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Current trends to reduce raw materials application lead to the idea of using solid residuals from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in the construction industry in a similar way as solid residuals from coal-fired power plants. However, MSWI plant solid residuals are incomparably more heterogeneous than those of coal-fired power plants. Moreover, their environmental impact could be more dangerous due to the POPs and heavy metals content. Therefore, effective elimination of above-mentioned negative impacts is a prerequisite for further ash application. Detailed description of MSWI plant technology equipped with fly ashes acid extraction for heavy metals wash-out will be presented. Composition of solid residuals, contents of minor and trace elements and physico-chemical properties will also be summarized in the study. Some trends of ash properties will be concluded, and the effect of MSWI technology and point of fly ash separation from flue gases will be discussed. layer for carriageways, mounds or backfills.
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Fly Ash Treatment Technology in
Modern Waste Incineration Plant
Michal Šyc1, Martin Keppert2, Michael Pohořelý1, Petr Novák3, Miroslav Punčochář1,
Eva Fišerová1, and Vladimír Pekárek1
1Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the AS CR, v.v.i., Rozvojová 2, 165 02
Prague 6, Czech Republic, +420 220 390 372, E-mail: <syc@icpf.cas.cz>,
<gas@icpf.cas.cz>.
2Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech
Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague 6, Czech Republic, E-mail:
<martin.keppert@fsv.cvut.cz>.
3MSWI TERMIZO, Inc., Tř. Dr.M.Horákové 571/56, 460 06 Liberec 7, Czech Republic.
ABSTRACT
Current trends to reduce raw materials application lead to the idea of using solid residuals
from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants in the construction industry in a
similar way as solid residuals from coal-fired power plants. However, MSWI plant solid
residuals are incomparably more heterogeneous than those of coal-fired power plants.
Moreover, their environmental impact could be more dangerous due to the POPs and heavy
metals content. Therefore, effective elimination of above-mentioned negative impacts is a
prerequisite for further ash application.
Detailed description of MSWI plant technology equipped with fly ashes acid extraction for
heavy metals wash-out will be presented. Composition of solid residuals, contents of minor
and trace elements and physico-chemical properties will also be summarized in the study.
Some trends of ash properties will be concluded, and the effect of MSWI technology and
point of fly ash separation from flue gases will be discussed. layer for carriageways, mounds
or backfills.
TECHNOLOGY OF MSWI TERMIZO
Technological line of the municipal solid waste incinerator TERMIZO (see Figure 1) consists
of a combustion chamber with a stoker-fired furnace and with a post-combustion chamber
with three vertical radiation passes and one horizontal convection pass. Ammonia liquor, 25
wt. %, is added into the upper part of the first vertical pass of the combustion chamber for
selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) of nitrogen oxides. A power unit (steam boiler), a
three-stage electrostatic precipitator (ESP), a catalytic filter (REMEDIA D/F Catalytic Filter
System by W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.) and a three-stage wet scrubbing system are
situated downstream to the post-combustion chamber [Šyc et al., 2006; Pekárek et al., 2006].
In the first stage of wet scrubbing system (quench, HCl and HF absorption) proceeds shock
cooling down of the flue gases by water from temperatures higher than 200 °C to about 65 °C
take place, and also absorption of the gaseous acidic components, including some heavy
metals (e.g. Hg, Cd, Zn, and Pb). In the second neutralization stage (SO2 absorption and
Coventry University and
The University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Centre for Byproducts Utilization,
Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies
June 28  June 30, 2010, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Ancona, Italy.
Main Proceedings ed. J Zachar, P Claisse, T R Naik, E Ganjian. ISBN 9781450714907
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oxidation) sulfur oxides are removed by the counterflow sprinkling of the flue gases with
softened water with controlled doses of NaOH (pH adjustment to about 6). In the third wet
scrubber stage dust and aerosols are removed by pressurized water in the course of the flue
gases flow through a system of Venturi jets (so-called Ringjet).
