Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) Essential Oil

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Abstract
Essential oils from the whole aerial parts as well as stem/leaf, inflorescence and unripe and ripe seeds were isolated through hydro-distillation from aerial parts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) plants were collected from Hamedan and Tehran regions at the vegetative, flowering and seeding stages. The amount of essential oil obtained from the above parts of the Hamedan plant samples were 3.80%, 6.01%, 3.61%, 0.49% and 0.31% (w/w) and from those collected from Tehran were 4.96%, 6.94%, 3.39%, 0.96% and 0.87% (w/w), respectively. Analysis of extracted oil by GC and GC/MS showed that camphor was the major constituent in total oils (10.3%–53.3%) followed by chrysanthenyl acetate (4.3%–22.5%) and camphene (4.1%–10.4%). However, bornyl acetate, α-pinene and p-cymene were found in the plant samples from Hamedan only. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was determined using the disk diffusion method against Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Micrococcus luteus & Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica, Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). Results showed a significant difference between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in their susceptibility to the oil, so that Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of feverfew oil. In addition, the oil extracted from Hamedan samples showed more antimicrobial activity compared to those from Tehran.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY
ISSN Print: 1560–8530; ISSN Online: 1814–9596
10–157/AWB/2010/12–5–759–763
http://www.fspublishers.org Full Length Article
To cite this paper: Izadi, Z., M. Esna-Ashari, K. Piri and P. Davoodi, 2010. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of feverfew (Tanacetum
parthenium) essential oil. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 12: 759–763
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Feverfew
(Tanacetum parthenium) Essential Oil
ZAHRA IZADI, MAHMOOD ESNA-ASHARI1†, KHOSRO PIRI AND POORANDOKHT DAVOODI
Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
Department of Oral medicine, Dental Faculty, Medical University, Hamedan, Iran
1Corresponding author’s e-mail: m.esnaashari@basu.ac.ir
ABSTRACT
Essential oils from the whole aerial parts as well as stem/leaf, inflorescence and unripe and ripe seeds were isolated through
hydro-distillation from aerial parts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) plants were collected from Hamedan and Tehran
regions at the vegetative, flowering and seeding stages. The amount of essential oil obtained from the above parts of the
Hamedan plant samples were 3.80%, 6.01%, 3.61%, 0.49% and 0.31% (w/w) and from those collected from Tehran were
4.96%, 6.94%, 3.39%, 0.96% and 0.87% (w/w), respectively. Analysis of extracted oil by GC and GC/MS showed that
camphor was the major constituent in total oils (10.3%–53.3%) followed by chrysanthenyl acetate (4.3%–22.5%) and
camphene (4.1%–10.4%). However, bornyl acetate, α-pinene and p-cymene were found in the plant samples from Hamedan
only. The antimicrobial activity of the oils was determined using the disk diffusion method against Gram positive bacteria
(Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Micrococcus luteus & Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Yersinia enterocolitica,
Klebsiella oxytoca, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli & Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and yeast (Candida albicans). Results
showed a significant difference between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in their susceptibility to the oil, so that
Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of feverfew oil. In addition, the oil extracted from
Hamedan samples showed more antimicrobial activity compared to those from Tehran. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers
Key Words: Feverfew; Antimicrobial activity; Essential oils; GC-MS
INTRODUCTION
Increasing the number of antibiotic resistant bacteria
has led to a demand for new agents that could be used to
decrease the prevalence of bacterial diseases (Lis-Balchin &
Deans, 1997). Available evidences show that essential oils
extracted from plants could be employed as antimicrobial
agents in food systems (Sefidkon & Ahmadi, 2000).
Recently, screening for new plants with antibacterial activity
has been the subject of many investigations since their
essential oils with antibacterial activity could be the
promising agents for this purpose (Dorman & Deans, 2000;
Imelouane et al., 2009). Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium
L.) is a perennial herbaceous essential oil bearing plant
belongs to Asteraceae family. The species of genus
Tanacetum have been used as medicinal plants for over
2000 years (Omidbeigi, 2007). Interest in the genus has
been stimulated by its biological activities, particularly as
insect antifeedants, antitumor and antimicrobial activities
due to its sesquiterpenoid constituents (Burt, 2004). This
genus has been found in different regions of many countries
including Iran, Anatolia, Jordan, Iraq, Turkey, Afghanistan
and Pakistan (Awang, 2000).
