Article

How to trap a slug: Commercial versus homemade slug traps

Authors:
Article

How to trap a slug: Commercial versus homemade slug traps

If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

Abstract

The Iberian Slug, Arion lusitanicus Mabille (Stylomatophora: Arionidae), has developed into a destructive pest in Swedish gardens and orchards over the past 10–20 years. Many attempts to eradicate this pest have been made using a variety of different methods. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two different types of homemade traps made from simple, inexpensive materials (plastic PET bottle or an ice-cream box) compared to one type of commercially sold trap (Slugtrap s IT-PAC AB, Sweden) used with bait and beer as attractants. Experiments were carried out on a private property outside Lund, Sweden, over a period of 7 days. The results showed that a homemade trap, i.e. a box trap, can be as efficient as a commercial trap, particularly due to their similar design. In contrast, the homemade bottle trap was not very successful. Additionally, it was discovered that the bait used in the commercial traps did not increase the number of slugs trapped. It was concluded that the beer was the main slug attractant. Ultimately this study suggests a low-cost alternative for small scale to the rather expensive commercially sold traps.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Informacje-branzowe/Wyszukiwarka-srodkow- ochrony-roslin/%28action%29/search), and their environmental toxicity is commonly known (rae et al. 2009). That is why some owners of small farms or gardens use traps with attractants, for example beer, to control the pest (haGnEll et al. 2006bhaGnEll et al. , dankowska 2011). Since the effectiveness of beer as slug attractant had already been partially proved (dankowska 2011dankowska , Piechowicz et al. 2014), in this study we decided to focus on determining which components of the volatile fraction of different beer brands could possibly play the role of attractants for A. vulgaris. ...
... The slugs fall into beer traps much more often than into water-containing traps (haGnEll et al. 2006b, kaPPes et al. 2012, Piechowicz et al. 2014). There are thousands of beer brands in the world, and they can vary widely in their chemical composition. ...
Article
Full-text available
Arion vulgaris Moquin-Tandon, an invasive slug, causes losses in crops all over Europe. Small farmers commonly use beer traps to control this pest. Our aim was to check which components of the volatile fraction of beer were important as slug attractants. Five beer brands available at the Polish market: Żubr, Warka Full, Karpackie Pils, Żywiec and Leżajsk Full, were used in the experiments. We examined the slugs’ behaviour in the laboratory, using a star-shaped olfactometer (two-hour tests), and in the field (three-day tests with traps). Particular beer brands attracted the slugs to various extent, depending on the composition of their volatile fraction: the number of slugs caught in the traps was positively correlated with the content of decanoic acid and negatively with that of acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester and CO2
... They included setting of 12 homemade traps, located randomly in the park area beside the Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Science. They were built according to the method described by Hagnell et al [19]. A half of traps contained 125 cm 3 of water and remaining six traps contained 125 cm 3 of beer of analyzed brands. ...
... Results of laboratory experiments (Fig. 1) suggest, that lager beers are effective attractants for A. lusitanicus. This observation was confirmed by previous studies on land snails of various species [18][19][20][21]. It has been found, that brand of beer, hence its various chemical composition [22], may influence on the attractiveness of this drink for slugs A. lusitanicus. ...
Article
Full-text available
In 2012-2013 a series of laboratory and field experiments were carried out to check out, if beers can be used as olfactory attractants in the fight against harmful slugs Arion lusitanicus. Six brands of lager beer were used for olfactory analysis (Goolman Premium, Harnas Jasne Pełne, Tatra Mocne, Kasztelan Niepasteryzowane, Lezajsk Niepasteryzowane, Wojak Jasny Pelny). During laboratory and field tests it was evidenced that beers of all types were more attractive for slugs than water. W latach 2012-2013 w warunkach laboratoryjnych i polowych przeprowadzono cykl eksperymentów mających na celu sprawdzenie, czy piwo stanowi atraktant, mogący znaleźć zastosowanie w walce ze szkodliwym ślimakiem z gatunku Arion lusitanicus Mab. W badaniach preferencji węchowych wykorzystano sześć piw typu lager (Goolman Premium, Harnaś Jasne Pełne, Tatra Mocne, Kasztelan Niepasteryzowane, Leżajsk Niepasteryzowane, Wojak Jasny Pełny). Zarówno podczas testów laboratoryjnych, jak i terenowych wykazano, że dla osobników A. lusitanicus piwa wszystkich badanych marek okazały się bardziej atrakcyjne od wody.