Steam boiler Electrostatic
precipitator
SO2
Absorption +
oxidation
Ringjet
Bottom ash
bunker Neutralization Sedimentation
Dewatering
Municipal
waste
NH3
Emergency stack
Stack
NaOH
Fly ash acid
extraction
Water
Water
Ca(OH)2Na2S
FeCl3
Waste water
21 882 m3
Heavy metals filter cake
792 t/year
Magnetic
separation
Produced
material Iron scrap
1 406 t/year
Catalytic
filter
Water
Combustion
chamber
SNCR
Vacuum belt
filter Precipitation
1 445 t/y 950 t/y 21 t/y
2 416 t/y
91 165 t/y
26 180 t/y
Water
Three stage wet scrubbing system
Water Quench
HCl, HF
absorption
Steam boiler Electrostatic
precipitator
SO2
Absorption +
oxidation
Ringjet
Bottom ash
bunker Neutralization Sedimentation
Dewatering
Municipal
waste
NH3
Emergency stack
Stack
NaOH
Fly ash acid
extraction
Water
Water
Ca(OH)2Na2S
FeCl3
Waste water
21 882 m3
Heavy metals filter cake
792 t/year
Magnetic
separation
Produced
material Iron scrap
1 406 t/year
Catalytic
filter
Water
Combustion
chamber
SNCR
Vacuum belt
filter Precipitation
1 445 t/y 950 t/y 21 t/y
2 416 t/y
91 165 t/y
26 180 t/y
Water
Three stage wet scrubbing system
Water Quench
HCl, HF
absorption
Figure 1 Flow sheet of MSWI TERMIZO (data from 2007)
In the MSWI Termizo fly ashes are stored in a silo and subsequently treated by a process
called FLUWA. The FLUWA process consists in fly ash extraction by acidic technological
water (pH 3.5) from the water quench under higher temperature (ca. 70 °C) for minimum
45 minutes. Obtained ash suspension is separated and washed out by water on a vacuum belt
filter. The filtrate, together with technological water from the second stage of wet scrubbing
system, is neutralized by lime. Precipitation of heavy metals by means of Na2S and addition
of the FeCl3 - flocculation agent at pH 9.5 under the formation of a flocculous precipitate are
the subsequent steps. The precipitate is separated in a sedimentation tank, washed with water,
and dewatered on candle filter in form of a filter press cake. The filter cake containing heavy
metals is collected in special containers and disposed of on a hazardous waste landfill.
Technological water from the ashes extraction and the remaining water from the wet
scrubbing system are treated in a waste water treatment system. The cleaned technological
water is discharged to a sewerage system. Bottom ash from the combustion chamber grate is
cooled by passing through a water bath and stored in a bunker where it is mixed with acid
extracted fly ash.
Furthermore, produced dewatered filter cake can be potentially used as a raw material for
recycling Zn and some other metals. By above mentioned process of acid extraction of fly
ashes it is possible to remove the following amounts of heavy metals: Cd≥85%; Zn≥85%; Pb,
Cu≥33%; Hg≥95% [European Commission, 2006]. The Swiss company Von Roll is the
supplier of the described technology. A similar technology is installed in more than ten
European incinerators. Moreover, the acid extraction technology FLUWA mentioned above
is the best available technique (BAT) for ashes processing [European Commission, 2006].
Generally, solid residuals from combustion process could be divided into bottom ash and fly
ashes. Moreover, fly ashes could be subdivided into more fractions on the basis of point of
separation from technological line. In the MSWI Termizo, there is:
fly ash collected in the power unit (steam boiler),
o in the 2nd and 3rd pass of boiler (collected at temperature higher than
700 °C),
o in 4th boiler pass (700500 °C),
fly ash from the three-stage electrostatic precipitator (500250 °C) and
fly ash from the catalytic filter (200250 °C).
However, fly ash enters the acid extraction process as a mixture of above mentioned
fractions. Annual production of solid residuals in the MSWI Termizo in the year 2007 is
shown in Figure 1.
ASH PROPERTIES AND COMPOSITION
The character of solid residuals from combustion is predominantly determined by two
factors. The composition of incinerated wastes is the first one. Incinerated waste composition
depends partially on the given season of the year; substantial differences are connected with
the geographical location of the incinerator. The second factor affecting solid residuals
character is the point of separation from flue gases. Character, composition and the POPs
content are also substantially influenced by technological line of given incinerator.
