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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
Quality and standardisation of Royal Jelly
Anna Gloria Sabatini
1*
, Gian Luigi Marcazzan
1
, Maria Fiorenza Caboni
2
,
Stefan Bogdanov
3
, Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian
4
1
CRA- Istituto Nazionale di Apicoltura, Bologna, Italy.
2
Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università di Bologna, Italy.
3
Swiss Bee Research Centre Agroscope, Liebefeld Poseux, Berne, Switzerland.
4
Departamento de Alimentos e Nutrição Experimental, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade de São Paulo
(USP), São Paulo, Brazil.
Received 26 June 2008, accepted subject to revision 18 August 2008, accepted for publication November 2008.
*Corresponding author: Email: annagloria.sabatini@entecra.it
Journal of ApiProduct and ApiMedical Science
1(1): 1-6 (2009) © IBRA 2009
DOI: 10.3896/IBRA.4.1.01.04
Introduction
Given the exceptional biological properties attributed to it, royal jelly
(RJ) has considerable commercial appeal and is today utilised in
many sectors, ranging from the pharmaceutical and food industries
to the cosmetic and manufacturing sectors. This has resulted, among
other things, in large-scale importation in countries where production
is insufficient to meet domestic demand. Research capabilities thus
need to be reinforced to permit both a reliable qualitative and
quantitative evaluation of the different components and the
implementation of analytical tests on commercially available products
– RJ on its own or as an additive to new or traditional products – also
for the purpose of identifying possible adulteration.
No official data exist about the RJ market (Grillenzoni,
2002), but China is unanimously acknowledged as being the leading
world producer and exporter of RJ, which it sells at highly
competitive prices. Chinese production of RJ is estimated as 2 000
t/year (a quantity that represents over 60% of production
worldwide), almost all of which is exported to Japan, the United
States and Europe. Other countries like Korea, Taiwan and Japan are
important producers and also exporters. Elsewhere in the world, RJ is
produced mainly in Eastern Europe and to a lesser extent in Western
Europe and in America: Mexico, in particular, is quite a big producer.
Numerous studies have been dedicated to RJ since as far
back as the late 19
th
century (Planta, 1888; Lercker, 2003). However,
it is difficult to bring together the data collected by different authors
into an organic whole, as the data themselves are not always
comparable due to the lack of homogeneity among the materials
used, the different sampling procedures and production conditions.
Additional complicating factors are the multiplicity of experimental
conditions, as well as the diversity of the analytical methods used
and their continual evolution.
Knowledge of the composition of recently produced RJ is
essential in order to define a standard composition, evaluate the
quality of commercial products and detect the presence of RJ in other
products which containing it.
At present some countries, like Switzerland (Bogdanov
et al
.,
2004), Bulgaria, Brazil (Brasil Leis e decretos, 2001) and Uruguay
have defined national standards for this product. A group of the
International Honey Commission is dealing presently with royal jelly
standardisation.
Studies on royal jelly quality
In the 1980s a workgroup was formed in Italy which has devoted
much effort to the study of RJ (Lercker
et al
., 1981; Lercker
et al
.,
1982; Lercker
et al
., 1984a; Lercker
et al
., 1984b; Lercker
et al.
,
1985; Lercker
et al
., 1986; Vecchi
et al
., 1988; Lercker
et al
., 1993;
Antinelli
et al
., 2003; Boselli
et al
., 2003; Lercker, 2003). The data
presented in this article refer to the results obtained by the Italian
group cited, completed by findings of researchers from other
countries.
Samples of recently produced, commercial grade RJ directly
gathered from specialised beekeeping facilities located in different
Italian regions were used both for the purpose of developing
methods and conducting the analyses. The same samples were used
to assess the changes occurring in RJ during storage.
Apart from this project, other studies were also carried out.
Most of them were concerned with RJ authenticity. RJ adulteration is
the most important quality problem. Adulteration by the nursing
jellies for worker and drones is improbable because of the very little
amounts available for harvest. Adulteration with honey is more
probable, causing an increase of the sugar values, the other values
being lowered (Serra Bonvehi, 1991). The most important quality
criteria for RJ adulteration is 10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid (HDA).