... Bottles made up of polyterephtalane ethyl (PET) of 1.5 dm 3 volume were used to prepare traps for the slug collection, to evaluate the attractiveness of different beer samples, (according to the method described by Hagnell et al. [16]). The upper part of each bottle was cut at 0.120 ±0.005 m. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study on the smell preference to for six beer brands in invasive slug Arion vulgaris was carried out under field and laboratory conditions. The effect of beer smell on CO 2 emission was also estimated. Additionally, chromatographic determination (GC-MS) of volatile fraction of the tested beer brands was carried out. Chemical compounds responsible for the attractiveness of beer brands for the slugs were determined using statistical methods. The correlation analysis between the results of performed tests was made. It was shown that components of beer volatile fraction, such as: t-muurolol, aristolene epoxide, decanoic acid, 9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid 2-acetyloxy-1-(acetyloxymethyl)ethyl ester, t-cadinol and oleic acid have a positive effect, and g-elemene and bicyclo[4,1,0]heptane,3,7,7 trimethyl have a negative effect on the attractiveness of beer smell for slugs. Respirometry tests showed an increase in CO 2 emission in slugs exposed to the smell of beer, however, it appeared impossible to indicate unambiguously which chemical compound could be responsible for the observed change in their physiological parameters. The increase in CO 2 emission by slugs A. vulgaris exposed to the smell of beer did not correlate with the results of their smell preference in the field and laboratory tests. On the other hand, only the results of the laboratory tests performed on 6 individuals well correlated with the results obtained during the preference field tests, which indicate, that estimation the slugs' preference may be limited to the laboratory tests.
... Finally, physical methods, such as manual picking, beer traps. and copper tape, are most effective in home gardens, being both time and labour consuming (Hagnell et al. 2006;Laznik et al. 2011). ...
Article
The protection of horticultural crops from slug feeding can be achieved using slug pellets; however, application of molluscicides is not always safe to the environment. There is a need for alternative methods to reduce the palatability of crop plants. Chemical properties of secondary compounds from lichens influence the feeding behaviour of slugs. Liquid extracts of three lichen species, Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F.H. Wigg., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vězda and Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf, were applied to three different crops and tested for their antifeedant properties against an important agricultural pest, the Spanish slug Arion vulgaris (Moquin-Tandon, 1855). All three extracts had specific activity, showing a decrease in grazing intensity and also slug weight loss after feeding on treated food. Slugs significantly gained weight after feeding under control condition; however, they did not gain weight when fed on extract-treated food. The most effective extract was from P. furfuracea. We propose to use properties of lichen extracts to develop new environmentally friendly molluscicides.
... Neutral pitfall trap method yields low number of individuals (Griffiths et al., 1998), which could be problematic for accurately estimating risk, and depend on slug movement which can be affected by several factors such as vegetation cover. Attractive sampling using beer can be biased toward some species but can yield consistent number of individuals which is interesting in assessing slug activity (Hagnell et al., 2006;Kappes et al., 2012;Piechowicz et al., 2014). Cover boards sampling is biased toward large individuals (Cordoba et al., 2011) but have been used to survey slugs in grasslands (Everwand et al., 2013). ...
