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Evaluation of various substrates and supplements for biological efficiency of Pleurotus sajor-caju and Pleurotus ostreatus

  • Cape Peninsula University

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An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different substrates namely wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), maize stover (Zea mays L), thatch grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula) and oil/protein rich supplements (maize bran, cottonseed hull [Gossypium hirsutum]) on biological efficiency of two oyster mushroom species (Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. ostreatus). Wheat straw had superior performance over maize stover and thatch grass when cultivating P. sajor-caju. However, maize stover was more suitable for P. ostreatus than wheat straw. Supplementation with cottonseed hull improved yields when cultivating P. ostreatus using wheat straw. These findings suggest that at 25% inclusion rate, farmers should not supplement with maize bran, as this would reduce yields significantly. Further investigations are needed to test both lower and higher rates of inclusion of supplements.
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African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9 (19), pp. 2756-2761, 10 May, 2010
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/AJB09.1259
ISSN 1684–5315 © 2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Evaluation of various substrates and supplements for
biological efficiency of Pleurotus sajor-caju and
Pleurotus ostreatus
M. Fanadzo1*, D. T. Zireva2, E. Dube1 and A. B. Mashingaidze2
1Department of Agronomy, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa.
2University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP 167, Harare, Zimbabwe.
Accepted 23 October, 2009
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different substrates namely wheat straw
(Triticum aestivum), maize stover (Zea mays L), thatch grass (Hyparrhenia filipendula) and oil/protein
rich supplements (maize bran, cottonseed hull [Gossypium hirsutum]) on biological efficiency of two
oyster mushroom species (Pleurotus sajor-caju and P. ostreatus). Wheat straw had superior
performance over maize stover and thatch grass when cultivating P. sajor-caju. However, maize stover
was more suitable for P. ostreatus than wheat straw. Supplementation with cottonseed hull improved
yields when cultivating P. ostreatus using wheat straw. These findings suggest that at 25% inclusion
rate, farmers should not supplement with maize bran, as this would reduce yields significantly. Further
investigations are needed to test both lower and higher rates of inclusion of supplements.
Key words: Triticum aestivum, Pleurotus sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus.
Culture of oyster mushroom is becoming popular
throughout the world because of their abilities to grow at
a wide range of temperatures and to utilize various
lignocelluloses (Baysal et al., 2003). Pleurotus species
have extensive enzyme systems capable of utilizing com-
plex organic compounds that occur as agricultural wastes
and industrial by-products (Baysal et al., 2003). For this
reason, it is not necessary to process substrates for culti-
vation of Pleurotus species (Khan and Chaudhary, 1987;
Yalinkiliç et al., 1994). These mushrooms are also found
to be one of the most efficient lignocelluloses solid state
decomposing types of white rot fungi (Baysal et al.,
2003). Thus, many agricultural and industrial wastes can
be utilized as substrates for production of Pleurotus
species (Zadrazil and Brunnert, 1981; Platt et al., 1983;
Platt et al., 1984; Baysal et al., 2003). Zadrazil and
Kamara (1997) reported a 300% increase in the yield of
P. sajor-caju from the addition of either 30% soybean or
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
40% alfalfa (Medicago sativa) meal. Industrial wastes
such as apple pomace and chicken manure have also
been reported as cheap nitrogen sources for higher
mushroom yield with high dry matter content for several
Pleurotus and Auricularia species (Vijay and Upadhyay,
1989). Rinker (1989) found 37 and 42.6% more yield in
P. ostreatus from supplementation of barley straw with
brewer's grain and 17, 27, 65 and 118% more yield by
addition of alfalfa hay at 5, 10, 20 and 40% (dry weight
Zimbabwe is an agro-based country and as such,
oyster mushroom is produced using plant residues and
agricultural waste. Since oyster mushroom is a first de-
composer, it assists in the recycling of agro-waste, which
would potentially pollute the environment. Mushroom
production is therefore a favourable income-generating
project for developing countries such as Zimbabwe, from
both an environmental and cost point of view. However,
in this case, the major challenges in oyster mushroom
production appear to be choice of substrates and
supplements to achieve high yield as there seems to be a
wide range of agricultural crop residues from which
Fanadzo et al. 2757
Table 1. Some chemical constituents of substrates and supplements used in the study.
