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Saponins are heterosides (substances containing in their structure one or more sugar molecule) of plant origin. This type of molecules has an interesting pesticide potential and this review constitutes an inventory of principal researches realized in this direction. In the first part of this review, saponins are defined and their different structural families are presented. The biological significance and principal sources of saponins were also outlined. The second part of this review focused on insecticidal activities of saponins. In fact, these substances are known by their toxicity to harmful insects (anti-feeding, disturbance of the moult, growth regulation, mortality...); the insecticidal activity of saponins is due to their interaction with cholesterol, causing a disturbance of the synthesis of ecdysteroids. These substances are also protease inhibitors or cytotoxic to certain insects. The third part of the review gave an idea on the limits which can slow down the use of saponins as insecticides: saponins have a strong toxicity to mammals because of their cytotoxic and haemolytic activities. The second constraint is the loss of molecule activity due to degradation of sugars associated with the aglycone. The hydrophilic nature of saponins limits their penetration through the lipophilic insect cuticle. The structural complexity of saponins limits the exact identification and synthesis of active molecules.
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Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 39 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
Saponins as Insecticides: a Review
Laboratoire de Protection des Végétaux, INRAT, 2080 Ariana,
Chaieb, I. 2010. Saponins as insecticides: a review. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 5: 39-
Saponins are heterosides (substances containing in their structure one or more sugar molecule) of plant
origin. This type of molecules has an interesting pesticide potential and this review constitutes an
inventory of principal researches realized in this direction. In the first part of this review, saponins are
defined and their different structural families are presented. The biological significance and principal
sources of saponins were also outlined. The second part of this review focused on insecticidal activities
of saponins. In fact, these substances are known by their toxicity to harmful insects (anti-feeding,
disturbance of the moult, growth regulation, mortality...); the insecticidal activity of saponins is due to
their interaction with cholesterol, causing a disturbance of the synthesis of ecdysteroids. These
substances are also protease inhibitors or cytotoxic to certain insects. The third part of the review gave
an idea on the limits which can slow down the use of saponins as insecticides: saponins have a strong
toxicity to mammals because of their cytotoxic and haemolytic activities. The second constraint is the
loss of molecule activity due to degradation of sugars associated with the aglycone. The hydrophilic
nature of saponins limits their penetration through the lipophilic insect cuticle. The structural
complexity of saponins limits the exact identification and synthesis of active molecules.
Keywords: Cholesterol, insecticide, natural products, pest management, saponin, toxicity
Some substances synthesized by
plants are necessary for their fundamental
activities whereas others, called
secondary metabolites, are involved in the
process of co-evolution between plants
and other organisms (10). The plant uses
these secondary substances for two
reasons, the first is a cooperation with
other species, to attract the pollinating
insects or the auxiliaries of the
phytophagous insects (39) or antagonistic
fungi (54); the second consists of a
synthesis of dissuasive substances to
Corresponding author: Ikbal Chaieb
Accepted for publication 18 January 2010
resist to pest organisms such insects (65),
pathogenic microorganisms (10), and
competitive plants (24).
Among substances involved in plant
defense, saponins which are heterosides
synthesized by several plants were
reported to have a defensive role which
was highlighted for the first time by
Appelbaum in 1969 (3). Saponins or
saponosides set up a large and frequent
group of heterosides in plants.
Characterized by their surface-active
properties, saponins dissolve in water by
forming a foaming solution due to their
tension-activity; hence, theses substances
take their name from latin (sapo, saponis:
soap). Saponins are used for industrial as
well as for pharmacological purposes.
Several saponosides are used by
pharmaceutical industry for obtaining
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 40 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
drugs or by cosmetics industry for their
detergent property (12).
In this review, our interest will be
focused on use of these substances as
insecticide molecules.
Saponin presentation.
Chemical structure of saponins.
Saponins or saponosides are heterosides
composed of two parts: a water-soluble
glucidic chain and a generally triterpenic
or steroïdic liposoluble structure
(aglycone) (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. Example of steroidic saponin with 4 sugar chains: Parquisoside 1 extracted from Cestrum parqui (7)
The sugars constitutive of the
saponosides can be: D-glucose D-
galactose, L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, D-
xylose, D-fructose or D-glucuronic acid.
Generally, the sugar part of heteroside
consists of one or two linear or ramified
oligosides. The molecule can include 11
sugars (but generally 3 to 5) (12).
Saponins are classified by the
majority of the authors in two groups
according to the nature of their aglycone
(Fig. 2): (i) saponosides with steroïdic
aglycone, (ii) saponosides with triterpenic
aglycone. The steroidic aglycones
represented in Fig. 2 have a whole
skeleton with 27 carbon atoms. These
molecules come from an intramolecular
cetalisation which intervenes after
oxidation in C
of a
cholestanic precursor taking into account
spiro-nature of C
; this hexacyclic
skeleton is usually indicated by the
spirostane term. In fresh plants, it is not
rare that hydroxyl in C
is engaged in a
connection with a sugar. The structure
can be pentacyclic; it is called in this case
furostane. Some authors include
glycoalcaloides with saponins having
steroïdic aglycone group (11). The
glycoalcaloides have the same structure
as a spirostanic steroidic aglycone, except
the existence of an atom of nitrogen often
on the level of the sixth cycle (12).
