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Formulation and evaluation of Cedrus deodara loud extract

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Abstract

Normally herbal products are free from side effects, adverse effects and they are low cost medicines, which will be beneficial for the people of many countries. Keeping this in view the plant Cedrus deodara wood was selected 1, 2, 3, 4 . This plant is one of the traditional medicinal plants used for fever, pulmonary complaints, urinary disorders, leprosy, anti inflammatory and antidotal treatments of snake bite etc. The main aim of this work was to formulate and evaluate the ethanolic extract of Cedrus deodara wood into capsule formulation along with its physicochemical characterization and screening for the antidiabetic activity. The Crude Extract of Cedrus deodara was blended with the various excipients for convenient to formulate as a unit dosage form.

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... Traditional products are said to be free from side effects, adverse effects and they are low cost medicines, which will be beneficial for the people of many countries (Shivanand et al., 2009). Gupta and colleagues (2005) expressed the interest of using natural products, as a form of supplementary or alternative medication such as in the case of diabetes. ...
... Capsules are solid dosage forms in which medicinal agents and/or inert substances are enclosed in a small shell of gelatin, it may be hard or soft gelatin capsules, depending on the composition and they are commonly employed in clinical drug trials to compare the effects of an investigational drug with those other drug product in the market and or placebos (Ansel et al., 2011). Furthermore, in the study of Shivanand et al., (2009), crude extract of Cedrus deodara was blended with the various excipients for convenience to formulate as a unit dosage form such as capsule which is one of the bases of the study. ...
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Smallanthus sonchifolius, also known as yacon, is a tea having anti-diabetic activity which is currently marketed in the Philippines. Several studies have shown that the leaves of yacon possess different biological effects which include the reduction of glycemia. The aims of this study were to determine the approximate lethal dose of the ethanolic extract of yacon leaves based on Approximate Lethal Dose (ALD) by single-dose method and to investigate the glucose reducing activity of the encapsulated yacon leaves crude extract (YLCE) on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Three capsules were formulated (100, 300 and 500 mg) which contained 25% of the inert ingredients, lactose and starch, and 75% of the active constituent, the YLCE. The experimental mice were grouped according to their initial blood glucose level: G1 for negative control (inert ingredients), G2 for positive control (65 mg Met/kg BW), G3 for 100 mg yacon capsule, G4 for 300 mg yacon capsule, and G5 for 500 mg yacon capsule. Glucose reduction assay results showed that the 500 mg yacon capsule had the highest blood glucose reduction among the three formulations after two hours and after six hours. Toxicity test showed that the yacon crude extract is safe and non-toxic at 1000 mg/kg BW dosage. Our results suggest that encapsulated yacon extract can decrease blood sugar level and the three formulations are safe to use in diabetic mice
... The absorbance of samples was measured at 263 nm. The amount of percentage drug release was calculated by using the following formula [6]. ...
... The apparatus was operated and maintained the temperature at 37.50 ± 0.5°C. The time required to disintegrate all capsules and pass through wire mesh [6]. ...
