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Abstract

Terminalia chebula is a popular medicinal plant according to Ayurveda for its broad spectrum medicinal value including in the treatment of enteric disorders. Leaf extracts in water as well as in various organic solvents (namely me-thanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) were analyzed to testify its antibacterial activities against four different bacteria causing enteric disorders, viz. Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Vibrio cholerae in vitro along with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The analysis was carried out by taking the extracts at a concentration of 10 mg/ml and their activities were recorded by estimating zones of inhibition as produced by disc-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar media. While all the organisms were resistant to chloroform extract and some of them to that of ethyl acetate, the methanol as well as the aqueous extracts of the plant showed the potential bactericidal activity, however nothing was evident against the yeast candidate. When compared with the traditional antibiotics, this activity was especially compe-tent against Escherichia coli and Shigella sp, followed by Vibrio sp. and Salmonella spp. The broth dilution assay re-vealed that the bactericidal values fall in the range of 5000 to 8000 µg/ml.
Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants, ISSN 2249 4340
RESEARCH ARTICLE
Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 175-179, September 2011
*Corresponding author: (E-mail) manjur@univdhaka.edu
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©2011 Open Access Science Research Publisher
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Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia chebula
M. Golam MOSTAFA, Mahdia RAHMAN, M. Manjurul KARIM*
Department of Microbiology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh
*Corresponding Author, Tel: +88 01715 490535, Fax: +880 2 861 5583
Article History: Received 15th September 2011, Revised 22nd September 2011, Accepted 23rd September 2011.
Abstract:Terminalia chebula is a popular medicinal plant according to Ayurveda for its broad spectrum medicinal value
including in the treatment of enteric disorders. Leaf extracts in water as well as in various organic solvents (namely me-
thanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) were analyzed to testify its antibacterial activities against four different
bacteria causing enteric disorders, viz. Escherichia coli,Salmonella sp, Shigella sp and Vibrio cholerae in vitro along
with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The analysis was carried out by taking the extracts at a concentration of 10 mg/ml and
their activities were recorded by estimating zones of inhibition as produced by disc-diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton
agar media. While all the organisms were resistant to chloroform extract and some of them to that of ethyl acetate, the
methanol as well as the aqueous extracts of the plant showed the potential bactericidal activity, however nothing was
evident against the yeast candidate. When compared with the traditional antibiotics, this activity was especially compe-
tent against Escherichia coli and Shigella sp, followed by Vibrio sp. and Salmonella spp. The broth dilution assay re-
vealed that the bactericidal values fall in the range of 5000 to 8000 µg/ml.
Keywords:Terminalia chebula, antibiotics, drug-resistance, antimicrobial activity.
Introduction
The discovery of antibiotics more than
70 years ago initiated a period of drug innova-
tion and implementation in human and animal
health and agriculture. These discoveries were
tempered and questioned in all cases by the
emergence of resistant microbes (Teuber 2001;
Heuer et al. 2006). For which, we are now fac-
ing the threat of superbugs, i.e. pathogenic bac-
teria resistant to most or all available antibiotics.
It was warned by the World Health Organiza-
tion that those multiple antibiotic-resistant pa-
thogens would very likely bring the world back
to the pre-antibiotic era. This clearly highlights
the need for new antibacterial agents with fun-
damentally different modes of action than that
of traditional antibiotics. The enormous demand
has triggered worldwide efforts in developing
novel antibacterial alternatives, particularly the
screening of several medicinal plants for their
potential antimicrobial activity.
Many Bangladeshi plants have been used
from time immemorial to treat various diseases
and infections in traditional medicinal systems.
Terminalia chebula (Family Combretaceae; lo-
cal name, haritaki) is one of the most commonly
used plants in traditional systems of medicine in
Indian sub-continent. This study aims to find out
the potential antimicrobial activity of the leaves
of Terminalia chebula by extracting them on
organic as well as aqueous solvents, and then
compare its antimicrobial activity with tradi-
tionally used chemotherapeutic drugs. The ac-
tivity of the extract was finally quantitatively
estimated in terms of minimum inhibitory con-
centration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal con-
centration (MBC) values.