However, the composition limits, reported in the literature are very
broad. 10-HDA content decreases with storage of RJ (Antinelli
et al
.,
2003). This decrease is higher in honey containing RJ (Matsui,
1988). Thus, the determination of all fatty acids, as carried out in
the Italian studies (Lercker
et al
., 1981; Lercker
et al
., 1993), might
be the better approach that the determination of 10-HDA only.
It was recently reported that authenticity of RJ production
can be determined by measuring of the ratios stable isotopes of the
elements C and N (Stocker, 2003). The authenticity of production
can be measured by determining the fatty acid composition of RJ
(Howe
et al
., 1985; Lercker
et al
., 1993).
The geographical authenticity can be determined also by
pollen analysis (Ricciardelli d'Albore
et al.
, 1978; Ricciardelli
d'Albore, 1986). The
87
Sr/
86
Sr ratios indicate also the geographic
regions of the samples (Stocker, 2003).
The amount of pollen, as well as visible wax and larvae
particles should be minimal. RJ has relatively low concentration of
bacteria (Serra Bonvehi and Escola Jorda, 1991).
The parameters investigated concerned in the above
mentioned studies concern the organoleptic characteristics and
physicochemical properties as well as the following composition
factors:
Water content Determined by freeze-drying (Messia
et al
.,
2005), Karl Fischer (Ferioli
et al
., 2007), vacuum
oven, dessication (Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2002, 2007)
Total protein Nitrogen determined with the Kjeldahl method
(Lercker
et al
., 1992-93; Garcia-Amoedo and
Almeida-Muradian, 2007). Free amino acids
determined by ion chromatography (Boselli
et
al
., 2003)
Carbohydrates Determined by gas (Lercker
et al
., 1993)
or
liquid chromatographies (Sesta
,
2006)
Lipids Determined as free and total organic acids by
gas chromatography (Lercker
et al
., 1992-93) or
as total lipids, by solvent extraction (Karaali
et
al
., 1986; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2007)
10-HDA Determined by HPLC (Bloodworth
et al
., 1995;
Genc and Aslan, 1999; Koshio and Almeida-
Muradian, 2003; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2003, 2007; Pamplona
et al
., 2004)
Minerals Determined by atomic absorption (Benfenati
et al.
,
1986)
Acidity Titration method (Serra-Bonvehi, 1992)
Sediment analysis Microscopical analysis (Ricciardelli d’Albore, 1986)
Furosine, (Marconi
et al
., 2002)
Contamination
There are very few studies concerning the possible contamination of
RJ. The content of RJ contaminants, compared to other bee products,
is relatively low (Fleche
et al
., 1997). Recently, the problem of honey
and RJ contamination by antibiotics has arisen. Although most studies
concern residues in honey, antibiotic use in the colony can
contaminate also royal jelly (Matsuka and Nakamura, 1990). On the
other hand, experience has shown that RJ residue analysis is difficult
and that old analysis methods are questionable. There are very few
publications on antibiotic residues in RJ, mainly on chloramphenicol
(Dharmananda, 2003; Reybroeck, 2003; Calvarese
et al
., 2006). The
first two papers do not report details, only in the last publication
details on the methods and the contamination levels are given. The
presence of chloramphenicol (CA) was detected in 29 out of 35 tested
samples imported in Italy, the concentrations ranging from 0.6 μg/kg
to 28 μg /kg, with an average content of 6.1 μg/kg. As antibiotics are
not allowed for use in beekeeping, there is no MRL for honey or other
bee products in the European Union. For CA in honey the EU has
established an MPRL of 0.3 μg/kg. By using method developed by
Calvarese and coworkers (Calvarese
et al
., 2006) this MPRL can also
be used for royal jelly.
Composition and quality criteria
for royal jelly
Organoleptic description and physical characteristics
RJ appears as a whitish substance with a gelatinous consistency,
often not homogenous due to the presence of undissolved granules of
varying size. It has a distinctively sharp odour and taste.
It is partially soluble in water and highly acidic (pH 3.4-4.5)
with a density of 1.1 g/mL (Lercker, 2003).
Main components
The composition of the main constituents of RJ, proteins,
carbohydrates and lipids is reported in the literature (Takenaka and
Echigo, 1980; Bonomi
et al
., 1986; Pourtallier
et al
., 1990; Lercker,
2003, Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida
-Muradian, 2007).
