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Anti-inflammatory activities of triterpene lactones from Lactuca sativa

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Abstract

Lactuca sativa (lettuce) is a famous vegetable which is also used traditionally for management of inflammatory conditions. Aim of the study was to isolate and identify potential bioactive compounds that might be involved anti-inflammatory activity of Lactuca sativa. 3,14-Dihydroxy-11,13-dihydrocostunolide (compound 1) and 8-Tigloyl-15-Deoxyl-actucin (compound 2) were isolated from extract of Lactuca sativa. Both compounds showed substantial lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Similarly, the isolated compounds revealed significant (p<0.05) in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity based on carrageenan induced paw edema model. Significant results of the isolated compounds indicate their considerable potential to be further studied at molecular and cellular level.

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... According to Penagos Tabares et al. (2014), a daily diet including goat's rue is reported to increase milk yield in German Commission E refused approval of the use of this species as a galactagogue because its effectiveness has not been documented (Blumenthal et al. 1998). The use of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to treat mastitis is due to their antiinflammatory properties (Ahmad et al., 1992;Lin et al. 2008;Araruna and Carlos 2010;Rokayya et al. 2013;Mizgier et al. 2016). Scientific investigation of B. oleracea indicated 3methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate, called iberin, as the active ingredient of the plant and demonstrated its ability to target TLRs, to disrupt TLR dimerization and to inhibit the inflammatory responses (Shibata et al. 2014). ...
... Scientific investigation of B. oleracea indicated 3methylsulfinylpropyl isothiocyanate, called iberin, as the active ingredient of the plant and demonstrated its ability to target TLRs, to disrupt TLR dimerization and to inhibit the inflammatory responses (Shibata et al. 2014). From L. sativa two triterpene lactones, 3,14-dihydroxy 11,13-dihydrocostunolide and 8-tigloyl-15-deoxyl-actucin, were isolated, showing lipoxygenase inhibition and significant in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity on carrageenan-induced paw oedema (Araruna and Carlos 2010). ...
... It is a valuable dietary source of vitamin K, E and C as well as carotenoids [1]. Traditionally, it is well-known for its use as folk remedy for inflammation, pain, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite [2]. Previously, considerable pharmacological studies have been conducted to evaluate therapeutic significance of the crude extracts of Lactuca sativa which showed its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties [3]. ...
... Carrageenan induced hind paw edema test has been extensively used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of new pharmaceutical agents [2]. All the extracts of L. sativa established significant anti-inflammatory effect by regulating biphasic inflammatory process induced by carrageenan ( Table 2). ...
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Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.
... Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is an important leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. The whole plant has been used in the treatment of stomach problems to stimulate digestion, to enhance appetite and relieve inflammation[7] via the anti-inflammatory activities of triterpene lactones[8]. Lactuca sativa gives protection against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress and reduces accumulation of lipofuscin granules[9]. ...
... Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is an important leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. The whole plant has been used in the treatment of stomach problems to stimulate digestion, to enhance appetite and relieve inflammation [7] via the anti-inflammatory activities of triterpene lactones [8] . Lactuca sativa gives protection against D-galactoseinduced oxidative stress and reduces accumulation of lipofuscin granules [9] . ...
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Lactuca sativa, belonging to the Asteraceae family, is a leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. This study aimed to understand the mechanism of Lactuca sativa extract with respect to pharmacological action.We investigated the anxiolytic effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa on mice. The behavioral tests performed on mice models to assess anti-anxiety properties were: open field test (OFT), elevated plus maze test (EPM), elevated T maze test, and marble burying test. Increased locomotor activity and time spent in the "open-arm" were observed in extract fed group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite levels were decreased, catalase and glutathione levels were increased in Lactuca sativa treated mice. The data obtained in the present study suggests that the extract of Lactuca sativa can afford significant protection against anxiolytic activity.
... This process afforded 13 fractions (fr. [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]. Further elution with 13% methanol-chloroform gradient has afforded 14 fractions (fr. ...