Feverfew, is an aromatic plant with about 65 cm
height, white inflorescence and achene fruit that grows in
stony slopes and river beds (Mozaffarian, 1996; Rechinger,
2002). Tanacetum species contain sesquiterpenoids and
flavonoids mainly, whereas the other terpenoids and
phenolic compounds are rarely found in these plants
(Bernath, 2000). Sesquiterpenoids as the main constituents
of the genus, supposed to be the bioactive principles of
plants. Flavonoids and essential oils are also pointed out as
active substances in some species. Oil composition of T.
parthenium, T. argyrophyllum, T. aucheranum and T.
chiliophyllum has previously been reported (Gören et al.,
2002; Akpulat et al., 2005; Omidbaigi, 2007; Salamci et al.,
2007; Tabanca et al., 2007; Askari, 2008). However, to the
best of our knowledge no biological assays of feverfew have
so far been performed.
Composition of the oils extracted from the aerial parts
of T. argenteum has also been reported by Kalodera et al.
(2000) from two regions near Wurzburg in Germany and
Riva Del Garda in Italy. The main component of plant oils
collected from both regions has been cis-thujone with the
Izadi et al. / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 12, No. 5, 2010
760
amounts of 69.9% and 37.3%, respectively. The German
plant samples have also shown to have trans-thujone (5.6%)
camphor (6.5%) and 1, 8-cineole (3.2%); while those from
Italy contained α-Pinene (29%), (E)-sesquilavandulol (16%)
and camphor (14%).
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical
compositions of essential oil extracted from different parts
of feverfew plant and to investigate antimicrobial activities
of the oil against some bacteria and fungi.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials: Plant materials were collected from
Hamedan in the west and Tehran in the center of Iran at the
vegetative (begining of June), flowering (middle of June)
and seeding stages (middle of July to late September 2009).
Two kinds of seeds including unripe and ripe seeds were
considered. The unripe seeds were collected when the plant
inflorescence was formed and the ripe seeds were harvested
when their color changed into light brown. All samples were
dried in room temperature.
Oil extraction: Essential oils of different plant samples and
seeds were separately extracted through hydro-distillation
method. To do that, dried samples were crushed to small
particles using an electric blender. They were then
hydrodistilled for 2 to 2.5 h in a Clevenger type apparatus to
obtain their oils. Three distillations were performed and the
oils were dehydrated over anhydrous sodium sulfate and
stored in sealed vials at 4°C before analysis.
GC analysis: The oils were analyzed using a Shimadzu
GC-9A gas chromatograph equipped with a DB-5 fused
silica column (30 m×0.25 mm with 0.25 m film thickness), J
and W Scientific Corporation. Oven temperature was 40°C
for 5 min and then set to 260°C for a rate of 4°C min-1. The
injector and detector (FID) temperature were 270°C and
helium was used as carrier gas with a linear velocity of 32
cm s-1. The percentages were calculated using the area
normalization method without the use of response factor
correction. The retention indices were worked out for all
compounds using a homologous series of n-alkanes.
GC/MAS analysis: GC/MS analyses were carried out by
the use of a Varian 3400 GC/MS system equipped with the
same fused silica column as above. Oven temperature was
50°-260°C at a rate of 4°C min-1 and the transfer line
temperature set to 270°C. The other components of GC/MS
system included helium as carrier gas with a linear velocity
of 31.5 cm s-1, split ratio 1/60, ionization energy 70 ev, scan
time one sec., and mass range 40-300 amu.
Identification of compounds: The oil constituents were
identified through comparison of their mass spectra with
those in a computer library (LIBR-TR and Wiley-5 lib.) or
with authentic compounds (Adams, 1995).
Antibacterial analysis: The feverfew, essential oil
antimicrobial activity was determined against five Gram
negative bacteria, four Gram positive bacteria and yeast.
Microorganisms included Bacillus cereus (PTCC 1247), B.
subtilis (PTCC 1023), Micrococcus luteus (PTCC 1169),
Staphylococcus aureus (PTCC 1431), Yersinia
enterocolitica (PTCC 1151), Pseudomonas aeruginosa
(PTCC 1430), Escherichia coli (PTCC 1399), Klebsiella
oxytoca (PTCC 1402), Serratia marcescens (PTCC 1187)
and C. albicans (5027). These were obtained from the
microbial collection of the Department of Biotechnology,
Iran Research Organization of Science and Technology
(IROST), Tehran, Iran.
The essential oil antibacterial activity was determined
using disk diffusion method (European Pharmacopia, 1996)
and the bacteria were cultured on Triptic Soy Agar medium
(Merck, Germany). The bacteria were also suspended in a
Tryptocase Soy Broth medium (Merck, Germany). With
reference to the value 1 MacFarland standard, 0.5 mL
standardized inocula was placed on the surface of the media
and distributed uniformly. Oils were diluted with ethanol
(1:5). Sterile paper disks (6 mm in diameter, prepared from
Whatmann No. 42) were impregnated with 20 µL of
essential oil already diluted with ethanol (1:5) and placed on
the surface of each inoculated plate and incubated at 37ºC
for 24 h. Tetracycline (30 µg) and gentamicin (10 µg) disks
were used to compare antibacterial activity of essential
oils. The zone of inhibition was measured 24 h after
incubation.