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The present investigation was aimed to formulate capsule formulations containing isolated compounds from Dregea volubilis and Leptadenia reticulata. In order to obtain anti diabetic formulations with more effective oral hypoglycemic activity, less side effects, increased patient compliance thereby providing multifaceted benefits. DVLR (DV and LR isolated fraction was mixed in 1:1 ratio) capsules were formulated and the study was carried out for its anti-diabetic effect of STZ and HFD induced diabetic rats. Preformulation of capsules were observed as angle of repose and bulk density. Finished capsule formulations were evaluated for weight variation, pH, moisture content, disintegration time, in vitro-drug release percentage and in vivo anti diabetic studies. In our study showed empty capsule shell pH was observed as 3.62 and moisture content of capsule was found as <5 % w/w which indicated that there were less chances of microbial growth and capsule will not become soft. Filled capsule passed the test for uniformity of weight, all capsules disintegrated within 7 minutes. Abstract-The present investigation was aimed to formulate capsule formulations containing isolated compounds from Dregea volubilis and Leptadenia reticulata. In order to obtain anti diabetic formulations with more effective oral hypoglycemic activity, less side effects, increased patient compliance thereby providing multifaceted benefits. DVLR (DV and LR isolated fraction was mixed in 1:1 ratio) capsules were formulated and the study was carried out for its anti-diabetic effect of STZ and HFD induced diabetic rats. Preformulation of capsules were observed as angle of repose and bulk density. Finished capsule formulations were evaluated for weight variation, pH, moisture content, disintegration time, in vitro-drug release percentage and in vivo anti diabetic studies. In our study showed empty capsule shell pH was observed as 3.62 and moisture content of capsule was found as <5 % w/w which indicated that there were less chances of microbial growth and capsule will not become soft. Filled capsule passed the test for uniformity of weight, all capsules disintegrated within 7 minutes. Dissolution of capsule was found as 94.17%. DVLR possesses significant blood glucose lowering and cholesterol lowering activities. The improvements in the lipid profile in diabetic animals after treatment with DVLR could be beneficial in preventing diabetic complications, as well as improving lipid metabolism in diabetic patients. Formulation of DVLR is observed as more active against hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia compared with standard drug metformin.
... [17,18] Insecticidal activity Himalayan Cedar wood oil showed insecticidal property against adult Indian mosquitoes. [19][20][21][22] Chromatographic fractions bio assayed against the Pulse beetle (Callosobruchus) and housefly (Musca domestica) showed insecticidal activity against both the test species. [23] C. deodara also showed good pesticidal activity. ...
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Aromatic oils are called Essential Oils (EO) because of there ease of solubility in alcohol to form essence. These oils are found in the uncombined form in various parts of plants and employed for flavours, perfumes, cosmetics, beverages, disinfectants, medicines, and stabilizers. EO possess various constituents mainly sesquiterpenoids, benzenoids, phenylpropanoids etc. The demand for C. deodara plant material and its essential oil has been increasing in pharmaceutical, chemical, food and perfumery industries because of its favourable physico-chemical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy. C. deodara has been used as antiseptic, insecticides, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and anti-fungal. Therefore, the main objective of this experimental work is to investigate the effect of different particle sizes of plant material on the yield of essential oil; to investigate the effect of processing time on C. deodara EO yield and there physicochemical characteristics and analysis of essential oil constituents using GC-MS. Different size of C. deodara material namely, grade A (large size), grade B (medium size) and grade C (small size) material has been extracted using Clevenger’s apparatus to measure its physicochemical properties. The processed grade B material was extracted with n-hexane by the maceration process to analyse variation in physicochemical properties. From the results, it has been observed that medium-size material of C. deodara has a higher percentage of yield because it has an optimum surface area to release its constituents. Temperature variations have a direct impact on physical as well as chemical properties. Higher temperatures and pressures result in a ‚harsh‘ aroma that changes the aromatic properties and decrease the oil‘s therapeutic values. Distillation time has also an impact on the yield as well as on the physical and chemical properties of the material. Thin-layer chromatography showed 10 spots of different colours in essential oil. The major constituent‘s percentage obtained after GC-MS analysis as α-himachlene (13.83%), γ-himachlene (12.00%), β-himachlene (37.34%), Deodaron (0.43%), α-atlantone (4.53%), Z, γ-atlantone (2.77%), E, γ-atlantone (3.34%) and E, α-atlantone (10.63%).
... Cedrus deodara grows extensively on the slopes of the Himalayas and belongs to the Pinaceae family. It was found to have spasmolytic [5], insecticidal [6], antifilarial [7], antidiabetic [8], antiarthritic [9], antitubercular [10], antioxidant [11], potent disinfectant [12], diuretic, antiurolithiatic [13], antisecretory and antiulcer [14] activities. In the traditional medicine of Kangra, the wood of C. deodara is pounded with water on a stone, and the paste is applied to the forehead to relieve headaches. ...