Materials and Methods
Test plant and its extraction
The dried powder of Terminalia chebula
was collected from Holy Drugs, a local pharma-
ceutical company for indigenous medicine. 10 g
of the powder was mixed with 40 ml of chloro-
form and was kept at 25ºC for 12 h, filtered
through a Whatman no. 4 filter paper and the
filtrate was evaporated by vacuum dryer at 40ºC
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Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants
Antimicrobial activity of T. chebula
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overnight to get the chloroform extract. After
chloroform extraction, the solid residue was
dried at 40ºC overnight to remove residual chlo-
roform. The solid powder was resuspended in
40 ml ethyl acetate and kept at 25ºC for 12 h.
Ethyl acetate extract was recovered following
the same procedure as stated for chloroform ex-
tract. Similarly, methanol and ethanol extracts
were prepared by applying the same procedure.
In addition to the organic extracts, an aqueous
extract was made by taking 10 g of herb in a
sterile conical flask and distilled water was add-
ed up to 100 ml and kept at room temperature
for 24 hrs. The mixture was filtered and the fil-
trate was centrifuged at 10,000x gfor 15 min to
remove the dust of dried leaf. The supernatant
containing water-soluble components was col-
lected, dried in vacuum dryer at 40ºC for 6
hours to obtain the aqueous extract. Finally, the
respective solvents (i.e. chloroform, ethyl ace-
tate, methanol, ethanol and distilled water) were
added to each of the extracts respectively in or-
der to make a final concentration of 10 mg/ml.
Determination of antibacterial activity
Bacterial susceptibility to antimicrobial
agent was determined in vitro by using the stan-
dardized agar-disc diffusion method known as
the Kirby Bauer method (Bauer et al. 1966).
Four bacterial species, viz. E. coli,Salmonella
sp, Shigella sp and Vibrio cholerae, collected
from a local diagnostic centre were employed as
test organisms together with Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. Inocula were prepared by adding an
overnight culture of the organism in Mueller-
Hinton (MH) broth to obtain an OD600 0.1. The
cells were allowed to grow until they obtain the
McFarland standard 0.5 (approximately 108
CFU/ml). For S. cerevisiae, sabaurouds dextrose
broth (SDB) was used.
Sterile discs (Oxoid) were soaked separately
with 30 µl of each of the organic extract pre-
pared in chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and
ethanol solvents and were placed on Mueller-
Hinton agar plates, previously swabbed with the
target bacterial isolate at a concentration of 106
CFU/ml. In one disc, the respective organic sol-
vent was added as negative control to determine
possible inhibitory activity of the solvent. Plates
were kept at 4oC for hour for better spread-
ing of the extract material around the discs and
then incubated for a period of 24 h at 37oC. For
S. cerevisiae MYGP agar was used. Antibacte-
rial activity was defined as the diameter (mm) of
the clear inhibitory zone formed around the
discs.
The MIC of the extract was determined by
tube dilution techniques in Mueller-Hinton
broth (Merck) according to NCCLS (1998). The
range of concentration used was 2000-10000
µg/ml. Stock solution of Haritaki leaf dried
powder water extract were prepared in distilled
water at concentration of 10,000 µg/ml and
8000 µg/ml. The solutions were then serially
diluted. 0.9 ml of Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB)
was taken in each of sterile and dry glass vials
and 1.0 ml of the respective extract concentra-
tion was dispensed into respective vials. 100 µl
of bacterial suspension of interest that was pre-
viously grown in nutrient broth were added to
vial and incubated at 37oC for 24 hrs. The high-
est concentration that exhibited no visible
growth was recorded as the MIC. The last vials
with no growth were streaked on nutrient agar
plates and incubated at room temperature for 24
hrs. The lowest concentration that killed 100%
of the inoculum bacteria (no growth on plate)
was recorded as Minimum Bactericidal Concen-
trations (MBC).