Properties Cotton seed hull Thatch grass Maize bran Wheat straw Maize stover
pH (CaCl) 6.0 5.8 5.0 7.0 6.4
Fat (Ether extract) 2.6 - 9.3 - -
Organic carbon (%) 47.0 44.0 47.0 40.0 35.0
Nitrogen (%) 0.8 0.4 2.0 1.1 0.4
C:N ratio 58.8 55.0 23.5. 37.3 87.5
Zimbabwean farmers can choose. Media type, quantity
and supplementation may affect some substrate qualities
such as water holding capacity and degree of aeration;
characteristics that subsequently have an effect on
mushroom yield (Dietzler, 1997). If the substrate is too
tight or too loose, the mycelium will have difficulties in
colonizing it. In addition, species of mushroom within the
same genus may vary significantly in their nutritional and
climate requirements (Choi, 2003).
Maize (Zea mays) stover and thatch grass (Hypar-
rhenia filipendula) which are readily available, may be a
better and cheaper alternative for growing oyster mush-
rooms as opposed to the recommended wheat (Triticum
aestivum) straw, which is generally scarce and expensive
as smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe are non-wheat
growers. It has been reported that often an addition of a
limited amount of supplement to the lignocellulose-based
substrates will increase yields (Quinio et al., 1990; Choi,
2003). For the smallholder grower and to the income of
oyster mushrooms, the implications of using the ‘inferior’
substrates and supplementing them with protein and oil-
rich supplements have not been systematically exami-
ned. An experiment was therefore conducted to deter-
mine the effects of different substrates and oil/protein rich
supplements on biological efficiency of two oyster
mushroom species.
Substrates and preparation
Samples of the substrates were collected as agricultural wastes
from smallholder farmers in Zimbabwe after the harvest of the
2006/7 cropping season. The three base substrates; wheat straw,
maize stover and thatch grass were then chopped manually into 5
cm lengths before being milled and passed through a 5 mm sieve.
The two supplements; maize bran and cotton seed hull were
purchased from local millers. The chopped s ubstrates were soaked
in clean water overnight in a 200 L drum. Enough water was added
to r aise the substr ate moisture to 75%. The soaked substrate was
then boiled for three hours to increase temperature of the substrate
to 95oC. The s ame pasteurization process was applied to the
supplements. W hen pasteurization was completed, samples of the
substrates and supplements were analyzed for percent organic
carbon, pH, nitrogen and fat as indicators of substrate quality.
Organic C and N were determined by dry combustion using a LECO
TRUSPEC C/N auto-analyzer (LECO Corporation, 2003) and fat by
ether extract. The composition and characteristics of the substrates
and supplements is shown in Table 1.
The substrates from the pasteurization drum were cooled to a
temperature of 24oC under clean and sterile conditions inside the
growing room and mixed with supplements before combining with
4% of spawn, based on wet weight. Spawn was purchased from
local supply c ompanies. The spawn was thoroughly mixed with the
substrate, some being placed underneath the substrate surface and
a small amount of spawn s prinkled uniformly on the surface. Each
polythene bag contained 10 kg of moist substrate.
Experimental design and data analysis
The factors under study were substrate, supplement type and
mushroom variety. The experiment was designed as a 3×3×2
factorial arrangement in a completely r andomized design with three
replicates per treatment. The three substr ates were wheat str aw,
maize stover and thatch grass; the two supplements were maize
bran and cottonseed hull and the two species were P. ostreatus
and P. sajor-caju. All the data collected was subjected to an
analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Genstat Release 7.22 DE
Experimental conditions
After spawning, the bags were moved to a production room where
temperature was maintained at 23 - 26oC and relative humidity at
95 - 98%. The temperature and relative humidity ranges were main-
tained through ventilation and wetting. The first 15 days of spawn
run were completed without artificial lighting. At the end of this
period, holes were punched on the top of the polythene bags and
sides (about 6 cm apart) and light was introduced into the growing
room. The surface of substrate was briefly illuminated with a 100-
lux lamp to facilitate pinhead formation. At the end of pinning, suffi-
cient fresh air was introduced through ventilation in order to lower
CO2 concentration below 700 ppm. The floors, walls and asbestos
roof of the growing room were c overed by a black plastic sheet
while peat sand was evenly spread on the floor to cover the plastic
sheet. The purpose of the plastic sheet on the floor was to prevent
the percolation of water applied on the surface to maintain relative
humidity and to cool the room.
Determination of mushroom yield and biological efficiency
Mushrooms were harvested from the s ubstrate the same time each
day when the in-rolled margins of t he basidiomes began t o flatten.
The substrate clinging to the stipe was cut away and the mush-
2758 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Table 2. Interaction among supplements and substrates on BE of P. sajor-caju.