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The heartwood of Cedrus deodara is traditionally used for the treatment of neurological disorders in India. In this study, the compound 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) isolated from the ethanolic extract of C. deodara was evaluated for its anticonvulsant activity. The experimental studies were carried out in albino mice (18-22 g) and rats (180-220 g), employing different models of convulsions. The N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA)-induced lethality test and estimation of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were carried out to investigate the mechanism of action of this compound. BDFD gave dose-dependent protection against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, pilocarpine- and 6-Hz-induced convulsions but it could not inhibit NMDA-induced lethality. Motor incoordination was displayed when the BDFD dose exceeded 400 mg/kg, whereas the therapeutic dose was below 100 mg/kg in the PTZ, pilocarpine and 6-Hz models (39-90 mg/kg). Furthermore, brain GABA estimation revealed that this compound increases the GABA level. BDFD dose levels up to 150 mg/kg did not prevent NMDA-induced lethality, which proves its weak influence on the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. The findings of the experiments on various animal models clearly demonstrated that BDFD possesses anticonvulsant activity by enhancing inhibitory GABAminergic neurotransmission.
... The capsule prepared from the wood extract of the plant, above mentioned formula was subjected to in vivo studies, such as, acute toxicity and antidiabetic which revealed that the study had a vital role in the management of diabetes. [45]  Antioxidant Activity: The brain and nervous system are rich in lipid and iron, both known to be important in generating free radical species, so these two part of our body are highly susceptible to free radical damage than other tissue. C. deodara was also reported to have good antioxidant property. ...
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Many plants are essential in human health care, both in self-medication and in national services. India has a great wealth of various naturally occurring plant drugs which have great potential pharmacological activities. A number of medicinal plants are used as rejuvenators as well as for treating various disease conditions. Cedrus deodara, the common cedar is an important plant belonging to the family pinaceae. C. deodara has been proven to have great pharmacological potential with a great utility and usage as folklore medicine. This review summarized the plant characteristics with chemical composition and their pharmacological activities. This is the first article reported in this review form about C. Deodar which is benefits for science students who involved in modern health concept. INTRODUCTION: Nature always stands as a golden mark to exemplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. The plants are indispensible to man for his life. Nature has provided a complete store-house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. Major part of our world population utilized plant medicines either in part or entirely. Growing numbers of health care consumers are turning to plant medicines for many reasons-low cost and seeking natural alternatives with fewer side effects are commonly cited.
... The aromatic odour of cedrus oil believes to cure various ailments and is one of the popular ingredients in aromatherapy. Various extracts or constituents of this tree has been reported for a number of medicinal uses viz., spasmolytic [1], immuno-modulatory [2], anti-cancer [3], anti-fungal [4], disinfectant [5], anti-arthritic [6], anti-allergic [7], anti-oxidant [8], anti-filarial [9], and molluscicidal [10], antidiabetic [11], antitubercular [12], antiuro-lithiatic [13], antisecretory and antiulcer [14] activities. ...
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Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) has been used traditionally in Ayurveda for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. 3,4-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)furan-2,5-dione (BDFD) was isolated from heart wood of Cedrus deodara and was shown to have antiepileptic and anxiolytic activity. Thus, the present study was aimed to explore its anti-depressant effect and to correlate the effect with serotonin and nor adrenaline levels of brain. Albino mice were used as experimental animal. Animals were divided in to three groups; vehicle control, imipramine (30 mg/kg i.p.), BDFD (100 mg/kg i.p.). Tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) was performed to evaluate antidepressant effect of BDFD. BDFD (100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant decrease in immobility time when subjected to FST whereas immobility time was not significantly altered in TST. BDFD treatment increased serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the brain which is indicative of BDFD having possible atypical antidepressant action.
... Identification of pure drug by HPLC [10] The retention time of principal peak obtained in the test solution chromatogram should correspond to that of principal peak obtained from standard solution. ...