Results
Ten standard antibiotic discs, viz ampicillin,
streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin,
nalidixic acid, trimethoprime, rifampicin, poly-
myxin B, ceftriaxone and oxytetracycline, all
purchased from Oxoid, UK were used to con-
struct the antibiograms of the microorganisms,
Salmonella sp, Shigella sp, Escherichia coli and
Vibrio cholerae that are commonly regarded as
enteric pathogens. The diameter of clear zone of
inhibition was determined in mm scale and the
finding was interpreted as ‘sensitive’, ‘interme-
diate sensitive’ or ‘resistant’ to the respective
drug based on the standard (NCCLS 1998).
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Antimicrobial activity of T. chebula
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Table 1: Antibiogram of enteric pathogens based on the production of zone of inhibition (in mm di-
ameter) around the antibiotic discs in Mueller-Hinton agar
Antibiotics
AMP
STR
C
CIP
NA
TMP
RP
PB
CRO
OTC
Salmonella
30
20
28
40
26
25
0
14
26
22
Shigella
0
23
0
32
0
48
20
10
18
20
E. coli
0
36
12
32
0
26
9
12
30
20
Vibrio cholerae
35
22
22
18
0
20
32
14
22
8
Antibiotic
Susceptibility
R
<10
<6
<4
<10
<16
<8
<13
<14
I
11-14
6-12
4-12
11-15
17-19
9-11
14-20
15-18
S
>14
>12
>12
>15
>19
>12
>20
>18
Salmonella
S
S
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
Shigella
R
S
R
S
R
S
S
I
I
S
E. coli
R
S
I
S
R
S
R
S
S
S
Vibrio cholerae
S
S
S
S
R
S
S
S
S
R
Keys: AMP = ampicillin (25 µg), STR = streptomycine (10 µg), C = chloramphenicol (30 µg), CIP = Ciprofloxacin
(5 µg), NA = nalidixic acid (30 µg), TMP = trimethoprime (5µg), RP = rifampicin (5 µg), PB = Polymyxin B (35 µg),
CRO = ceftriaxone (30 µg), OTC = Oxytetracycline (30 µg). Antibiotic susceptibility pattern (NCCLS 1998) is coded by
S = sensitive, I = intermediate, and R = resistant.
By comparing the antibacterial activity, it
was observed that the chloroform extract failed
to produce antibacterial activities to all the four
organisms tested, the methanol and aqueous ex-
tracts were the dominant ones in producing
greater zones of inhibition against the targets
(Figure 1). Conversely, none of the extract was
able to produce any biocidal effect on yeast (da-
ta not shown); hence the plant material can be
better used as an antibacterial agent, rather than
an antifungal agent.
Figure 1: Antibacterial activities of different organic and aqueous extracts of the leaves of T. che-
bula (10 mg/ ml) against enteric pathogens by employing disc-diffusion technique.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
Salmonella
Shigella
E. coli
V. cholerae
Zone of inhibition in mm
Methanol
Water
Ethanol
Ethyl acetate
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In order to analyze the relative efficacy of
the plant extract compared to that of the stan-
dard chemotherapeutic drugs, following equa-
tion was exercised. This data will give an im-
pression of the activity of the extract when
compared to chemotherapeutic drugs (Table 2).
%100
santibioticbyproducedinhibitionofzoneofdiameter extractbyproducedinhibitionofzoneofdiameter
esseffectivenRelative ×=
Table 2: Relative effectiveness of extract of T. chebula (in water and in methanol)
RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS (%)
in terms of methanol extract
in terms of aqueous extract
Salmonella
Shigella
E. coli
V. cholerae
Salmonella
Shigella
E. coli
V. cholerae
Ampicillin (25 µg)
53
*
*
40
50
*
*
34
Ceftriaxone (30 µg)
61
66
50
63
58
67
40
55
Chloramphenicol (30 µg)
57
*
125
64
54
*
100
55
Ciprofloxacin (5 µg)
40
38
47
77
38
47
38
67
Nalidixic acid (30 µg)
61
*
*
*
58
*
*
*
Oxytetracycline (30 µg)
72
60
75
175
68
60
60
150
Polymixin B (300 unit)
114
120
125
100
107
120
100
86
Rifampicin (5 µg)
*
60
166
44
*
60
133
38
Streptomycin (10 µg)
80
52
42
64
75
52
34
55
Trimethoprime (5 µg)
64
25
58
70
60
25
46
60
*-filled boxes indicate that while the pathogens exhibited sensitive response towards the experimental extract, they were
completely resistant to the corresponding drugs tested, hence no comparison could be calculated.