Substrates BE (%)
Maize bran supplement Cotton seed hull supplement Non- supplemented
Wheat straw 23.4de 82.6a 71.0ab
Maize stover 11.4de 76.4a 40.0bcd
Thatch grass 1.0e 54.0abc 35.4cd
LSD (0.05) 29.0
Means followed by the s ame letter are not significantly different.
Table 3. Effect of substrate type and supplementation on BE of P. ostreatus.
Substrates BE (%)
Maize bran supplement Cotton seed hull supplement No supplement
Wheat straw 49.4bc 70.4ab 45.6bc
Maize straw 23.0cd 52.0bc 97.0a
Thatch grass 15.0d 41.8bcd 48.6bc
LSD (0.05) 29.0
Means followed by the s ame letter are not significantly different.
rooms were counted and weighed. At the end of the 40-day harvest
period, biological efficiency ( BE) was calculated. The BE percen-
tage was calculated using the substrate dry weights as follows:
([weight of fresh mushrooms harvested/substrate dry matter con-
tent] × 100) (Royse, 1985).
There was a significant (p < 0.01) third order interaction
among substrates, supplements and species. There was
also a significant (p < 0.01) interaction between species
and supplements. However, the interactions between
supplements and substrates as well as substrates × spe-
cies were not significant (p > 0.05). The main effects of
substrates and supplements were significant (p < 0.01)
whereas the differences between the two species were
not significant (p > 0.05). Results are presented sepa-
rately for P. ostreatus and P. sajor-caju to show interac-
tions between substrates and supplements, in Tables 2
and 3.
When P. sajor-caju was cultured without addition of
supplements, wheat straw achieved the highest BE while
maize stover and thatch grass achieved similar, but lower
BE. However, when the substrates were supplemented
with cottonseed hull, similar and higher BEs to non-
supplemented wheat straw were achieved regardless of
substrate type (Table 2). On the other hand,
supplementation with maize bran resulted in significantly
lower and similar BEs compared to non-supplemented
wheat straw (Table 2).
For P. ostreatus cultured without supplements, the
highest BE was achieved with maize stover. Supple-
mentation with cotton seed hull did not significantly
modify the BEs of wheat straw and thatch grass but had
a significant yield reducing effect on maize stover.
Supplementation with maize bran also had a significant
yield reducing effect on both maize stover and thatch
grass (Table 3).
Analysis of the changes in BE with a switch from wheat
straw (control) to the supposedly inferior substrates
indicated that maize straw with no supplement was
superior to wheat straw when cultivating P. ostreatus.
Maize straw resulted in the highest BE increase of 112%
(Figure 1). However, supplementation of the wheat straw
with cottonseed hull resulted in a significant improvement
in BE of 54% (Figure 1).
In the cultivation of P. sajor-caju, wheat straw remained
the superior substrate, yielding 44 and 50% above maize
stover and thatch grass, respectively (Figure 2). Cotton
seed hull supplementation did not result in significant
yield gains whilst supplementation with maize bran had a
significant yield reducing effect in all cases.
The effects of physical and chemical properties of sub-
strates on yield and BE have been investigated in
Agrocybe aegerita, Volvariella volvacea, Pleurotus spp.,
Lentinula edodes and Ganoderma lucidum (Philippoussis
et al., 2001; Obodai et al., 2003; Ozcelik and Peksen,
2007; Peksen and Yakupoglu, 2009). Variable ranges of
BE have been reported when different lignocellulosic
materials were used as substrates for cultivation of oyster
Fanadzo et al. 2759
Figure 1. Percentage BE changes of P ostreatus in different substrate/supplement combinations
compared to wheat straw (X-axis represents wheat straw BE as the basis of comparison). Key: W S =
wheat straw; MB = maize bran; CSH = cotton seed hull; MS = Maize stover; TG = thatch grass.
Figure 2. Percentage BE changes of P. sajor-caju in different substrate supplement c ombinations
compared to wheat straw (X-axis represents wheat straw BE as the basis of comparison). Key: W S = wheat
straw; MB = maize bran; CSH = cotton seed hull; MS = Maize stover; TG = thatch grass.
mushrooms (Liang et al., 2009). This study showed that
the composition of substrate has a great influence on
yield and BE. These results are consistent with findings
by Peksen and Yakupoglu (2009) who reported a positive
correlation among yield, N content of substrate and BE.
The addition of protein-rich supplements is also a com-
mon practice for nitrogen-deficient composts in the
cultivation of mushrooms. Various researchers have used
supplements from animal and plant origins, including
protein-, carbohydrate- or oil-rich substances, for
2760 Afr. J. Biotechnol.
Agaricus bisporus (Gerits, 1983) and Pleurotus species
(Gurjar and Doshi, 1995).