The triterpenic aglycones, come
from the cyclization of the (3S)-2,3-
epoxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene. This
cyclization gives pentacyclic compounds
like dammaranes, oleananes, ursanes, and
hopanes. The majority of triterpenic
sapogenins belong to these four basic
skeletons (Fig. 2) (12).
22 24
Sugar chain
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 41 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
Triterpenic aglycone
Steroidic aglycone
Fig. 2. Different possible structures of saponin aglycones (11, 12)
Origin of saponins. Several
saponosides substances are extracted from
Glycyrrhiza glabra, Agave attenuata,
Panax ginseng, Saponaria officinalis
(20), Allium sativum (22), Medicago
sativa (43), and Cestrum parqui (18). In
addition to their plant origin, saponins can
be obtained from some marine animals.
Some saponins are isolated from
Antarctic starfish belonging to Asteriidae
family; triterpenic saponins are also
isolated from marine sponges
(Ectyoplasia ferox) (13).
Saponins are also found in defensive
secretions of certain insects. Triterpenic
saponins are isolated from Chrysomelidae
especially the Platyphora genus (41).
Species of this genus sequester saponins
from their plant hosts to use them for
their own defense (53).
Biological significance of saponins.
The various structures of saponins are
involved in several biological activities
with some beneficial or toxic effects.
These molecules have a nonspecific but
enough significant activities to control the
interaction existing between plants and
associated organisms (28, 37).
Several authors have already shown
the defensive role of saponins. In fact,
these substances protect plants from
phytopathogenic microorganisms,
phytophagous mammalian and insects
(28, 34, 37, 42).
Moreover, saponins are known for
their detergent properties, i.e. they have
the possibility of forming micelles with
lipids. They can also interact with
cholesterol to form insoluble complexes.
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 42 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
The majority of the biological properties
of saponins rise from these fundamental
characteristics (26, 35).
Insecticidal activity of saponins.
Researches concerning the
interaction between plants and
phytophagous insects are multiple
particularly those focused on toxicity of
certain substances toward insects. This
toxicity appears primarily in the three
following ways.
Interference with the feeding
Some saponins have
antifeeding activity as is the case of
saponins extracted
Ilex apocea
which inhibit the food uptake of
Limantria dispar
(8). These saponins are
antifeeding for a mite species
Oligonichus illicis
and for two
caterpillar’s species (
Hyphantria cunea
Malacosoma americanum
(33, 37).
Discoraceae plants
shows antifeeding
activity to
Acromynes octospinosus
(14, 25).
Rich saponin alfalfa varieties
applied on flour worm larvae
a decrease of dry food
quantity metabolized by this insect (42).
The incorporation of saponins of alfalfa
in the artificial diet of
Ostrinia nubilalis
the larvae weight loss (36).
Similar results were reported on
Spodotera littoralis
larvae treated by
fifteen various purified saponins obtained
from several plants (1). Agrell
et al
. (2)
also noticed that
S. littoralis
consumed less significant quantities of
damaged alfalfa leaves than those of
control leaves; this phenomenon was
explained by the increased synthesis of
two triterpenic saponins by the plants
under biotic stress.
In the same way, the addition of
saponins of certain leguminous plants
(chickpeas, garden peas, broad beans,
haricot beans, lentils, peanuts) in the
artificial diet of
Callosbruchus chinensis
inhibits its food uptake; this inhibition is
stronger when saponins used originated
from different host plants (3).
Pluetella xylostella
is a
phytophagous specific insect consuming
plants belonging to Brassicaceae family.
It was noticed that the larvae are unable
to attack one Brassicaceae
Barbarea vulgaris
(45). The separation
of the fractions of this plant revealed the
involvement of triterpenic saponin, with
two sugars in C
in the important
inhibition of the food uptake activity (46).
A spirostanic saponin isolated from
Solanaceae (
Solanum laxum
) showed an
antifeeding activity against
on artificial diet (48).
Saponins extracted from
roxburghii, Agave cantala
were tested for their antifeeding
activity on
Spilosoma obliqued
Monodesmoside saponins are shown to
be more active than the bidesmoside
ones. Saponins having the least
significant number of sugar chains were
most active (31).
Glycoalcaloids extracted from the
inhibit the weight
increase of
Tribolium castaneum
Manduca sexta.
In these compounds,
neither the aglycone alone nor when
associated with sugars present this
inhibitory activity (55).
Works on
Cestrum parqui
show a repulsive activity against the
caterpillar of
Pieris brassicae,
as well as
a moderate antifeeding activity for
Spodoptera littoralis
larvae (15).
Growth Regulation.
researches show that saponins are able to
regulate the growth of many insect
species. These studies resumed in Table 1
concern purified or crude saponins
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 43 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
extracted from several plants. The effect
of saponins is generally characterized by
developmental stages duration
disturbance and moulting failure. The
mode of action of “Insect Growth
Regulator’s” activity is discussed below.