Table 2 reveals that both the methanolic and
water extract, produced equal or even greater
biocidal activities against two of the species, E.
coli and Shigella when compared to that of am-
picillin, chloramphenicol,nalidixic acid and po-
lymyxin-B. Their activities were superior to Ri-
fampicin but only against E. coli. This is par-
ticularly important given the fact that while
these drugs are failed to produce any inhibitory
effect against E. coli and Shigella, the plant’s
extract is a solution. However, the activity of the
extracts had more or less half of the efficacy
against Salmonella and V. cholerae when com-
pared to eight of the drugs except polymyxin B
and Rifampicin. Their superior activities against
V. cholerae over oxytetracycline are worth men-
tionable.
The MIC and MBC of the aqueous extract
against the pathogens of interest were deter-
mined by using macro-dilution method and the
results are summarized in Figure 2. While a rel-
atively small dose (6-7 mg/ ml) is required to
have complete killing of E. coli and Shigella sp,
8 mg/ml was found sufficient to abolish both
Salmonella and V. cholerae.
Figure 2: MICs and MBCs of aqueous extract
of T. chebula against enteric pathogens.
Discussion
The extract of T. chebula showed broad
spectrum antibacterial activity (Phadke and
Kulkarni 1989). The ethanol extract at a concen-
tration of 1 mg/disc showed maximum inhibi-
tion against S. epidermidis, followed by B.
subtilis (Kannan et al. 2009; Gupta et al. 2002).
It was reported that a T. pallida fruit methanolic
extract showed maximum activity against gram-
negative bacteria, while that of T. bellerica
showed the highest inhibition zones against
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Salmonella
Shigella
V. cholerae
E. coli MIC
MBC
Concentration of the aqueous extract (µg/ ml)
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000
Salmonella
Shigella
V. cholerae
E. coli MIC
MBC
MIC
MBC
Concentration of the aqueous extract (µg/ ml)
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli (Ghosh et
al. 2008). Our results demonstrated that both the
methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of
T. chebula are well effective in producing anti-
bacterial activities against gram-negative bacte-
ria, particularly the agents causing gastroenteri-
tis. Furthermore, in a few cases, these plant ex-
tracts were active against antibiotic resistant
bacteria under very low concentration, thus mi-
nimizing the possible toxic effects. Such a po-
tential of this medicinal plant, therefore de-
mands further research to unfold its therapeutic
values.
Acknowledgement: The authors are indebted to
Mr. Md. Giasuddin Khan and Muhammad Ru-
hul Hassan of Holy Drugs Laboratories, Dhaka,
Bangladesh for kindly providing the dried leaf
powder of T. chebula. This study was conducted
with a financial support of “Centre for Ad-
vanced Studies in Biological Sciences, Universi-
ty of Dhaka”, Dhaka 1000.
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... The culture was then aerated with fumes obtained from burning 5 g of VD for 3 min. Thereafter, absorbance at 540 nm was measured at 4,8,12,16,20,24,32,40 and 48 h. A log phase culture without VD aeration was included as a control. ...
... sarson Prain and Commiphora wightii (Arn) Bhandari, are known for their anti-microbial activities. [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] Besides, the rock salt and clarified butter present in VD are also reported to have anti-microbial property. Interestingly, authoritative ayurvedic texts, like Caraka-saṃ hitā, Susŕuta-saṃ hitāand Vāgbhata-saṃ hitā, not only identify micro-organism as Krimi but classify and nomenclate them based on their visibility to naked eye [invisible (Adrishya) and visible (Drishya)] and pathogenicity [non-pathogenic or natural (Sahaja) and pathogenic (Vaikā rika)]. ...