Substrate composition analysis showed that the
proposed supplements (maize bran and cottonseed hull)
were superior to the base substrates over both percen-
tage nitrogen and fat. Since cotton seed hull has a fast
decomposition rate, it is generally accepted as a superior
substrate over lignocelluloses (Quinio et al., 1990).
Cotton seed waste was also found to be a superior sub-
strate in Kenya (Nout and Keya, 1983) and Australia
(Choi et al., 1981). These results are consistent with our
findings where cottonseed hull supplementation to wheat
straw significantly improved yield of P. ostreatus. The
same yield response was not achieved with P. sajor-caju.
Such differences in response of the two mushroom spe-
cies to supplementation is in line with findings by
Upadhyay and Vijay (1991) who observed cottonseed
meal as a better supplement for P. fossulatus and rice
bran for P. ostreatus. It was also reported by Royse and
Schisler (1986) that supplementation is necessary for
getting fructification in some strains of P. eryngii. Choi
(2003) also stated that even different species of oyster
mushrooms from the same genus could have different
requirements for nutrients.
Following supplementation of supposedly inferior base
substrates, there were unexpected BE reductions in
some cases. Whilst these results may appear to be
confounding, they demonstrate that other factors beyond
the scope of this study should come into consideration.
These factors include availability of nutrients in these
supplements, rather than the total content. Carbon is
readily available from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin
from straw, but nitrogen occurs mainly in a bound form
and is not available until it is enzymatically released.
Some rich nitrogen sources may not yield as expected,
such as happened with maize bran. Various researchers
have also reported that Pleurotus species have the capa-
bility to fix atmospheric nitrogen (Bisaira et al., 1987),
such that nitrogen-associated yield discrepancies cannot
be credited to substrate composition. To further substan-
tiate the above argument, an attempt to correlate nutri-
tional composition (fat, N and C) of substrate/ supplement
against BE showed insignificant correlations (p > 0.05)
among these factors.
The greatest yield reduction effect was experienced
when using maize bran as a supplement. Oei (2003)
suggests that a supplement can be too rich and increase
the risk of contamination, anaerobiosis, antibiosis and
subsequently lower yields, in contrast to what would be
expected. Dhandha et al. (1995) also observed no
change in total mushroom yield in paddy straw mush-
rooms from the addition of oils of mustard, sunflower,
groundnuts and cottonseed at 0.1 to 0.5. They concluded
that Pleurotus species prefer non-supplemented and
unfermented straw. Because of its relatively high starch
and oil content, wet maize bran as used in this study is
readily fermentable and this might explain the yield
Supplementation has been reported to cause a rise in
substrate temperature, possibly due to faster metabolic
activities triggered by extra nitrogen. Royse and Schisler
(1986) observed overheating (from 30 to 47°C) in bags
where a nitrogen-rich supplement was applied without
benomyl (fungicide) treatment and proposed that it could
be due to the growth of competitor moulds. Gurjar and
Doshi (1995) did not find any effect on yield of P.
cornucopiae with 5 and 7.5% addition of soybean meal in
wheat straw and assumed this could be due to a rise in
temperature, the reason why gains in yield were not
realized. This suggests that supplements should be cau-
tiously used because excessive bed temperature (more
than 35°C) may kill the mycelium. In the current study,
the temperatures of the various substrates were moni-
tored and none rose above 30°C. The growing conditions
were also maintained at optimal temperatures of 23 -
25°C through ventilation and humidification. Overstijns
(1995) observed an increase of 19% in mushrooms with
the addition of only 0.5% corn steep liquor and recorded
a rise in temperature from 0.3, 1.4 and 2.3°C with the
addition of only 0.5, 1 and 2% corn steep liquor. Higher
supplement doses gave even higher temperatures, which
were harmful and attracted growth of Coprinus spp.
(Gunasegaran and Graham, 1987).
Wheat straw is a superior substrate over maize stover
and common thatch grass when cultivating P. sajor-caju.
However, maize stover is more suitable for P. ostreatus.
Supplementation with cotton seed hull at an inclusion rate
of 25% can be used to improve yields when cultivating P.
ostreatus using wheat straw. Further investigations are
needed to test both lower and higher rates of inclusion of
supplements. However, at 25% inclusion rate, farmers
should not supplement with maize bran, as this will
reduce yields significantly. It appears also that oyster
mushroom species should be an important consideration
when selecting the appropriate substrate and/or
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... To obtain the expected results from supplementation, it is always essential to choose the correct ratio, timing, and methods of application of supplements (Naim et al., 2020a, b). If the supplement ratio is high, there is a risk of yield reduction (Fanadzo et al., 2010), substrate temperature increase (Upadhyay et al., 2002), and contamination (Yildiz et al., 2002). The substrate temperature has a major effect on mycelia growth during substrate colonization (Flegg and Wood, 1985). ...
