Article

Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station

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Abstract

Abstract Significant concern has been raised about possible health effects from exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of mobile telecommunications systems. Parents are especially concerned with the possibility that children might develop cancer after exposure to the RF emissions from mobile telephone base stations erected in or near schools. The few epidemiologic studies that did report on cancer incidence in relation to RF radiation have generally presented negative or inconsistent results, and thus emphasize the need for more studies that should investigate cohorts with high RF exposure for changes in cancer incidence. The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station.

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... Out of the 57 studies collected, 4 studies were excluded because they did not contain epidemiologic analysis [22,23] reported a very high result that masked results of other studies in disproportion [there was one underlying cause of death due to leukemia compared with 0.2 expected (standard mortality ratio [SMR] = 437, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11-2433), and two multiple listed causes of death due to leukemia compared with 0.3 expected (SMR = 775, 95% CI = 94-2801) [24]] or used a case series method with no epidemiological ratios and/or probability values [25]. Out of the remaining 53 studies, described in Table 1, we discarded for use in the meta-analysis 6 studies without information on confidence intervals or indications on how to extract them [26][27][28][29][30][31] and one study in which the CI was reported to be higher than the actual measure of association [RR = 4.15 95% CI 40.1, 217.2 [17]]. From the total collected, we used 46 studies (81%) for the meta-analysis. ...
... Kundi and Hutter [15] reviewed effects of base stations, and found that only two studies had been published on cancer [16,17]. Both of them found increased risk, but had no individual data and therefore were considered to provide limited evidence, and no firm conclusions could be drawn. ...
... For breast cancer, the average age in the exposed area was approximately 13 years younger than the average age of developing cancer in the exposed, and approximately 20 years less than in the non exposed population, as well as 12 years younger than the national average age for developing breast cancer in Germany [16]. An Israeli study on exposure to cell towers, found an extremely short latency period [17]. Risk increased and survival decreased for exposed vs. non exposed in children [39]. ...
... Public exposure to microwave/radiofrequency (MW/RF) radiation has been increasing rapidly since the development and proliferation of wireless technologies [1][2][3][4][5][6], resulting in widespread health concerns [7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. According to International Telecommunication Union's estimates (Figure 1), in 2001 there were 962 million cellular phone users across the globe, in 2010 5,290 million and in 2015 7,085 million. ...
... The proliferation of MW/RF radiation has been a health concern for years [7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Thus, in an early study by Milham [15], television and radio repairmen had an increased risk of leukemia mortality. ...
... Thus, Hocking [7] found a statistically significant association between residential proximity to television towers and a decrease in survival rates among children with leukemia in North Sydney, Australia. In 2004, two further studies found increased cancer risk among neighborhoods located close to cellular towers [9,10]. In yet another study published in 2004, Park [8] found higher rates of leukemia mortality among young adults aged less than 30 years residing in urban areas surrounded by AM radio broadcasting towers. ...
... There is a large and growing body of evidence that human exposure to RFR from cellular phone base stations causes negative health effects (Siddoo-Atwal, 2018;Singh et al., 2018;Faisal, et al., 2018) including both i) neuropsychiatric complaints such as headache, concentration difficulties, memory changes, dizziness, tremors, depressive symptoms, fatigue and sleep disturbance (Navarro et al., 2003;Hutter et al., 2006;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007); and ii) increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station (Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Havas, 2017). The mechanism for causing cancer could be from observed genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls (Gandhi et al., 2014). ...
... The mechanism for causing cancer could be from observed genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls (Gandhi et al., 2014). In epidemiological studies that assessed negative health effects of mobile phone base stations (seven studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects (Navarro et al., 2003;Hutter et al., 2006;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Berg-Beckhoff et al., 2009;Blettner et al., 2009;Gadzicka et al., 2006;Santini et al., 2002) and three investigated cancer (Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Havas, 2017;Levitt and Lai, 2010), 80% reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 m from base stations (Navarro et al., 2003). ...
Article
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The use of cellular phones is now ubiquitous through most of the adult global population and is increasingly common among even young children in many countries (e.g. Finland, where the market for smart phones is nearly saturated). The basic operation of cellular phone networks demands widespread human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) with cellular phone base stations providing cellular coverage in most areas. As the data needs of the population increase from the major shift in the source of Internet use from personal computers to smart phones, this coverage is widely predicted to increase. Thus, both the density of base stations and their power output is expected to increase the global human RFR exposure. Although direct causation of negative human health effects from RFR from cellular phone base stations has not been finalized, there is already enough medical and scientific evidence to warrant long-term liability concerns for companies deploying cellular phone towers. In order to protect cell phone tower firms from the ramifications of the failed paths of other industries that have caused unintended human harm (e.g. tobacco) this Current Issue summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of RFR from cellular phone base stations. Specifically the impacts of siting base stations are closely examined and recommendations are made for companies that deploy them to minimize their potential future liability.
... For decades, there has been an increasing concern on the possible adverse effects of RFR on humans living near mobile phone base stations despite the fact that RFR spectrum are of low frequency (ARPANSA, 2011). There has been a link between the RFR exposures and several human health disorders including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological diseases (Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Eger et al., 2004;Havas, 2013;Lerchl et al., 2015;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 2011) has classified RFR as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B), based on the increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer associated with wireless phone use (Hardell et al., 2013). ...
... RFR may change the fidelity of DNA as the increased incidence of cancer has been reported among those residing near mobile phone base stations (Abdel-Rassonl et al., 2007;Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Cherry, 2000;Eger et al., 2004;Hardell et al., 1999;Hutter et al., 2006;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). RFR emitted from mobile base stations is also reported to increase the DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of mobile phone users and individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile base station/s (Gandhi and Anita, 2005;Gandhi et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to the control group. The HPBLs were cultured and the DNA damage was assessed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in the binucleate lymphocytes. The analyses of data from the exposed group (n = 40), residing within a perimeter of 80 m of mobile base stations, showed significantly (p < 0.0001) higher frequency of micronuclei when compared to the control group, residing 300 m away from the mobile base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.
... Cancer incidences were significantly higher (p<0.001) in this area with eight cases of cancer being reported in one year, women being more affected than men. Hence, an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell phone tower was established (Wolf and Wolf 2004). A study by Santini et al., (2002), was carried out to compare the complaints of people living at a certain distance from cellular base station. ...
... During the last years, epidemiological studies indicated on the significantly increased risk of different types of tumors among heavy users of a cell phone, including brain tumors [1][2][3], acoustic neuroma [4,5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8], and lymphomas [9]. Furthermore, it was reported on a significant increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations [10,11]. And finally, a bulk of experimental studies revealed a significant metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure to low-intensity MW [12,13]. ...
