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Quality and standardisation of Royal Jelly
Anna Gloria Sabatini
, Gian Luigi Marcazzan
, Maria Fiorenza Caboni
Stefan Bogdanov
, Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian
CRA- Istituto Nazionale di Apicoltura, Bologna, Italy.
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università di Bologna, Italy.
Swiss Bee Research Centre Agroscope, Liebefeld Poseux, Berne, Switzerland.
Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade de São Paulo
(USP), São Paulo, Brazil.
Received 26 June 2008, accepted subject to revision 18 August 2008, accepted for publication November 2008.
*Corresponding author: Email:
Journal of ApiProduct and ApiMedical Science
1(1): 1-6 (2009) © IBRA 2009
DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.
Given the exceptional biological properties attributed to it, royal jelly
(RJ) has considerable commercial appeal and is today utilised in
many sectors, ranging from the pharmaceutical and food industries
to the cosmetic and manufacturing sectors. This has resulted, among
other things, in large-scale importation in countries where production
is insufficient to meet domestic demand. Research capabilities thus
need to be reinforced to permit both a reliable qualitative and
quantitative evaluation of the different components and the
implementation of analytical tests on commercially available products
– RJ on its own or as an additive to new or traditional products – also
for the purpose of identifying possible adulteration.
No official data exist about the RJ market (Grillenzoni,
2002), but China is unanimously acknowledged as being the leading
world producer and exporter of RJ, which it sells at highly
competitive prices. Chinese production of RJ is estimated as 2 000
t/year (a quantity that represents over 60% of production
worldwide), almost all of which is exported to Japan, the United
States and Europe. Other countries like Korea, Taiwan and Japan are
important producers and also exporters. Elsewhere in the world, RJ is
produced mainly in Eastern Europe and to a lesser extent in Western
Europe and in America: Mexico, in particular, is quite a big producer.
Numerous studies have been dedicated to RJ since as far
back as the late 19
century (Planta, 1888; Lercker, 2003). However,
it is difficult to bring together the data collected by different authors
into an organic whole, as the data themselves are not always
comparable due to the lack of homogeneity among the materials
used, the different sampling procedures and production conditions.
Additional complicating factors are the multiplicity of experimental
conditions, as well as the diversity of the analytical methods used
and their continual evolution.
Knowledge of the composition of recently produced RJ is
essential in order to define a standard composition, evaluate the
quality of commercial products and detect the presence of RJ in other
products which containing it.
At present some countries, like Switzerland (Bogdanov
et al
2004), Bulgaria, Brazil (Brasil Leis e decretos, 2001) and Uruguay
have defined national standards for this product. A group of the
International Honey Commission is dealing presently with royal jelly
Studies on royal jelly quality
In the 1980s a workgroup was formed in Italy which has devoted
much effort to the study of RJ (Lercker
et al
., 1981; Lercker
et al
1982; Lercker
et al
., 1984a; Lercker
et al
., 1984b; Lercker
et al.
1985; Lercker
et al
., 1986; Vecchi
et al
., 1988; Lercker
et al
., 1993;
et al
., 2003; Boselli
et al
., 2003; Lercker, 2003). The data
presented in this article refer to the results obtained by the Italian
group cited, completed by findings of researchers from other
Samples of recently produced, commercial grade RJ directly
gathered from specialised beekeeping facilities located in different
Italian regions were used both for the purpose of developing
methods and conducting the analyses. The same samples were used
to assess the changes occurring in RJ during storage.
Apart from this project, other studies were also carried out.
Most of them were concerned with RJ authenticity. RJ adulteration is
the most important quality problem. Adulteration by the nursing
jellies for worker and drones is improbable because of the very little
amounts available for harvest. Adulteration with honey is more
probable, causing an increase of the sugar values, the other values
being lowered (Serra Bonvehi, 1991). The most important quality
criteria for RJ adulteration is 10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid (HDA).