... The rise in the substrate temperature following the use of conventional nitrogenous additives was attributed to faster metabolic activities triggered by extra nitrogen in the substrate (Upadhyay et al., 2002;Fanadzo et al., 2010). In the present study, both tested products applied at spawning, they caused an increase in the substrate temperature during the first stage of mycelial growth, but lead to a delay in the time to reach the complete colonization stage, and a consecutive general delay in the timing of first harvest. ...
... Also, the progressive decrease in substrate temperature after mycelial growth has contradicted the general knowledge on the effect of nitrogen supplementation on the substrate temperature. Moreover, it was reported that high nitrogen content of the substrate effectively shortened growth periods of mushrooms (Adebayo et al., 2009;Peksen and Yakupoglu, 2009;Fanadzo et al., 2010), which contradicts our results. Nevertheless, the delay in timing of consecutive growth stages, thus consecutive harvests, obtained in this study when the products were applied twice with the lowest dose (3 g kg -1 ) did not counteract the production of P. ostreatus. ...
Full-text available
Supplementation of the growing substrate affects the substrate temperature, the timing of consecutive harvests, and the production of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus) mushroom. The study investigated the effect of two nitrogen-rich supplements, Lithovit®-Amino25 and Lithovit®-Urea50, added in two doses (3 or 5 g kg-1), once (at spawning or after first flush) or twice (at spawning and after first flush) to the growing substrate. In comparison with control (non-treated substrate), Lithovit®-Amino25 and Lithovit®-Urea50 added at spawning, increased the substrate temperature by 1°C (274.15 K), and by 1.4-2°C (274.55-275.15 K), respectively during the earliest mycelia run stage, but showed a progressively decreasing pattern at later stages of growth. Overall, both products caused a delay in the timing of all mushroom growth stages. Economic yield and biological efficiency (BE) increased by 233.8 g bag-1 and 27.3%, respectively following the double application of Lithovit®-Amino25, and by 162.4 g bag-1 and 19.6%, respectively following the double application of Lithovit®-Urea50. BE of the former treatment had a strong negative correlation with the period between the first and second harvests (R2=0.98), while BE of the second treatment showed a strong negative correlation with the substrate temperature between the first and third harvests (R2=0.98). Both treatments showed the highest organic matter loss (42.0 and 31.39%, respectively). Results concerning the effect of nitrogen supplementation on the substrate temperature contradicted early findings. Nevertheless, the increase in mushroom production following the use of nitrogen-rich additives confirmed early results.
... However, a few fermentation factors such as medium composition, the ratio of carbon to nitrogen, pH, temperature and air composition influence the obtained lignocellulose product [65]. Nutrient sources for mushrooms mostly come from the substrates, affecting the chemical, functional and sensorial characteristics of the mushroom fruit bodies [66]. ...
... Mushrooms cultivated on a commercial scale require good-quality substrates that can give a high yield in return. Mushrooms, especially Pleurotus spp., need substrates containing carbon, nitrogen and inorganic compound for their growth [66]. The main mushroom substrates are usually low in nitrogen and high in carbon, where it contains cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin such as paddy straw, wheat straw, cottonseed hulls, sawdust, wastepaper, leaves and residue from the sugarcane [142]. ...
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Mushrooms are popular due to the nutrition contents in the fruit bodies and are relatively easy to cultivate. Mushrooms from the white-rot fungi group can be cultivated on agricultural biomass such as sawdust, paddy straw, wheat straw, oil palm frond, oil palm empty fruit bunches, oil palm bark, corn silage, corn cobs, banana leaves, coconut husk, pineapple peel, pineapple leaves, cotton stalk, sugarcane bagasse and various other agricultural biomass. Mushrooms are exceptional decomposers that play important roles in the food web to balance the ecosystems. They can uptake various minerals, including essential and non-essential minerals provided by the substrates. However, the agricultural biomass used for mushroom cultivation is sometimes polluted by heavy metals because of the increased anthropogenic activities occurring in line with urbanisation. Due to their role in mycoremediation, the mushrooms also absorb pollutants from the substrates into their fruit bodies. This article reviews the sources of agricultural biomass for mushroom cultivation that could track how the environmental heavy metals are accumulated and translocated into mushroom fruit bodies. This review also discusses the possible health risks from prolonged uptakes of heavy metal-contaminated mushrooms to highlight the importance of early contaminants’ detection for food security.