... They found that the women complain significantly more often than men of headache, nausea loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. The study appealed that the minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. (Santini et al., 2002), While (Wolf R et al., 2004) remind that the ratio of developing cancer cases newly was significantly higher among those patients who had lived within 400 m from the towers site of the internet for the past 10 years, compared to all patients living further apart. Also, they found the 5 years from the operation of the transmitting installation, habitat that near of the installation region, compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the zone (Ha et al., 2007;Elliott et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mobile phone has become one of the most important in our days. The effects of waves from mobile base station may cause health effects on human. The aim of this work was to study the effect of radiofrequency (RF) emitted from mobile base station on the hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell (PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and liver enzymes activity including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvie transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study the people divided into control group who living away from mobile base station and experimental group who living near to the mobile base station. The present result found there is no significant differences (P<0.05) in the Hb and PCV, but there was a significant increases (P<0.05) in the white blood cells compared to the control group. The most changes found in the biochemical parameters of liver enzymes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental and control people. It was found the enzyme (GOT) increased to the 50.402±8.001, (GPT) increased to the 56.119±5.401, (ALP) increased to the 64.00±7.569. The mobile base station radiation has harmful effects on enzyme activity and white blood cells and the exposure to this radiation is responsible for changes in liver enzyme and can affect the health.
... An evaluation of the comparative risk showed that overall 4.15 additional patients were found in zone A than in the whole community. 10 ...
... To date, many epidemiological studies assessing health effects of RF exposure have been focused on specific sources, such as use of mobile or cordless phones (Abramson et al., 2009;Aydin et al., 2011b;Cardis, 2010;Divan et al., 2008;Redmayne et al., 2013;Sadetzki et al., 2014;Schüz et al., 2011;Thomas et al., 2010) (most of them considering selfreported use), and on distance to some far-field sources (mobile phone base stations, television and radio antennas, whose radiation is contributing to people's exposure in the far field of the source) (Dode et al., 2011;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). These methods to assess exposure have limitations. ...
Article
Introduction: Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess RF exposure in the Spanish INMA birth cohort by spot measurements and by personal measurements in the settings where children tend to spend most of their time, i.e., homes, schools and parks; to identify the settings and sources that contribute most to that exposure; and to explore if exposure assessment based on spot measurements is a valid proxy for personal exposure. Methods: When children were 8 years old, spot measurements were conducted in the principal settings of 104 participants: homes (104), schools and their playgrounds (26) and parks (79). At the same time, personal measurements were taken for a subsample of 50 children during 3 days. Exposure assessment based on personal and on spot measurements were compared both in terms of mean exposures and in exposure-dependent categories by means of Bland-Altman plots, Cohen's kappa and McNemar test. Results: Median exposure levels ranged from 29.73 (in children's bedrooms) to 200.10 μW/m2 (in school playgrounds) for spot measurements and were higher outdoors than indoors. Median personal exposure was 52.13 μW/m2 and median levels of assessments based on spot measurements ranged from 25.46 to 123.21 μW/m2. Based on spot measurements, the sources that contributed most to the exposure were FM radio, mobile phone downlink and Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial, while indoor and personal sources contributed very little (altogether
... In United Kingdom, from 118 locations maximum power density reported was 0.0083 W/m 2 [6]. A study conducted in Israel shows that there is an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in the proximity of a cell phone transmitter station (within 350 m radius), with the obtained power density far below 0.0053 W/m 2 [10]. A study involving roughly 1,000 patients in Naila, Germany, concluded that the proportion of newly developing cancer case was significantly higher among those patients who lived up to 10 years at a distance within 400 m from cellular transmitter site, compared to those patients living farther away [11]. ...
Article
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During the last decade, the installation of macrocell mobile telephone base station antennas in residential areas has been increased significantly and therefore much attention is being paid to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation and its effects on human health. High intensities of RF radiation can be harmful since RF energy can heat biological tissues rapidly. This paper presents the RF exposure levels of major cities in Sri Lanka occurred due to the mobile base station antennas belong to different network providers. In this research the mobile cellular transmitting antennas in 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2 GHz of all five network providers were considered. The results were compared with the FCC (Federal Communication Commission) guidelines and the present exposure levels were found to be below the maximum limits set by the standards. RF exposure levels due to mobile base station antennas obtained at present and in 2005 were compared.
... The research group investigates medical records of people who had lived within 350 meters of a base station, showed a four times increased of cancers compared with the general people of Israel. These problems are most common and many folds in women compared with the other locality further from the tower [3,20]. ...
Article
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Over the last decade, detrimental effects of human exposure to electromagnetic radiations have received widespread attention. With the increasing number of cellular communication system around the world, the number of base transceiver station is also increasing. This scenario is very common around us. When these base stations are located in a crowd place and even on the top side of the building, it can create some panic to the general public. The electromagnetic radiation from these base stations may cause serious health hazard. This paper takes into account the adverse health effects caused by radiated electromagnetic energy from typical base stations in different countries and the exposure level due to these base stations are compared to international guideline like ICNIRP and FCC.
... Unfortunately, environmental issues receive minimal attention from the telecom companies despite the fact that most of these companies are known to have sited telecom masts close to residential communities with severe health implications for residents (Stewart, Rao, Middleton, Pearmain, and Evans, 2012;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). According to Pinkston and Carroll (1996), ethical responsibilities embody those standards, norms, or expectations that reflect a concern for what consumers, employees, shareholders, and the community regard as fair, just, or in keeping with the respect or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. ...
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Technological Research and Development Centers (CTID) play a crucial role along with the State and private sector in technological development policies, innovation and competitiveness. This occurs both in country and for regional development. Their scientific and technological activities are essentially oriented to applied research through technology development projects, training and specialized training of human resources as well as technological services. The aim of this study is to identify and validate the determinant factors for the success and competitiveness of self-sustainable CTID. We use focus groups and exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation to gather the CTID determinant factors for success and competitiveness. The inquiry covered a sample of 55 experts from research centers that constitutes 80% of the population able to respond this instrument given its expertise in these subjects. Results show that most valuable key factors in CTID are: Customer Focus, Technology Management Model, Projects Management and Business Culture. JEL: O32
... The effects of RFR combined with one other stressor in lab tests can result in damage at lower RFR exposures than RFR exposures shown to cause serious damage when measured in isolation. The effects of RFR combined with myriad other stressors, as reflected in epidemiology studies, (e.g., [26][27][28]) can result in serious damage at RFR exposures orders of magnitude less than RFR exposures shown to cause serious damage when measured in isolation. ...
Article
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This editorial addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. Examination of thousands of Medline abstracts showed typically that combinations of toxic stimuli can produce damage even when the exposure level of each member of the combination is less than the lowest exposure level of the member that produced damage when tested in isolation. The synergy of the toxic stimuli in combination means less of each component stimulus is required to cause damage compared to exposure levels when tested in isolation. This Editorial concludes there is no reason to believe today that the Exposure Limits on potentially toxic stimuli that have been set by the regulatory agencies are fully protective against serious adverse health effects in all real life exposure scenarios. The conclusion is applicable to essentially all potential contributing factors to disease amenable to Exposure Limits, including not only chemicals but other types of exposures such as radiofrequency radiation (RFR).
... Eger et al (2004), examined in Germany whether people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a greater risk of ISSN 2157-6092 2014 becoming ill with malignant tumors. Wolf and Wolf (2004) presented in Israel that, based on medical records of people living within 350 meters of a long established phone mast, showed a fourfold increased incidence of cancer compared with the general population of Israel, and a tenfold increase specifically among women, compared with the surrounding locality further from the mast. Oberfeld (2004) in Spain found in a study significant ill-health effects among those living in the vicinity of two GSM mobile phone base stations: he found out that depressive tendency, fatigue, sleeping disorder, difficulty in concentration and cardiovascular problems were the strongest five associations. ...