Table 1. Growth regulation effects of saponins on some insects
Insect species Saponins Effects Reference
Ostrinia nubilalis
alfalfa saponins
Lengthening of the larval stages
Spodoptera littoralis alfalfa saponins
Lengthening of stages, delay of time necessary
to reach the maximum size in last larval stage,
delay of the interval separating the last larval
stage and the nymphal moulting, and delay of
time necessary for the emergence of the adults
Culex fatigans
commercial saponins Larvae show more pronounced pigmentation
and deterioration of the head and abdomen
Acrolepiosis assectella
Allium porrum saponins
Larvae present ecdysial disturbances, which
often finish by characteristic malformations:
larvae with double head
(5, 28, 29)
Acrolepiosis assectella
commercial digitonin
Ecdysial failure (6)
Collosobruchus chinensis Fabaceae saponins Reduction in the rate of adult emergence
Spodoptera littoralis Cestrum parqui saponins Impossibility to get free from the old cuticle
during the molting process (16)
Shistocerca gregaria Cestrum parqui saponins Ecdysial disturbances (9)
The crude saponins
extracted from
Cestrum parqui
injected to
the L
Schistocerca gregaria
increase insect mortality (9). In the same
way, the spray of tomato leaves by 0.1 to
0.2% of an aqueous solution of alfalfa
saponins reduces the number of
Tetranychus urticae
mite and
aphids by 85 and 90%, respectively.
Saponins of alfalfa can also cause
mortalities on eggs of
T. urticae
The introduction of alfalfa saponins
into the food of
Ostrinia nubilalis
larval mortalities reaching 100% for the
larval stages. Mortalities were also
recorded for the nymphal stage;
moreover, only 60% of the treated
chrysalis emerge (36). Treated by 100
ppm saponin of alfalfa leaves,
shows a cumulative mortality of
90% at the larval and the nymphal stages
(1). Various forms of chronic toxicity as a
reduction in the fertility of the females
and the blossoming eggs rate are observed
in the same insect species (1). The
saponins extracted from the leaves and
the roots of the alfalfa are toxic for
Leptinotarsa decemlineata
larvae (49).
The addition of aginoside 1
(steroidic saponin) to the artificial diet of
Acrolepiosis assectella
larvae with an
amount of 0.9 mg/g, causes 56% of
mortality (29). The commercial saponins
extracted from
Quillaja saponaria
have a
larvicidal activity against the mosquitos
larvae of two species
Aedes aegypti
Culex pipiens
100% of mortality is
obtained by using amounts of 1000 mg/l
during 5 days (40).
Crude saponins of
Cestrum parqui
showed a variable toxicity on various
tested insects (
Schistocera gregaria, S.
Tribolium confusum
but the
most significant toxicity was observed on
the larvae of the mosquito
Culex pipiens
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 44 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
Forming insoluble complexes with
saponins, cholesterol is not absorbed any
more by the digestive system of various
animal species. The mechanism of
formation of the cholesterol/saponin
complexes is still unknown. Certain
authors suggest a chemical reaction
between the saponic aglycone and the
lipophylic sites of cholesterol (51); Mitra
and Dungan (35) show that there is a
formation of micelle or spheres structures
between cholesterol and saponin
The hypocholesterolemic activity of
saponins was largely studied in many
mammals (20, 34). Is such
cholesterol/saponin interaction possible in
insects? Theoretically yes, since insects,
while being unable to synthesize
cholesterol, they use this substance in the
biosynthesis of the ecdysone (moulting
hormone) and various other ecdysteroids.
This hypo- hypocholesterolemic
mechanism, similar to that observed in
the mammals following the action of
saponins, could interfere with the
biosynthesis of the ecdysone and explain
the disturbance of moulting process often
observed following ingestion of
(9) or by the incorporation
of extracts in the insect diet (15).
Various natural or synthesized
insecticidal substances affecting the
biosynthesis or the mechanisms of action
of ecdysone, have a disturbing effects on
insect growth and moulting (5, 6). In fact,
saponins are substances often cited in the
literature as provoking difficulties of
exuviations and malformations of various
insect species. Some of these works
evoke the possibility of interaction of
saponins with cholesterol but no
demonstration was made until now.
Some experiments (Table 2) showed
an Insect Growth Regulator activity of
Cestrum parqui
Indeed, insects
consuming saponins supplemented with
cholesterol support better the toxic effect
of saponins; this fact is in favor of an
antagonistic effect of cholesterol and
consolidates our assumption concerning
the mode of action of saponins (17).
Table 2. Effects of cholesterol addition in the diet of some insects treated with different saponins
Insect species Saponins used Effects of cholesterol addition Reference
Acrolepiopsis assectella Aginosid Reduce the larval mortality from 56%
to 22% and moulting failures from 19
to 8%
Acrolepiopsis assectella Digitonin Reduction in the death rate from 62 to
27% (5)
Acrolepiopsis assectella Digitonin Removes completely the toxicity (6)
Tribolium confusum Cestrum parqui saponins Reduction of larval mortality from 95
to 45% (17)
Tenebrio molitor Alfalfa saponins Elimination of the saponin toxicity (43)
Tribolium castaneum Solmargine, Solasonine, Tomatine Increase the viability of treated larvae (55)
Several authors (29, 43, 55) suppose
a possible interaction saponin/cholesterol
causing cholesterimic deficit in insect,
disturbing the ecdysone synthesis. This
complexation can occur in food,
hemolymph, or inside the insect cells.
Studies trying to react in vitro cholesterol
with saponin remained unfruitful
although the use of various methods and
solvents (14), whereas certain works
reported formation of a precipitate with
similar reactions (26, 51).