Thesis
L’agroforesterie, et plus particulièrement les systèmes sylvo-arables, sont des systèmes peu étudiés qui présentent des intérêts agronomiques et environnementaux en systèmes tempérés. Les systèmes agroforestiers pourraient notamment fournir un microclimat favorable aux cultures maraîchères conduites en agriculture biologique en contexte pédoclimatique méditerranéen. Cependant, il existe encore peu de références scientifiques sur le sujet, et l’issue des interactions entre arbres et cultures sont encore me connues. En particulier, le microclimat généré par des arbres âgés est susceptible de modifier les relations entre cultures, bio agresseurs et pré dateurs généralistes, qui peuvent conditionner la performance d’une association agroforestière. Cette thèse avait donc comme objectifs :➢ D’évaluer l’impact de l’ouverture de la canopée sur la biodiversité et l’activité densite des coléoptères carabiques.➢ D’identifier comment le microclimat peut influencer les processus de régulation naturelle.Les systèmes agroforestiers se développent sur des temps longs (pluriannuels): l’étude s’est focalisée sur un système ayant déjà des arbres âgés de 20 ans pour en étudier l’impact sur le microclimat et la faune du sol. Pour faire varier ce microclimat, un gradient d’ouverture de la canopée a été réalisé. La température de l’air ambiant, l’hygrométrie et le pourcentage d’ouverture du milieu ont ensuite été mesurés.En premier lieu, la faune du sol a été échantillonnée durant 2 ans (non révolus), et les structures des communautés de Carabidae ont été analysées d’un point de vue taxonomique et fonctionnelle, au moyen de 5 traits écologiques. Les résultats montrent que la structure taxonomique est peu affectée, mais qu’à la fois l’activité-densité spécifique des espèces et les traits fonctionnels sont modifiés par le gradient d’ouverture du milieu. En particulier, la fermeture de la canopée du système agroforestier favorise les espèces ayant une affinité pour des milieux fermés et humides.L’activité journalière de deux prédateurs abondants a été caractérisée dans une période estivale chaude (juillet), et plus douce (septembre). Les résultats montrent qu’à la fois la saison mais également l’ouverture de la canopée peuvent modifier les rythmes journaliers de l’Arachnidae et du Carabidae les plus abondants à cette période (Pardosa hortensis, Pseudoophonus rufipes).Dans un troisième temps, le travail s’est focalisé sur le potentiel de prédation des prédateurs de la faune du sol, au moyen de cartes sentinelles de prédation à deux périodes estivales, juin et aout. Les résultats montrent que sur au moins une période, le potentiel de prédation sur larves de lépidoptères (Cydia pomonella) est différent entre les traitements. Ces différences sont probablement corrélées aux différences d’activité-densité et aux différences microclimatiques induites par les différences de couverts arborés.Dans un dernier temps, l’étude s’est focalisée sur une culture, la salade, et les dégâts causés par les limaces dans les différents traitements, sur les feuilles visibles. Plus de dégâts sous les arbres ont été constatés, malgré une activité-densité d’Arion lusitanicus et de Deroceras reticulatum non supérieures au témoin au mois de juin où les dégâts ont fortement augmenté. Les méthodes utilisées (planches, pots pièges neutres et attractifs) ont présenté des efficacités différentes, dont l’intérêt respectif est discuté.
... Snail traps are available commercially or can be made from locally available materials [12][13][14]. These systems use a food bait alone or combined with a killing agent such as salt or a pesticide like metaldehyde [12,[15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In pest eradication programs, traps can directly reduce pest populations; however, their application to gastropod programs remains relatively unexplored. The South Florida Giant African Snail, Liassachatina fulica (Pulmonata: Achatinidae), eradication program allowed a realistic evaluation of their utility. Field studies were conducted to determine the best bait, barrier and trap for use during the eradication program. Immature and adult snails were attracted to banana fruit and a commercially produced bait but only the commercially produced bait did not attract non-target and pest mammals. Four commercially produced traps and 4 barriers were field evaluated for snail retention efficacy. Snails escaped all traps and trap/barrier combinations but the rate of escape ranged from 10±100% after 24 hrs. Laboratory studies confirmed that snails can survive crossing a 5 cm barrier of copper tape, salt, insect stickem or antifouling paint. In the laboratory study snails did not cross copper sulfate but they crossed the barrier in the field. Adding salt to traps as a means to retain snails reduced the number of snails trapped. Laboratory studies confirmed that dry salt decreased the number of snails entering traps and snails did not enter traps when the salt was dissolved in water. Two trap types and the commercial bait were selected for a large-scale program test. For three months, trapping along with hand collection and pesticide application were conducted on 114 properties in five locations. Traps caught snails when surveys and regular pesticide applications on the same properties did not detect them. On 21 occasions snails were only found in traps, and both immature and adult snails were caught. This study showed that traps could be effectively deployed in an eradication program and they could capture snails that may have escaped other control measures.