Article
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Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles which can be harmful to human body depending upon the radiated power density and the distance from the transmitter. This paper investigates the implications of EMR from the mobile cellular Base Station (BS) transmitter to the body. A cellular mobile network analyzer which can measure power density of a cellular mobile signal was used to measure the received power density from the BS transmitter in two scenarios: along the express road and residential/commercial area. The radiated power absorbed was calculated to be 348.94nW/cm2 at 210m distance from transmitter and higher as moved closer to the transmitter. It was concluded from the results that the power density measured within 300m distance from BS transmitters is of higher and negative health concern. We therefore recommend that the government should develop a strict policy to ensure that the power density radiated is reduced generally and BS transmitters should be located from 300m to 500m distance from human residence.
... Many scientists have found a link between high frequency radiation and some diseases Cleveland 1999, IEGMP, Preece 2007, Abdel-Rassoul 2007, Hutter 2006, Bortkiewicz 2004, Oberfeld 2004, Wolf 2004, Carpenter 2007. Furthermore an increasing number of scientists and reports (IEGMP 2000, Carpenter 2007) are questioning the current limits set by professional organizations, IARC, Niehs, NRPB, ARPANSA, ICNIRP 1998, FCC 2000. ...
Conference Paper
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Many are questioning the health effects of EMF radiation transmitted by mobile phone network or simply the Wi-Fi networks at public and private locations. High frequency radiation has been linked to various types of illnesses and recently has been categorised as class 2B carcinogen. The Wi-Fi source has been considered as safe due to the low emitted radiation levels compared to the standard limits. However, many are questioning the adequacy of these limits. Additionally, the technology has become very common in the majority of residences resulting in an accumulation of several networks in each house. This increases the amount of radiation and supports the possibly of increased hazard. In this study, we aim at documenting the state of radiation due to WLAN sources at 2.4GHz at various residences in Kuwait. Results indicate that apartments in building complexes suffer from higher radiation sources due to the higher population density at these buildings. Although houses suffer from a smaller number of neighbouring Access Points they also show a high radiation level. Levels at the surveyed house reach -51dBA/m, which is equivalent to 0.024 % of the ICNIRP limit.
... Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Cherry, 2000;Eger, Hagen, Lucas, Vogel and Voit, (2004).; Hutter et al., 2006;Navarro, Segura, Portolés, Gómez-Perretta, 2003;Santini, Santini, Danze, Le Ruz, Seigne, 2002.;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). Hamblin and Wood (2002) claimed that exposures to electromagnetic radiation can affect the natural rhythms of the brain's electrical activity, as measured by Electroencephalogram. Fernie and Reynolds (2005) iterated that studies of the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields on populations of wild birds can provide further insights into the potential impacts on animal and human health. ...
Article
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This paper examined the response of rents from residential properties to the siting of Global System for Mobile (GSM) Communications’ masts in various residential zones in Akure town. The study employed survey approach in order to understand the relationship that exists between location of GSM masts and rental values offered on proximate residential properties within a 300 metres radius of GSM masts. The town was divided into high, medium and Low density zone; and three GSM masts were selected from each of the zones for the study. In all, a total of 180 questionnaires were administered on residents within the radius and 139 (77.22%) were retrieved and good for analysis. Regression analysis was employed to determine the causal effect of GSM mast on the rental values of neighbouring residential properties in the study area. The findings revealed that the location of GSM mast has no significant effect on rental values of residential properties in the high and medium density residential zones of Akure. This is attributable to the fact that demand for residential properties in town is generally very high, and the residents are left without much choice due to attendant high rent charged on existing residential properties. However, there exists a positive effect on rental values of properties in the low density zone. There is need for the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC) to follow the global trends on new findings about health implication of siting of GSM base stations around residential neighbourhood and ensure that international standard of safety is strictly adhered to by the operators in Nigeria. DOI: 10.5901/ajis.2013.v2n3p147
... 1. Residential RF/MW exposure and cancers near cell phone base stations, broadcast antennas, and radar installations (Dolk et al., 1997;Goldsmith, 1997;Michelozzi et al., 2002;Park et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Ha et al., 2007;Khurana et al., 2010;Dode et al., 2011;Inskip et al., 2010;Levitt and Lai, 2010;Yakymenko et al., 2011). 2. Occupational RF/MW exposure and cancers, such as testicular cancer, breast cancer, brain tumors, and leukemia (Davis and Mostofi, 1993;Szmigielski, 1996;Finklestein, 1998;Milham, 2004); 3. Long-term (10 plus years) mobile phone use and ipsilateral tumors including parotid gland tumors; acoustic neuromas, gliomas and possibly meningiomas (Hardell et al., 2005(Hardell et al., , 2008Sadetzki et al., 2008;Cardis et al., 2011;INTERPHONE study Group, 2010Coureau et al., 2014;Morgan et al., 2015); as well as breast cancer among women who keep their cell phone in their bra (West et al., 2013). ...
Article
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This paper attempts to resolve the debate about whether non-ionizing radiation (NIR) can cause cancer–a debate that has been ongoing for decades. The rationale, put forward mostly by physicists and accepted by many health agencies, is that, “since NIR does not have enough energy to dislodge electrons, it is unable to cause cancer.” This argument is based on a flawed assumption and uses the model of ionizing radiation (IR) to explain NIR, which is inappropriate. Evidence of free-radical damage has been repeatedly documented among humans, animals, plants and microorganisms for both extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and for radio frequency (RF) radiation, neither of which is ionizing. While IR directly damages DNA, NIR interferes with the oxidative repair mechanisms resulting in oxidative stress, damage to cellular components including DNA, and damage to cellular processes leading to cancer. Furthermore, free-radical damage explains the increased cancer risks associated with mobile phone use, occupational exposure to NIR (ELF EMF and RFR), and residential exposure to power lines and RF transmitters including mobile phones, cell phone base stations, broadcast antennas, and radar installations.
... Evidence of radiation damage was even found in potted plants inside patient homes (Waldmann-Selsam and Eger, 2013). Thus, this study is certainly complementary to the study by Eger and Jahn (2010) and other research that has shown effects on the health of people by phone masts located in their vicinity (Santini et al., 2002;Eger et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Khurana et al., 2010;Dode et al., 2011;Gómez-Perretta et al., 2013;Shahbazi-Gahrouei et al., 2014;Belyaev et al., 2015). ...
Article
In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact that damage afflicted on trees by mobile phone towers usually start on one side, extending to the whole tree over time. Paper in: http://media.withtank.com/592b5448ab/waldmann-selsam_2016_scitotenv572p554-569_rf__trees.pdf http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/KIT/baeume-in-bamberg/ http://kompetenzinitiative.net/KIT/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Trees-in-Bamberg-and-Hallstadt-Documentation-2006-2016.pdf https://groups.google.com/forum/#!topic/mobilfunk_newsletter/5r37cJ-EqPI
... Gainera, hilkortasun tasa handiagoak ikusi ziren 500 metroko distantzietan. Beste egile batzuek antzeko emaitzak behatu zituzten [43,44]. Hala ere, ikerketa guztiek ez dute erlaziorik aurkitzen [45]. ...