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Nanoparticles prepared from the biodegradable polymer Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) are the most intensively investigated for treating tumors. The combination of physiologically interactive Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) with anticancer agents in the nanoparticulate state has emerged as a new strategy for chemotherapy. This strategy exploits the properties of the polymer as a carrier for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules, enabling them to cross the endothelial barrier and preferentially accumulate within tumors. Docetaxel is a potent anticancer agent widely used in the treatment of early and advanced stages of breast cancer. The objective of the present study was to formulate Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticulate drug delivery system utilizing the high binding properties of docetaxel. Methods: Nanoparticles were prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method using Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) as a hydrophobic drug carrier. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized for surface morphology, particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency, stability studies and Invitro release studies. Results: The spherical nanoparticles obtained were negatively charged with a zeta potential of about -36 mV and particle size in the range of 148.6 to 221.2nm. The stable nanoparticles had a high encapsulation efficiency of 94.85% & loading efficiency of 26.71% with percentage cumulative drug release of 88.48% at the end of 24 hours. Conclusion: Formulation with higher concentration of PLGA showed optimum results with all the evaluated parameters within the specified limits and hence considered as the ideal formulation.
... Many researchers have demonstrated the efficacy of the tree and its oil. Literature have revealed the various pharmacological activities of the tree and its oil like antibacterial, insecticidal activity, Molluscidal activity, antitubercular activity, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity, neuroleptic activity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity and cytotoxic activity [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] . ...
... It produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and of both exudativeproliferative and chronic phases of inflammation in adjuvant arthritic rats at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The oil at both tested doses was found to possess analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate reaction in mice (Pandey et al., 2009;Chaudhary et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
Aromatic oils found in uncombined form in various parts of plants and employed for flavors, perfumes, disinfectants, medicines, and stabilizers. The essential oils are of four general classes: the pinenes or terpenes of coniferous plants, containing carbon and hydrogen of the empirical formula C10H16, such as oil of turpentine; oxygenated oils containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, such as oil of cassia; nitrogenate oils containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, such as oil of bitter almonds, sulfurated oils containing carbon, hydrogen and sulfur, such as oil of mustard. The demand of C. deodara plant material and its essential oil has been increasing in pharmaceutical, chemical, food and perfumery industries because of its favorable physico-chemical characteristics and therapeutic efficacy. This has created pressure on various industries to produce quality products of C. deodara material. It has been considered that C. deodara of Himalayan region represents good quality after lot of work done on C. deodara of different regions. Thus, Himalayan C. deodara is selected for the present investigations. C. deodara has been used as antiseptic, insecticides, anti-inflammatory, molluscicidal and anti-fungal. As the demand of C. deodara essential oil is increasing day by day, therefore following objectives are proposed to achieve the goal.  To determine the physical and chemical characteristics of plant oil.  To investigate the effect of different particle size on yield of essential oil.  To investigate the effect of processing time on C. deodara EO yield and their physico-chemical characteristics.  .Reprocessing of treated material with non-polar solvent and determining yields.  Analysis of essential oil of C. deodara using GC-MS.
... Preformulation testing is the first step in the rational development of dosage forms of herbal preparation. The objective of pre-formulation tests is to develop information useful to the formulator in developing a stable bioavailable dosage form [9]. Pre-formulation involves the characterization of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of an herbal preparation alone and when combined with excipients. ...
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Jamu Uyup – Uyup has established as the most used natural galactagogue in Indonesia, especially among Javanese people. Jamu Uyup – Uyup is available on the market in the fresh liquid form of a herbal mixture. Liquid forms of herbal preparations have certain limitation related to large dose volumes, difficult packaging, and poor stability. Developing and formulation Jamu Uyup - Uyup into solid dosage form would ensure reproducibility of product quality, accurate doses, improve acceptability and easy compliance with usage directives. The preparation of solid dosage form was carried out using spray drying technique. Microparticle comprising Jamu Uyup – Uyup encapsulated in a lactose matrix have medium yellow color, have distinct typical odor of Zingiberaceae, taste mildly bitter, pungent, slightly sweet, and have an acidic pH (4.7) to keep curcuminoids content stable. The solid dosage form had moisture content of 3.21 ° 1.71% dw and curcuminoids content of 35.86 ± 2.13 mg/g dw. Surface morphology showed that microparticles containing Jamu Uyup – Uyup encapsulated in a lactose matrix have spherical shape with a smooth surface and various sizes (20 – 100 μm) with no apparent cracks or fissures.