RESULTS
Percentage of the oils extracted from the feverfew
aerial parts (AP), stem/leaf (SL), inflorescence (IF), unripe
and ripe seeds (US & RS) of both samples are given in
Table I. It was proved that the amount of essential oil in
vegetative parts of the plants was more compared with the
seeds. As shown in Table I, the essential oil yields in all
plant parts (except IF) of the Tehran samples were higher
than those collected from Hamedan. The amount of
essential oil extracted from stem/leaf of feverfew, was
considerably higher compared with the other parts of the
plants.
The essential oil compositions of different parts of
feverfew plants were analyzed by GC and GC/MS (Table
II). The number of compounds identified in AP, SL, IF, US
and RS of Hamedan samples were 19, 20, 21, 15 and 20,
respectively while they shown to be 17, 17, 18, 11 and 17 in
Tehran samples. Three constituents including camphor,
chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene were common in all
the oils as three major compounds. Camphor was the major
oil constituent in AP (53.39 & 52.98%), SL (47.90 &
49.64%), IF (11.61 & 11.52%), US (12.30 & 12.41%) and
RS (11.40 & 10.35%) of the Hamedan and Tehran samples,
respectively. Chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene were the
major constituents in the aerial parts and stem plus leaf oils.
Chrysanthenyl acetate in AP and SL oil was 22.54 and
21.15% in Hamedan and 21.12 and 22.28% in Tehran
samples, while camphene of the same parts was 9.84 and
10.45% in Hamedan and 10.25 and 10.26% in Tehran
FEVERFEW CHEMICAL COMPOSITION / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 12, No. 5, 2010
761
samples. Bornyl acetate, α-pinene and p-cymene were found
in Hamedan samples only (Table II).
Feverfew essential oils affected on the growth of
bacteria and C. albicans that potentially causes infection.
Our data showed that there was no uniform response among
tested bacteria. Significant difference was observed between
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria in terms of their
susceptibility, so that Gram positive bacteria were more
sensitive to antimicrobial activity of feverfew essential oil
(Table III).
Table I: Percentage of volatile oils (w/w) in different parts of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) plants
Localities AP SL IF US RS
Hamedan 3.80 6.01 3.61 0.49 0.31
Tehran 4.96 6.94 3.39 0.96 0.87
Table II: Percentage of volatile compounds identified in the essential oils of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.)
plants
Compounds Hamedan sample Tehran sample
RI
a
APb SLc IF
d
USe RSf AP SL IF US RS
α-tujene 928 0.53 0.43 0.34 - 0.07 0.61 0.39 0.25 - 0.03
α-pinene 940 2.04 2.55 0.10 - - - - - - -
Camphene 955 9.84 10.45 5.11 6.45 4.45 10.25 10.26 5.46 5.38 4.16
Benzaldehyde 965 0.05 0.03 - - - 0.06 0.01 - - -
Sabinene 977 0.25 0.35 - 0.24 0.21 0.30 0.34 - - 0.19
β-pinene 984 - - 1.24 1.03 0.98 - - 1.20 1.10 -
Myrcene 995 - - -
36.04 42.07 - - - 45.02 50.12
α-phellandrene 1004 - 0.27 0.20 0.18 0.21 0.02 0.48 0.29 0.16 0.29
α-terpinene 1021 0.16 0.15 0.58 0.48 - 0.23 0.19 0.68 - 0.02
p-cymene 1025 4.15 4.23 4.18 2.36 3.10 - - - - -
Limonene 1032 0.86 1.05 0.89 0.91 0.96 0.89 0.95 1.04 1.16 1.23
γ-terpinene 1061 - - 0.23 - - - - 0.34 - -
Camphor 1143 53.39 47.90 11.61 12.30 11.40 52.98 49.64 11.52 12.41 10.35
Pinocarvone 1159 0.39 0.25 0.32 0.44 0.38 0.23 0.22 0.34 0.29 0.39
Borneol 1166 0.23 0.22 0.34 - 0.29 0.64 0.34 0.39 - 0.44
terpinene-4-ol 1177 0.42 0.68 - - - 0.51 0.75 - - -
α-terpineol 1193 0.14 0.12 0.15 - - 0.13 0.16 0.22 - -
Myrtenal 1196 - 0.09 0.16 0.10 0.20 0.01 0.16 0.19 0.18 0.21
chrysanthenyl acetate 1236 22.54 21.15 8.85 6.29 6.23 21.12 22.28 7.63 5.12 4.32
bornyl acetate 1283 1.70 2.05 0.48 0.08 0.36 - - - - -
Thymol 1294 - - - 0.08 0.02 - - - 0.04 0.05
Carvacrol 1303 0.17 - 0.10 - 0.08 - - 0.13 - 0.12
β-caryophylene 1411 0.36 0.33 0.25 - 0.23 0.31 0.37 0.23 - 0.19
(E)-β-farnesene 1459 0.64 0.53 0.40 0.11 0.15 0.91 0.87 0.49 0.09 0. 13
valencene 1491 - - 34.26 - 0.02 - - 42.96 - -
β-bisabolene 1511 0.20 0.15 0.08 - 0.02 0.33 0.13 0.18 - 0.08