2 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
The values obtained by the various authors are fairly in agreement,
notwithstanding the high variability displayed by some parameters
(sugars and lipids). It should be kept in mind that the reported
findings refer to different number of samples taken in different
places and at different times of production and that different
methods of sampling and analysis were used. Moreover, RJ is
naturally inhomogeneous.
Our own analyses of RJ samples of different geographical
origins showed no differences in composition such as to distinguish
one product from another.
It may similarly be affirmed that environmental conditions
do not significantly influence the main components.
Water
Water content shows to be fairly uniform, greater than 60%, and
with an activity (a
w
) above 0.92, in spite of which RJ displays
considerable microbial stability. The constancy of the moisture
content is basically assured, inside the hive, by the continuous
provision of fresh supplies of this substance by nurse bees, by the
natural hygroscopicity of RJ and the entire colony’s efforts to
maintain a level of ambient moisture; moreover the non solubility of
some compounds can explain the variations in water content.
Proteins
From a quantitative viewpoint, proteins (27-41%) represent the
most important portion of the dry matter of RJ.
The amino acids present in the highest percentages were
proline, lysine, glutamic acid, β-alanine, phenylalanine, aspartate
and serine (Boselli
et al
., 2003). The concentration of series D amino
acids was below the detection limit of the method (0.1mg/g of RJ) in
all samples.
The study aimed to assess how this parameter evolved
during storage of the product. No significant changes were observed
in the overall concentration of free amino acids in RJ stored at 4°C
for 10 months. However, in the same samples stored at room
temperature, the proline and lysine content showed an increase in
the first three months and after 6-10 months decreased to levels
slightly lower than those in the control samples. This suggests that,
in favourable temperature conditions, a proteolytic enzymatic
activity continues to occur over time.
Carbohydrates
On average this portion accounts for 30% of the dry matter of RJ.
However, while the components are highly constant in qualitative
terms, considerable variability may be observed from a quantitative
standpoint.
As in honey, the monosaccharides fructose and glucose are
the main sugars. They often account for over 90% of the total
sugars and, of the two, fructose is prevalent. Sucrose is always
Quality and standardisation of Royal Jelly 3
present but often in highly variable concentrations. It is also possible
to find oligosaccharides such as trehalose, maltose, gentiobiose,
isomaltose, raffinose, erlose, melezitose; though present in very small
concentrations they are useful for identifying a characteristic pattern,
which is comparable to that of honey and in some cases indicative of
the genuineness of the product.
Lipids and 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA)
This fraction is likewise present in fairly modest, variable
concentrations (8-19% of dry matter), but no doubt represents the
most important of RJ components.
The lipid portion in fact consists primarily of organic acids (80
-90%), most of which free, with a rather unusual structure rarely
encountered in nature: they are in fact mono- and dihydroxy acids
and dicarboxylic acids with 8 and 10 carbon atoms, which show a
characteristic arrangement (Lercker
et al
., 1992-93).
Hydroxy acids with 10 carbon atoms (10-hydroxydecenoic
and 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid) above all can be found in high
concentrations. Not only may they be ascribed a role as a marker
component, but they have also been identified as responsible for
important biological activities tied to the development strategies of
the colony (Wu
et al. 1991)
The identification of this fraction – in particular as regards the
pattern and quantitative analysis of free organic acids – is believed to
represent the criteria of choice for defining the genuineness of RJ and
the presence of RJ in other products, be they foods or cosmetics
(Caboni
et al
., 1994). The analyses we performed showed that the
composition remained stable for as long as 2 years, regardless of
whether the samples were stored at 4°C or at room temperature.
A recent study (Antinelli
et al
., 2003) showed a 0.4 and 0.6%
reduction in 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in two RJ samples stored at
room temperature for 12 months. It is difficult to evaluate such a
reduction in a sample in the control phase. Moreover it is difficult to
use 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic-acid decrease as a freshness marker
because their variable amount on fresh RJ. Both HPLC and
electrophoretic analysis of 10-HDA showed that samples of RJ from
extra-european origin contain smaller amount of this compound; this
evidence was confirmed measuring total lipids after organic extraction
(Ferioli
et al
., 2007).
Minerals
Ash content represents 0.8-3% of RJ (fresh matter) (Messia
et al
.,
2003; Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-Muradian, 2007). The major
elements are, in descending order: K, Ca, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Mn
(Nation and Robinson, 1971; Ivanov and Chervenakova, 1985;
Benfenati
et al
., 1986), present in specific ratios such as K/Na and
Ca/Mg.