... Snail traps are available commercially or can be made from locally available materials [12][13][14]. These systems use a food bait alone or combined with a killing agent such as salt or a pesticide like metaldehyde [12,[15][16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In pest eradication programs, traps can directly reduce pest populations; however, their application to gastropod programs remains relatively unexplored. The South Florida Giant African Snail, Liassachatina fulica (Pulmonata: Achatinidae), eradication program allowed a realistic evaluation of their utility. Field studies were conducted to determine the best bait, barrier and trap for use during the eradication program. Immature and adult snails were attracted to banana fruit and a commercially produced bait but only the commercially produced bait did not attract non-target and pest mammals. Four commercially produced traps and 4 barriers were field evaluated for snail retention efficacy. Snails escaped all traps and trap/barrier combinations but the rate of escape ranged from 10–100% after 24 hrs. Laboratory studies confirmed that snails can survive crossing a 5 cm barrier of copper tape, salt, insect stickem or antifouling paint. In the laboratory study snails did not cross copper sulfate but they crossed the barrier in the field. Adding salt to traps as a means to retain snails reduced the number of snails trapped. Laboratory studies confirmed that dry salt decreased the number of snails entering traps and snails did not enter traps when the salt was dissolved in water. Two trap types and the commercial bait were selected for a large-scale program test. For three months, trapping along with hand collection and pesticide application were conducted on 114 properties in five locations. Traps caught snails when surveys and regular pesticide applications on the same properties did not detect them. On 21 occasions snails were only found in traps, and both immature and adult snails were caught. This study showed that traps could be effectively deployed in an eradication program and they could capture snails that may have escaped other control measures.
... Copper can provide an effective barrier to gastropod movement in citrus orchards (Sakovich, 2002), but it is expensive. Traps have also been used traditionally (Clements and Murray, 1991;Hagnell et al., 2006). In terrestrial cropping systems, light to moderate tillage can help reduce gastropod abundance, but this is contrary to the philosophy of conservation tillage (Hammond and Byers, 2002). ...
Chapter
This book contains chapters that capture the full breadth of the basic and applied information on entomopathogenic (EPNs) and slug parasitic nematodes (SPNs) that are used or have potential in the management of insect pests, molluscs and/or other researched targets such as plant parasitic nematodes. The information includes the remarkable developments and latest achievements in this direction. The volume is divided into seven parts. The two chapters in Part I introduce comprehensive information on beneficial nematodes in general and their importance, with emphasis on crop pest management. In Part II, there are four chapters devoted to covering the different aspects of the morphology, taxonomy, biology and diversity of EPNs. Part III deals with EPNs and their symbiotic bacteria against crop insect pests and consists of seven chapters. Four chapters describe their role in the management of such insects in the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera, as well as stored grain pests. Two chapters address the toxic secretions of the EPN-mutualistic bacterial species in the two genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus , and their efficacy against crop insect pests either singly or with EPNs. The last chapter of this part is devoted to the mass production, formulation and application of EPNs. Part IV addresses 11 developed and developing countries as points in case, where the role of EPNs in the integrated pest management strategies implemented in each of these countries is presented. Part V presents the genetics for enhancing the efficacy of EPNs. It contains two chapters dealing with nematode breeding, as well as classical and current methods to achieve such an enhancement. Part VI has three chapters organized for SPNs. In Part VII, there are three chapters to conclude the potential commercialization and future prospects of EPNs and SPNs.
