example is NetAdventure developed by the Concord Consortium. The design and content of NetAdventure offers a powerful model for adults studying to become secondary mathematics teachers. As the power and impact of the Internet widens, global interaction of teachers will provide a future forum for exciting and effective on-line learning communities to develop the skills and practices of secondary mathematics educators.