... This is in agreement with the results obtained by Jafarpour and Eghbalsaeed (2012) who reported that the wheat straw mixed with rice bran and soybean flour led to a significantly higher yield (939.33 g) than the substrate without complement. Having high fiber content and a C/N ratio could enhance the digestibility of lingo-cellulose content followed by the high availability of cellulose materials as mushroom nutrients (Fanadzo et al., 2010). ...
... The addition of rice bran supplements to the main substrates significantly improved the biomass and biological efficiency of mushrooms (Buendia et al., 2016). The maximum biological efficiency (%) in T4 20% rice bran + 5% soybean flour may be because rice bran and soybean flour contain high nitrogen content which improved the yield as reported by Fanadzo et al., (2010). ...
... The biological efficiency of oyster mushroom cultivation in sugarcane bagasse after harvesting one flush was 50% but increased to 115% after harvesting three flushes [30]. The substrate supplementation with other lignocellulosic materials may also improve the biological efficacy [31]. In this study, total biological efficacy was calculated after harvesting two flushes of mushrooms, and BSG was supplemented with 45% wheat bran. ...
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Oyster mushroom (OM) cultivation generates residue that needs to be managed; otherwise, it will be converted into waste. One of the substrates for OM cultivation is the food industry by-product, e.g., a mixture of the brewer’s spent grain (BSG) and wheat bran. This study assesses the OM cultivation residue’s physical and nutritional characteristics as a potential upcycled food ingredient and also considers developing bread from this cultivation residue. The OM was cultivated in a mixture of 55% BSG and 45% wheat bran. After the OM harvest, the cultivation residue (mixture of BSG, wheat bran and mycelium) had a lighter colour and a pleasant aroma compared to the initial substrate. It contained protein (10.8%) and had high niacin (42.4 mg/100 g), fibre (59.2%) and beta-glucan (6.6%). Thiamine, riboflavin and pyridoxine were also present in the cultivation residue. The bread was developed from 50% cultivation residue and 50% wheat flour, and its scores for darkness, dryness, sponginess, sour taste, bitter aftertaste, and aromatic aroma differed from white bread (p-value < 0.05). However, its overall acceptability and liking scores were not significantly different from white bread (p-value > 0.05). Therefore, this OM cultivation residue can be used as a nutritious ingredient; nevertheless, product development should be further explored.
... Table 2 consists of the proximate size and number of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus that were generated on different lignocellulosic substrates. From the data given in table 2, it can be concluded that the cultivation of wheat straw, corn cob, and sugarcane bagasse produced P. ostreatus with the largest cap diameter (84 -89.3 mm), followed by general sawdust, hardwood sawdust, and softwood sawdust (Upadhyay et al. 2002;Phillipoussis 2009;Fanadzo et al. 2010;Hoa et al. 2015;Girmay et al. 2016;Masevhe et al. 2016;Salama et al. 2016;Ogundele et al. 2017). The cap diameter is an essential growth parameter. ...
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Mushrooms are a popular food source as they are highly nutritious and flavorful with a high content of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Mushrooms could be an alternative solution to the world's food crisis as they are inexpensive to grow on different types of substrates including waste materials. Pleurotus ostreatus, frequently known as oyster mushrooms, are the second most cultivated mushroom in the world. This species is known for its high protein content and easy cultivation. Oyster mushrooms have the potential to produce protein-rich biomass when grown on various substrates. There is a need to identify substrates that are cost-effective for the commercial production of nutritious oyster mushrooms as the substrates used currently are either costly or inadequate to produce oyster mushrooms in the required quantity or quality. Thus, the effects of 6 different lignocellulosic substrates on the growth and nutritional composition of P. ostreatus were reviewed and analyzed in this article. The substrates included in this review were wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, softwood sawdust, hardwood sawdust, and general sawdust. Based on the analyzed data, sugarcane bagasse was concluded as the most suitable substrate to grow P. ostreatus. These substrates contain a high amount of nutrients and are also likely to produce a significantly high yield of oyster mushrooms in addition to enhancing the nutritional quality of the mushroom. However, these findings must be evaluated and confirmed through further research in this field.
... Nitrogen-containing basal media enhanced yield and biological efficiency (Fanadzo et al., 2010). Moreover, during the early stage of mycelium growth of Pleurotus species nitrogen requirement is less as compared to carbon requirement. ...