... The early phase (90-180 min) of the inflammation is due to the release of histamine, serotonin and similar substances. The later phase (270-360 min) of edemainduced by carrageenan is characterized by the highest volume of hind limb, during which the edema reaches its highest volume and by the presence of prostaglandins and other slowly acting inflammatory mediators which include kinin-like substances, i.e. prostaglandins, proteases and lysosome [11,12]. These inflammation mediators are the main components responsible for swelling and edematous condition. ...
Article
A study was conducted to identify constituents that might be responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory conditions. Tasumatrol B, 1,13-diacetyl-10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAD) and 4-deacetylbaccatin III (4-DAB) were isolated from the bark extract of Taxus wallichiana Zucc. All the compounds were assessed for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities using an acetic acid-induced writhing model, a hot-plate test, a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model, a cotton-pellet oedema model and in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory assay. All the compounds, especially tasumatrol B, revealed significant analgesic activity in comparison to a saline group based on an acetic acid-induced model. Similarly all of the test compounds, particularly tasumatrol B, showed significant antiinflammatory activity. However, all the compounds failed to exhibit any considerable activity in of the hot-plate test and the in vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory assay. This study has highlighted the potential of tasumatrol B to be further explored as a new lead compound for the management of pain and inflammation, one that has been discovered by scientific validation of the traditional medicinal use of T. wallichiana Zucc.
... According to Jordana [49], to be traditional, a product must be linked to a territory, and it must also be part of a set of traditions, which will necessarily ensure its continuity over time. Many wild edible plants reported in this study can be defined as food-medicine due to the presence of different classes of natural products (e.g., [50][51][52]) or active compounds (e.g., [53][54][55]). Since several of these molecules have antioxidant properties and are contained in large quantities in vegetables, the role of these plants in the diet has been reevaluated [12]. ...
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This work presents the results of an ethnobotanical research carried out in the territory of Serre Calabre, province of Vibo Valentia (Calabria, southern Italy). In this territory, the bond between the residents and the rural environment is still strong, because the small urban centers are placed in a predominantly agricultural and forestry environment still managed in a traditional way. The survey took place between January 2019 and July 2021. Data were collected through semi- structured interviews with locals. As many as 17 informants were interviewed and a total of 185 interviews were recorded. Plant specimens were collected under the indication of the informants and then deposited at the herbarium of the Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria (REGGIO). The data were stored on a digital database and then statistically analyzed some synthetic indexes have also been calculated, such as Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and the Cultural Importance Index (CI). The investigation allowed to identify 84 taxa belonging to 39 different families, among which the most represented are Lamiaceae (23 interviews, 9 taxa), Asteraceae (22 interviews, 12 taxa). The identified taxa were prevalently cited for alimentary (46 interviews, 32 taxa) and healing (55, 27) uses. The results obtained show how the traditional knowledge about plants in the Serre Calabre area is still alive, however it is exclusive heritage of elderly people and often only in one or just a few informants. In fact, many practices are no longer in use and will not be transferred to the new generations.
... Carrageenan induced paw edema model This model was used by the method of Araruna and Carlos (2010). Acute-inflammation was induced in back paw on right side of rodents by sub plantar injection of carrageenan (1% suspension) with 2% of gum acacia in normal saline, but before the induction of inflammation, the test compound Dosiflavone, positive and negative control samples were given orally to these experimental mice. ...
... L. sativa is an essential leafy vegetable crop and has medicinal properties. According to traditional culture, it is used in the treatment of a variety of health disorders, including insomnia, neuropathy, dry cough, rheumatic pain (Araruna and Carlos 2010;Katz and Weaver 2003) and anxiety Kumar 2012, Harsha andKumar 2013). ...
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Lettuce (Lactuca spp.) is an annual and self-pollinating crop that belongs to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family. It is one of the most globally essential commercial vegetable crops, used in salads and sandwiches. The lettuce leaves are used to make a cigarette without nicotine. Seeds and stems contain edible oil and dried latex. Gene banks have conserved a large pool of lettuce's genetic resources, including wild Lactuca species with the same chromosome numbers 2n = 2x = 18. Lactuca species vary greatly in terms of geographical distribution and morpho-agronomic characteristics. By crossing commercial varieties with locally adapted varieties, novel alleles can be introduced, increasing genetic diversity and making preselection for desirable traits easier. Lettuce breeders and geneticists' main objectives are to improve lettuce for various desirable traits, including tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress and high yield. These targets accomplished with modern genomics tools together with traditional breeding methods. This chapter discusses lettuce conservation and biodiversity, stages of lettuce breeding, agriculture practices, and conventional breeding techniques and their restrictions. It also includes modern plant breeding tools and marker-assisted breeding, editing of genome, and genetic engineering.