However, the composition limits, reported in the literature are very
broad. 10-HDA content decreases with storage of RJ (Antinelli
et al
2003). This decrease is higher in honey containing RJ (Matsui,
1988). Thus, the determination of all fatty acids, as carried out in
the Italian studies (Lercker
et al
., 1981; Lercker
et al
., 1993), might
be the better approach that the determination of 10-HDA only.
It was recently reported that authenticity of RJ production
can be determined by measuring of the ratios stable isotopes of the
elements C and N (Stocker, 2003). The authenticity of production
can be measured by determining the fatty acid composition of RJ
et al
., 1985; Lercker
et al
., 1993).
The geographical authenticity can be determined also by
pollen analysis (Ricciardelli d'Albore
et al.
, 1978; Ricciardelli
d'Albore, 1986). The
Sr ratios indicate also the geographic
regions of the samples (Stocker, 2003).
The amount of pollen, as well as visible wax and larvae
particles should be minimal. RJ has relatively low concentration of
bacteria (Serra Bonvehi and Escola Jorda, 1991).
The parameters investigated concerned in the above
mentioned studies concern the organoleptic characteristics and
physicochemical properties as well as the following composition
Water content Determined by freeze-drying (Messia
et al
2005), Karl Fischer (Ferioli
et al
., 2007), vacuum
oven, dessication (Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2002, 2007)
Total protein Nitrogen determined with the Kjeldahl method
et al
., 1992-93; Garcia-Amoedo and
Almeida-Muradian, 2007). Free amino acids
determined by ion chromatography (Boselli
., 2003)
Carbohydrates Determined by gas (Lercker
et al
., 1993)
liquid chromatographies (Sesta
Lipids Determined as free and total organic acids by
gas chromatography (Lercker
et al
., 1992-93) or
as total lipids, by solvent extraction (Karaali
., 1986; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2007)
10-HDA Determined by HPLC (Bloodworth
et al
., 1995;
Genc and Aslan, 1999; Koshio and Almeida-
Muradian, 2003; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2003, 2007; Pamplona
et al
., 2004)
Minerals Determined by atomic absorption (Benfenati
et al.
Acidity Titration method (Serra-Bonvehi, 1992)
Sediment analysis Microscopical analysis (Ricciardelli d’Albore, 1986)
Furosine, (Marconi
et al
., 2002)
There are very few studies concerning the possible contamination of
RJ. The content of RJ contaminants, compared to other bee products,
is relatively low (Fleche
et al
., 1997). Recently, the problem of honey
and RJ contamination by antibiotics has arisen. Although most studies
concern residues in honey, antibiotic use in the colony can
contaminate also royal jelly (Matsuka and Nakamura, 1990). On the
other hand, experience has shown that RJ residue analysis is difficult
and that old analysis methods are questionable. There are very few
publications on antibiotic residues in RJ, mainly on chloramphenicol
(Dharmananda, 2003; Reybroeck, 2003; Calvarese
et al
., 2006). The
first two papers do not report details, only in the last publication
details on the methods and the contamination levels are given. The
presence of chloramphenicol (CA) was detected in 29 out of 35 tested
samples imported in Italy, the concentrations ranging from 0.6 μg/kg
to 28 μg /kg, with an average content of 6.1 μg/kg. As antibiotics are
not allowed for use in beekeeping, there is no MRL for honey or other
bee products in the European Union. For CA in honey the EU has
established an MPRL of 0.3 μg/kg. By using method developed by
Calvarese and coworkers (Calvarese
et al
., 2006) this MPRL can also
be used for royal jelly.
Composition and quality criteria
for royal jelly
Organoleptic description and physical characteristics
RJ appears as a whitish substance with a gelatinous consistency,
often not homogenous due to the presence of undissolved granules of
varying size. It has a distinctively sharp odour and taste.
It is partially soluble in water and highly acidic (pH 3.4-4.5)
with a density of 1.1 g/mL (Lercker, 2003).
Main components
The composition of the main constituents of RJ, proteins,
carbohydrates and lipids is reported in the literature (Takenaka and
Echigo, 1980; Bonomi
et al
., 1986; Pourtallier
et al
., 1990; Lercker,
2003, Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida
-Muradian, 2007).