Physicochemical properties of ashes are presented in Table 1. The solubility tests were done
at liquid to solid ratio (L/S) 10:1 at a room temperature, the pH of ashes was determined in
distilled water at L/S 10:1 as well. Loss on ignition (LOI) was determined by heating at the
temperature of 550 °C for 6 hours.
Table 1 Physicochemical properties of fly ashes
Bottom ash
Boiler
2nd, 3rd
pass
Boiler
4th pass
Catalytic
filter
Fly ash
mixture
pH
9.3 ± 0.5
12.1 ± 0.5
11.9 ± 0.5
6.2 ± 0.5
11.7 ± 0.5
LOI (wt. %)
1.2 ± 0.2
2.6 ± 0.3
3.9 ± 0.3
1.5 ± 0.2
2.0 ± 0.2
LBD (kg m-3)
1180 ± 150
820 ± 100
670 ± 100
190 ± 50
650 ± 100
Solubility in (wt. %)
Distill. water
10 ± 3
14 ± 3
16 ± 4
60 ± 7
23 ± 5
HCl (pH=3.5)
-
15 ± 3
16 ± 3
50 ± 5
22 ± 5
HCl conc.
30 ± 3
52 ± 5
51 ± 5
87 ± 5
59 ± 5
LOI - loss on ignition; LBD - loose poured bulk density; fly ash mixture - mixture of all fly
ashes fractions
The LOI value of bottom ash is determined principally by the amount of unburnt
carbonaceous residue. In the case of fly ashes, the LOI should be ascribed to chemically
bound water and to volatile substances condensed on fly ash. The LOI value of bottom ash
1.2 wt. % means that MSWI TERMIZO could be rated among modern incinerators.
Alkaline pH values were found for bottom ash, both boiler fly ashes and for the mixture of
fly ashes. Fly ash from the ESP and from the catalytic filter is neutral or very weakly acidic.
The alkaline pH values are given by the high contents of alkaline components in ashes. The
neutral or weakly acidic character was found for fly ashes with the longest residence time in
flue gases separated at lower temperatures. Along with their composition acidobasic
character of fly ashes is given by the so-called sulfation, i.e. by the amounts of adsorbed SO2
that is given by the contact time of the flue gases and ashes and by the flue gases temperature
[IWAG Group, 1997]. Therefore, neutral or weakly acidic character of ESP and catalytic
filter fly ashes is given by condensation products from the flue gases, i.e. mainly sulfates and
chlorides. At higher temperatures these compounds are either volatilized or decomposed.
Average values of selected elements content from XRF analyses are presented in Table 2.
Furthermore, high differences of elements contents were found for all ashes, therefore a
variation of up to 50% could be expected. Published range [Hinton and Lane, 1991; Pekárek,
2000] is also shown in Table 2 for comparison. Trends of increase or decrease in the content
of elements in studied ash fractions are depicted in Table 2 as well. The increase of Cl and S
contents on fly ashes with the decrease of flue gases temperature is evident from Table 2.
Chlorine and sulphur compounds with metals are volatilized at higher temperatures. This fact
is confirmed by the above-mentioned changes of fly ashes acidobasic character. Similar
trends corresponding to the behavior of Cl and S were also found for Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn.
These results prove the fact that increasing and very high concentrations of above-mentioned
elements, especially in fly ash from the catalytic filter, are mainly caused by condensation of
metal chlorides and sulfates. Furthermore, decreasing amount of ash-forming elements oxides
with decreasing temperature, which is evident from the data in Table 2. The highest content
of these oxides was found in bottom ash, the lowest content in catalytic filter fly ash. The
found behavior could be expected due to high thermal stability of ash-forming oxides.