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Gure bizimoduan gero eta ohikoagoak dira erradiazio ezionizatzaileko eremu elektromagnetikoak (EEI-EEM) sortzen dituzten iturriak, eta bere horretan dirau eremu horiek osasunean izan ditzaketen efektuen inguruko eztabaidak. Artikulu honetan laburbildu egin nahi ditugu EEI-EEMen eraginen inguruko ikerketa esperimentalen eta epidemiologikoen bidez lortu diren emaitzak. Nahiz eta ikerketa eta proiektu ugari egon gaiaren inguruan, kontu ugari daude argitzeke, batez ere metodologia-mugek sortzen dituzten arazoek ez dutelako ondorio argirik ateratzeko aukera ematen. Aurrerantzean, ahalegin handiagoak egin beharko lirateke eremu elektromagnetikoen esposizioaren estimazio egokiagoa egite aldera.
... They found that the women complain significantly more often than men of headache, nausea loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. The study appealed that the minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m. (Santini et al., 2002), While (Wolf R et al., 2004) remind that the ratio of developing cancer cases newly was significantly higher among those patients who had lived within 400 m from the towers site of the internet for the past 10 years, compared to all patients living further apart. Also, they found the 5 years from the operation of the transmitting installation, habitat that near of the installation region, compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the zone (Ha et al., 2007;Elliott et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The mobile phone has become one of the most important in our days. The effects of waves from mobile base station may cause health effects on human. The aim of this work was to study the effect of radiofrequency (RF) emitted from mobile base station on the hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell (PCV), white blood cells (WBC) and liver enzymes activity including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvie transaminase (GPT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP). In this study the people divided into control group who living away from mobile base station and experimental group who living near to the mobile base station. The present result found there is no significant differences (P<0.05) in the Hb and PCV, but there was a significant increases (P<0.05) in the white blood cells compared to the control group. The most changes found in the biochemical parameters of liver enzymes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the experimental and control people. It was found the enzyme (GOT) increased to the 50.402±8.001, (GPT) increased to the 56.119±5.401, (ALP) increased to the 64.00±7.569. The mobile base station radiation has harmful effects on enzyme activity and white blood cells and the exposure to this radiation is responsible for changes in liver enzyme and can effected on healthy.
... Later, a German study found elevated cancer incidence in patients who had lived 5-10 years within 400 meters of a cell installation [19]. Another Israeli study indicated an association between increased cancer incidence and living in proximity to a cell base station [20]. ...
... Significant concerns have been raised about the possible impacts of exposure to electromagnetic waves which is being emitted by the telecommunication masks, in particular following the fast implementation of mobile telecommunications technologies. People living around the base of the mobile telecommunications mask are generally more concerned about the potential risks associated with living close to them (Wolf and Wolf, 2016). Several empirical studies have been carried out with regard to its impact and some of these are examined the effects on exposure by animals and humans. ...
... A correlation of the relative hazard uncovered that there were 4.15 times a greater number of cases in zone A than in the whole populace. The examination shows a relationship between expanded occurrence of cancer and living in vicinity to a mobile phone transmitter station [15]. Some neurodegenerative diseases are classified those causes for the death of explicit neurons, like as motor neuron disease, Alzheimer's sickness and Parkinson's infection [6]. ...
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With the rapid technological advancement the increasing cell phone dependency has led to set up cellular towers in numerous communities. These towers are known as base stations, have antennas and electronic equipment that transmit and receive RF (radio-frequency) signals. Various experimental and epidemiological analysis have been done for searching the potential effect of BTS (Base Transceiver Station) establishment in residential areas and result shows significant health issues, as the RF radiation can mess with the human body's own EMFs. Therefore, for ensuring public safety it is essential to ascertain the minimum safe distance of establishing BTSs from locality. In this calculation based empirical work, on the basis of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) mentioned by the World Health Organization, we have analyzed and proposed the minimum reasonable distance of nine major human tissues for being affected by the radiation. This analysis has been done at different frequency bands based on a specific type of antenna at Bangladesh context.
... Unfortunately, environmental issues receive minimal attention from the telecom companies despite the fact that most of these companies are known to have sited telecom masts close to residential communities with severe health implications for residents (Stewart, Rao, Middleton, Pearmain, and Evans, 2012;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). According to Pinkston and Carroll (1996), ethical responsibilities embody those standards, norms, or expectations that reflect a concern for what consumers, employees, shareholders, and the community regard as fair, just, or in keeping with the respect or protection of stakeholders' moral rights. ...
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This study investigates the impact of corporate social responsibility performance on customer loyalty in Ghana's telecommunication in industry. Analysis of survey data collected from 588 customers revealed that there has been a surge in corporate social responsibility activities by telecom firms in Ghana in recent years. The results show that corporate social responsibility initiatives of the telecom firms are associated with community development and support through the provision of clean borehole water, education, and health services. Environmental issues, on the other hand, receive minimal attention from the telecom companies despite the fact that most of these companies are known to have sited telecom masts close to residential communities with severe health implications for residents. Also, poor quality of service provided by all networks casts doubts upon the genuineness of their philanthropic gestures. The paper includes recommendations for government to institute stringent measures to ensure telecom firms improve their services and provide value for money as part of their corporate citizenship. In addition, corporate social responsibility activities should be regulated to ensure firms engage in projects that have real impact on people's lives rather than those meant for mere publicity. JEL: M140, M160
... Significant concerns are raised on possible health effects due to exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields, especially after the rapid introduction of the mobile telecommunication systems [1]. People who live within 100 m -300 m from the base of mobile phone telecommunication masts (when the mast is clearly visible), are generally more concerned about possible health effects associated with living close to them. ...
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Measurements indicate that the exposure levels due to all mobile cellular network providers as at August 2018 for the general public in locations considered in this work are below FCC specified safety standards. In some cities of Northern Province comparatively higher exposure levels have been shown. Colombo and Jaffna show comparatively lower values due to the installation of micro cellular base station antennas. From among the sites measured, the highest exposure level was reported at Vavuniya mostly due to the 2 GHz band but it was still one-third of the permissible level. About 75% of the total exposure from all sites considered, is due to the 2 GHz band. Some of the hilly areas show comparatively higher exposure levels than flat terrains. According to the analyzed data, exposure levels of places such as Vavuniya, Ratnapura and Kilinochchiya are not very much below the standards. Therefore this kind of exposure assessment should continuously be done at least once in two years since mobile base station antennas are being built at a rapid rate. It is advisable to build micro cellular base station antennas by replacing macro cellular base station antennas to have a good coverage without interferences and to minimize the exposure levels. According to the RF radiation distribution with respect to the mobile base station antennas from the cities considered in the country, NP 5 leads in all frequency ranges. That evaluation was done based on maximum average strengths received. Also in all cities considered, NP 3 provides comparatively lower strengths. Major cities show considerable higher strengths and as predicted some rural areas with low capacity show lower RF strengths.