2 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
The values obtained by the various authors are fairly in agreement,
notwithstanding the high variability displayed by some parameters
(sugars and lipids). It should be kept in mind that the reported
findings refer to different number of samples taken in different
places and at different times of production and that different
methods of sampling and analysis were used. Moreover, RJ is
naturally inhomogeneous.
Our own analyses of RJ samples of different geographical
origins showed no differences in composition such as to distinguish
one product from another.
It may similarly be affirmed that environmental conditions
do not significantly influence the main components.
Water content shows to be fairly uniform, greater than 60%, and
with an activity (a
) above 0.92, in spite of which RJ displays
considerable microbial stability. The constancy of the moisture
content is basically assured, inside the hive, by the continuous
provision of fresh supplies of this substance by nurse bees, by the
natural hygroscopicity of RJ and the entire colony’s efforts to
maintain a level of ambient moisture; moreover the non solubility of
some compounds can explain the variations in water content.
From a quantitative viewpoint, proteins (27-41%) represent the
most important portion of the dry matter of RJ.
The amino acids present in the highest percentages were
proline, lysine, glutamic acid, β-alanine, phenylalanine, aspartate
and serine (Boselli
et al
., 2003). The concentration of series D amino
acids was below the detection limit of the method (0.1mg/g of RJ) in
all samples.
The study aimed to assess how this parameter evolved
during storage of the product. No significant changes were observed
in the overall concentration of free amino acids in RJ stored at 4°C
for 10 months. However, in the same samples stored at room
temperature, the proline and lysine content showed an increase in
the first three months and after 6-10 months decreased to levels
slightly lower than those in the control samples. This suggests that,
in favourable temperature conditions, a proteolytic enzymatic
activity continues to occur over time.
On average this portion accounts for 30% of the dry matter of RJ.
However, while the components are highly constant in qualitative
terms, considerable variability may be observed from a quantitative
As in honey, the monosaccharides fructose and glucose are
the main sugars. They often account for over 90% of the total
sugars and, of the two, fructose is prevalent. Sucrose is always
Quality and standardisation of Royal Jelly 3
present but often in highly variable concentrations. It is also possible
to find oligosaccharides such as trehalose, maltose, gentiobiose,
isomaltose, raffinose, erlose, melezitose; though present in very small
concentrations they are useful for identifying a characteristic pattern,
which is comparable to that of honey and in some cases indicative of
the genuineness of the product.
Lipids and 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA)
This fraction is likewise present in fairly modest, variable
concentrations (8-19% of dry matter), but no doubt represents the
most important of RJ components.
The lipid portion in fact consists primarily of organic acids (80
-90%), most of which free, with a rather unusual structure rarely
encountered in nature: they are in fact mono- and dihydroxy acids
and dicarboxylic acids with 8 and 10 carbon atoms, which show a
characteristic arrangement (Lercker
et al
., 1992-93).
Hydroxy acids with 10 carbon atoms (10-hydroxydecenoic
and 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) above all can be found in high
concentrations. Not only may they be ascribed a role as a marker
component, but they have also been identified as responsible for
important biological activities tied to the development strategies of
the colony (Wu
et al. 1991)
The identification of this fraction – in particular as regards the
pattern and quantitative analysis of free organic acids – is believed to
represent the criteria of choice for defining the genuineness of RJ and
the presence of RJ in other products, be they foods or cosmetics
et al
., 1994). The analyses we performed showed that the
composition remained stable for as long as 2 years, regardless of
whether the samples were stored at 4°C or at room temperature.
A recent study (Antinelli
et al
., 2003) showed a 0.4 and 0.6%
reduction in 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in two RJ samples stored at
room temperature for 12 months. It is difficult to evaluate such a
reduction in a sample in the control phase. Moreover it is difficult to
use 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid decrease as a freshness marker
because their variable amount on fresh RJ. Both HPLC and
electrophoretic analysis of 10-HDA showed that samples of RJ from
extra-european origin contain smaller amount of this compound; this
evidence was confirmed measuring total lipids after organic extraction
et al
., 2007).