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Emerging antibiotic resistance has become a cosmopolitan problem and evoking researchers to search for new antimicrobials from natural constituents. The present study was intended to test the antimicrobial potential of traditionally used unexplored polyherbal recipes for curing digestive ailments. A total of 25 plants species were combined in different ratios to form 14 polyherbal recipes. After collecting and grinding plant parts, methanolic extracts of 14 polyherbal recipes were prepared by the cold maceration process. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of the polyherbal extracts was checked by agar well diffusion method at a concentration of 50 mg/ ml while minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by serial dilution method. Polyherbal recipes B and D showed significant inhibition zone each against Vibrio cholerae (25.63; p< 0.001). Recipe G (23.33; p< 0.001) showed better efficacy against Escherichia coli. Recipe E and G significantly inhibited Proteus species (28.33; 24.33; p < 0.001). Recipe B was highly effective against Salmonella typhi. Recipe C, A and F had significant antifungal affect and inhibited Aspergillus nigar (28.67; p< 0.05), Aspergillus fumigatus (27; p< 0.01) Trichoderma (30; p< 0.001), Rhizopus (19.67; p< 0.01), and Fusarium graminearum (28.67;p< 0.001). Polyherbal formulations A, B, D, K, and N were active with the lowest concentration. MIC ranges within 3.12-25 mg/ml while minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) between 12.5-50 mg/ml. Polyherbal recipes’ A, B, D, G, K and N have enhanced antimicrobial potential with better efficacy than tested antibiotics and should be evaluated for further scientific validation.
Chapter
The Chemistry inside Spices and Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part II continues from the previous part with chapters on the treatment of skin diseases and oral problems. This part focuses on clinically important herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ashwagandha (Indian winter cherry), basil, Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan). In terms of phytochemicals, this part presents chapters that cover resveratrol, piperine and circumin.
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Haritakyadi Yoga is used to treat Urinary tract infections, as mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature. In the present study, Haritakyadi Yoga formulation has been screened for antibacterial activity against selected bacterial species. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the extracts was performed by the broth dilution method. The Kirby-Bauer agar disc diffusion method studied the zone of inhibition at 2 and 4 mg/ml concentrations in DMSO solution. Nitrofurantoin drugs (5 µg/ml) were used as a reference control for the antibacterial study. The zone of inhibition study revealed concentration dependant nature of the extract with better effectiveness against gram-positive bacteria than gram-negative bacteria. The Haritakyadi Yoga formulation and individual components exhibited antibacterial activity against different bacterial strains responsible for Urinary tract infection.
Book
The Chemistry inside Spices & Herbs: Research and Development brings comprehensive information about the chemistry of spices and herbs with a focus on recent research in this field. The book is an extensive 2-part collection of 20 chapters contributed by experts in phytochemistry with the aim to give the reader deep knowledge about phytochemical constituents in herbal plants and their benefits. The contents include reviews on the biochemistry and biotechnology of spices and herbs, herbal medicines, biologically active compounds and their role in therapeutics among other topics. Chapters which highlight natural drugs and their role in different diseases and special plants of clinical significance are also included. Part II continues from the previous part with chapters on the treatment of skin diseases and oral problems. This part focuses on clinically important herbs such as turmeric, fenugreek, ashwagandha (Indian winter cherry), basil, Terminalia chebula (black myrobalan). In terms of phytochemicals, this part presents chapters that cover resveratrol, piperine and circumin. Audience: This book is an ideal resource for scholars (in life sciences, phytomedicine and natural product chemistry) and general readers who want to understand the importance of herbs, spices and traditional medicine in pharmaceutical and clinical research.