The mechanisms of interaction of
saponins with cholesterol are still
unknown and according to certain
authors, there is no formation of an
intermediate compound but a spherical
structure, intercalation between saponin
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 45 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
molecule and cholesterol, called micelle
(35) or tubular structures (32) may be
involved. Consequently, saponins do not
block cholesterol or other phytosterols in
the food, but this reaction could take
place later inside insect body where other
conditions are satisfied (pH, enzymatic
Other scientific attempts to
proportionate cholesterol in insects
consuming saponins did not lead to
reliable results because undoubtedly of
methodologies used which would be
unsuited to very low circulating
cholesterol rates. Cholesterol is not in
majority in the phytophagous insect food
because plants contain other types of
sterols as sitosterol and sigmasterol. It is
possible that this interference between
saponin and cholesterol would take place
inside insect cells (17). Some authors
suppose the possibility of interaction of
saponin with ecdysteroid receptors (22,
23). With the injection of crude saponins
S. gregaria
necrotic symptoms appear at the injection
site. In the same way, a forced ingestion
of crude saponins has, as a consequence,
a softening of the consistency of the
digestive tract of
S. gregaria
pickling of the fat body of
in saponins increases its tanning
Histological studies revealed
structural modifications at the fat body of
S. littoralis
as well as on the foregut and
the gastric caeca of
S. gregaria.
modifications were due to the cytotoxicity
effect of
Cestrum parqui
saponins (19).
Similar effects are obtained by treatment
Culex pipiens
mosquito larvae by
Cestrum parqui
saponins (18).
The microscopic observations of
treated insect tissue cuts show smaller
size cells than the control at the fat body
as well as at the digestive
tract of
In addition, the cells
of the fat body appear darker due to the
loss of their contents probably caused by
the modification of their membrane
permeability, and even with the
disorganization of their molecular
architecture (19).
In addition to the moulting
disturbance and the cytotoxic activity,
certain authors evoke an inhibitory
activity of the digestive proteases of
saponins involved in the entomo-toxicity
recorded (9). Another work concerning
the effect of food treated by
S. littoralis
larvae shows
a deficit in the digestion of proteins and a
decrease of the protein rate in the
hemolymph and the cuticle (16).
Limits of the use of saponins in
Stability problems.
Saponins are
relatively big size molecules which
contain sugars whose degradation is
easier under certain conditions (pH
slightly acid or basic, presence of
hydrolysis enzymes...). This degradation
leads to the loss of activity which
enormously depends on the water-soluble
sugar chains. The modification of the
structure of
Cestrum parqui
saponins (14)
by the acetylation of sugars hydroxyls or
the separation of the aglycone by
hydrolysis led to a loss of the insecticidal
activity of the molecule, which confirms
results obtained by various authors (4, 9,
30, 32, 51).
Barbouche (9) already reported that
sapogenins of
Cestrum parqui
are less
active than saponins; this demonstrates
the loss of saponin’s activity following
their hydrolysis. Indeed, it has been
shown that the aglycone obtained was
inactive by grafting of these crystals in
just like acetylated saponins. It
seems that the various structural
modifications are involved in the
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 46 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
hydrophily loss; the molecule needs the
sugar chain for its solubility in the
hemolymph and for its activity (14).
Moreover, various authors report the
loss of the biological activity of saponins
by structural modifications. Indeed,
et al.
(32) showed that a
reduction of the chain of
-tomatine or of
-choacine increased the total loss of
activity due to the membrane rupture. In
the same way, a study of the
digitonine/cholesterol interaction shows
that analogues of digitonine could be
associated with cholesterol. Various
degrees of glycosylation of the digitonine
are used: two, four or five sugars are
associated to the aglycone, the results
show that this complexation increases
when the number of associated sugars
increases (51).
et al
. (30) then Armah
et al.
confirm these results by using similar
saponins having the same triterpenic
aglycone and by showing successively
that the nature of sugar influences little on
the molecule activity, but that, on the
other hand, the hydrolysis of one, two or
three sugars increases the total or partial
loss of activity.
There is another
problem which makes delicate the
practical application of saponins as
insecticide; it is the repulsive or
antifeeding activity of saponins to several
pest insects. Indeed, it was noticed that
saponins decrease very appreciably the
quantity of food consumed; this
phenomenon seems to be a defense
reaction of the animal against these toxic
substances; this have as consequence the
reduction in the quantity of active
molecules introduced by ingestion and
then reduction of the activity (14).
Problems of application.
insecticidal activity of saponins of
Cestrum parqui
is interesting in
experiments of injection and forced
ingestion. Death, in these cases, is
observed after a few hours. The problem
is that these experimental methods are
practically not applicable. It is necessary
to develop simpler and more effective
techniques. Treatments by topic
application do not give the anticipated
results because of the impermeability of
the cuticle to saponins. Some researches
tried to associate saponins with abrasive
insecticides (diatomous earth) which can
cause wounds on the cuticle; this
association remains also unfruitful (14).
Synthesis difficulty.
Saponins are
molecules characterized by a heavy
molecular weight and an important
structure complexity; this reduces their
chance to be used like model to
synthesize insecticidal molecules. Most
works undertaking the synthesis of these
products do it only partially (28).
Saponins have a cytotoxic
(27) haemolytic (52) effects and are able
of inhibiting the proteases activities (56);
this represents a constraint if we attempt
to apply these substances as agricultural
products. These saponins are, in fact,
rather as toxic for pests as for human.