... Biological effects of RF-EMR associated with the increased temperature of tissue are clarified by thermal mechanism, but there is no consensus on cellular effects induced by low-level RF-EMR exposure at non-thermal levels (Belpomme et al. 2018;Blettner et al. 2009;Viel et al. 2009). Within the past two decades, many studies have indicated an association between the RF-EMR exposure and several human disease conditions including diabetes, cancer, neurological and cardiovascular diseases (Bortkiewicz et al. 2004;Dasdag et al. 2020;Eger et al. 2004;Havas 2013;Lerchl et al. 2015;Wolf and Wolf 2004). One particular concern in recent years is the accumulated evidence on RF-EMR induced oxidative stress in biological systems, under low-intensity non-thermal levels of exposure (Alkis et al. 2019;Dasdag and Akdag 2016;Yakymenko et al. 2016). ...
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This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) emits 1800-MHz RF-EMR on some oxidative stress parameters in the brain, heart, kidney and liver of Swiss albino mice under exposures below thermal levels. Mice were randomly assigned to three experimental groups which were exposed to RF-EMR for 6 hr/day, 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day for 45 consecutive days, respectively, and a control group. The glutathione (GSH) levels and activities of glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly reduced in mice brain after exposure to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day. Exposure of mice to RF-EMR for 12 hr and 24 hr per day also led to a significant increase in malondialdehyde (an index of lipid peroxidation) levels in mice brain. On the contrary, exposures used in this study did not induce any significant change in various oxidative stress-related parameters in the heart, kidney and liver of mice. Our findings showed no significant variations in the activities of aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), and on the level of creatinine (CRE) in the exposed mice. This study also revealed a decrease in RBC count with an increase in WBC count in mice subjected to 12 hr/day and 24 hr/day exposures. Exposure to RF-EMR from MPBS may cause adverse effects in mice brain by inducing oxidative stress arising from the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as indicated by enhanced lipid peroxidation, and reduced levels and activities of antioxidants.
... Epidemiological studies show evidence that populations around RBSs presents a higher probability to develop cancer than non-exposed populations (Dode, 2010;Eger et al., 2004;Wolf, R., & Wolf, D. 2004). In turn, the World Health Organization and the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified in 2011 the radiofrequency electromagnetic field as "possibly carcinogenic" to humans, based on an increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer, associated with wireless phone use (Iarc, 2011). ...
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This article aims to analyze the participation of social actors in the decision-making and political processes of the city of Porto Alegre, concerning the installation of Radio Base Stations (RBSs). Thus, an exploratory and descriptive research of qualitative nature was performed choosing the case of Porto Alegre. As a result, there was an environmental retreat in community participation and a change of orientation in the discussion about the possible adverse effects caused by electromagnetic of RBS. In a period of little more than a decade, the initial protagonism of the community was reduced, when a new discussion about changes in the Law emerged in 2013 and 2014. Finally, the article reinforces the importance of the political decentralization for Sustainable Development of cities, favoring the participation of local actors in the construction of environmental public policies.
... O resultado do estudo realizado em Naila, Alemanha, mostra que o risco de novos casos de câncer é três vezes maior entre os pacientes que viveram durante os últimos dez anos (1994 a 2004) num raio de 400 metros das ERB's, em comparação com os que viveram mais afastados (EGER et al, 2004). Já o resultado do trabalho feito em Netanya, Israel, indica que o risco de novos casos de câncer é 4,15 vezes maior entre os pacientes que viveram num raio de 350 metros das ERB's, em comparação com os que viveram mais afastados (R. WOLF, D. WOLF, 2004). Importante salientar que os níveis de exposição estimados e medidos em toda a área deste estudo eram bem inferiores aos níveis das recomendações que se baseiam somente nos efeitos térmicos, tais como a Comissão Internacional de Proteção contra Radiação Não Ionizante (ICNIRP -"International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection") e a ANATEL. ...
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Em Porto Alegre, capital do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, região sul do Brasil, o Projeto de Lei do Executivo (PLE) n° 57/2013 prevê a atualização da Lei Municipal n° 8896/2002, que define limites de exposição humana aos campos eletromagnéticos das Estações de Radiobase (ERB’s) no Município, bem como normas urbanísticas, levantando dúvidas à população quanto a suas alterações e possíveis riscos à saúde humana. A partir desse cenário, o presente trabalho tem como objetivos: (1) verificar como os atores sociais avaliam à Lei Municipal n° 8896/2002; (2) discutir as diferentes opiniões acerca do PLE n° 57/2013, bem como as suas consequências para a população porto-alegrense. Para tanto, empregou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa exploratória através de dados bibliográficos, documentos oficiais e questionários. Ainda, a permitir uma melhor compreensão do problema da pesquisa, acompanhou-se a Audiência Pública sobre o PLE n° 57/2013. Os resultados mostraram que a Lei Municipal n° 8896/2002 pode ser considerada um marco regulatório inovador para a gestão ambiental pública de Porto Alegre. Porém, apresentou falhas na fiscalização ambiental e no processo de licenciamento. O PLE n° 57/2013, por sua vez, despertou controvérsias entre os diferentes atores sociais quanto aos seus possíveis riscos para a população. Por fim, o trabalho comprova a importância da participação da sociedade na gestão ambiental pública dos Municípios.
... 34 Ayrıca kanser riskinin artışını gösteren çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır. [35][36][37] Bu alanda yapılan çalışmaların sonucunda bilim dünyasında iki görüş oluşmuştur. Bunlardan ilki bu tür ışımanın sağlığa olumsuz etkileri olduğunu savunan görüş, diğeri ise bu tür ışımanın sağlığa herhangi bir zararı olmadığını savunan görüş. ...
Chapter
ABSTRACT 30-50% of cancer cases are preventable. Preventing exposure to cancer-causing factors and raising awareness is the most appropriate strategy to prevent cancer formation. Smoking, physical inactivation, nutrition, obesity and viruses are the risk factors cited for cancer preventing. In addition to these risk factors, environmental carcinogens constitute a group that is neglected to be discussed in cancer causality and closely related to today's forms of economic production. The aim of this review is to identify environmental carcinogens that are common in daily life and threaten public health, and discuss ways to prevent these factors by pointing out the cancers they cause. Outdoor air pollution, pesticide use, exposure to radon, ultraviolet and other sources of ionizing radiation should be reduced. Reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields, eating food additives by giving fewer places to ready-made foods in diets and lowering aflatoxin exposure by consuming as much fresh, locally produced products as possible will be beneficial in preventing the formation of new cancer cases. In addition to increasing knowledge and awareness about environmental factors, the supervisory, policymaking, regulatory role and public health protection perspective of public institutions is vital.
... Niewielka część populacji przypisuje niespecyficzne objawy złego stanu zdrowia, takie jak bóle głowy, trudności w skupieniu, upośledzenie procesu zapamiętywania i funkcji poznawczych, nadpobudliwość, obniżenie koncentracji po wydłużonej ekspozycji na pole elektromagnetyczne. Zjawisko to opisuje się jako nadwrażliwość elektromagnetyczną [55][56][57][58][59]. Nie ma dostatecznych dowodów potwierdzających związek pomiędzy ekspozycją a nadwrażliwością elektromagnetyczną [52]. ...