Ash content represents 0.8-3% of RJ (fresh matter) (Messia
et al
2003; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-Muradian, 2007). The major
elements are, in descending order: K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn
(Nation and Robinson, 1971; Ivanov and Chervenakova, 1985;
et al
., 1986), present in specific ratios such as K/Na and
The hypotheses regarding the quantitative presence of these metals
have focused on factors outside the colony (environment,
procurement of food, production period) and to some extent internal
factors (biological factors tied to the bees).
The main quality factors of RJ have been described and studies have
revealed the importance of the lipid fraction as a marker and hence
a criterion by which to determine the product’s genuineness.
Presently, 10-HDA is mostly used for routine testing of RJ
authenticity. However, the concentration of this acid varies in wide
limits. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the
determination of the stable isotopes of the elements C and N
(Stocker, 2003) is a promising approach for the determination of the
authenticity of production. Adulteration by honey results in a general
diminution of proteins and lipids and a relative increase of sugars
(Serra-Bonvehi, 1991).
Adulteration with more than 25% of yoghurt, egg white,
water and corn starch slurry can be detected by the enhancement of
moisture, diminishing in lipid, protein and 10-HDA content as well as
the insolubility in alkaline medium. (Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2007).
Furthermore, microscopic analyses of RJ sediment, applied
according to the basic principles of melissopalynology (Louveaux
; Ricciardelli, 1986) and in particular the identification of the
pollens it contains, make it possible to define the geographical
origins of the product and detect mixtures where they occur. Pollen
identification is made easier by the fact that only a few countries
actually produce RJ and specialists are capable of formulating their
respective characteristic pollen associations.
Another promising parameter for the evaluation of RJ
authenticity is the presence of apalbumin (Simuth
et al
., 2004). This
marker, if confirmed by further research, could gain high
4 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
Freshness definition
Another fundamental aspect lies in the possibility of defining a
parameter of RJ freshness.
It has been noted that the macroscopic composition of RJ is
fairly stable on the whole but also variable, above all as far as certain
components are concerned. Thus it is not a suitable parameter for
defining product freshness.
For the latter purpose, experiments were conducted on RJ
samples stored at 4 and 20°C over a period of 24 months to assess
changes in the content of the enzyme glucose oxidase. The results
obtained showed that the enzyme contained in RJ is influenced both
by storage temperature and time. At 20°C it had decreased
significantly after one month and degraded completely after one
year. Even at 4°C there was an evident, albeit modest, reduction in
the enzyme.
The determination of glucose oxidase is analytically very
simple and thus within the capabilities of all laboratories. This
method could be used to evaluate the product’s freshness; however,
further investigation must first be conducted into the natural
variability of this component in the fresh product (Boselli
et al
2002). Marconi
et al.
(2002) quoted several experiments were
performed to evaluate the possibility of using furosine content as a
marker for RJ freshness.
The value of furosine, a product of Maillard’s reaction, proved
very low (from 0 to 10 mg/100g of protein) in freshly produced RJ
samples (Messia
et al
., 2003) but increased over time and in relation
to temperature. Specifically, the content rose to as high as 500
mg/100g of protein after 18 months’ storage at room temperature
and 50 mg/100g at 4°C. Samples taken from store shelves showed
values ranging from 40 to 100 mg/100g protein. By contrast, freeze-
dried RJ showed strong tendency to form furosine during storage
et al
., 2005).
Table 1: Royal Jelly Composition
Fresh lyophilized
Water % 60 – 70 < 5
Lipids % 3 – 8 8 – 19
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) % > 1,4 > 3,5
Protein % 9 – 18 27 – 41
Fructose + glucose+ sucrose % 7 – 18 -
Fructose % 3 – 13 -
Glucose % 4 – 8 -
Sucrose % 0,5 – 2,0 -
Ash % 0,8 - 3,0 2 – 5
3,4 - 4,5 3,4 – 4,5
Acidity (ml 0.1N NaOH/g) 3,0 - 6,0 -
Furosine (mg/100g protein) < 50* -
Table 1 shows some data from literature that could be used as a
preliminary proposal for fresh and lyophilized royal jelly standards.