The hypotheses regarding the quantitative presence of these metals
have focused on factors outside the colony (environment,
procurement of food, production period) and to some extent internal
factors (biological factors tied to the bees).
Authenticity
The main quality factors of RJ have been described and studies have
revealed the importance of the lipid fraction as a marker and hence
a criterion by which to determine the product’s genuineness.
Presently, 10-HDA is mostly used for routine testing of RJ
authenticity. However, the concentration of this acid varies in wide
limits. Further studies are necessary to determine whether the
determination of the stable isotopes of the elements C and N
(Stocker, 2003) is a promising approach for the determination of the
authenticity of production. Adulteration by honey results in a general
diminution of proteins and lipids and a relative increase of sugars
(Serra-Bonvehi, 1991).
Adulteration with more than 25% of yoghurt, egg white,
water and corn starch slurry can be detected by the enhancement of
moisture, diminishing in lipid, protein and 10-HDA content as well as
the insolubility in alkaline medium. (Garcia-Amoedo and Almeida-
Muradian, 2007).
Furthermore, microscopic analyses of RJ sediment, applied
according to the basic principles of melissopalynology (Louveaux
et
al
.,
1978
; Ricciardelli, 1986) and in particular the identification of the
pollens it contains, make it possible to define the geographical
origins of the product and detect mixtures where they occur. Pollen
identification is made easier by the fact that only a few countries
actually produce RJ and specialists are capable of formulating their
respective characteristic pollen associations.
Another promising parameter for the evaluation of RJ
authenticity is the presence of apalbumin (Simuth
et al
., 2004). This
marker, if confirmed by further research, could gain high
importance.
4 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
Freshness definition
Another fundamental aspect lies in the possibility of defining a
parameter of RJ freshness.
It has been noted that the macroscopic composition of RJ is
fairly stable on the whole but also variable, above all as far as certain
components are concerned. Thus it is not a suitable parameter for
defining product freshness.
For the latter purpose, experiments were conducted on RJ
samples stored at 4 and 20°C over a period of 24 months to assess
changes in the content of the enzyme glucose oxidase. The results
obtained showed that the enzyme contained in RJ is influenced both
by storage temperature and time. At 20°C it had decreased
significantly after one month and degraded completely after one
year. Even at 4°C there was an evident, albeit modest, reduction in
the enzyme.
The determination of glucose oxidase is analytically very
simple and thus within the capabilities of all laboratories. This
method could be used to evaluate the product’s freshness; however,
further investigation must first be conducted into the natural
variability of this component in the fresh product (Boselli
et al
.,
2002). Marconi
et al.
(2002) quoted several experiments were
performed to evaluate the possibility of using furosine content as a
marker for RJ freshness.
The value of furosine, a product of Maillard’s reaction, proved
very low (from 0 to 10 mg/100g of protein) in freshly produced RJ
samples (Messia
et al
., 2003) but increased over time and in relation
to temperature. Specifically, the content rose to as high as 500
mg/100g of protein after 18 months’ storage at room temperature
and 50 mg/100g at 4°C. Samples taken from store shelves showed
values ranging from 40 to 100 mg/100g protein. By contrast, freeze-
dried RJ showed strong tendency to form furosine during storage
(Messia
et al
., 2005).
Table 1: Royal Jelly Composition
Fresh lyophilized
Water % 60 – 70 < 5
Lipids % 3 – 8 8 – 19
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) % > 1,4 > 3,5
Protein % 9 – 18 27 – 41
Fructose + glucose+ sucrose % 7 – 18 -
Fructose % 3 – 13 -
Glucose % 4 – 8 -
Sucrose % 0,5 – 2,0 -
Ash % 0,8 - 3,0 2 – 5
pH
3,4 - 4,5 3,4 – 4,5
Acidity (ml 0.1N NaOH/g) 3,0 - 6,0 -
Furosine (mg/100g protein) < 50* -
Table 1 shows some data from literature that could be used as a
preliminary proposal for fresh and lyophilized royal jelly standards.
Data come from many countries investigations and regulations but
for the establishment of a paper general standard, further
investigation is needed.
Given the product’s high water content, the composition values are
also proposed for the freeze-dried sample. This enables a more
direct comparison of data; plus RJ is also marketed in this form.