... No references to that statement are given. In a review by Khurana et al. [127] two of three studies reported increased incidence of cancer at a distance < 350 m [128] or < 400 m [129] from a base station. Dode et al. [130] reported increased cancer mortality in an area within 500 m from a base station in Belo ...
... Despite the enormous research conducted on telecommunication masts and towers, most related studies focuses on the possible health risks associated with siting telecommunication masts close to residential areas (Akintonwa et al. 2009: Eneh 2015, Olanrewaju 2016, Sadiq and Garba 2017; the impact of cellular phone station towers on property values (Bond et al., 2003;Wolf and Wolf 2004, Filippova and Rehm 2012, Adeniji et al. 2015, Odunola et al. 2015; and the optimal use of telecommunication mast (Støttrup-andersen et al. 2017). Other studies centered on the analysis of residents' perception of living close to telecommunication masts (Adebayo 2010); telecommunications and economic growth or development (Datta and Agarwal 2004, Zahra et al. 2008, Adei et al. 2015. ...
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The increasing demand for telecommunication services in Ghanaian cities has contributed to the expansion of the telecommunication with its associated health and safety concerns. To regulate the siting of masts towards orderliness, there exists several locational planning standards. There is however dearth of research on the extent of compliance by operators to the regulations with regards to the siting of telecommunication masts. Using Kumasi as a case study, data was gathered through observations and interviews with relevant institutions and households living within a 50 m radius of installed masts in three suburbs – low, middle and high-income neighborhoods. Findings of the research showed that there was a general non-compliance by telecommunication providers with the locational planning standards. For example, 90 percent of masts installed in the study communities do not comply with the minimum setback to the nearest building. The research further indicated that only 11 percent of residents interviewed from the three communities were consulted before the masts in their neighborhood were installed. There is the urgent need for city authorities to integrate telecommunication infrastructure into future land use plans. The study therefore calls for well-planned land use planning regime where the siting of telecommunication mast is done before physical development catches up with peri-urban neighborhoods.
... Mobile handset emits radiation continuously into the environment. However, the intensity of the radiation reduces rapidly with distance away from the base of the transmitter because of the power attenuation [4]. The erection of mobile phone base stations in inhabited areas has raised concerns about possible health effects caused by emitted radiation [5]. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to measure the radiation dose from Mobile Phone Base Stations relative to human exposure at various locations within Ibadan metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria by measuring the radiation dose at 10 -100 metres distance away from the randomly selected base stations and compare the results with other studies/recommended exposure limit. A Victoreen radiation survey meter (fluke 451 model) was used to measure the radiation dose. The meter was calibrated with a calibration factor of 1.1 to standardized the values measured with international recommended standards. The average radiation dose reported for the studied area were 9.36, 11.28, 8.73, 10.17, 8.58, 9.80, 7.13, 10.05, 8.14 and 8.81 μSv/hr respectively. The mean value of radiation dose from the study area was 9.21 μSv/hr which is higher than the maximum permissible level of 5.7 μSv/hr recommended by the American Nuclear Society for persons within 0 –100 m from a mobile phone base station. The values vary according to the distance which shows that the strength of the radiation field is greatest at the source and diminished quickly with distances. Results obtained for the present study showed that radiation emitted at mobile phone base station are at intensities that are thousands of times-less than intensities that can produce a heating effect. Hence, the assumption from the results obtained for the present study area is that the radiation exposures from mobile phone base stations impose no health hazard as the limits recommended in the guidelines by International Commission of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection do not appear to have any known adverse consequence on human health.
... A correlation of the relative hazard uncovered that there were 4.15 times a greater number of cases in zone A than in the whole populace. The examination shows a relationship between expanded occurrence of cancer and living in vicinity to a mobile phone transmitter station [15]. Some neurodegenerative diseases are classified those causes for the death of explicit neurons, like as motor neuron disease, Alzheimer's sickness and Parkinson's infection [6]. ...
Chapter
With the rapid technological advancement the increasing cell phone dependency has led to set up cellular towers in numerous communities. These towers are known as base stations, have antennas and electronic equipment that transmit and receive RF (radio-frequency) signals. Various experimental and epidemiological analysis have been done for searching the potential effect of BTS (Base Transceiver Station) establishment in residential areas and result shows significant health issues, as the RF radiation can mess with the human body’s own EMFs. Therefore, for ensuring public safety it is essential to ascertain the minimum safe distance of establishing BTSs from locality. In this calculation based empirical work, on the basis of SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) mentioned by the World Health Organization, we have analyzed and proposed the minimum reasonable distance of nine major human tissues for being affected by the radiation. This analysis has been done at different frequency bands based on a specific type of antenna at Bangladesh context.
Article
This article proposesthat the Right to Life Principle, dened as “every person hasthe right to a natural birth and legitimate survival and development into adulthoodwithout environmental or othersystematic injury to theirwell-being,”may be violated byRFRemissionsfromcell phones,Wi-Fi,macro cell phone base stations (MCPBSs), 5G/4G small cell antennas (SCAs), etc. in excess of the standards set by the Building Biology Institute. BBI standardsset1000µW/m2as anextreme anomaly;theprecisedivisionpointofharm/noharmbelow1000µW/m2is unknown. I review literature describing (1) the Right to Life Principle, (2) the attributes of non-ionizing radiation, and (3) proven injury from cell phones, WiFi, MCPBSs, 5G/4G SCAs, etc. to living organisms with 20 categories of illnesses and 58 references. Non-ionizing radiation isshown to place a force eld on negatively charged particles including electrons, neurons, and DNA, and exciting/energizing electrons with shifts to outer orbits with energy emission when they return to ground orbit thereby destabilizing atoms, molecules, cells and organs in the process of orbital shifts. RFR induced illnesses include sperm damage, fetus injury, irreversibility infertility, emotional and hyperactive disorders, cancer, damage to DNA, the immune system, blood brain barrier, and stem cells, increasesin oxidative stress and free radicals, and harm to those living lessthan 500 metersfrom MCPBSs. My recommendationsto reduce injury from RFR are based upon review of the literature, experience in metering residential property and MCPBSsfor RFR, avoiding the use of RFR emitting devices and accessto line-of-sight antennas, and legislative proposalsto show the dangers of RFR devices and antennas by,for example,requiringnotice tobuyers andlessees ofresidentialpropertyof powerdensitieswithinhousingunits.
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The effect of base stations which have electronic equipment and antennas are studied, The position of cellular phone towers with respect to people is investigated at Algharbia governorate area at Egypt, some interested studies on cellular phone towers and cancer are taken into consideration, British researchers compared a group of more than 1,000 families of young children with cancer against a similar group of families of children without cancer. Other researcher studies the effect of Cell phone tower and examined the relationship between radiation exposure and cancer rates were conducted in the city of San Francisco in addition to cities in Austria and Germany, dating as far back as the 1970s. Even if RF waves were somehow able to affect cells in the body at higher doses, the level of RF waves present at ground level is very low – well below the recommended limits. Levels of energy from RF waves near cell phone towers are not significantly different from the background levels of RF radiation in urban areas from other sources, such as radio and television broadcast stations. Finally, by analysis of the data taking from Algharbia governorate area at Egypt, The number of people with cancer increased (1999-2002) at Algharbia governorate area by 7.5%, and the number of women increased by 3.3% in the ages range (45-65), and the rate of cancer increase on the cities than on the villages especially on the Almehalla Alkobra and Tanta. The opinion of the three expert agencies that usually classify cancer-causing exposures (carcinogens) – the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is presented.