Secondary substances in plants are
known for a long time for their medicinal
and pharmacological properties. These
substances are necessary for the plant to
evolve in a hostile environment. The plant
can indeed use its secondary metabolites
to be protected against several pest
animals and pathogenic microbes.
Saponins present one of these
substances of large action spectrum
broad, because of their toxicity to various
insects. The mode of action of saponins
seems in relation to the property of these
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 47 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
molecules to be interacted either with
structural cholesterol (membrane) or with
metabolic cholesterol (food).
The practical application of this type
of substances remains difficult because of
easy degradation of these substances, the
impossibility of acting by contact, the
difficulties of their synthesis and their
toxicity to mammals.
Saponins present an excellent model
of study of natural substances with
insecticidal effect due to their large
spectrum of action and to the multitude of
their physiological effects. It is, however,
early to recommend application of
saponins as insecticides. Thorough
studies of their modes of action and
application should be done firstly.
Chaieb I. 2010. Les saponines comme insecticides: revue de synthèse. Tunisian Journal of Plant
Protection 5: 39-50.
Les saponines sont des hétérosides (molécules ayant au moins un sucre dans leur structure) d’origine
végétale. Ce type de molécules présente un potentiel insecticide faisant l’objet de cette synthèse. Dans
la première partie de notre étude, nous avons essayé de les définir et de présenter leurs différentes
familles structurales. Un aperçu sur la signification biologique et les principales sources de saponines
est donné. La
deuxième partie de cette synthèse s’intéresse aux principaux travaux réalisés sur les
différentes activités insecticides. Ces substances occasionnent plusieurs formes de toxicité à l’encontre
des insectes nuisibles (anti-appétence, perturbation de la mue, régulation de la croissance, mortalité…);
l’activité insecticide des saponines proviendrait de leur interaction avec le cholestérol causant une
perturbation de la synthèse des ecdysteroïdes. Ces substances possèdent également des propriétés
inhibitrices de protéases et cytotoxiques. Dans la
troisième partie de ce travail, nous avons donné une
idée sur les contraintes qui peuvent freiner l’utilisation des saponines comme insecticides: les
saponines présentent, en effet, une forte toxicité à l’égard des mammifères à cause de leur activité
cytotoxique et hémolytique. La deuxième contrainte est la dégradation facile des sucres associés à la
génine entraînant souvent la perte d’activité de la molécule. Le caractère hydrophile des saponines
limite leur pénétration à travers la cuticule lipophile des insectes. La complexité structurale des
saponines est une barrière à l’identification exacte des molécules actives et à leur synthèse.
Mots clés: Cholestérol, insecticide, lutte, saponines, substances naturelles, toxicité
ا، لإ .
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Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 5: 39-50 .
 ي دا ه تا آأ وأ او    ر  . داا ه نأ تارا  تأ
ت إا اه  ةا ا لا ه د ما ا اه  و و ه د . ءا 
 اردو داا   ءإ و  ت  ار ا  لوا ا . أ
ل  آها ا داا  ردا هأو .  اد ارا ه  ا ءا 
ا ت ا  ه   ةرا تاا    داا ه  ذإ ،ت د
ةا تو ا ا و را ءا ح  و . نإ   ن داا ه 
ا نوآا نه جإ  م يا لوا  اة را ءا ح    ي .
  وأ ا ت   داا ه نأ آ
 ا ءا 
ا اهإ مها و
  داا  تأ  ، تاآ تا لا ضا تا   نا
ل  ت  رّ ا تاءا تا  و . آأ قاا تا   
 داا ه   رها  تا  ا تا نأ  و اه تاا . أ
Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection 48 Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010
ذ إ  ةا ا آا نأ   تمأ إو ا  ا ا ارد
 تآ
:  دا ،و ، تا ،لوآ ،ت ،
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... 17 Alkaloid ini bekerja dengan cara meningkatkan inhibisi implus oleh GABA dan β-alanine. 18 Senyawa ini diserap oleh tubuh larva melalui kutikula atau tertelan. 10 Pada kondisi normal, GABA akan menduduki reseptornya di pre-sinaps yang akan membuka kanal Clsehingga ion Clakan masuk ke intra sel dan terjadilah hiperpolarisasi. ...
... Kondisi ini menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan koordinasi otot, kejang, gagal nafas, dan kematian. 18 Saponin berasal dari bahasa latin sapo, saponis: soap yang berarti sabun. Saponin masuk melalui mulut larva hingga ke saluran pencernaan. ...
... Sifat ini berdampak pada tegangan permukaan kulit serangga akan rusak sehingga senyawa racun masuk kedalam tubu serangga (13) . Senyawa saponin juga dapat mematikan serangga karena mampu menyebabkan hemolisis sel-sel darah merah (14) . ...