Total identified 98.06 92.98 69.87 67.09 71.43 89.53 87.54 73.54 71.95 72.32
a: Retention Index, b: Aerial parts, c: Stems and leaves, d: inflorescence, e: Unripe seeds, f: Ripe seeds
Table III: Antimicrobial activity of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) essential oils obtained from Hamedan and
Tehran plant samples*
Microorganism Tehran sample Hamedan sample
AP
a
SLb IFc US
d
RSe AP SL IF US RS TETf GENg
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 7 9.5 0 0 10.5 7.5 6.5 8.5 9.5 nt 14
Klebsiella oxytoca 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 nt 18.5
Serratia marcescens 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 nt 27.5
Escherichia coli 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 nt
Yersinia enterocolitica 7 8 0 10 10 0 11 0 0 0 nt 15
Bacillus cereus 19 17.5 12.5 12.5 10 32.5 27.5 25 27.5 18.5 36 nt
Micrococcus luteus 10 8 12.5 9 0 8.5 9.5 10 10.5 9.5 35 nt
Bacillus subtilis 0 0 0 0 0 0 9 10 0 8 22.5 nt
Staphylococcus aureus 12 8.5 11.5 8.5 3 18 13.5 11 10 11 30 nt
Candida albicans 14 13 12 15 8 15 10 0 0 0 nt nt
*: The data show the diameter of inhibition zone growth in mm
a: Aerial parts, b: Stems and leaves, c: inflorescence, d: Unripe seeds, e: Ripe seeds, f: Tetracycline, g: Gentamicin
Izadi et al. / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 12, No. 5, 2010
762
DISCUSSION
Iran is one of the richest countries of the world in
terms of having a substantial number of different medicinal
plants species grown in various ecological conditions
(Zargari, 1999). Investigation of antibacterial properties of
these plants has brought the opportunity of producing
natural-based and environment friendly new drugs that
could be replaced with the existing chemical ones to control
bacterial infections without unpleasant side effects
(Finnemore, 1926). There are many plant species that
control different kinds of infections through various
pathogen controlling mechanisms. These plants can easily
reduce the growth of pathogens and therefore are essential
to be more studied (Eloff, 1998).
In this study, the plants collected from both Hamedan
and Tehran regions showed various amounts of essential oil
ranging between 0.31 to 6.94% (W/W). The amount of
essential oil extracted from stem/leaf of feverfew plants was
considerably higher compared with the other parts of the
plants. The oil yield of T. argyrophyllum aerial parts has
been 3.3% (w/w) through steam distillation and 3.13-
10.67% by supercritical extraction method (Askari & Mirza,
1998; Rodrigues et al., 2003). Comparison of the number
and amount of essential oil chemical compositions in
Hamedan and Tehran samples showed that the genetic
constitution and environmental conditions could affect the
yield and composition of volatile oil produced by feverfew
plants. The influence of environmental and ecological
conditions on plants is huge; so that similar plant species
may show quite different pharmaceutical properties when
grown in various ecological conditions. Difference between
the populations of a single plant species grown in various
ecological regions is a natural phenomenon (Agrawal,
2003). So that the number of 19, 20, 21, 15 and 20 chemical
compositions were obtained from Hamedan samples, while
they were 17, 17, 18, 11 and 17 in Tehran plants. Camphor,
chrysanthenyl acetate and camphene were also the main
constituents of essential oils. The highest amount of camphor
were measured in AP, IF and RS of Hamedan samples.
These samples also contained more chrysanthenyl acetate
in AP, IF, Us and RS and camphene in SL, US and RS.
Some investigators have shown that the major
constituents of the essential oils extracted from aerial parts
of T. parthenium have been camphor (56.9%) followed by
camphene (12.7%) and p-cymene (5.2%) (Akpulat et al.,
2005). Camphor exists in the aerial parts of T. aucheranum
(11.6%), T. hiliophyllum (28.1%), T. argenteum (14%) and
T. argyrophyllum (22.3%) (Gören et al., 2002; Akpulat et
al., 2005; Salamci et al., 2007; Tabanca et al., 2007;
Omidbeigi, 2007; Askari, 2008).