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Among edible mushrooms, Pleurotus eryngii is unique due to its flavor, admirable medicinal and nutritional profiling. Pakistan is an agricultural country diverse in various crops. However, the residues of the horticultural and agronomic crops are wasted without utilization in the food chain. Hence, a study was performed to assess the performance of relatively low-cost, easily available crops residues i.e. cotton, rice, wheat, mustard and water chestnut for yield and nutrition enhancement of Pleurotus eryngii strains P9 (China) and P10 (PSU-USA). The results revealed that morphological attributes i.e. mycelium run, fruit development, yield and biological efficiency were significantly higher by using cotton waste as compared to other substrates. Regarding biochemical attributes i.e. total soluble solids (12.67 °Brix), phenolics (259.6 mg/100g), moisture (92.3%) and ascorbic acid contents (2.9 mg/100ml) were also significantly higher by using cotton waste. Whereas, acidity (0.30%), reducing sugar (7.67%), non-reducing (4.33%) and total sugars contents (12%) were found highest by using mustard straw. Nutrient analysis of substrates showed that nutrient levels were increased after harvesting of crop as compared to before harvesting levels. Overall results revealed that cotton waste and mustard straw are promising substrates for Pleurotus eryngii better growth and have potential in yield and nutrition enhancement. Moreover, P10 strain performed better as compared to P9.
... At the same time, high proportions of OLPR resulted in higher nitrogen content in the substrate and thus, higher substrate's temperature and were also associated with a big reduction in yield compared to wheat straw. Fanadzo et al. (2010) reported that high nitrogen in substrate was associated with a raise in its temperature triggering faster metabolic activities. This could explain the fast growing cycle of oyster mushrooms on WS:OLPR 1:3 substrate, which had lower C/N ratio and the highest temperature among all tested substrates. ...
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Abandoned olive pruning residues (OLPR) are good source of carbon, an element required for the growth of Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom. The current study investigated the effect of implementation of olive pruning residues in oyster mushroom substrate. Based on mixtures of wheat straw (WS) (commercial control) and OLPR, four substrate types (treatments) were tested T1: WS (control); T2: OLPR; T3: WS:OLPR 1:3, and T4: WS:OLPR 3:1. Results showed that the use of OLPR in high proportions or alone caused an increase in substrates’ temperature. Moreover, the use of WS:OLPR 1:3 substrate reduced the durations between spawn run initiation (SRI) and 50% mycelial colonization (50% MC) and between 100% MC and pin head formation (PNF), while WS:OLPR 3:1 substrate showed an extended duration between the last mentioned predictors. Organic matter loss (OML) was significantly higher in T1 compared to T3 and T4 (76.7, 55.1 and 63.4%, respectively). Biological efficiency (BE) was 105.0, 54.1 and 80.3% in T1, T3 and T4, respectively. Increasing proportions of OLPR in tested substrates caused a reduction in organic matter loss (OML) and BE. The OML was strongly correlated (R2≥0.9) with the duration between complete mycelial colonization (100% MC) and pinhead formation (PNF), and that between PNF and first harvest (HF1). The substrates’ temperature between 100% MC and HF1 had a positive influence on BE and economic yield (EY), and the duration between PNF and HF1 had the strongest negative correlation to EY. Substrates’ contents of linolenic acid, arachidic acid, and fat were strongly correlated with the time to PNF and HF1, while total protein content affected only the stage PNF. In conclusion, OLPR could partially substitute wheat straw substrate for the production of P. ostreatus. Low OLPR proportions in the substrate reduced the duration of mushroom growth cycle, while high OLPR proportions allowed producing the yields, which were comparable with commercial control.
... For this reason, both the initial concentration of elements in substrate additions and nutritional requirements are fundamental, which may be explained by significant differences in major elements in the supplemented substrates, especially K and Mg, but without significant differences in contents of these elements in mushrooms (Figure 2). In our experiment, concentrations of major elements in individual additions (WB, PPEW or TPEW) were adequate, because no negative symptoms were observed for their excess influencing the production of fruit bodies, described in the literature as the destruction of mycelium, reduction of yield or undesirable flavour of fruit bodies [66]. Additionally, it suggests that the nutritional requirements of P. citrinopileatus may be greater. ...
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A cultivated mushroom species, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, is becoming increasingly popular thanks to its attractive colour and medicinal properties. In this study, P. citrinopileatus was grown in a cultivation medium enriched with wheat bran (WB), thymus post-extraction waste (TPEW) and pumpkin post-extraction waste (PPEW) products. The study showed that the post-extraction wastes are a crucial factor determining the accumulation of minerals, the content/profile of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and phenolic compounds in fruit bodies, thereby increasing their nutritional value. The use of the waste materials significantly increased LMWOAs contents. The sum of LMWOAs under all cultivation mediums increased, especially quinic, malic and citric acids under the 20% PPEW, 25 and 50% TPEW addition. Total phenolic content, phenolic content, as well as the composition and scavenging effect on DPPH radicals, were strongly dependent on the used substrate. The control variant was poor in phenolic compounds, while the supplementation increased the contents and diversity of these metabolites. In the control, only four phenolic compounds were quantified (chlorogenic, gallic, syringic and vanillic acids), while in the supplemented substrates up to 14 different phenolic compounds (caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, sinapic, syringic, trans-cinnamic and vanillic acids, catechin and rutin).