Although the overall analytic data confirm that exposure to a
temperature of 4°C causes no alterations in RJ composition, recently
it was also shown that only storage of RJ in frozen state prevents
decomposition of biologically active RJ proteins and thus RJ should
be frozen as soon as it is harvested (Li
et al.,
2007).
The next steps should be: 1. Validate the respective
methods of analysis 2. Use the method and create a royal jelly
standard, based measurements on royal jelly samples produced in
different countries. To this end, the UNI (Italian certification body) is
presently drawing up standards for these methods based on the
available know-how.
Acknowledgements
The authors are grateful for the collaboration of the following
researchers:
Tseko Ivanov, Giovanni Lercker, Yanina Macebo, Emanuele Marconi,
Monique Morlot, Jun Nakamura, Giulio Sesta, Jozef Simuth and
Jürgen Wehlitz.
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6 Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov, Almeida-Muradian
... An investigation on the biochemical composition of RJ was carried out as follows. International Honey Commission (IHC) by Sabatini, et al. developed an international standard for RJ [8]. ...
... In the study of Sabatini, et al. lipid content of RJ was 8-19% of the dry matter [8]. The value obtained in this study is also within that range. ...
... The amount of sugar present in RJ is relatively similar to the previous report by Nabas, et al. [20], which was also within the limits proposed by Sabatini, et al. [8]. The total sugar content was mostly occupied by glucose and fructose [21]. ...
... However, limited studies report the organic acid profile of bee products [6,9,[14][15][16]18]. It is stated that the qualitative and quantitative measurement of the organic acid composition of bee products can be used as one of the criteria for determining the authenticity of bee products and its presence in other products such as food and cosmetics [19]. For this reason, understanding the organic acid content of these products, which are chosen as a food source and in apitherapy for centuries due to their different pharmacological effects, will also provide information about the pharmacological profile of the product. ...
... At least 80-90% of the organic acids in royal jelly are 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic (10-HDA), 10-hydroxydecanoic acids (10-HDA) and sebacic acid, and 32% of this fraction is trans-10-HDA consisting of 22% 10-HDA, 24% gluconic acid, 5% dicarboxylic acids and some other acids [28]. The identification/quantitative analysis of the organic acid fraction of royal jelly was cited as a criterion for establishing royal jelly authenticity [19]. Of the 55 organic acids screened, glycolic acid, malic acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, oxoproline, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 3-OH-3-methyl-glutaric acid, 3-phenyl-acetic acid, suberic acid, sebacic acid, lactic acid, 2-OH-glutaric acid, 3-OHglutaric acid, pyruvic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, adipic acid, 2-O-3-methyl pentanoic acid and 2-OH-isocaproic acid were detected in royal jelly samples. ...
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This study aimed to determine the organic acid profiles of bee products such as royal jelly, bee venom, bee pollen and bee bread, as well as to verify the method employed in the study. For this purpose, royal jelly, bee venom, bee pollen and bee bread samples were obtained from different locations, and 55 individual organic acids were determined using the liquid chromatography technique coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and method verification was carried out. Moreover, principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed to compare the organic acid content of bee products and evaluate the overall variation. According to the results, the order of the total organic acid profiles was determined as bee venom (4141 mg/kg-6260 mg/kg) > bee bread (736-990 mg/kg) > bee pollen (837-1503 mg/kg) > royal jelly (192-1947 mg/kg). Although citric acid (423-41,519 mg/kg) was dominantly detected in samples among the organic acids screened. It is thought that the results obtained will contribute to scientific studies carried out to determine the authenticity of bee products and their standardization.
... It is important to understand the swelling index in tissue engineering because swelling causes an increase in pore size. In addition, it is used to replenish the interior of scaffolds with oxygen and nutrients (Sabatini et al. 2009;Mozafari et al. 2018). As shown in Table 1 the swelling index of scaffolds that grafted with RJ (electrospun or immersed) is higher than scaffolds made with pure PCL and PCL/DEX. ...