... Pre-formulation studies were carried out for the investigation of the physicochemical character of a drug substance alone and when combined with excipients. The overall objective of the pre-formulation testing was to generate information useful in developing stable and bioavailable dosage form (25). ...
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The objective of this study was to formulate and evaluate Plicosepalus acacia extract as capsule dosage form. Plicosepalus acacia powder was done by microcrystalline cellulose (80%) as an adsorbent by the non-thermal method. The pre-formulation parameters like bulk density, tap density, Carr's index, Hausner's ratio, the angle of repose and drug excipient compatibility were checked. The Plicosepalus acacia powder with a suitable excipient was capsulated and the designed formulations were evaluated for organoleptic properties, solubility, IR compatibility, Thin layer chromatography, content uniformity, weight variation, moisture content, dissolution, and stability. It was found that Plicosepalus acacia extract was compatible with Microcrystalline Cellulose, Sodium Starch Glycolate, and Methylparaben, and no significant change in the Rf value of Plicosepalus acacia was observed. The extracts also freely soluble in water and partially soluble in methanol. Uniformity of weight and content and dissolution profile of Plicosepalus acacia capsules are within the BP specification. As the stability was concerned for two formulas after 12 weeks storage at 30±2℃ / 70%±5% relative humidity (RH) and at 45±2℃ / 75%±5% relative humidity (RH) in glass bottle container indicated that the manufactured capsules essentially had the same organoleptic properties during storage, moisture content, chromatographic pattern and had near dissolution profiles after storage and still within the British Pharmacopoeia single point specification. It concluded that Plicosepalus acacia extract can be formulated as a capsule stored in a glass bottle.
... Many researchers have demonstrated the efficacy of the tree and its oil. Literature have revealed the various pharmacological activities of the tree and its oil like antibacterial, insecticidal activity, Molluscidal activity, antitubercular activity, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity, neuroleptic activity, antidiabetic activity, antioxidant activity, antimalarial activity and cytotoxic activity [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47] . ...
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The ancient Siddha system of medicine has its origin right from the genesis of mankind. According to this medical system, herbs and human have proved their inseparable unification time and again all through the ages. Either of the two is inevitably reliable on each other based on the concept of Mukkutram (humoural theory) and Arusuvai (taste theory). Scientifically the existence of multitudinous variety of plants on the earth has always exhibited their incalculable efficacy to dreadful diseases such as HIV infection. Hence this article aims to explore the therapeutic efficacy and scientific facts behind the Siddha drug Deva Chooranam. Deva Chooranam is a combination of three medicinal herbs, Cedrus deodara (Devadaru), Alpinia galanga (Arathai), Cinnamomum tamala (Lavanga pathiri). Each of these herbs has promulgated their hundred-proof medicinal properties by redressing man from some of the ailments and diseases which have proved to deadweight burden to mankind for ages. The rhizome of Alpinia galanga (Arathai) has exhibited its property owing to HIV infection and all the three plants significantly showcased the Immunomodulatory property.
... properties (Gupta et al., 1997;Pandey, Devmurari, Goyani, Vaghani, & Jaganathan, 2009;Singh & Agarwal, 1988). (ABTS) radicals along with ferric reduction and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects (Höferl et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Essential oils (EOs) are regarded as alternative therapeutic agents for many diseases. In phytotherapy research areas, it is now well reported that conifers are the rich source of EOs. This review aims to update information on the biological sources and the best extraction processes of the significant constituents along with the traditional and therapeutic properties of the EOs from selected conifers of Himachal Pradesh, Northwestern Himalaya. In the present review, ten conifer species of high values have been selected. Results from several studies suggest that the conifers contain monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, ketones, alcohols, and esters, which are used in medicines, food products, and cosmetics as well as other commercial and industrial products. Traditionally, the EOs from the conifers have been reported to be used against fever, cough, bronchitis, skin diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, and asthma. The pharmacological studies suggest that these EOs can be used as antirheumatic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, anticancer, anti‐inflammatory, antitoxic, aphrodisiac, and astringent agents. It is, therefore, concluded that the EOs from the conifers might be one of the promising tools for the treatment of various diseases. Extensive research is required to ascertain the efficacy of the EOs from unstudied conifers.