Significant difference was observed between Gram
positive and Gram negative bacteria in terms of their
susceptibility, so that Gram positive bacteria were more
sensitive to antimicrobial activity of feverfew essential oil.
The higher sensitivity of Gram positive bacteria may be
explained according to their cell wall structure. Most studies
reporting the action of essential oils against food spoiling
organisms and food borne pathogens agree that essential oils
are relatively more active against Gram positive than Gram
negative bacteria (Lambert et al., 2001). Deans and Ritchie
(1987) and Imelouane et al. (2009) observed that the
susceptibility of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria
to plant volatile oils had a little influence on growth
inhibition. It was often reported that Gram negative bacteria
were more resistant to the essential oils present in plants
(Smith-Palmer et al., 1998; Mann et al., 2000). The cell wall
structure of Gram negative bacteria is constituted essentially
with Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This constituent avoids the
accumulation of the oils on the cell membrane (Bezić et al.,
2003). In addition, differences in susceptibility among the
microorganisms to the antimicrobial activity of essential oils
may also be explained by inherited genes on plasmids
(Dorman et al., 2000).
The antimicrobial activity of AP essential oil was
more than that of other parts and the antimicrobial activity
of samples collected from Hamedan was more compared
with those from Tehran, possibly because of the high
percentage of camphor. Camphor has been reported to have
significant antimicrobial activity (Salamci et al., 2007).
In conclusion, essential oil of feverfew showed
significant antimicrobial activity. camphor, chrysanthenyl
acetate and camphene were common in all the oils as three
major compounds. The results suggest that feverfew
essential oils possess some compounds with antimicrobial
properties, which can be used as antimicrobial agents in new
drugs for treatment of infectious diseases. Moreover, the
findings of this study demand further research on the
evaluation of antimicrobial properties of several
phytochemicals and in particular camphor.
Acknowledgment: The authors are thankful to G.
Mohamadi, R. Kiarostami, M. Abroft and R. Sharifi for
their help in this research.
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(Received 17 April 2010; Accepted 23 May 2010)
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    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
  • Article
    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), which belongs to the family Asteraceae, is a perennial herbaceous plant with small flowers like chamomile. In this study, we investigated the essential oil composition of Tanacetum parthenium collected from Gumushane Province, Turkey. Forty-four components representing 86.04% of the oil were identified in the essential oil of aerial parts of T. parthenium obtained by hydrodistillation and examined by GC and GC-MS. The main component of the sample was camphor (39.47%), followed by guaiol (5.21%), caryophyllene oxide (3.91%), bornyl acetate (3.09%), (E)-verbenol (2.68%), camphene (2.29%) and α-cadinol (2.12%). Presence of camphor highlighted the potential of this plant as a drug source in the alternative medicine due to its antiseptic, antipruritic, aphrodisiac, contraception and lactation suppressant effects. Guainol was found in this study for the first time in T. parthenium. In addition, other important finding was the lack of trans-chrysanthenyl acetate in our T. parthenium sample.
  • Article
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    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from the aerial parts of Pyrethrum pulchrum Ledeb. were investigated. Dried plant material was hydro-distillated yielding 0.1% of essential oil. The oil was analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Fifty-five compounds were identified representing 99.7% of the total oil composition. Camphor was the predominant compound (33.9%) followed by linalool (21.1%) and α-pinene (9.0%). The antimicrobial activity of the oil was determined using the disk diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli), Mycobacterium vaccae and fungi (Candida albicans, Sporidiobolus salmonicolor and Penicillum notatum). The essential oil of P. pulchrum displays an intermediate activity against selected bacteria.
  • Article
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    The essential oils of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz. Bip. and Tanacetum punctatum (Desr.) Grierson. leaves were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields (v/w) on moisture free basis of T. parthenium and T. punctatum leaves were 0.8 % and 0.2 %, respectively. The essential oil of T. parthenium and T. punctatum were characterized by a higher amount of camphor (53.8 % and 45. 5%), trans-β-farnesene (8.3 % and 7.4 %), camphene (6.9 % and 6.2 %), β-caryophyllene (5.9 % and 9.7 %) and chrysanthenone (3.3 % and 4.1 %), respectively. Bornyl acetate (3.1 %), 4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acid (3. 7%) and borneol (2.9 %) among the 24 components of the total oil from T. parthenium sample were detected. Thirty two components were characterized representing 96.9 % of total constituents detected in the oil of T. punctatum. In this oil, 4-hydroxy-benzenepropanoic acid (2.2 %) and borneol (2.1 %) were also the predominating compounds. The antimicrobial activity of both samples was determined against seven bacteria and three fungi. The bioassay showed that the oil exhibited a good antimicrobial activity.