WHO menyatakan diare sebagai ancaman kesehatan. Di Indonesia, hingga saat ini diare masih menjadi masalah kesehatan masyarakat. Prevalensi diare di Provinsi Lampung tahun 2018 sebesar 4,51% menyebar di setiap kabupaten / kota. Peningkatan penyakit diare terjadi karena mengkonsumsi makanan yang tercemar oleh mikroorganisme melalui perantara lalat. Hingga saat ini belum ada penelitian yang dilakukan untuk menguji efektifitas berbagai tanaman dalam mengendalikan lalat rumah (Musca domestica). Penelitian bertujuan mendapatkan bahan aktif potensial sebagai bioinsectisida berbasis tanaman dan membuktikan bahwa bahan aktif pada tanaman dapat digunakan sebagai bioinsectisida untuk mengendalikan lalat. Tahapannya adalah ekploring bahan aktif pada tanaman, penentuan tanaman dengan kandungan bahan aktif tertinggi, dan uji coba ektrak tanaman terhadap mortalitas lalat. Penelitian ini merupakan eksperimen dengan rancangan faktorial. Variabel yang dikaji adalah konsentrasi dan waktu kontak terhadap kematian lalat dengan dua kali pengulangan. Penelitian ini menemukan tanaman yang efektif sebagai bioinsectisida dalam mengendalikan lalat rumah (Musca domestica) adalah daun pepaya
... The insecticidal activity of saponins disrupted the production of ecdysteroids. Furthermore, some insects are cytotoxic to these chemicals, or they act as protease inhibitors (Chaieb, 2010). There is evidence that alkaloids, saponins, and tannins have both therapeutic and pesticide effects (Azmathullah et al., 2011). ...
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The existing research was conducted in Duhok city to investigate the biological impact of extracting secondary chemical compounds from punctured vine plants (Tribulus terrestris L.) on the mortality of all larval stages of (Culex pipiens). Bioassay experiments were carried out by using solvent extraction methods and different concentrations (0.1,0.3,0.5,0.7) mg/ml. The results showed that the ethyl extract of puncture vine plant’s leaves demonstrated promising larvicidal activity, and fatal results were observed where the high rate of mortality was within the 1st larval instar 97.3% and 100% at a concentration(0.5 mg/ml) after 24 and 72 hours exposure respectively, while the lowest mortality rate was within the 4th larval instar 7.4% and 38% at a concentration(0,1mg/ml) after 24 and 72 hours exposure, respectively, also ,it was observed that the leaf extracts modified the morphology of the larval development stage. According to this initial research, those plants are possible alternatives to mosquito larvicide which can be used to produce cost-effective, safe chemicals to control mosquitoes.
... Phenols have been known to be good anti-aging, anti -carcinogen, good in cardiovascular protection etc. (Yadav and Agarwala, 2011). Saponin were also detected in the aqueous extract and this would be a good anti-feeding agent and the aqueous extract would have good detergent properties (Chaieb, 2010). The presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, Phlobatannin, and phenolic in the extracts of V. amygdalina may explain the reason for its antimicrobial actions since the antimicrobial properties of most of these phyto-constituents have previously been documented (Taleb-contini et al., 2003;Mandalari et al., 2007;Nenaah, 2013;Jin et al., 2017). ...
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Most of the plants exhibit a variety of phyto-pharmaceuticals, which have important applications in the fields of agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity on Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) at the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. It was revealed that the phytochemical constituents in Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) were alkaloids, saponin, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides in the extract. Anti-oxidant property results of the aqueous extract of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) showed Total phenolic content was 120.16mg Gallic acid equivalent/g extract while the total flavonoid was 235.147mg Quercetin equivalent/g extract. The plant could be exploited as source of antioxidant additives and used for future project to evaluate the potentials of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as a strong medicinal plant in improving human health status.
... Saponins are structurally diverse bioactive natural products distributed widely in terrestrial plants and marine organisms (Osbourn et al., 2011). Both triterpenoid and steroid saponins have shown significant insecticidal activity in the ways of interference with feeding behavior, growth regulation, and entomotoxicity (Chaieb, 2010). Moreover, the notable features of saponins of good water solubility, biodegradability, and environmental friendliness have made them the potential as alternatives to chemical pesticides. ...
Natural products are important sources for the discovery of new biopesticides to control the worldwide destructive pests Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris. Three new triterpenoid saponins, neolasiandrosides A–C (1–3), along with seven known ones (4–10), were identified from Clematis lasiandra by extensive spectra and chemical evidences. Neolasiandrosides A and B (1 and 2) with the dammarane-type tetracyclic aglycone were identified for the first time from Clematis. Neolasiandroside C (3) was a bidesmoside, characterized at the aglycosylation sites at C-23 and C-28 in the hederagenin aglycone. Compounds 1–10 exhibited significant aphicidal activities against A. pisum through oral toxicity (LC50 = 0.13–0.98 mg/mL, 72 h) and deterrent effect with deterrence index (DI) of 0.33–0.90 at 0.125 mg/mL after 24 h, while showed no contact toxicity. Compounds 1 and 6 showed potent inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes of pepsin and α-amylase with the inhibition rate of 84.0 % and 85.7 %, 55.3 %, and 51.5 %, respectively, at the dose of LC80, while appeared inactive to acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and chitinase in A. pisum. The toxic symptoms of A. pisum caused by 6 involved body-color changes from light green to dark green, and brown until death. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis demonstrated that the organelles including apical microvilli, nuclei, and mitochondria in the midgut tissues were the targeting sites for 6 exerting its aphicidal activity. The results provided new light for the industrial application of triterpenoid saponins from Clematis as novel biopesticides.