Table 2 Contents of selected elements in ashes (average values)
Bottom
ash
Boiler
2nd, 3rd
pass
Boiler
4th pass
ESP
Catalytic
filter
Fly ash
mixture
Trend
Published
range
Cl*
14
57
130
200
220
160
18380
S*
18
70
85
68
140
75
-
1.4120
As
BDL
90
180
160
280
150
-
18960
Cd
BDL
160
650
780
2 000
450
102 100
Co
170
140
90
60
BDL
100
-
1.9300
Cr
1 200
910
1 100
740
290
900
10860
Cu
2 200
1 300
1 700
3 000
5 400
2 200
164 100
Mn
4 100
2 900
2 800
1 900
600
2 400
2001 700
Ni
400
190
230
330
100
250
-
19710
Pb
BDL
3 100
9 500
14 000
34 000
10 000
25027
000
Sn
500
950
2 200
4 200
8 500
2 800
1405 900
Sb
350
1 100
2 700
4 400
6 800
4 200
-
583 300
V
350
250
290
200
40
160
-
4.0150
Zn*
10
32
57
77
140
66
0.4100
A**
97
83
74
65
45
70
all in mg kg-1; * in g kg-1; ** in wt. %; BDL - below the detection limit, A - sum of ash
forming elements oxides
For the practical application of solid residuals, it is very important to know the POPs
contamination of ashes. Contents of polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz), polychlorinated
phenols (PCPh) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are
shown in Table 3. In the MSWI Termizo there is relatively low contamination of fly ashes by
organic pollutants. For comparison, concentrations of PCBz and PCPh in fly ashes from
baghouse filters (temperature at collection point ca 150200 °C) of old incinerators are
reported to be within the range of 1004 000 ng g-1. The contents of these substances in
ashes, as their concentrations in flue gases, are given by the quality of combustion process in
the waste incinerator. Therefore, a high quality of combustion in the MSWI Termizo can be
concluded. Furthermore, from Table 3 it is obvious that with decreasing temperature at the
point of fly ashes separation, the content of organic compounds on them is increasing. There
are two basic explanations of this fact. The first one and probably the more important one is
that flue gases with fly ashes are passing through the “temperature window” (250400 °C)
where the formation of POPs by de novo synthetic reactions occurs. The second, which also
contributes to increase of selected compounds contents in fly ashes with decreasing flue gases
temperature, is the POPs condensation from the gaseous phase of flue gases.
Table 3 Contents of selected organic compounds in ashes
ng g-1
Bottom
ash
Boiler
2nd, 3rd
pass
Boiler
4th pass
ESP
Catalytic
filter
PCBz
BDL
BDL
BDL
max 100
250400
PCPh
BDL
max 50
max 50
max 100
100250
TEQ PCDD/F
max 0.1
max 1
max 1
max 1
110
BDL - below the detection limit
The characterisation of solid residuals from the point of view of civil engineering (detailed
chemical composition, morphology and pozzolanic activity, enthalpy of hydration, etc.) is
presented elsewhere [Keppert et al., 2010].
PRODUCED MATERIAL
Mixture of bottom ash with acid extracted fly ashes is used for production of the material
called SPRUK®. Produced material can be used as a bed construction layer for carriageways,
mounds or backfills. Therefore, solid residuals from the MSWI TERMIZO were studied with
respect to their composition and also properties suitable for their application in the
construction industry.
Bottom ash contains β-quartz (SiO2), anhydrite (CaSO4), albite (Na (AlSi3O8)), calcite
(CaCO3), hematite (Fe2O3) as main crystalline components, furthermore low amounts of
portlandite (Ca(OH)2), hydroxylellestadite (Ca10(SiO4)3(SO4)3(OH)2), potassium feldspar
(K2O·Al2O3·6SiO2) and illite (nK2O·Al2O3·SiO2·nH2O) were also found. The acid-extracted
fly ashes contain mainly CaSO4·2H2O and in lower amounts, β-quartz. The crystallographic
composition of solid residuals from different incinerators varies, e.g. fly ashes from
pulverized coal power plant contain mainly alumino-silicate glass, followed by mullite
(Al6Si2O13) and quartz (SiO2) [Moreno et al., 2005].
The successful application of the SPRUK material requires mainly its water stability,
particularly low solubility and pollutants leachability. Both required features, especially very
low heavy metals leachability, are provided by the fly ashes acid extraction process.
Moreover, for bottom ash both unfavorable effects can not be expected to be significant.
Contamination of material by the POPs is also a decisive factor for further application.
Therefore, mixture of bottom ash and fly ashes was analyzed for PCDD/F content. The
values of 0.12 ± 0.02 ng TEQ PCDD/F g-1 were found.