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    Aerial parts of Tanacetum cilicicum were hydrodistillated for 3 h using Clevenger. Essential oil (EO) yield was 0.4% (v/w). According to the GC/MS analyses, EO of T. cilicicum consisted of monoterpenes [ α -pinene (2.95 ± 0.19%), sabinene (2.32 ± 0.11%), and limonene (3.17 ± 0.25)], oxygenated monoterpenes [eucalyptol (5.08 ± 0.32%), camphor (3.53 ± 0.27%), linalool (7.01 ± 0.32%), α -terpineol (3.13 ± 0.23%), and borneol (4.21 ± 0.17%)], and sesquiterpenes [sesquisabinene hydrate (6.88 ± 0.41%), nerolidol (4.90 ± 0.33%), α -muurolol (4.57% ± 0.35), spathulanol (2.98 ± 0.12%), juniper camphor (2.68 ± 0.19%), (-)-caryophyllene oxide (2.64 ± 0.19%), 8-hydroxylinalool (2.62 ± 0.15%), and Δ -cadinene (2.48 ± 0.16%)]. In the antimicrobial assay, MIC/MBC values of the EO were the most significant on B. subtilis (0.39/0.78 µ L/mL) and B. cereus (0.78/1.56 µ L/mL) . The most prominent phytotoxic activities of the EO were observed on L. sativa , L. sativum , and P. oleracea . The results of the present study indicated that EO of T. cilicicum includes various medicinally and industrially crucial phytoconstituents that could be in use for industrial applications. The finding of this study is the first report on this species from the East Mediterranean region.
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    Study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial potential of some essential oils (EOs) against contact lens associated bacteria. Bacteria were isolated from used contact lens (CLs) solutions, identified by routine biochemical procedures, their antibiotic resistance and responses to EOs were worked out. A total of 85 bacterial isolates were identified from 56 samples. All isolates were sensitive to Quinolone group of antibiotics and resistant against Oxacillin (penicillin group) and Cefixime (cephalosporin group). Twenty strains including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Proteus penneri, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. were screened for their responses to EOs from Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (Ajowan), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.(Clove), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (Blue gum) and Citrus sinensis L. (Orange). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was worked out for E. coli and S. aureus. Ajowan EO displayed greater antibacterial properties followed by clove, eucalyptus and orange EOs. MIC of ajowan oil was 128 arbitrary units (AU) for both E. coli and S. aureus. In the light of antibacterial spectra of oils, it is suggested that ajowan oil or its components may be further explored as antiseptic in lens cleaning solutions.
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    Essential oils isolated from flowers of three Chrysanthemum cultivars were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Overall, 82, 68 and 61 components were identified in C. arcticum cv. Schwefelglanz, C. parthenium cv. Aureum, C. parthenium cv. Snowball, respectively. In Chrysanthemum arcticum Schwefelglanz, the main components were chrysanthenone (13.98%), α-thujone (9.56%), tetradecane (6.90%), camphor (6.20%) and α-cadinol (5.70%), while in Chrysanthemum parthenium Aureum they were camphor (38.51%), trans- -chrysanthenyl acetate (25.04%), camphene (6.44%) and bornyl acetate (3.54%). Similarly, camphor (39.98%), trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (22.30%), camphene (7.20%) and bornyl acetate (2.98%) dominated in Chrysanthemum parthenium Snowball. Also, the biological value of Chrysanthemum flowers was determined and compared. Moreover, the chemical analyses of raw plant material were conducted, including determinations of the content of dry matter, vitamin C as L-ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and b, total carotenoids, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The flowers of both cultivars of Chrysanthemum parthenium (Aureum and Snowball) were characterised by the higher content of dry matter, titratable acidity, total polyphenols and antioxidant activity in comparison with Chrysanthemum arcticum Schwefelglanz. However, the highest content of total carotenoids was determined in essential oils from the flowers of Chrysanthemum parthenium Aureum. Keywords: edible flowers, Asteraceae, camphor, trans-chrysanthenyl acetate, carotenoids, polyphenols.
  • Article
    In this study, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function network (RBFN) were employed to predict the population of microbial pathogens, chemical changes and sensory attributes of the beef slices. The chemical composition of Tanacetum parthenium essential oil (TPEO) was determined through gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Disk diffusion agar, well diffusion agar, pour plate, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration were used to evaluated the antimicrobial effect of TPEO. The contents of phytochemical and total phenolic compounds as well as the antioxidant activity of TPEO were also measured. Camphor with a percentage of 44.2% was the major compound of TPEO. The total phenolic content and antioxidant power of TPEO were equal to 151.2 ± 2.10 µg/ml gallic acid equivalent and 57.25 ± 0.2 µg/ml, respectively. MLP and RBFN are both capable of fitting the data and predicting. However, RBFN, due to its lower mean squared error, had a better performance than MLP. Practical applications In recent years, given the concerns about the risks of the consumption of chemical and synthetic preservatives, there has been a considerable tendency towards replacing them with natural preservatives. Lallemantia royleana seed mucilage (LRSM) is a native Iranian hydrocolloid which can be utilized in producing edible coatings and in the formulations of food products. Feverfew is a valuable medicinal plant which is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammation, pain, fever and infection. In the present study, LRSM and LRSM + 1% TPEO extended the shelf life of beef up to 3 days, whereas LRSM + 1.5% TPEO and LRSM + 2% TPEO resulted in a significant shelf life extension of the samples by 9 days, as compared with the control. These results suggested that LRSM coating combined with TPEO could be used as an effective natural alternative to improve the quality of beef during refrigerate storage.