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Cabbage is a highly nutritious vegetable, yet faced with pest challenges. At present, synthetic pesticides are the major control measure and this has some side effects such as; resistance by pest, adverse effect on non-target organisms and hazardous effects on environment. All these problems bring the sustainability of ecosystem to danger. Exploring varietal mixture of cabbage as an alternative for sustainable pest management of cabbage was investigated during the rainy (April, – August 2020) and dry (November, 2020 – March, 2021) seasons. Treatments consisted of Purple-ball, GloriaF1, Oxylus (sole each and mixture) in ratio 1:1 respectively, all raised in nursery beds and transplanted to treatment plots, given a total of 7 treatments, all laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates each. The insect associated with the crop were sampled using sweep net, pitfall traps and the mechanical hand-picking methods. The phytochemical components of each variety were also carried out. Results showed that cabbage which was mixed with purple-ball variety showed reduced attack by insects as compared with Gloria and Oxylus planted sole. This could be attributed to the higher value of cardiac glycoside, tannins, steroids and anthraquinone in Purple-ball variety than other varieties. These compounds are responsible for plant defence which may have caused the low insect population in Purple-ball variety. The yields from Purple-ball variety plots in both seasons were however significantly lower compared with other varieties in both seasons. Notwithstanding, the yield from the mixture of purple-ball with other varieties was not significantly different from others. Therefore, the inclusion of Purple-ball variety in GloriaF1 and Oxylus production is recommended as this may serve as a natural defence against insect pests. Also, the use of this cropping system is not only effective but inexpensive and safe for human health and the environment relative to synthetic insecticides.
In recent years, saponins are gaining extensive attention due to their occurrence in several plants. Saponins and their derivatives are versatile glycosidic compounds, which play an important role in food, agriculture and pharmaceutical industries, ranging from as a natural additive in food and having their role in traditional medicines to various applications in the pharmaceutical sector. They possess immense therapeutic potential as hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, anti-asthmatic, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and anti-microbial activity along with few adverse effects such as cytotoxicity, etc. These emerging properties led to increased demand for saponins and therefore to meet the requirements, the researchers emphasize the synthetic production of saponins apart from the natural ones. The composition and bioavailability of saponins in food are significantly influenced by processing technologies because of the alterations between the linkages of aglycones and sugar chains. Therefore, an attempt has been made to make the consumer aware of the potential health benefits upon consumption of this magical compound. This review provides a concise and updated overview of saponins, the effect of different processing methods, health implications along various remedial effects and industrial uses of saponins.
Kutu kepala  (Pediculus humanus capitis)  merupakan parasit obligat yang siklus hidupnya mulai dari pradewasa sampai dewasa hidup bergantung pada inangnya. Infestasi yang lebih berat dari ektoparasit ini dapat berdampak pada timbulnya rasa gatal yang berlebihan, dapat menyebabkan luka lecet pada kulit kepala. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui efektifitas ekstrak daun salam koja (Murraya koeniggi L.Spreng.) terhadap mortalitas Pediculus humanus capitis. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian eksperimental  laboratorik  dengan  menggunakan teknik  Purposive  Sampling. Sampel yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak daun salam koja (Murraya koeniggi) dengan konsentrasi pengenceran 25%, 50%, 75% dan 100%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian  Ekstrak Daun Salam Koja (Murraya koeniggi L.Spreng) dapat menyebabkan mortalitas kutu kepala (Pediculus humanus capitis) pada konsentrasi 25 %, 50%, 75% dan 100 %. Pada konsentrasi 100% mortalitas kutu kepala yang lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan konsentrasi lainnya dengan waktu rata-rata kematian 02 menit 32 detik.
The indiscriminate use of pesticides over the years has caused a number of problems, including pest resistance and contamination of important global sources such as water, air and soil. Plant-based pesticides can therefore be an ecological alternative to synthetic pesticides to improve the efficiency of agricultural production and sustainably reduce the food crisis, while protecting the health of consumers. They are cheap, biodegradable, environmentally friendly and act more specifically through multiple mechanisms of action, suggesting that they are less dangerous to humans and the environment. In general, these compounds have important ecological activities in nature, such as: antifoedant, attractant, nematicide, fungicide, repellent, insecticide, growth regulator.
Tarih boyunca bitkiler insanlar tarafından birçok hastalığın tedavisinde kullanılırken, son yıllarda yapılan çok sayıdaki in vivo, in vitro ve in silico çalışmalarda, bitkilerin yapısında tıbbi olarak yararlı etkiler gösteren çeşitli bileşenler olduğu bilimsel olarak da ortaya konmuştur. Saponinler, geniş bir farmakolojik ve endüstriyel potansiyele sahip olan bitkilerin sekonder metabolit ürünleridir. Uzun yıllar boyunca saponinlerin sağlığa zararlı etkilerinin olduğu düşünülmüş olmasına rağmen, yapılan çalışmalarda uygulama dozu ve uygulama sıklığına bağlı olarak yararlı etkilerinin olabileceği belirlenmiştir. Farmakolojik araştırmalar, saponinlerin antidiyabetik, sitotoksik, antibakteriyel, kolesterol düşürücü, antifungal ve anti-inflamatuar aktiviteler sergilediğini ve birçok farklı alanda faydalı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Oluşturulan bu derleme, saponin bileşeni hakkında bilgi vermek ve bu bileşeninin biyolojik aktiviteleri ile saponin içeren bitki ve gıdaların kullanımının sağlık üzerinde meydana getirdiği etkiler, yapılan bilimsel çalışmalar örnek gösterilerek açıklanmak üzere hazırlanmıştır.