Table 4 shows contents of selected metals in acid-extracted fly ashes and the efficiency of
acid extraction from the data obtained in the MSWI TERMIZO. Very high efficiency of acid
extraction was found for Cd, Cr, Sb, and Zn. Other metals such as Cu, Ni and Pb were
extracted with the efficiency of about 50%. Very low efficiency was found for As and V.
Table 4 Selected elements contents in acid extracted fly ashes
Fly ashes after
acid extraction
Extraction
efficiency (%)
Al
(g kg-1)
130 40
-
As
(mg kg-1)
200 50
10
Cd
(mg kg-1)
50 20
85
Co
(mg kg-1)
22 11
80
Cr
(mg kg-1)
180 110
80
Cu
(mg kg-1)
1000 270
55
Mn
(mg kg-1)
1200 170
50
Ni
(mg kg-1)
110 40
55
Pb
(mg kg-1)
5900 2600
45
Sb
(mg kg-1)
730 200
80
Sn
(mg kg-1)
1100 500
60
V
(mg kg-1)
140 100
15
Zn
(g kg-1)
16 5
75
Table 5 Results of leachability of SPRUK (average values from year 2007)
mg l-1
Leachability of SPRUK
DM
2200
DOC
19
Chlorides
280
Sulfates
920
Al
1.2
Cr
0.023
Cu
0.31
Sb
0.014
V
0.027
Zn
0.0061
As, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn
BDL
pH
10.4
DM - dissolved matter; DOC - dissolved organic carbon; BDL - below the detection limit
The most important criterion for the practical application of the SPRUK material is
leachability of present pollutants. SPRUK leachability tests were performed under laboratory
conditions using the standard procedures (L/S 10:1, distilled water, 24 hours). It was found
that leachability of most metals was below their detection limits (see Table 5). Only Al, Cr,
Cu, Sb, V, and Zn were above the detection limits; however, all these metal concentrations
were below the legislative limits valid in the Czech Republic. Higher values of leachability
were found only for chlorides and sulfates. Ecotoxicity of the SPRUK material was negative.
A method simulating outdoor conditions was used for more exact assessment of SPRUK
behaviour and chemical stability in application. It was found that SPRUK material was not
suitable for application in permanent contact with water. Under outdoor conditions (e.g.,
intermittent dry and rain conditions) a gradual decrease of water permeation through the
material to about 2030% of starting value at the experiment beginning was observed.
Moreover, it was found that after the experiment upper layers of the SPRUK were solidified.
Outdoor tests were performed under the condition of inappropriate SPRUK usage as an upper
layer of soil. However, this material is supposed to be used only as a background material,
which will be covered with another layer. It is evident that under these conditions of
application, contacts of the SPRUK material with water will be substantially lowered.
Moreover, due to the gradual material solidification of outer layer water penetration, it would
be significantly decreased. It could be expected that the SPRUK layer would flow round as a
monolithic bloc in case of contacts with water.
CONCLUSIONS
Properties and character of ash fractions from municipal waste incineration plants vary very
widely. Composition of incinerated waste and point of ash separation from the technological
line seems to be the most important parameters affecting ash characters. All negative effects
such as ash solubility, inappropriate pH, heavy metals and organic contaminants content rise
with temperature decrease at the point of ash separation. Therefore, it can be concluded that
bottom ash and boiler ash have a better prerequisite for application in civil engineering.
Furthermore, some waste incineration plants are equipped with ash treatment technology. In
the MSWI Termizo, there is acid extraction of fly ashes by acidic technological water from
the wet scrubbing system. This technology eliminates some of above-mentioned negatives,
namely fly ashes solubility and leachability of heavy metals. Mixture of acid extracted fly ash
with bottom ash is used as bed construction layer for carriageways, mounds or backfills.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work could not have been realized without financial support of the EEA and Norway
grant intermediate by the National Training Fund (project A/CZ0046/1/0027) and Ministry of
Education, Youth and Sports (programme Health and life quality, project WARMES
2B08048).
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... The present paper deals with four types of ashes produced by MSWI facility Termizo in Liberec in Czech Republic [Šyc et al. 2009]. The ashes were tested as concrete admixture in roles of cement and aggregates replacement. ...