  • Article
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    Background: The objective of this study was to analyze the essential oil, fatty acid, flavonoid, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of oil from Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.) wild grown and collected from north of Iran. Methods: The essential oil of aerial parts was analyzed by spectroscopy method (GC/MS using HP-5MS column) while the fatty acid content was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID). Phenolic contents of the oil were evaluated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) technique while total phenols and flavonoids were determined colorimetrically. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2 picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging technique. Results: In the essential oil thirteen compounds were characterized with camphor (43.97 %), chrysanthenyl acetate (12.46 %) and farnesol (7.54%) as the major components. Principal fatty acid components of the herb were palmitic acid (57.27%) and myristic acid (14.7%). HPLC analysis revealed that the cinnamic acid derivatives were the major compounds, with sinapic (3.86 ± 0.1 mg/g dw) and ferulic (2.59 ± 0.1 mg/g dw) acids being the predominant ones. Also, evaluation the bioactivity of the oil showed considerable antioxidant capacity (TPC = 152.8 ± 0.8 mg/g and DPPH = 73.8 ± 1.3 %). Conclusion: This study revealed that the essential oil was rich in camphor/chrysanthenyl acetate chemotype and different polyphenols in the category of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. In addition, this research demonstrated that the aerial parts of this aromatic herb were various sources of oily components, especially essential fatty acids.
  • Article
    Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L., Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which has been used to alleviate the symptoms of migraine, headache, rheumatoid arthritis and possesses numerous pharmacological activities. An Ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatographic method (UHPSFC) was developed and validated in accordance with the ICH guideline in order to determine the camphor content of the volatile oil, which was outstandingly accurate, precise, robust and selective. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy (100.2%), repeatability and intermediate precision, linearity (r(2) > 0.999), limit of detection (2.055 µg/ml), limit of quantification (6.228 µg/ml) and robustness. The common range of accuracy and linearity was between 0.125-1.000 mg/ml. Steam distillation was carried out in order to study the essential oil yield of three different Tanacetum parthenium L. samples originated from Hungarian medicinal herb collections. The camphor content of the essential oils from the aerial parts of feverfew samples from different origin was compared. Although the composition of the essential oil is well reported, a validated quantitative UHPSFC method for the determination of the constituents is presented herein for the first time.
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    The essential oil from flowering Thyme (Thymis vulgaris L.) an aromatic member of the Lamiaceae family, from Morocco, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analysed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The constituents were identified by their mass spectra and Kovats' indices. Forty three compounds consisting 97.85% of the total components were identified from the oil obtained with 1% yield. Among those, camphor (38.54%), camphene (17.19%), α-pinene (9.35%), 1, 8-cineole (5.44%), borneol (4.91%) and β-pinene (3.90%) were the major oil components. Essential oil of Thyme was evaluated for its antibacterial activities against six Gram-positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus sp., Pantoa sp. and Escherichia coli.
  • Article
    The present study describes the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of Lavandula dentata essential oil, collected in eastern Morocco (Taforalt, Talazart). The sample of essential oil was obtained from the aerial parts of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC–MS. From the 29 compounds representing 99.87% of the oils: 1, 8 cineol (41.28%), sabinene (13.69%), bicycle [3.1.0] hexan-3-Ol, 4-methylene-1-(1-methylethyl) (6.76%), myrtenal (5.11%) and α-pinene (4.05%) appear as the main components. The oil also contained smaller percentages of borneol, linalool oxide cis, linalool, myrtenol, bicyclo [3.1.1] heptan-2-one, 6, 6-dimethyl-, (1r) and pinocarvone. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The antimicrobial test results showed that the oil had antimicrobial activity against all 22 bacteria strains included in the study, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results, suggest potential antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of L. dentata, which may find its application in future research for the food and pharmaceutical industry.