... Results obtained in this work demonstrate that BB, a low-cost and highly available residue in this region, is suitable as an alternative supplement to WB in oyster mushroom cultivation. Although supplements provide extra nitrogen, their high concentrations can cause a temperature increase in the substrate, leading to mycelium death above 35°C, as well as an increase in the risk of contamination by competing organisms [43]. Additionally, small particle size of supplements (more noticeable in WB) can lead to substrate compaction if used in large quantities, reducing BE due to poor aeration [44]. ...
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This work evaluated mycelial growth rate (Kr) and fruiting of two Pleurotus ostreatus commercial strains (A01, 129) on formulations composed of lignocellulosic residues from farming and agroindustry of Northern Patagonian Andes, and of woody materials from invasive plants. Rosehip fluffs (RF), rosehip woodchips (RWC), southern beech wood shavings (SBWS), wheat straw (WS), and willow woodchips (WWC) were used as base substrates, and brewing bagasse (BB) as an alternative supplement to wheat bran (WB). Kr was higher in WS-WB and WS-BB for both strains. Experiments in fruiting chambers showed biological efficiencies (BEs) above 40% in WS-BB (both strains) and WS-WB (strain 129). Formulations using RWC or WWC gave BEs under 40%, while those composed of SBWS or RF showed lower Kr and contamination by moulds. Medium-scale fruiting experiments using strain A01 showed the highest BEs in WS-BB and RWC-WB. These results suggest that WS is the best substrate for Pleurotus ostreatus culture, although scarce in Northern Patagonian Andes. Nevertheless, WWC and RWC are suggested as alternative substrates, while BB is cheap and abundant, suitable as an alternative supplement to WB.
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Mushrooms have bioactive compounds such as phenol compounds, terpenes, steroids, polysaccharides and vitamins etc. performing various biological activities can benefit the health.Pleurotus sp. is popularly cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide. It contains macronutrient and micronutrient along with certain bioactive compounds hic are of medicinal importance. The compounds isolated from mushroom are of great significance in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, neutraceuticals as well as for therapeutics purpose and prevention and treatment of diseases through their immunomodulatory property.
Sawdust substrate supplemented with millet or wheat bran or both, were inoculated with spawn made from an isolate (PSU 305) of Lentinus edodes. Biological efficiency (%) and size data, on mushrooms harvested from sawdust substrate with spawn run (vegetative growth) periods of 58 and 116 days, were analyzed. Biological efficiencies were two to three times greater for the longer incubation period. Production rate (r), defined as the daily average biological efficiency, was highest (r=0.79%/da) for a 116 day spawn run with both millet and bran as nutritional supplements. Larger mushrooms generally were produced with longer spawn runs. Practical application of these methods should increase the efficiency of shiitake cultivation on supplemented sawdust.
Mise au point bibliographique concernant les techniques de culture des especes de Pleurotus notamment sur dechets lignocellulosiques, leurs besoins nutritionnels et ecologiques, leur physiologie, les processus de bioconversion leur valeur nutritive et leur role dans le recyclage des dechets agricoles, la reutilisation des dechets provenant de leur culture (engrais, aliments du betail, combustibles, industries chimiques)
Spawn running, pin head and fruit body formation, and mushroom yield of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on waste paper supplemented with peat, chicken manure and husk rice (90+10; 80+20 w:w) were studied. The fastest spawn running (mycelia development) (15.8 days), pin head formation (21.4 days) and fruit body formation (25.6 days), and the highest yield (350.2 gr) were realized with the substrate composed of 20% rice husk in weight. In general, increasing the ratio of rice husk within the substrate accelerated spawn running, pin head and fruit body formation, and resulted in increased mushroom yields, while more peat and chicken manure had a negative effect on growing.
The use of cotton seed hulls for cultivation of P. sajor-caju in Australia
  • Ky Choi
  • Nair
  • Ng
  • Bruniges
Choi, KY, Nair NG, Bruniges PA (1981). The use of cotton seed hulls for cultivation of P. sajor-caju in Australia. Mush Sci. XI: 679-690