Data come from many countries investigations and regulations but
for the establishment of a paper general standard, further
investigation is needed.
Given the product’s high water content, the composition values are
also proposed for the freeze-dried sample. This enables a more
direct comparison of data; plus RJ is also marketed in this form.
Although the overall analytic data confirm that exposure to a
temperature of 4°C causes no alterations in RJ composition, recently
it was also shown that only storage of RJ in frozen state prevents
decomposition of biologically active RJ proteins and thus RJ should
be frozen as soon as it is harvested (Li
et al.,
The next steps should be: 1. Validate the respective
methods of analysis 2. Use the method and create a royal jelly
standard, based measurements on royal jelly samples produced in
different countries. To this end, the UNI (Italian certification body) is
presently drawing up standards for these methods based on the
available know-how.
The authors are grateful for the collaboration of the following
Tseko Ivanov, Giovanni Lercker, Yanina Macebo, Emanuele Marconi,
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6 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
... An investigation on the biochemical composition of RJ was carried out as follows. International Honey Commission (IHC) by Sabatini, et al. developed an international standard for RJ [8]. ...
... In the study of Sabatini, et al. lipid content of RJ was 8-19% of the dry matter [8]. The value obtained in this study is also within that range. ...
... The amount of sugar present in RJ is relatively similar to the previous report by Nabas, et al. [20], which was also within the limits proposed by Sabatini, et al. [8]. The total sugar content was mostly occupied by glucose and fructose [21]. ...
... sucrose, 0.8-3% ash and 1.4-2.01% 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) (Sabatini et al. 2009;Yang et al. 2017). Apart from these, remnants of larvae, pieces of beeswax, and pollen from plants visited by worker bees are also present among the contents of royal jelly (Krell, 1996;Renner et al., 2003). ...
... In addition to this information, Silici (2009) reported that as the number of larvae transferred to the colonies increased, the amount of royal jelly per cell decreased, but that the total amount of royal jelly would increase. In the study on this subject, Jianke (2000) stated that 69-100 g of royal jelly is collected from 125-170 queen cell cells formed 72 Due to its potential benefits, royal jelly is widely used in the food industry, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries (Sabatini et al., 2009). China produces about 90% (~ 3500 tons) of the royal jelly in the world (Cao et al., 2016;Lee et al., 2017;Nie et al., 2017). ...
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In this study, the larvae acceptance rate and the royal jelly yield in honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies supplemented with different industrial sugars at different locations were determined. For this purpose, feeding groups (1. Sucrose group, 2. Glucose group, 3. Bee feed syrup group, 4. Control group) and locations (1. Battalgazi, 2. Doğanşehir) were formed. In queenless colonies that produce royal jelly, in order to sustain 5-15 day-old young feeder worker bees, two sealed frames with brood from support colonies were added. The royal jelly yield was harvested seven times. Based on the location, the feeding groups, and the location x feeding groups interaction, 12600 larvae were grafted, 9054 larvae were accepted, and the larvae acceptance rate was determined as 71.86%. Based on the location, feeding groups and the location x feeding group interaction, the yield per cell was calculated as 213.15 ± 11.53 mg/cell, the yield per colony as 6.88 ± 0.38 g/col./app., and the total yield per colony as 34.40 ± 1.91 g/colony. In the study, no statistically significant difference was determined between feeding with sucrose, bee feed and the supplementary feeding with glucose. On the other hand, it was determined that the location where the royal jelly was produced affected both the larvae acceptance and the royal jelly yield.
... In RJ, 10-HDA concentration averages 21 mg/g RJ (Ferioli et al., 2007) corresponding to 124 mM (calculated with RJ density = 1.1 g/ml (Sabatini et al., 2009) and molecular weight 10-HDA = 186.29 g/mol). MRJP1 4 / apisimin 4 /24MC 8 concentration averages 41.5 mg/g in RJ (Yamaguchi et al., 2013) corresponding to 0.22 mM (calculated with RJ density = 1.1 g/ml (Sabatini et al., 2009) and molecular weight MRJP1 4 /apisimin 4 /24MC 8 complex = 209,477 g/mol). ...