... It is fortunate that we do not spray beer on crops. It is, however, sometimes used as a pesticide by home gardeners for the control of slugs (Hagnell et al. 2006). Technically, this could amount to unlawful use of an unregistered pesticide, though the use of a pesticide confined in traps might not be considered to pose the same risks as one that is sprayed on plants, and the level of regulatory assessment might be different. ...
Article
In this Overview, we explore the linkages between basic research and the commercial development of novel pest management products in Australia. Despite the large volume of research in fundamental and applied aspects of entomology, very few new pest management products are developed and commercialised in Australia. Reasons for this include demanding and expensive regulatory requirements which (as in many other countries) mean that commercial development is the province of large multinational agrochemical companies. We describe the Australian regulatory system and the opportunities and difficulties it can present, using examples from recently registered Australian products, Magnet® moth attractant and the MOOV® range of insect repellents. The science behind these products is described in a series of papers in this issue of Australian Journal of Entomology. We also explore some of the commercial imperatives in novel product development, and aspects of the interactions between researchers and commercial partners. Finally, we discuss potential advantages of Australia as a locale for commercial development of novel products.
Article
Full-text available
More and more frequently beer is used as an attractant in traps to eliminate the slug Arion lusitanicus auct. non-Mabille. The smell of beer is not indifferent to animals. Hence it is highly probable that it affects the physiological processes in the slug's body. The aim of our study was to examine whether the smell can induce changes in respiration activity (measured as CO2 emission) of adult individuals Arion lusitanicus. The results showed that all the tested brands of beer caused an increase in CO2 emission. Furthermore, in all the samples of studied brands of beer, this increase in CO2 emission correlated negatively to the content of the following compounds: acrylic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, decanoic acid, (9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy)-1-[(acetyloxy)methyl]ethyl ester, bicyclo[4,1,0]heptane and ethyl caprylate.
Article
Among various food base baiting materials, beer and macerated cucumber were the most effective to induce slug that is a troublesome pest on leafy vegetables, especially on lettuce. However, the baits attracted only but did not kill the pest. When the baits were combined with various insecticidal organic materials, a few combinations such as beer and cigarette mixture successfully induced and killed the slug in the field test. The most effective combination of beer 50ml and a cigarette contained in a small plastic box killed 25 slugs per night. While macerated cucumber 50ml and a cigarette mixture killed only 4.3 slugs. The bait of beer and cigarette mixture revealed 68.4% control value against slug damage when treated for 3 consecutive days in a lettuce cultivation greenhouse. The bait also effectively reduced the slug damage in a lettuce nursery showing 58.3% control value. The method seemed highly useful for the control of slug in the organic farming system in which application of pesticides are strictly prohibited.
Article
It is quite feasible to garden without using synthetic chemicals. Pests and diseases can be managed using a variety of methods - removal, varietal choice, whilst weeds can be controlled by hand or by hoeing. Slugs and snails can be really troublesome and difficult to manage by removal, by barriers and by trapping. In order to maintain an attractive garden, the non-chemical gardener must be prepared to work extremely hard to keep their garden in good condition. The physical requirements can be difficult, strenuous and very fatiguing and in all probability do not leave much time for relaxation and enjoyment in the garden.
Sniglarna som ro¨r om i tra¨dga˚rdar och sla¨kttra¨d
  • J Hagnell
  • C Schander
  • T Von Proschwitz
Hagnell, J., Schander, C., von Proschwitz, T., 2004. Sniglarna som ro¨r om i tra¨dga˚rdar och sla¨kttra¨d. Fauna & Flora 99, 38-41.
Sniglarna som rör om i trädgårdar och släktträd
  • Hagnell