... Lettuce exhibits healthy properties mainly due to the presence of antioxidant compounds (vitamins C and E, carotenoids, polyphenols) alongside significant fibre content and useful amounts of certain minerals [7]. Therefore it used for treatment of a variety of disorders such as insomnia, neurosis, dry coughs, rheumatic pain [8], and anxiety [9]. ...
... Both compounds demonstrated dose-dependent antiinflammatory action in a carrageenan model of inflammation. 42 Lactuca scariola (Asteraceae). The methanolic seed-extract of L. scariola was prepared through the cold extraction method, which was later found to have significant analgesic activity on intact mice through tail-flick latency period estimation during the tail immersion assay method. ...
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Medicinal plants with potential therapeutic activities are a tremendous resources of prospective drug candidates. NSAIDs, opiates, and other anti-inflammatory & analgesic agents exhibit several unwanted side-effects. Thus, the development of new active compounds with minimum adverse effects necessitates an emergence. This study aims to provide a comprehensive summary of plant species and reported phytoconstituents with analgesic and inti-inflammatory activities. Eighty-seven species from fifty-two plant families with reported constituents and activities have been included in this review. In-depth research in the area of screening novel analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents from natural sources followed by the investigation of their pharmacological properties and clinical applications may lead to the generation of new active agents with better therapeutic activity and selectivity in the future.
... lactones (Michalska et al., 2009). Several biological actions of L. sativa leaves have been reported such as antioxidant scavenging activity (Zdravković et al., 2014), antiinflammatory property (Araruna & Carlos, 2010), analgesic, antidepressant, and in vivo anticoagulant activities (Ismail & Mirza, 2015;Ismail et al., 2017). Few studies have been carried out on the stems exactly on the stem lettuce or Chinese lettuce (L. ...
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The main ingredient in the daily salad dish is the leaves of Lactuca sativa, while the stems are usually discarded and not eaten. This study was conducted to compare the stems and leaves of two selected L. sativa varieties (L. sativa var. longifolia L. and L. sativa var. capitata L.) related to the preliminary phytochemical investigation, nutrient content, DPPH assay, and in vitro anticoagulant activity by determination of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The findings revealed almost the same phytoconstituents in the leaves and stems of each variety, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and others. Exceptionally, tannins have only been detected in the leaves. Compared to the stems, the leaves of both varieties showed statistically significantly higher levels of raw protein and raw fat. For the DPPH assay, the leaves of both varieties have a statistically significantly higher antioxidant activity than the stems. The leaves and stem extract of the two selected varieties showed a significant prolongation of PT (P <0.05 vs. NS= 12:30 s). On the other hand, the aPTT test showed a significant increase in aPTT (P <0.05 vs. NS = 32:44 s) in the stem extract of both varieties, whereas there was no statistically significant increase in aPTT in the leaves of both varieties. Both parts of each variety have a diversity of phytochemicals and nutrients. The leaves of both varieties have a higher antioxidant activity than the stems. While the stems had higher anticoagulant activity than the leaves.
... The final phase of 3-4 h is characterized by the peak volume of hind limb. During this stage, edema attains its highest volume due to the elevated level of kinin-like substances such as prostaglandins, lysosome and proteases (Araruna and Carlos, 2010). The anti-inflammatory response exhibited by the field-grown leaves extract (76.90%) was greater than that of the in vitro callus (70.86%) and regenerated shoots (60.76%) extracts (Fig. 2B). ...