... In RJ, 10-HDA concentration averages 21 mg/g RJ (Ferioli et al., 2007) corresponding to 124 mM (calculated with RJ density = 1.1 g/ml (Sabatini et al., 2009) and molecular weight 10-HDA = 186.29 g/mol). MRJP1 4 / apisimin 4 /24MC 8 concentration averages 41.5 mg/g in RJ (Yamaguchi et al., 2013) corresponding to 0.22 mM (calculated with RJ density = 1.1 g/ml (Sabatini et al., 2009) and molecular weight MRJP1 4 /apisimin 4 /24MC 8 complex = 209,477 g/mol). Thus, RJ contains per molecule of complex approximately 550 molecules of 10-HDA. ...
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Queen larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) are fed with royal jelly, a glandular secretion produced by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of worker honey bees. The necessary consistency of royal jelly is dependent on a protein-sterol complex (MRJP1/apisimin/24MC). At low pH, this complex forms fibrillar structures, which increase the viscosity of royal jelly. While the proteins in this complex are produced in the hypopharyngeal gland, the low pH is achieved by the secretion of the mandibular gland, which contains fatty acids. It is shown for the first time that fibril formation of MRJP1/apisimin/24MC is not only induced by low pH via a buffer system, but also by the addition of the major fatty acid 10-hydroxy-Δ2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) of the mandibular gland secretion. This result further substantiates that fibril formation of the MRJP1/apisimin/24MC complex only occurs after mixing the hypopharyngeal and mandibular gland secretions.
... It has a homogenous and milk-like consistency, yellowish color and sour taste. Apilarnil contains 25 -35% dry matter, 9 -12% protein, 6 -10% carbohydrates, 5 -8 lipids, 3% ash and other, unidentified substances (15,16). Additionally, its chemical composition includes vitamins (vitamin A, beta carotene, B1, B6, PP, and choline), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, zinc, manganese, iron, copper, and potassium) and essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by humans or other animal organisms. ...
... In addition, it can provide 17.09 and 0.50 mg/100 g of iron and copper, which cover 94.94 and 25% of the daily requirements, respectively. These results agree with [10,24], who also stated that the quantitative presence of RJ metals is related either to factors outside the colony, including the environment, food, and production period, or to internal factors, such as physiological factors tied to the nurse worker bees. From the nutritional perspective, which was supported by the obtained results, the combination of the three tested honeybee products (BP, BB, and RJ in a tri-mix) is considered useful by providing balanced contents of protein and sugars (37.38 and 39.38% of DV, respectively) and compensating for the lack of some minerals in the individual components, which encourages its application in functional foods' fortification. ...
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Honeybee products, as multicomponent substances, have been a focus of great interest. The present work aimed to perform the nutritional and chemical profiling and biochemical characterization of bee pollen (BP), bee bread (BB), and royal jelly (RJ) and study their applications in the fortification of functional fermented dairy products. Their effects on starter cultures and the physicochemical and sensorial quality of products were monitored. A molecular networking analysis identified a total of 46 compounds in the three bee products that could be potential medicines, including flavonoids, fatty acids, and peptides. BB showed the highest protein and sugar contents (22.57 and 26.78 g/100 g), which cover 45.14 and 53.56% of their daily values (DVs), with considerable amounts of the essential amino acids threonine and lysine (59.50 and 42.03%). BP, BB, and RJ can be considered sources of iron, as 100 g can cover 141, 198.5, and 94.94% of DV%, respectively. BP was revealed to have the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents (105.68 and 43.91 µg/g) and showed a synergetic effect when mixed with RJ, resulting in increased antioxidant activity, while BB showed a synergetic effect when mixed with RJ in terms of both antioxidant and proteolytic powers (IC50 7.54, 11.55, 12.15, 12.50, and 12.65 cP compared to the control (10.55 cP)), reflecting their organoleptic properties and highlighting these health-oriented products as promising natural products for human health care.