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Amaç: Bu derlemenin amacı baz istasyonlarının insan sağlığına etkilerini inceleyen uluslararası ve güncel bilimsel yayınları derleyerek bu konudaki bilimsel bilgi gereksinimini karşılamaya katkıda bulunmaktır. Yöntem: 27 Eylül 2012 tarihine dek PubMed ve Google Scholar arama motorunda “baz istasyonu”, “sağlık etkileri” anahtar sözcükleri kullanılarak bulunan yayınlar ve bu yayınların kaynakçalarından yararlanılarak elde edilen çalışmalar içinden toplam 22 orijinal araştırma makalesini derlemeye dahil edilmiştir. Bulgular: Araştırmaların 15’inde farklı sağlık göstergeleri ile elektromanyetik alan (EMA) arasında ilişki saptandığı görülmektedir. Çalışmaların dördünde herhangi bir ilişki saptanmamış, üçünde ise kurulan hipotez tam doğrulanmamıştır. Araştırmaların 11’i baz istasyonu kaynaklı EMA’nın akut, sekizi kronik, üçü de hem akut hem kronik sağlık etkilerini incelemiştir. Altı araştırmada EMA ölçümü yapılmamış, şiddetinin dolaylı göstergesi olarak mesafe kullanılmıştır. Bir çalışmada ölçüm yapılmış ancak sağlık verileri mesafe üzerinden değerlendirilmiştir. Araştırmaların 12 tanesi bir kurum ya da kuruluştan finansal destek almıştır. Çalışmalardan iki tanesinin finansmanının yarısı cep telefonu firmaları tarafından yapılmıştır. Çalışmaların altı tanesi deneysel araştırma tipindedir ve üç çalışmada doz-yanıt ilişkisi bulunmaktadır. Sonuç ve Öneriler: Araştırmalar baz istasyonun sağlık riski taşıyabileceğine ilişkin işaretler göstermektedir. Uyku bozukluğu, depresif semptomlar, baş ağrısı, baş dönmesi, konsantrasyon güçlüğü, en sık tespit edilen semptomlardır. Bu alanda yapılacak ileriye dönük izlem çalışmalarına ihtiyaç bulunmaktadır. Baz istasyonlarıyla ilgili sınır değerler akut etkiler göz önünde bulundurularak yapılmıştır. Uzun erimde baz istasyonu antenlerinin ışıma açısı içinde kalan kişilerde, maruz kalınan süre, baz istasyonuna olan mesafe, yayılan elektromanyetik alanın şiddeti ve kişisel vücut dirençleri ile ilişkili olarak baz istasyonlarına bağlı sağlık etkilerinin gelişme olasılığı göz önünde bulundurularak toplumun sağlığını koruyacak yaklaşımlar benimsenmelidir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Baz istasyonu, elektromanyetik alan, sağlık etkisi An update on the possible health effects of mobile phone base stations Objective: This study reviews the up-to-date international literature on the health impacts of mobile phone base stations. Methods: A literature search was conducted up to September 27, 2012 in PubMed and Google Scholar using the keywords "base station" and "health".The references in the articles found were also used and a total of 22 original research papers were identified and included in this review. Results: Among the studies found, 15 have detected an association between electromagnetic fields (EMF) and different health indicators. Four of the studies have not found any association and the hypothesis was not totally confirmed. Eleven of the studies have investigated the acute, 8 the chronic and three both the acute and chronic effects of base stations on health. EMF measurements were not conducted in six of the studies and distance to base stations was used as a proxy instead. One of the studies measured EMF but used distance to investigate the health impacts. Twelve of the studies had received financial support from funds or institutions. Half of the funding of two studies was from cellular phone companies. Six of the studies were experimental and three of these found a dose-response relationship. Conclusions: Studies are showing signs of possible health risks due to base stations. Sleep disorders, depressive symptoms, headache, dizziness, concentration difficulties are the most frequently identified symptoms. There is need for prospective studies in this field. The international limit values regarding base stations are based on acute effects. In the long run, people living in the radiation angle of the phone masts may develop health problems depending on the time exposed, distance to base stations, the level of the EMF and their somatic resistance. In view of these possibilities, a protective approach towards community health should be adopted. Key Words: Base station, phone mast, electromagnetic field, health impacts/effects
Article
Background Exposure of the general population to electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phone base stations is one of the greater concerns of residents affected by the proximity of these structures due to the possible relationship between radiated levels and health indicators. Objectives This study aimed to find a possible relationship between some health indicators and electromagnetic radiation measurements. Methods A total of 268 surveys, own design, were completed by residents of a Madrid neighborhood surrounded by nine telephone antennas, and 105 measurements of electromagnetic radiation were taken with a spectrum analyzer and an isotropic antenna, in situ and in real – time, both outside and inside the houses. Results It was shown statistically significant p - values in headaches presence (p = 0.010), nightmares (p = 0.001), headache intensity (p < 0.001), dizziness frequency (p = 0.011), instability episodes frequency (p = 0.026), number of hours that one person sleeps per day (p < 0.001) and three of nine parameters studied from tiredness. Concerning cancer, there are 5.6% of cancer cases in the study population, a percentage 10 times higher than that of the total Spanish population. Discussion: People who are exposed to higher radiation values present more severe headaches, dizziness and nightmares. Moreover, they sleep fewer hours.
Chapter
Ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation, either stand-alone or in combination with other agents, exert health effects on biological systems. The present chapter examines the scope of non-ionizing EMF radiation combined effects; i.e., identifies effects on biological systems from combined exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields/radiation and at least one other agent. Only articles in which the presence of non-ionizing EMF radiation had some effect (beneficial or adverse) on the biological system were selected. A comprehensive and novel query was developed using an iterative hybrid approach, whereby articles related by common text and by citation linkages were retrieved. This retrieved literature was: (1) clustered algorithmically into 32 biomedical sub-themes (assigned by the authors); (2) grouped through factor analysis into 32 factors; and (3) subsequently grouped manually (by the authors) into an effects-based taxonomy. The common principles within each thematic cluster/group that accounted for the combined effects were identified.
Article
OBJECTIVE: To review and evaluate the recent literature on the health effects of exposure to mobile phone base station (MPBS) radiation. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of randomized human trials conducted in laboratory settings and of epidemiological studies that investigated the health effects of MPBS radiation in the everyday environment. FINDINGS: We included in the analysis 17 articles that met our basic quality criteria: 5 randomized human laboratory trials and 12 epidemiological studies. The majority of the papers (14) examined self-reported non-specific symptoms of ill-health. Most of the randomized trials did not detect any association between MPBS radiation and the development of acute symptoms during or shortly after exposure. The sporadically observed associations did not show a consistent pattern with regard to symptoms or types of exposure. We also found that the more sophisticated the exposure assessment, the less likely it was that an effect would be reported. Studies on health effects other than non-specific symptoms and studies on MPBS exposure in children were scarce. CONCLUSION: The evidence for a missing relationship between MPBS exposure up to 10 volts per metre and acute symptom development can be considered strong because it is based on randomized, blinded human laboratory trials. At present, there is insufficient data to draw firm conclusions about health effects from long-term low-level exposure typically occurring in the everyday environment.
