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Available from: Zhi-Liang Chu
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    ABSTRACT: The G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr40 is expressed in beta-cells where it contributes to free fatty acid (FFA) enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. However, other sites of Gpr40 expression, including the intestine, have been suggested. The transcription factor IPF1/PDX1 was recently shown to bind to an enhancer element within the 5'-flanking region of Gpr40, implying that IPF1/PDX1 might regulate Gpr40 expression. Here, we addressed whether 1) Gpr40 is expressed in the intestine and 2) Ipf1/Pdx1 function is required for Gpr40 expression. In the present study, Gpr40 expression was monitored by X-gal staining using Gpr40 reporter mice and by in situ hybridization. Ipf1/Pdx1-null and beta-cell specific mutants were used to investigate whether Ipf1/Pdx1 controls Gpr40 expression. Plasma insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose levels in response to acute oral fat diet were determined in Gpr40 mutant and control mice. Here, we show that Gpr40 is expressed in endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract, including cells expressing the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP, and that Gpr40 mediates FFA-stimulated incretin secretion. We also show that Ipf1/Pdx1 is required for expression of Gpr40 in beta-cells and endocrine cells of the anterior gastrointestinal tract. Together, our data provide evidence that Gpr40 modulates FFA-stimulated insulin secretion from beta-cells not only directly but also indirectly via regulation of incretin secretion. Moreover, our data suggest a conserved role for Ipf1/Pdx1 and Gpr40 in FFA-mediated secretion of hormones that regulate glucose and overall energy homeostasis.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Diabetes
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    ABSTRACT: GPR119 is a rhodopsin-like GPCR expressed in pancreatic beta-cells and incretin releasing cells in the GI tract. As with incretins, GPR119 increases cAMP levels in these cell types, thus making it a highly attractive potential target for the treatment of diabetes. The discovery of the first reported potent agonist of GPR119, 2-fluoro-4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-{6-[4-(3-isopropyl-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl]-5-nitro-pyrimidin-4-yl}-amine (8g, AR231453), is described starting from an initial inverse agonist screening hit. Compound 8g showed in vivo activity in rodents and was active in an oral glucose tolerance test in mice following oral administration.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is highly expressed in pancreatic β-cells. On activation, this receptor enhances the effect of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via the elevation of intracellular cAMP concentrations. Although GPR119 agonists represent promising oral antidiabetic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes therapy, they suffer from the inability to adequately directly preserve β-cell function. To identify a new structural class of small-molecule GPR119 agonists with both GSIS and the potential to preserve β-cell function, we screened a library of synthetic compounds and identified a candidate molecule, AS1269574, with a 2,4,6-tri-substituted pyrimidine core. Here, we examined the preliminary in vitro and in vivo effects of AS1269574 on insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. AS1269574 had an EC(50) value of 2.5μM in HEK293 cells transiently expressing human GPR119 and enhanced insulin secretion in the mouse pancreatic β-cell line MIN-6 only under high-glucose (16.8mM) conditions. This contrasted with the action of the sulfonylurea glibenclamide, which also induced insulin secretion under low-glucose conditions (2.8mM). In in vivo studies, a single administration of AS1269574 to normal mice reduced blood glucose levels after oral glucose loading based on the observed insulin secretion profiles. Significantly, AS1269574 did not affect fed and fasting plasma glucose levels in normal mice. Taken together, these results suggest that AS1269574 represents a novel structural class of small molecule, orally administrable GPR119 agonists with GSIS and promising potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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