  • Article
    Essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation from the stems/leaves, inflorescences and seeds of Pimpinella tragioides (Boiss.) Benth. et Hook. The oil yields of stems/leaves, inflorescence and seed oils were 0.15%, 0.79% and 2.49% w/w, respectively. Thirteen constituents in the stem plus the leaf oil, 13 constituents in the inflorescence oil and 15 constituents in the seed oil were identified.The major constituent in the stem/leaf oil and inflorescence oil was trans-α-bergamotene (77.1% and 70.3%, respectively), whereas the major constituent of the seed oil was pregeijerene (87.0%). Nonadecane (8.6%) and iso-acarone (15.1%) were the other major constituents in the stem/leaf and inflorescence oils, respectively. Only two trace compounds of P. tragioides (β-caryophyllene and bicyclogermacrene) were common between the stem/leaf, inflorescence and seed oils.
  • Article
    The essential oil isolated by steam distillation from the aerial parts of Satureja khuzistanicaJamzad was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. Among 18 compounds identified, the major components were p-cymene (39.6%), carvacrol (29.6%), and γ-terpinene (18.9%).
  • Article
    The genus Tanacetum has been used as medicinal plants for over 2000 years. Interest in the genus has been stimulated by its biological activities, particularly as insect antifeedants, antitumor and antimicrobial activities due to its sesquiterpenoid constituents. The genus Tanacetum is represented by c.a.70 species in the worldand by 44 in Turkey. It is an Asia centered genus whichis widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and temperate regions.Tanacetum species contain mainly sesquiterpenoids and flavonoids, whereas the other terpenoids and phenolic compounds are rarely found. Sesquiterpenoids which are the main constituents of the genus, supposed to be bioactive principles of the plants. Flavonoids and essential oils are also pointed out as active substances in some species. On the other hand,there is a confusion on the systematic position and classification of several species of Asteraceae, therefore chemotaxonomy of the species will help the systematic studies.Since the importance of sesquiterpenes, sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids from the chemosystematic and the biological point of views, especially the chemistry and the biological activities of these compounds will be reviewed in this chapter, whilethe essential oils and the acetylenic compounds will not be mentioned.
  • Article
    C.M. MANN, S.D. COX AND J.L. MARKHAM. 2000. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is less susceptible to the antimicrobial properties of tea tree oil than many bacteria and its tolerance is considered to be due to its outer membrane. Polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN), which has no antibacterial action, was used to permeabilize the outer membrane. The addition of PMBN to Ps. aeruginosa NCTC 6749 markedly increased this organism's susceptibility to tea tree oil and to its normally inert hydrocarbons, p-cymene and γ-terpinene.
  • Article
    The chemical composition of essential oils isolated from the aerial parts by hydrodistillation of Turkish Tanacetum aucheranum and Tanacetum chiliophyllum var. chiliophyllum were analyzed by GC–MS. The oils contain similar major components. The major components of T. aucheranum oil were 1,8-cineole (23.8%), camphor (11.6%), terpinen-4-ol (7.2%), α-terpineol (6.5%), borneol (3.8%), (E)-thujone (3.2%), epi-α-cadinol (3.1%), and artemisia ketone (3.0%). Camphor (17.9%), 1,8-cineole (16.6%) and borneol (15.4%) were found to be predominant constituents in the oil of T. chiliophyllum. It is interesting to find that ester derivatives of dihydro-α-cyclogeranic acid (2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexylcarboxylate), dihydro-α-cyclogeranyl hexanoate (10.1%), dihydro-α-cyclogeranyl pentanoate (3.0%), dihydro-α-cyclogeranyl butanoate (2.1%) and dihydro-α-cyclogeranyl propionate (1.2%) are firstly found as chemotaxonomically important components in T. chiliophyllum oil. From these, dihydro-α-cyclogeranyl hexanoate was isolated on silica gel column chromatography and its structure was confirmed by spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on the occurrence of ester derivatives of dihydro-α-cyclogeranic acid in essential oils of Tanacetum species. The oils were also characterized to have relatively high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes. Results of the antifungal testing by microbial growth inhibition assays showed that the oils completely inhibit the growth of 30 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their growth inhibition effects were lower than commercial benomyl. The oils tested for antibacterial activity against 33 bacterial strains showed a considerable antibacterial activity over a wide spectrum. Herbicidal effects of the oils on seed germination of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus were also determined and the oils completely inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of the plants.
  • Article
    Fifty plant essential oils were examined for their antibacterial properties against 25 genera of bacteria. Four concentrations of each oil were tested using an agar diffusion technique. The ten most inhibitory oils were thyme, cinnamon, bay, clove, almond (bitter), lovage, pimento, marjoram, angelica and nutmeg. The most comprehensively inhibitory extracts were angelica (against 25 genera), bay (24), cinnamon (23), clove (23), thyme (23), almond (bitter) (22), marjoram (22), pimento (22), geranium (21) and lovage (20).