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Tissue engineering is one of the most important medical rehabilitation tools that includes two vital components of scaffolding and cell growth stimulants. Therefore, designing a more intelligent, portable, monitorable, and safe scaffold that can release growth factors is a key step in achieving an acceptable level of cells for treating patients. In this study, a nanofibers-grafted scaffold was prepared with two-nozzle electrospinning to serve as a tissue engineering scaffold. Fundamental physical characterizations were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), pore diameter determination, and FT-IR. Fundamental physical characterization revealed that the nanofibers-scaffolds grafted with Royal Jelly significantly increased hydrophilicity, but the porosity of the novel-nanofibers did not alter significantly than the nanofibers without Royal Jelly. Based on the MTT assay results, cell growth, survival, and proliferation of the HUVEC Cell line were increased in the nanofibers scaffold grafted with Royal Jelly. Together, these findings highlight the potential of our novel scaffold for tissue engineering applications.
... Environmental conditions significantly influence the chemical composition of royal jelly (Sabatini et al., 2009). The highest amount of water and carbohydrates is reached in the rainy season, the amount of lipids is the highest in the dry season. ...
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As antimicrobial drugs destroy microorganisms or stop their growth, they are used to treat infections. Due to the increasing resistance of infectious agents to antimicrobial drugs, there is a need to find new natural products with antimicrobial properties. Natural products such as bee products honey, propolis, pollen, bee bread, and royal jelly are important products with numerous different active biological features, antimicrobial and antiviral among them. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of royal jelly, honey, and the mixture of honey and royal jelly on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and the fungus Candida albicans. Royal jelly and honey were collected in Lithuanian apiaries. The antimicrobial activity of royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly mixture (9% solution) was determined using the ‘well’ method of diffusion into agar. Reference cultures of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and the fungus Candida albicans were used in the study. Royal jelly was found to be the most effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. Royal jelly had the strongest antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis, honey on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and the mixture of honey-royal jelly on S. epidermidis. Royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly solutions were not antibacterial against Proteus vulgaris. Royal jelly, honey, and honey-royal jelly had a weak effect on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Royal jelly had no effect on Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans, and the antibacterial effect of honey and honey-royal jelly mixture was weak. Royal jelly, honey, honey-royal jelly mixture had the strongest effect on gram-positive bacteria. A weaker antimicrobial effect was observed against gram-negative bacteria, spore bacteria, and C. albicans. Royal jelly had no effect on P. vulgaris, and honey-royal jelly mixture had similar antimicrobial activity to honey.
... The investigation of RJ as potentially being beneficial for human health started in the 1930s with the question whether RJ has an antibacterial effect against certain human pathogenic bacteria (McCleskey & Melampy, 1939). Even though research on RJ started comparatively late, RJ has nowadays a considerable commercial value as it is utilized in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry (Sabatini et al., 2009) with China being the largest producer (3,500 tons in 2010) and exporter (220 tons in 2014, 39 Mio. USD export value) in the world (Cao et al., 2016). ...
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a complex beehive product that is important for larval development and queen nutrition in the hive and may also have beneficial effects on human health, according to in vitro and in vivo studies. The main proteins in RJ belong to the Major royal jelly proteins family (MRJPs), representing up to 90% of the total proteins. This narrative review aims to compile the results of studies on MRJPs and their derived peptides to understand their biological effects better, their most important activities being antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-tumor, hypotensive, hypolipidemic, cell growth promoting, wound healing, anti-aging, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory.
... Estudios previos de la JR han demostrado que puede funcionar como un complemento alimenticio debido a que contiene una gran cantidad de nutrientes (Sabatini, Marcazzan, Caboni, Bogdanov y Almeida-Muradian, 2009). Su composición puede presentar variaciones cuantitativas, debidas a factores como: zona de procedencia, periodo de producción, alimento disponible y condiciones climáticas (Hu et al., 2017). ...