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Context: Iceberg lettuce is a nutrient rich edible crop containing vitamin B6, thiamin and folate. The increasing demand of natural products is moving the focus towards in vitro plant sources as factories for producing important secondary metabolites. Aims: To evaluate the activities of in vitro propagated callus culture and field-grown of Iceberg lettuce, which can act as an alternate source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Methods: The extracts were made with methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water for field-grown as well as in vitro cultured Iceberg lettuce plants and evaluated for their medicinal potential both in vitro and in vivo in rats. Results: Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of plant extracts showed strong positive correlation with their antioxidant activities. The highest contents of flavonoids and phenolics were present in the methanolic extract of field-grown leaves. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of examined samples in rats were observed as field-grown leaves extracts > callus extracts > regenerated shoots extracts. However, all of these activities in the extracts of callus culture were comparable to that of field-grown plant extracts. Conclusions: This study showed that field-grown plants are comparably rich source of secondary metabolites, which showed multiple pharmacological activities in a significant way.
... The antiinflammatory activities of medicinal plants are due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. For instance, Araruna and Carlos (2010) isolated two compounds, i.e., 3,14-Dihydroxy-11,13-dihydrocostunolide and 8-Tigloyl-15-Deoxyl-actucin from extract of Lactuca sativa and revealed their significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using the same method. The anti-inflammatory action of triterpenoids has been reported by many researchers (Huss et al. 2002;Suh et al. 1998;Vázquez et al. 1996). ...
Article
In vitro suspension culture techniques are cost effective for large-scale production of secondary metabolites. In the present study, firstly, suspension cultures of untransformed Lactuca sativa were prepared using different hormonal combinations and were subjected to different pH, temperature and salt concentrations. Maximum biomass was obtained for suspensions supplemented with 1.5 mg/L BAP and 0.1 mg/L NAA, at pH 5.8, temperature 28 °C and 0 mM NaCl concentration. Using these parameters, suspensions were produced for rol ABC- and rol C-transformed lines of L. sativa. All the transgenic lines showed prominent increase in fresh weight (FW) and dry weight (DW) with maximum values for rol ABC2 line producing 169.8 mg/mL FW and 25.3 mg/mL DW. The exudates of transformed and untransformed plants were tested for the antioxidant activity and in vivo assays on rats. Maximum phenolic content (261 μg/mL) and flavonoid content (637.6 μg/mL) were obtained for rol C1 transgenic line. Total antioxidant capacity was found maximum (1451.7 μg/mL) for untransformed lettuce, whereas rol C1 showed maximum total reducing power activity (637.6 μg/mL). In DPPH assay, maximum activity (104.7 μg/mL) was shown by rol ABC3 line. In rats analgesic assay, maximum activity (74.9%) was shown by rol C2. Line rol C1 showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity (69.2%) and maximum antidepressant activity (minimum immobility time of 55 s). Maximum anticoagulant activity was observed for rol ABC2 with maximum clotting time of 130 s. The present study could help in using lettuce suspension culture as platform for the enhanced production of important metabolites.
... The final phase of 3-4 h is characterized by the peak volume of hind limb. During this stage, edema attains its highest volume due to the elevated level of kinin-like substances such as prostaglandins, lysosome and proteases (Araruna and Carlos, 2010). The anti-inflammatory response exhibited by the field-grown leaves extract (76.90%) was greater than that of the in vitro callus (70.86%) and regenerated shoots (60.76%) extracts (Fig. 2B). ...
Article
Context: Iceberg lettuce is a nutrient rich edible crop containing vitamin B6, thiamin and folate. The increasing demand of natural products is moving the focus towards in vitro plant sources as factories for producing important secondary metabolites. Aims: To evaluate the activities of in vitro propagated callus culture and field-grown of Iceberg lettuce, which can act as an alternate source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Methods: The extracts were made with methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water for field-grown as well as in vitro cultured Iceberg lettuce plants and evaluated for their medicinal potential both in vitro and in vivo in rats. Results: Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of plant extracts showed strong positive correlation with their antioxidant activities. The highest contents of flavonoids and phenolics were present in the methanolic extract of field-grown leaves. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of examined samples in rats were observed as field-grown leaves extracts > callus extracts > regenerated shoots extracts. However, all of these activities in the extracts of callus culture were comparable to that of field-grown plant extracts. Conclusions: This study showed that field-grown plants are comparably rich source of secondary metabolites, which showed multiple pharmacological activities in a significant way. Keywords: analgesic; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; callus; Iceberg lettuce; Lactuca sativa.
