The association between stress and emotional states in adolescents: The role of gender and self-esteem

Faculty of Nursing, Sør-Trøndelag University College, Trondheim, Norway
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.95). 10/2010; 49(5). DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.04.012

ABSTRACT

a b s t r a c t This cross-sectional study investigated gender differences on domains of stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states (depression and anxiety) as well as the association between stress, self-esteem and emo-tional states using a sample of Norwegian adolescents (N = 1508). The results showed that girls had significantly higher mean scores on all stress domains and on emotional states compared with boys. Con-versely, boys scored significantly higher on self-esteem. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed a significant association between increasing stress related to peer pressure, home life, school per-formance and adult responsibility and higher levels of emotional states. Moreover, the associations between stress and emotional states were not moderated by gender. A strong, inverse association was found between self-esteem and emotional states. A weak moderation effect of self-esteem was found on the association between stress related to peer pressure, romantic relationships, school performance and emotional states. The identification of the potential protective role of self-esteem in relation to ado-lescents' emotional outcomes represents an important step toward developing preventive interventions for children and adolescents.

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    • "Es también posible que los problemas emocionales y conductuales relacionados con el estrés, en adolescentes que tienen rasgos y experiencias de esquiziotipia, funcionen como factores de regulación que pueden contribuir al riesgo de psicosis. Estos resultados refuerzan la validez externa de las puntuaciones en el SSI-SM y la evidencia que es el estrés es una dimensión psicológica importante que correlaciona con otros problemas psicológicos en la adolescencia (Byrne et al., 2007;Jose & Ratcliffe, 2004;Kosmala-Anderson & Wallace;Moksnes et al., 2010;Trianes et al., 2011;Trianes et al., 2009).se relacionan también otras investigaciones que muestran que las mujeres obtienen puntuaciones más altas de estrés después de la pubertad (Netherton, Goodyer, Tamplin, & Herbert, 2004). "
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    • "It has also been argued that stress is a signal that the organism is struggling to get stability and equilibrium (Pearlin, 1982). In marketing, scholars have primarily addressed stress in terms of life changing events, suggesting that individuals may change their consumption habits and behaviour in order to experience relief (Moksnes et al., 2010). Some scholars have argued that stress contributes to the development of compulsion and materialism (Rindfleisch et al., 1997). "
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    • "The internal consistency of the scale is found to be high, with Cronbach's a of .91 (Byrne et al. 2007) and .96 (Moksnes et al. 2010b). Moreover, this depression scale has shown positive and significant correlations with the measure of state anxiety (r = .67) "
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