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Antibiotic, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic medicines are used to treat the diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms. These microbes effects humans, animals and plants and produces diseases. As per the recent report of World Health Organization (WHO), the cases of Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is continuously rising, which causes ineffective treatment and prevention of infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites. AMR occurs when these microbes gets resistance and the medications gets ineffective against these microbes, which makes treatment of common infections difficult and consequently increases the risk of severe illness, spread of disease and death. Because the medicines becomes purposeless, infections continue to exist in the body and increases the likeliness of spread to others. WHO recommends reduced use of synthetic antibiotics and raised use of herbal antimicrobial drugs. These are the ways by which the AMR can be controlled or abolished. Herbal drugs can be used for this purpose because these are considered to be effective with no or less side effects. In the present article we discussed about peptic ulcer, causative agent of peptic ulcer and the medicinal plants which can be used to treat this disease. Twenty medicinal plants were listed which contains both antibacterial and antiulcer activity. Due to these properties of these medicinal plants, these can be used for the treatment of peptic ulcer because of dual benefits firstly, antibacterial which kills or retards the growth of Helicobacter pylori and secondly, antiulcer which heals the ulcer.
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An ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit was studied for its antibacterial activity against clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. The antimicrobial susceptibility was screened using the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that it was active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The T. chebula fruit extract was highly effective against Salmonella typhi SSFP 4S, Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC was determined as 1 mg/ml for S. typhi. These results indicate that the T. chebula dry fruit possesses a potential broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and a search for the active compound is needed.
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Globally, an estimated 50% of all antimicrobials serve veterinary purposes. Bacteria that inevitably develop antibiotic resistance in animals comprise food-borne pathogens, opportunistic pathogens and commensal bacteria. The same antibiotic resistance genes and gene transfer mechanisms can be found in the microfloras of animals and humans. Direct contact, food and water link animal and human habitats. The accumulation of resistant bacteria by the use of antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine and the spread of such bacteria via agriculture and direct contamination are documented.
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The use of antimicrobial agents in the modern farm industry has created a reservoir of resistant bacteria in food animals. Foods of animal origin are often contaminated with enterococci that are likely to contribute resistance genes, virulence factors, or other properties to enterococci IN humans. The potential hazard to human health from antimicrobial-resistant enterococci in animals is questioned by some scientists because of evidence of host specificity of enterococci. Similarly, the occurrences of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci in hospitals have lead to the misconception that antimicrobial-resistant animal enterococci should be disregarded as a human health hazard. On the basis of review of the literature, we find that neither the results provided by molecular typing that classify enterococci as host-specific organisms nor the occurrence of specific nosocomial clones of enterococci provide reasons to change the current view that antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from animals pose a threat to human health. On the contrary, antimicrobial resistance genes appear to spread freely between enterococci from different reservoirs, irrespective of their apparent host association.
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Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The highest antibacterial potentiality was exhibited by the methanolic leaf extract of T. chebula, followed by the aqueous fruit extract of T. bellerica. The leaf extract of T. chebula can be considered to be as equally potent as the most effective antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, kanamycin, ofloxacin and cephalexin. A sensitivity test performed with commonly used sensitivity test disks resulted in the appearance of multiple drug resistance phenotypes of the bacteria tested. A comparison of data in the inhibition zones of pathogenic bacteria showed that gentamycin, ofloxacin, kanamycin and tobramycin were effective against all of the bacterial strains tested.
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Study of in vitro antibacterial activity of extracts from the plants T. chebula, E. alba and O. sanctum was carried out by the disk diffusion technique. All showed such activity against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The activity against Salmonella organisms was shown only by T. chebula; against Shigella organisms by T. chebula and E. alha; but not by O. sanctum. The widest spectrum of antibacterial activity was shown by T. chebula. It was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial activity was also most potent. The antibacterial spectrum of E. alba was in between that of T. chebula and O. sanctum. The narrowest spectrum of antibacterial activity was observed in O. sanctum.
Article
The methanol extract of the dried fruit powder of Terminalia pallida was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The methanol extract showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.
Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing In Blood Safety and Clinical Technology; Guidelines on Standard Operating Procedures for Microbiology, Eighth Informational Supplement
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NCCLS and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 1998. In Blood Safety and Clinical Technology; Guidelines on Standard Operating Procedures for Microbiology, Eighth Informational Supplement. M100-S8, 18 (1), NCCLS, Pennsylvania, USA.
Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts
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Ghosh, A., Das, B.K., Roy, A., Mandal, B., Chanda, G. 2008. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts. Journal of Natural Medicines, 62: 259-262.