... The 500 mg/kg bw dosage was found to 11 Powdered woods of CD defatted with petroleum ether and extracted from ethanol played a vital role in the management of diabetes. 12 The and substantially reduced alloxan-induced oxidative stress and produced a decrease in BGL. 13 ...
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Diabetes is a clinical condition characterized by a spike in blood glucose in plasma. It is one of the 21st century's greatest public health crises and is among the top 10 causes of death worldwide. Although new drugs and therapeutics are emerging for its management but the prevalence is increasing at an alarming pace; thus, every system must contribute for effective management. An effort is made to review the efficacy and safety evaluation of the individual herbs of Darvyadi Kwatha (DK), an Ayurvedic formulation mentioned in Charaka Samhita. The constituents of the DK has some strong efficient antidiabetic/hypoglycaemic chemical principle having insulin-triggering and insulin-like behaviors which increases the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and glucokinase and decreases glucose-6-phosphatase activity, reduce oxidative stress and prevention of glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity play a critical role in glucose homeostasis. DK also improve biochemical parameters such as SGPT, SGOT, cholesterol and triglycerides and is found to be safe in animal experiments. The various evidences clearly indicates that DK has definite hypoglycemic potential as well as anti-diabetic activity.
... [7][8] The oil is antiseptic and used in skin diseases, sores, wounds and ulcers [9] and also for headache, fever, urogenital diseases, piles and as a carminative, antidiarrhoeal, diaphoretic, diuretic and insecticide. The heartwood is used for similar purposes and as in anti-inflammatory activity [10] , Immunomodulatory activity [11][12] , Antimalarial activity [13] , Mast cell stabilizing and lipoxygenase inhibitory activity [14] , Antiallergic activity [15] ,Anti-tubercular activity [16] , Anti-diabetic Activity [17] , Anti-oxidant activity [18][19] , laxative [20] , diuretic, sedative, Anti-bacterial activity [21] , Anti-fungal [22] , cardio tonic [23] and for many other disorders. The leaves are bitter and acrid and used mainly in inflammation [24][25] and Anti-hypertension. ...
... Plant shows 6% fall in blood glucose profile in single dose experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (Gupta, 2005;Rajasekaran et al., 2004;Upadhya et al., 2004). Antihyperglycemic preparation was also obtained and evaluated from the ethanolic extract of Cedrus deodara (Shivanand, 2009). ...
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EO's (Essential oils) are the complex mixtures of volatile compounds, synthesized as secondary metabolites from plant parts by steam/ Hydro distillation, solvent-less extraction and other physical means such as cold pressing. The demands of EO's are increasing drastically in food and beverage; fragrances; cosmetics; flavouring agents in air fresheners and deodorizers; household and aromatherapy. Cedrus deodara (Pinaceae) EO is one of the important oil, which has great pharmacological activities and demand in the market. C. Deodara EO has wide applications, mainly in antimicrobial, insecticidal, molluscicidal, germicidal, anti-tubercular activities in Pharmacology. C. Deodara oil has high demand in fragrance industries because of its specific characteristics. Himalayan C. Deodara consists of α-Himachalene, β-Himachalene, γ-Himachalene, α and γ atlantone as its major constituents. This paper presents the details of Cedrus deodara of Himachal (India) region, its production in small scale industries using steam/Hydro distillation, ingredient and uses. This article will facilitate the science students and small scale EO's industries to improve their productivity with the latest techniques.