Thesis
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La Jalea Real (JR) es el alimento de las larvas de las abejas melíferas (Apis mellifera L.) y de la reina durante toda su vida, esta les proporciona una nutrición óptima para su crecimiento y su desarrollo, para que las nodrizas puedan producir JR es necesario que las glándulas hipofaríngeas se encuentren completamente desarrolladas, esto se consigue cuando las obreras durante sus primeros días de vida consumen Polen con alto contenido de proteína. El uso de suplementos proteicos es necesario dentro de los sistemas de producción; sin embargo, existe poca información sobre como influyen diferentes fuentes de proteína utilizadas en la alimentación de las abejas en la composición fisicoquímica y en la presencia de los componentes bioactivos en la JR. La fuente proteica utilizada para alimentar a las abejas que producen JR influye de manera significativa en mejorar la composición químico-proximal y las propiedades bioactivas de tipo antioxidante y antihipertensiva que tiene el alimento. El uso de M. pruriens como proteína mejora algunas características fisicoquímicas de la JR, al igual que algunas respuestas en la actividad biológica; sin embargo, la dieta de Polen también otorgó beneficios a la JR, por lo que no hay una dieta que sea mejor que otra. El incremento en la bioactividad de la JR proveniente de los tratamientos de suplementación proteica en comparación a la JRC, se puede deber a la mayor concentración de proteína, ácidos grasos y compuestos fenólicos que presentaron la JRM y JRP respectivamente. No es posible indicar de manera general si alimentar con una u otra fuente proteica es mejor, todo dependerá de la actividad biológica que se evalue; no obstante, se puede asegurar que es mejor alimentar a las colonias de abejas de manera constante con una proteína de calidad para incrementar sus componentes bioactivos y de esta forma obtener en mayor beneficio al consumo. La información generada en este trabajo puede ser utilizada para el desarrollo de dietas apícolas encaminadas a obtener una JR con mayor actividad biológica.
... J. Agric. Res., (2022) 100 (4), 458-466 459 development (Sabatini et al., 2009;Tamura et al., 2009;Li et al., 2010). This work aims to rate changes in royal jelly quality represented in SDS-PAGE of major proteins profiling in addition to some morphological and biochemical parameters of new virgin queens; after feeding with new natural supplemented-patty (mahlab seed kernel and date palm pollen). ...
... To protect 10-HDA from degradation, royal jelly should be stored in a frozen state as soon as it is harvested. It was shown that only storage at cold temperatures prevents decomposition of 10-HDA without causing no alterations in 10-HDA [12,40,41]. The same pattern was observed for RJL system with slight differences in size (smaller particles) and increased P.I. facts that can be attributed to a slight swelling of the lipid membrane due to cyclodextrin encapsulation and a possible stabilization due to lipid-carbohydrate interaction, respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
Royal jelly is a yellowish-white substance with a gel texture that is secreted from the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of young worker bees. It consists mainly of water (50–56%), proteins (18%), carbohydrates (15%), lipids (3%–6%), minerals (1.5%), and vitamins, and has many beneficial properties such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, and anti-aging. Royal jelly has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, cosmetics and as a functional food due to its high nutritional value. The main bioactive substances are royalactin, and 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA). Other important bioactive molecules with antioxidant and photoprotective skin activity are polyphenols. However, they present difficulties in extraction and in use as they are unstable physicochemically, and a higher temperature causes color change and component degradation. In the present study, a new encapsulation and delivery system consisting of liposomes and cyclodextrins incorporating royal jelly has been developed. The new delivery system aims to the elimination of the stability disadvantages of royal jelly’s sensitive component 10-HDA, but also to the controlled release of its ingredients and, more particularly, 10-HDA, for an enhanced bioactivity in cosmeceutical applications.
Article
A reliable database was established from the analysis of 60 royal jellies (RJs) produced by bee colonies selectively provided with artificial feed according to seasonal changes at an apiary in Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The moisture content of RJs ranged from 60.1% to 67.1% (average 65.2%), and the trans-hydroxy‐2–decenoic acid (10-HDA) content ranged from 1.4% to 2.5% (average 1.9%), indicating a wide range during the harvest period. The δ¹³C values of the RJs varied from −24.0‰ to −17.2‰ (average −19.3‰). Sugar contents were 1.9–6.1% for fructose, 2.8–5.5% for glucose, and 0.7–7.7% for sucrose. Pearson correlations were determined between harvest time and RJ components. The 10-HDA content showed a weak negative correlation with harvest time (p < 0.01). The δ¹³C values and sucrose contents showed a weak positive correlation with harvest time when artificial feed was selectively supplied to bees according to seasonal changes (p < 0.01). This study highlights the characteristics and composition ranges of Korean RJ and compares the differences between the tested samples and RJ samples produced outside Korea. The results provide information necessary for determining the authenticity and quality grade of RJ by investigating the effect of bee colonies selectively provided with artificial feed according to seasonal changes on the compositional changes of RJ.