... It is important to understand the swelling index in tissue engineering because swelling causes an increase in pore size. In addition, it is used to replenish the interior of scaffolds with oxygen and nutrients (Sabatini et al. 2009;Mozafari et al. 2018). As shown in Table 1 the swelling index of scaffolds that grafted with RJ (electrospun or immersed) is higher than scaffolds made with pure PCL and PCL/DEX. ...
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Tissue engineering is one of the most important medical rehabilitation tools that includes two vital components of scaffolding and cell growth stimulants. Therefore, designing a more intelligent, portable, monitorable, and safe scaffold that can release growth factors is a key step in achieving an acceptable level of cells for treating patients. In this study, a nanofibers-grafted scaffold was prepared with two-nozzle electrospinning to serve as a tissue engineering scaffold. Fundamental physical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pore diameter determination, and FT-IR. Fundamental physical characterization revealed that the nanofibers-scaffolds grafted with Royal Jelly significantly increased hydrophilicity, but the porosity of the novel-nanofibers did not alter significantly than the nanofibers without Royal Jelly. Based on the MTT assay results, cell growth, survival, and proliferation of the HUVEC Cell line were increased in the nanofibers scaffold grafted with Royal Jelly. Together, these findings highlight the potential of our novel scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
... Environmental conditions significantly influence the chemical composition of royal jelly (Sabatini et al., 2009). The highest amount of water and carbohydrates is reached in the rainy season, the amount of lipids is the highest in the dry season. ...
As antimicrobial drugs destroy microorganisms or stop their growth, they are used to treat infections. Due to the increasing resistance of infectious agents to antimicrobial drugs, there is a need to find new natural products with antimicrobial properties. Natural products such as bee products honey, propolis, pollen, bee bread, and royal jelly are important products with numerous different active biological features, antimicrobial and antiviral among them. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of royal jelly, honey, and the mixture of honey and royal jelly on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and the fungus Candida albicans. Royal jelly and honey were collected in Lithuanian apiaries. The antimicrobial activity of royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly mixture (9% solution) was determined using the ‘well’ method of diffusion into agar. Reference cultures of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and the fungus Candida albicans were used in the study. Royal jelly was found to be the most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. Royal jelly had the strongest antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis, honey on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and the mixture of honey-royal jelly on S. epidermidis. Royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly solutions were not antibacterial against Proteus vulgaris. Royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly had a weak effect on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Royal jelly had no effect on Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans, and the antibacterial effect of honey and honey-royal jelly mixture was weak. Royal jelly, honey, honey-royal jelly mixture had the strongest effect on gram-positive bacteria. A weaker antimicrobial effect was observed against gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and C. albicans. Royal jelly had no effect on P. vulgaris, and honey-royal jelly mixture had similar antimicrobial activity to honey.
... The investigation of RJ as potentially being beneficial for human health started in the 1930s with the question whether RJ has an antibacterial effect against certain human pathogenic bacteria (McCleskey & Melampy, 1939). Even though research on RJ started comparatively late, RJ has nowadays a considerable commercial value as it is utilized in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry (Sabatini et al., 2009) with China being the largest producer (3,500 tons in 2010) and exporter (220 tons in 2014, 39 Mio. USD export value) in the world (Cao et al., 2016). ...
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a complex beehive product that is important for larval development and queen nutrition in the hive and may also have beneficial effects on human health, according to in vitro and in vivo studies. The main proteins in RJ belong to the Major royal jelly proteins family (MRJPs), representing up to 90% of the total proteins. This narrative review aims to compile the results of studies on MRJPs and their derived peptides to understand their biological effects better, their most important activities being antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cell growth promoting, wound healing, anti-aging, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory.