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The uncontrolled proliferation of mobile phone base stations (MPBS) in urban centers and especially in areas with facilities considered vulnerable to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) in relation to the type of people they are home to has generated concerns about the potential adverse health effects that may occur in the population, because of the exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by this type of equipment. To address this situation from a technical and environmental approach, a methodology to diagnose areas exposed to NIR issued by MPBS was designed and implemented, which takes into account threatening and vulnerable factors of this potential risk scenario. This methodology is structured through the development of an MPBS inventory, a zoning of the areas exposed to high NIR emitted by these radio-electric sources, and the implementation of a multicriteria matrix. With the interaction of these three elements, a risk map is generated by exposure to NIR emitted by MPBS, which facilitates the location and visualization of areas with high exposure at the territorial level, thus considering the areas of greatest vulnerability. Finally, based on these results a diagnosis of the risk scenario is obtained by the MPBS positioning, being possible to identify critical or high risk areas, which are considered as sensitive areas where NIR emission and immision measurements must be done as a priority and determine the accomplishment of defined limits. The validation of this methodology was made in the municipality of Cartago (Valle del Cauca), where areas highly exposed to NIR emitted by EBTM were diagnosed and high-risk areas were identified.
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The omnipresence of mobile phone base stations (MPBS) in urban areas has resulted in the population being exposed to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) emitted by this type of radio sources, inasmuch as they have been located near places inhabited or frequently visited by people who are considered more susceptible to electromagnetic radiations. This scenario has been characterized by the constant concerns of citizens and experts about the possible adverse health effects that may occur from exposure to NIR. However, there is also an atmosphere of ignorance and uncertainty regarding the topic which makes it more difficult to evaluate this technological anthropogenic potential risk.. Therefore, it was considered important to analyze the social response in front of the risk generated by the electromagnetic radiation emitted by MPBS, in order to make an integral diagnosis of this situation. To do this, the psychometric paradigm method was adapted and a descriptive and multivariate analysis was carried out, which allowed knowing the social perception of the risk in the area that was considered more critical according to the results that emerged from the diagnosis of urban areas exposed to NIR emitted by MPBS located in the municipality of Cartago (Valle del Cauca). The results of the analyses show that the perception of each individual is based on intuitive judgments and sociocultural factors which result in attitudes and decisions made against the assessed risk which, apparently, in the social imaginary has not been conceived in its entirety as a potential risk factor. That is why, it can be concluded that judgments about the assessed risk differ not only individually but also collectively.
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In the present era, cellular phones have changed the life style of human beings completely and have become an essential part of their lives. The number of cell phones and cell towers are increasing in spite of their disadvantages. These cell towers transmit radiation continuously without any interruption, so people living within 100s of meters from the tower receive 10,000 to 10,000,000 times stronger signal than required for mobile communication. In the present study, we have examined superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation assay, and effect of functional polymorphism of SOD and CAT antioxidant genes against mobile tower-induced oxidative stress in human population. From our results, we have found a significantly lower mean value of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme activity, catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and a high value of lipid peroxidation assay in exposed as compared to control subjects. Polymorphisms in antioxidant MnSOD and CAT genes significantly contributed to its phenotype. In the current study, a significant association of genetic polymorphism of antioxidant genes with genetic damage has been observed in human population exposed to radiations emitted from mobile towers.
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The smart phone or a mobile phone has become 24hrs attachment with most of the users all over the globe. It is now very difficult to say who are the people not using mobile/smart phone. The mobile phone users can not even think that the mobile phones not working for an hour. The main advantage of using smartphone or mobile phone is that it keeps users online. It is important to point out that smart phones have changed the way we access internet and benefit from the micro computers that they are. The people are empowered as they access information and interact with everyone all the time, on the go. Apart from all the above the mobile phone or smartphone may be used for entertainment or playing games. However, there are many negative effects of mobile phone or smart phone. Quite a number of researchers have made systematic study on evil effects of mobile phone or smart phone on human health. The mobile towers are much more dangerous for human beings. In the present paper the author tried to collect various data from different reliable sources and made a systematic study on the negative effects of mobile phones/smartphones on human body.
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This paper reviews the literature data on the genetic toxicology of radiofrequency (RF) radiation. Whereas in the past most studies were devoted to microwave ovens and radar equipment, it is now mobile telecommunication that attracts most attention. Therefore we focus on mobile telephone frequencies where possible. According to a great majority of the papers, radiofrequency fields, and mobile telephone frequencies in particular, are not genotoxic: they do not induce genetic effects in vitro and in vivo, at least under non-thermal exposure conditions, and do not seem to be teratogenic or to induce cancer. Yet, some investigations gave rather alarming results that should be confirmed and completed by further experiments. Among them the investigation of synergistic effects and of possible mechanisms of action should be emphasised.
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In this opinion piece, the author brings together and discusses the collective relevance of possible health effects of microwave or radar exposure in military, broadcasting, and occupational circumstances, with a view to assuring optimal protective practices. Sources of the information presented include 1) historical data, 2) experiences of Polish soldiers, 3) a study of U.S. naval personnel using radar in the Korean War, 4) preliminary findings of exposures to the Skrunda, Latvia, transmitter, 5) data obtained near Hawaiian broadcasting facilities, 6) occupational studies of electronic and electrical workers, including ham radio operators, 7) reproductive outcomes among physiotherapists using short-wave and microwave diathermy, and 8) U.S. foreign service personnel exposed at Embassies in Eastern Europe. Some of the data are available in the peer-reviewed literature, others in abstracts, reports, or other non-peer-reviewed forms. Some were obtained under Freedom of Information statutes and are incomplete. For some of these, there is reason to believe that further evidence desired by the investigator was not obtained. Some are case-referent studies, but most are not. Some are ecological, and all are retrospective. Few have reliable dose estimations, and none has accurate dosage information on each subject. None includes evidence of tissue heating or any short-term effect. Possible outcomes considered included 1) blood count changes, 2) evidence of somatic mutation, 3) impairment of reproductive outcomes, especially increased spontaneous abortion, and 4) increase in cancer incidence and mortality, especially of the hematopoietic system, brain, and breast. The author presents evidence that sufficient microwave exposures are associated with all four of these outcomes, concluding that the possible effects and their timings with respect to exposure are qualitatively similar to those on ionizing radiation. A prudent course of action would be to provide more protection for those exposed than required by present regulations. No systematic effort to include negative studies is made; thus this review has a positive reporting bias.
Health effects of electromagnetic radiation on workers: epidemiologic studies. Bierbaum, PJ and Peters, JM. 91-124 Cincinnati, OH, US Department of Health and Human Services
  • Gp Theriault
Theriault, GP. Health effects of electromagnetic radiation on workers: epidemiologic studies. Bierbaum, PJ and Peters, JM. 91-124. 1991. Cincinnati, OH, US Department of Health and Human Services. Proceedings of the Scientific r13 Workshop on the health Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Workers. Ref Type: Conference Proceeding