Article
10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) is a principal active ingredients of royal jelly. Several recent studies demonstrated that 10-HDA has potential anti-type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) properties. To evaluate the anti-T2DM effect of 10-HDA and explore its underlying molecular mechanisms, we used high fat diet (HFD) combined with streptozotocin (STZ) injection to establish a diabetes model. Mice were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice per group): control group, 10-HDA group, T2DM group, and T2DM + 10-HDA group. The 10-HDA and T2DM + 10-HDA groups were administered intragastric 10-HDA (100 mg per kg body weight), while the control and T2DM groups were administered a vehicle, daily for 4 weeks. Our analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in body weight between T2DM + 10-HDA and control group mice (P > 0.05). Treatment with 10-HDA reduced fasting blood glucose and increased insulin levels in diabetic mice (P < 0.05), as well as increasing the area of pancreatic islets (P < 0.05), and alleviating vacuolar degeneration in the liver. Further, 10-HDA intervention increased superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities in diabetic mouse liver, alleviated lipid peroxidation, inhibited liver NF-κB nuclear translocation, decreased IL-6 and TNF-α content, and increased P-PI3K, P-AKT, and P-GSK3β protein levels (all P < 0.05). Fifteen potential biomarkers were screened by analysis of liver metabolomics data, of which hexadecanamide, stearamide, pentadecanoic acid, and fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (16:0/18:1) were highly abundant. In conclusion, 10-HDA has clear hypoglycemic effects on diabetic mice, through the PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway.
Article
An experiment was carried out to analyse changes in the protein components of royal jelly (RJ) under different storage conditions, based on two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The proteins identified were compared to those proteins already identified in the proteome complement of the RJ. The results showed that the total detected protein spots were 75, 45, 63 and 69, with molecular weight in the range of 7.64-72.33 kDa, isoelectric point 4.95-8.70, in the 2-DE image of RJ protein components stored at -20°C for 80 days, 4°C for 80 days, room temperature for 30 days, room temperature for 80 days, respectively. The spot of major royal jelly protein, apalbumin I, was saturated in all images in this experiment, indicating that temperature has no significant effects on it. The spots number and the quantity of apalbumin 2 and apalbumin 3 did not increase or decrease following the temperature trend, suggesting they are also sensitive to temperature. However, spots of apalbumin 4 and glucose oxidase were observed only in the image of -20°C for 80 days, and spots of apalbumin 5 were detected in the images of -20°C and 4°C for 80 days, indicating they are the proteins most sensitive to storage temperature and thus may be potential freshness markers for RJ, and that the best way to maintain quality of RJ is under freezing conditions.
Article
Quantitative differences were found in the chemical composition of royal jelly samples collected in spring and summer by the same producer. The main difference was in the free fatty acids, which showed a marked increase in 10-hydroxydecanoic acid in summer. The sterol and hydrocarbon fractions were also investigated. The most significant sterols were identified by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. The hydrocarbon components, identified by their retention times, were a homologous series of straight-chain compounds, from C16 to C33, with even and odd numbers of carbon atoms. Considerable amounts of some hydrocarbons were found. Of the sterols identified, the most abundant was 24-methylene cholesterol; stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, Δ7-avenasterol and cholesterol were also present.
Article
Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC) residues in honey and royal jelly were analysed with the pre-activated SEP-PAK C18® cartridge and HPLC. OTC in honey stored in colonies decreased rapidly but was detected for a longer period than reported previously. In contrast, little OTC was transferred into royal jelly except immediately after administration of the antibiotic.
Article
An earlier edition of Methods of melissopalynology was published in Bee World 51(3): 125–138 (1970), and has been widely used. It is now republished with minor corrections and updating, and with two significant additions. The acetolysis method is included, which has not previously been commonly used in melissopalynology; also the literature list is enlarged so that it provides an introduction to the extensive literature on palynology, which is scattered over many journals.
Article
Royal jelly from Apis mellifera ligustica was examined by proximate analysis, amino acid analysis and chromatographic characterization of methylated fatty-acids using a pattern-recognition method. Crude protein was 11·9%, crude moisture 67·l% and crude lipid 4·3%. Amino acid analysis showed 17 standard protein amino acids and 5 unidentified ninhydrin-positive compounds. Aspartic acid was the major amino acid, at 16·1% of the protein content. The major fatty-acid, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid was present at an average concentration of 50·3% of the total fatty acid content. The gross composition of 11 commercial royal jelly products was compared to that of the pure royal jelly used in this study. Six commercial royal jelly products were found to be adulterated.