A reliable database was established from the analysis of 60 royal jellies (RJs) produced by bee colonies selectively provided with artificial feed according to seasonal changes at an apiary in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The moisture content of RJs ranged from 60.1% to 67.1% (average 65.2%), and the trans-hydroxy‐2–decenoic acid (10-HDA) content ranged from 1.4% to 2.5% (average 1.9%), indicating a wide range during the harvest period. The δ¹³C values of the RJs varied from −24.0‰ to −17.2‰ (average −19.3‰). Sugar contents were 1.9–6.1% for fructose, 2.8–5.5% for glucose, and 0.7–7.7% for sucrose. Pearson correlations were determined between harvest time and RJ components. The 10-HDA content showed a weak negative correlation with harvest time (p < 0.01). The δ¹³C values and sucrose contents showed a weak positive correlation with harvest time when artificial feed was selectively supplied to bees according to seasonal changes (p < 0.01). This study highlights the characteristics and composition ranges of Korean RJ and compares the differences between the tested samples and RJ samples produced outside Korea. The results provide information necessary for determining the authenticity and quality grade of RJ by investigating the effect of bee colonies selectively provided with artificial feed according to seasonal changes on the compositional changes of RJ.
An experiment was carried out to analyse changes in the protein components of royal jelly (RJ) under different storage conditions, based on two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The proteins identified were compared to those proteins already identified in the proteome complement of the RJ. The results showed that the total detected protein spots were 75, 45, 63 and 69, with molecular weight in the range of 7.64-72.33 kDa, isoelectric point 4.95-8.70, in the 2-DE image of RJ protein components stored at -20°C for 80 days, 4°C for 80 days, room temperature for 30 days, room temperature for 80 days, respectively. The spot of major royal jelly protein, apalbumin I, was saturated in all images in this experiment, indicating that temperature has no significant effects on it. The spots number and the quantity of apalbumin 2 and apalbumin 3 did not increase or decrease following the temperature trend, suggesting they are also sensitive to temperature. However, spots of apalbumin 4 and glucose oxidase were observed only in the image of -20°C for 80 days, and spots of apalbumin 5 were detected in the images of -20°C and 4°C for 80 days, indicating they are the proteins most sensitive to storage temperature and thus may be potential freshness markers for RJ, and that the best way to maintain quality of RJ is under freezing conditions.
Quantitative differences were found in the chemical composition of royal jelly samples collected in spring and summer by the same producer. The main difference was in the free fatty acids, which showed a marked increase in 10-hydroxydecanoic acid in summer. The sterol and hydrocarbon fractions were also investigated. The most significant sterols were identified by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbon components, identified by their retention times, were a homologous series of straight-chain compounds, from C16 to C33, with even and odd numbers of carbon atoms. Considerable amounts of some hydrocarbons were found. Of the sterols identified, the most abundant was 24-methylene cholesterol; stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, Δ7-avenasterol and cholesterol were also present.
Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) residues in honey and royal jelly were analysed with the pre-activated SEP-PAK C18® cartridge and HPLC. OTC in honey stored in colonies decreased rapidly but was detected for a longer period than reported previously. In contrast, little OTC was transferred into royal jelly except immediately after administration of the antibiotic.
An earlier edition of Methods of melissopalynology was published in Bee World 51(3): 125–138 (1970), and has been widely used. It is now republished with minor corrections and updating, and with two significant additions. The acetolysis method is included, which has not previously been commonly used in melissopalynology; also the literature list is enlarged so that it provides an introduction to the extensive literature on palynology, which is scattered over many journals.
Royal jelly from Apis mellifera ligustica was examined by proximate analysis, amino acid analysis and chromatographic characterization of methylated fatty-acids using a pattern-recognition method. Crude protein was 11·9%, crude moisture 67·l% and crude lipid 4·3%. Amino acid analysis showed 17 standard protein amino acids and 5 unidentified ninhydrin-positive compounds. Aspartic acid was the major amino acid, at 16·1% of the protein content. The major fatty-acid, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid was present at an average concentration of 50·3% of the total fatty acid content. The gross composition of 11 commercial royal jelly products was compared to that of the pure royal jelly used in this study. Six commercial royal jelly products were found to be adulterated.