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Le Cestrum parqui est une plante qui a montré une toxicité pour quelques organismes nuisibles. Le but de ce travail est d’explorer cette activité pesticide, mieux connaître son spectre d’action, essayer de le caractériser chimiquement et déterminer ses effets biologiques et physiologiques. L’étude chimique de la plante a permis d’identifier une saponine (S1) responsable de l’activité insecticide, les modifications structurales effectuées sur les saponines font perdre à ces substances leur toxicité vis-à-vis des ravageurs étudiés. Les saponines de Cestrum présentent un spectre d’action assez large, a part leur toxicité pour des insectes phytophages (Spodoptera et Schistocerca) et pour des insectes des denrées stockées (Tribolium), d’autres expériences ont montré que ces saponines sont également d’excellent nématicides et d’excellent molluscucides. Il semble que ces saponines agissent par interaction avec le cholestérol membranaire et alimentaire. Les saponines du Cestrum présentent un large potentiel d’action sur une multitude d’organismes, il est actuellement intéressant d’étudier les possibilités et les limites d’application pratiques de toutes ces observations en laboratoire. disponible sur :
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The green Cestrum is a Solanacae which cause some exuviation difficulties on Spodoptera littoralis larvas and nymphs. The histologic survey of the cuticle showed a meaningful reduction of it's thickness for 16% of Cestrum consummating larvas totaled to their artificial feeding. The thickness of the nymphal cuticle doesn't seem to be affected by the Cestrum. The rate of proteins in the feeding and the dungs of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars show a deficiency in the digestion of the proteins for the insects consummating 16% of dry extract added to their artificial diet. This deficiency affect the proteins rate in hemolymph and in larval cuticle. The proteinogram of control caterpillars hemolymph does not present qualitative difference with the treated one. The rate of nymphal proteins doesn't seem to be affected by a feeding totalled of Cestrum.
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Cestrum parqui is a plant largely described for its insecticidal effect. This activity comes mainly from saponins. Our study shows an interesting toxicity of the crude saponic extract on Culex pipiens larvae. The LC 50 values were 100 and 111 p.p.m. after 24 and 48 hours, respectively of treatment. The treated larvae showed a destroyed cuticle structure, a change in the colour, form and size of the fat body cells and a deterioration of the digestive walls with a separation of its peritrophic membrane.
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The total saponins of alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., included in the diet of Colorado potato beetle larvae reduced their feeding, growth rate and survival. The biological activity of those compounds coming both from the roots and from the aerial parts is closely correlated with the dose. Larvae reared on leaves treated with a 0,5% dose virtually did not feed at all and died after 4-6 days. Lower saponin doses (0,01 and 0,001 %) reduced the insects' feeding to a lesser degree. However, they inhibited their growth, caused an extension of the larval stage and mortality at a level of 76,7- 100%. No major differences have been found in saponin activity depending on its localization in the plant.
A method was designed to study complex formation between saponin and cholesterol in aqueous ethanol, and was applied, with some modifications, to examine the ability of cholesterol analogues bearing various lengths of side-chain to form complexes (digitonides) with digitonin. The results indicated that all the analogues were capable of forming digitonides regardless of the length of the side-chain, but the effectiveness of digitonide formation increased as the length of the side-chain increased. A plausible structural model is proposed for the digitonide in order to interpret these results.
Secondary compounds in fruits are thought to be a defense against invertebrates or pathogens which might otherwise damage or destroy the fruits or seeds without contributing to seed dispersal. We incorporated ground, nonripe green or ripe red fruits of American holly Ilex opaca into standard diets of two species of polyphagous caterpillars to test the hypothesis that nonripe fruits are better defended than ripe fruits. Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda larvae grew more slowly on diet augmented with 10% (dry wt) ripe fruits than on control diet with 10% cellulose powder, and slower still on diet with nonripe fruits. However, survival, pupal weight and length of the pupal period were not affected by either treatment. Growth rates and survival of fall webworms Hyphantria cunea were reduced to a similar degree by both nonripe and ripe fruits. Methanolic extracts of nonripe fruits brushed on leaf disks of sassafras, a preferred host, deterred feeding by Japanese beetles Popillia japonica Newman, a highly polyphagous species. Extracts of ripe fruits were not repellent. Saponin content was highest in nonripe green fruits, while tannin levels were highest in ripening fruits. In choice tests, red holly fruits were removed from bird feeders at a faster rate than nonripe green fruits. Levels of secondary compounds in fruits of I. opaca may be a compromise between the continued need to protect the seeds from predispersal damaging agents without deterring potential vertebrate dispersers.
Two new steroidal glycosides, parquisoside A (1) and B (2) were isolated from the aerial parts of Cestrum parqui (family Solanaceae). Their common aglycone is a new steroid of the spirostane series, which we name parquigenin. It has the structure (3β,24S,25S)-spirost-5-ene-3,24-diol, i.e. a (24S,25S)-24-hydroxydiosgenin. The structures of parquisosides A and B were elucidated as (3β,24S,25S)-spirost-5-ene-3,24-diol 3-O-{[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (3β,24S,25S)-spirost-5-ene-3,24-diol 3-O-{[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), respectively, on the basis of detailed spectroscopic studies and chemical analysis. The crude extract of Cestrum parqui showed inhibition of carrageenin-induced edema.