... Since the pH of leachate of ESP and bottom ash was lower than 12 [Šyc et al. 2009] the possible effect of MSWI ashes admixture on pH of the prepared concrete was examined. The pH of concrete containing the ashes in the amount of 10 % fine aggregates replacement was not influenced by the ashes presence and was constant and the same as the pH of the control sample (pH = 12) during two months. ...
Article
Full-text available
Waste materials generated by Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) facility Termizo in Liberec (Czech Republic) - bottom ash, two types of furnace fly ash and fly ash from Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) were tested as admixtures in Portland cement based concrete. The effect of ashes on the initial and final setting time of cement paste was determined by the Vicat method. The fly ashes were used as cement replacement in amounts of 2 to 15 %. The quality of the cement replacement was evaluated by measurement of the compressive strength of the prepared concrete. The bottom ash and fly ashes were also tested as partial replacement of fine aggregates. The sand replacement by the bottom ash at levels up to 5 % caused slight increase in compressive strength. The fly ashes used as fine aggregates caused a decrease in strength. The pH of concretes containing ashes was monitored for 2 months, no effect of ashes on pH was observed.
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An integral part of current Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) management strategies around the world include the use of incineration, either with or without energy recovery. During recent years, the practice has been subjected to increased scrutiny due to concerns about the environmental impact of landfilled residues from the process.
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Fly ashes sourced from European pulverised coal burning power plants (from Spain, The Netherlands, Italy and Greece) were characterised in terms of their chemical composition, mineralogy and physical properties. The amount and composition of the glass present in the ashes were also determined. The materials analysed have very different compositions and were selected with a view to determining their suitability for different applications and for further studies on applications. The results were compared to the literature to determine their similarities to UK coal fly ashes. Chemical analysis has enabled the categorisation of the ashes based on their oxide contents. Devitrification of the glass phase has been effected using suitable heat treatments and crystal phases formed are used as an indicator of glass reactivity. Based on leaching tests, certain ashes were identified as having limitations for some further uses due to the relatively high levels of leachable trace elements. A wide range of physical properties such as density were observed and these are related to factors such as mineralogical content and particle morphology.
Article
Physical and chemical characteristics of fly ash samples from thirteen U.S. MSW incinerators were tested for correlations with PCDD concentrations. Strong correlations may indicate catalytic activity in the synthesis of PCDDs. Copper is strongly correlated with PCDD concentration but carbon and surface area are not. Other correlations include positive effects by sulfur, chlorine, sodium, potassium, and zinc and negative effects by silicon and aluminum.
Characterization of Solid Waste Materials Produced by a Modern Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Facility from the Point of View of Civil Engineering
  • M Keppert
  • V Tydlitát
  • P Volfová
  • M Šyc
  • R Černý
Keppert, M., Tydlitát, V., Volfová, P., Šyc, M., Černý, R. (2010). "Characterization of Solid Waste Materials Produced by a Modern Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Facility from the Point of View of Civil Engineering", Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials and Technologies.
Application of catalytic filter in the municipal waste incineration plant Termizo in Liberec for lowering of persistent organic compounds in emissions
  • V Pekárek
  • M Punčochář
  • M Šyc
  • T Pařízek
  • P Stehlík
  • L Bébar
  • J Oral
Pekárek, V., Punčochář, M., Šyc, M., Pařízek, T., Stehlík, P., Bébar, L., Oral, J. (2006). "Application of catalytic filter in the municipal waste incineration plant Termizo in Liberec for lowering of persistent organic compounds in emissions", Ochrana ovzduší, 19,16-22 (in Czech).
Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Reference Document on the Best Available Techniques for Waste Incineration
European Commission. (2006). "Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control, Reference Document on the Best Available Techniques for Waste Incineration", <http://eippcb.jrc.es/reference/wi.html>.
Proceeding of Workshop on Control Options/Technologies to Abate Heavy Metal and Persistent Organic Pollutant Emissions from Stationary Sources and Products
  • V Pekárek
Pekárek, V. (2000). Proceeding of Workshop on Control Options/Technologies to Abate Heavy Metal and Persistent Organic Pollutant Emissions from Stationary Sources and Products, Průhonice, Czech Republic, April 26-28, pp. 51-55.