Article
Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of chloroform extract of Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii wood (Cd C and Pr C, respectively). Methods: Cd C and Pr C at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg were given orally to fasted rats and ulcers were induced by pyloric ligation and ethanol. Number of ulcer, ulcer score, ulcer index, percentage ulcer inhibition and tissue histology were measured in both the models. The effect on volume of gastric secretion, pH, total acidity and free acidity were evaluated in the pyloric ligation model. Results: Cd C (50, 100 mg/kg) and Pr C (50, 100 mg/kg) extracts were able to protect gastric mucosa against pyloric ligation and ethanol. In case of pyloric ligation model respective inhibition produced were 24.18, 60.44, 10.98 and 25.27%, and in case of ethanol model inhibition were 30.00, 56.36, 20.91 and 29.09%. Like famotidine, Cd C 100 significantly decreased the gastric content (2.40 ± 0.313 to 2.09 ± 0.095 ml), total acidity (473.85 ± 25.774 to 246.04 ± 32.602 meq./l) and free acidity (357.21 ± 30.496 to 182.25 ± 25.774 meq./l) and increase the pH of gastric content (2.99 ± 0.097 to 3.68 ± 0.221) in pyloric ligation model. The protective effect of this extract was associated with marked reduction in gastric hemorrhage and maintenance of tissue integrity. Conclusion: The present investigation provides the rationale for the use of Cedrus deodara in the management of peptic ulcer.
Article
Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. commonly called as deodar, is a species of cedar native to the Western Himalayas in Eastern Afghanistan, Northern Pakistan, North-Central India, South Western Tibet and Western Nepal. The chemical constituents obtained from different parts of plant include wikstromal, matairesinol, dibenzylbutyrolactol, berating, isopimpillin, lignans 1, 4 diaryl butane, benzofuranoid neo lingam, isohemacholone, sesquiterpenes LIII: deodarone, atlantone, deodarin, deodardione, limonenecarboxylic acid, α-himacholone, β-himacholone, α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, cedrin (6-methyldihydromyricetin), taxifolin, cedeodarin (6-methyltaxifolin), dihydromyricetin and cedrinoside. Various parts of this plant are used in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments such as fever, inflammation, pain, ulcer, apoptosis, spasmodic, hyperglycemia, infections, insomnia, disorder of mind, disease of skin and blood. Recent in-vivo and in-vitro studies have indicated its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-hyperglycemia, antispasmodic, insecticidal, anti-apoptotic, anti-cancer, immmunomodulatory, molluscidal, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant properties. Exhaustive literature survey reveals that there are some activities which are still not validated scientifically. The current review compiles and presents an up-to-date comprehensive review of the traditional and folklore medicinal uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Cedrus deodara plant.
Article
Cedrus deodara and Pinus roxburghii, plants mentioned in Indian literature, have been described to possess central nervous system effects and are used in Ayurvedic medicine to treat disorders of the mind. To investigate the memory-enhancing activity of volatile oil and chloroform extracts of C. deodara and P. roxburghii in the Morris water maze paradigm as well as evaluating their antioxidant properties. Aged albino mice were used to study the effect of oil and chloroform extracts on learning and memory by using the Morris water maze paradigm. The chloroform extract of C. deodara produced a significant decrease in escape latency over 7 days of training in both reference and working memory training in comparison to the control group. In the probe trial on day 8, mice in the chloroform extract of C. deodara group crossed the target area more often and spent more time in the target quadrant. Amongst the oils and extracts tested for oxidative stress parameters, only the chloroform extract of C. deodara at doses of 100 mg/kg produced a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) with a simultaneous significant increase in the level of glutathione (GSH) in both the frontal cortex and hippocampus. The present findings indicate that the chloroform extract of C. deodara has the best memory-enhancing effect due to its strong antioxidant properties from compounds like terpenoids and flavonoids. The study provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of C. deodara in the management of memory dysfunction and related disorders.
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To study the antihyperlipidemic effect of Cedrus deodara (C. deodara) against monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity in neonatal rats. The studies were carried out on newborn neonatal rats and were injected intraperitoneally with 2 mg/g of MSG on the 2(nd) and 4(th) postnatal days and 4 mg/g on 6(th), 8(th) and 10(th) postnatal days. Ethanolic extract (EE) and acetone extract (AE) of C. deodara was administered in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o./day at the age of 65 days. On day 60 of treatment, body weight, locomotor activity, body temperature, and various biochemical parameters like serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and organs weights were recorded. There was a significant reduction in body weight, organs and increased body temperature, locomotor activity after treatment with extracts. C. deodara decreased serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels and increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) significantly has compared to MSG-control rats. C. deodara extracts exhibited antihyperlipidemic effect and it possesses anti-obesity properties in MSG induced obese rats.
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