... The final phase of 3-4 h is characterized by the peak volume of hind limb. During this stage, edema attains its highest volume due to the elevated level of kinin-like substances such as prostaglandins, lysosome and proteases (Araruna and Carlos, 2010). The anti-inflammatory response exhibited by the field-grown leaves extract (76.90%) was greater than that of the in vitro callus (70.86%) and regenerated shoots (60.76%) extracts (Fig. 2B). ...
Article
Full-text available
Context: Iceberg lettuce is a nutrient rich edible crop containing vitamin B6, thiamin and folate. The increasing demand of natural products is moving the focus towards in vitro plant sources as factories for producing important secondary metabolites. Aims: To evaluate the activities of in vitro propagated callus culture and field-grown of Iceberg lettuce, which can act as an alternate source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Methods: The extracts were made with methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water for field-grown as well as in vitro cultured Iceberg lettuce plants and evaluated for their medicinal potential both in vitro and in vivo in rats. Results: Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of plant extracts showed strong positive correlation with their antioxidant activities. The highest contents of flavonoids and phenolics were present in the methanolic extract of field-grown leaves. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of examined samples in rats were observed as field-grown leaves extracts > callus extracts > regenerated shoots extracts. However, all of these activities in the extracts of callus culture were comparable to that of field-grown plant extracts. Conclusions: This study showed that field-grown plants are comparably rich source of secondary metabolites, which showed multiple pharmacological activities in a significant way. Keywords: analgesic; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; callus; Iceberg lettuce; Lactuca sativa.
... The final phase of 3-4 h is characterized by the peak volume of hind limb. During this stage, edema attains its highest volume due to the elevated level of kinin-like substances such as prostaglandins, lysosome and proteases (Araruna and Carlos, 2010). The anti-inflammatory response exhibited by the field-grown leaves extract (76.90%) was greater than that of the in vitro callus (70.86%) and regenerated shoots (60.76%) extracts (Fig. 2B). ...
Article
Context: Iceberg lettuce is a nutrient rich edible crop containing vitamin B6, thiamin and folate. The increasing demand of natural products is moving the focus towards in vitro plant sources as factories for producing important secondary metabolites. Aims: To evaluate the activities of in vitro propagated callus culture and field-grown of Iceberg lettuce, which can act as an alternate source of bioactive secondary metabolites. Methods: The extracts were made with methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water for field-grown as well as in vitro cultured Iceberg lettuce plants and evaluated for their medicinal potential both in vitro and in vivo in rats. Results: Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of plant extracts showed strong positive correlation with their antioxidant activities. The highest contents of flavonoids and phenolics were present in the methanolic extract of field-grown leaves. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of examined samples in rats were observed as field-grown leaves extracts > callus extracts > regenerated shoots extracts. However, all of these activities in the extracts of callus culture were comparable to that of field-grown plant extracts. Conclusions: This study showed that field-grown plants are comparably rich source of secondary metabolites, which showed multiple pharmacological activities in a significant way.
... The current study proved that the extract fractions of I. heterantha have good cytotoxic activity. These activities may be accredited to the existence of alkaloids, polyphenols, phenols, tannins, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids and especially the diterpenes, found in the crude extract and the fractions thereof (Araruna and Carlos, 2010). The plant is commonly used for the treatment of various diseases. ...
... Compared to cultivated a number of wild plant species have been reported to contain greater levels of fiber [13], to have far greater antioxidant and flavonoid levels [17][18][19] and to contain a smaller amount of lipids [20]. A number of studies maintain that the carbohydrate, fibre, polyphenol, protein, mineral, vitamin and ω-3 fatty acid content [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30] of various parts of the wild plants can have beneficial effects on human health. This reinforces the concept of food as medicinal, first expressed by Hypocrites in 400 BC [28]. ...
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Background This paper illustrates the results of a study carried out in four Regional Parks of Sicily (Italy), concerning traditional knowledge on food use of wild plant species. The main aims of the paper were: (i) to verify which wild plant species are used for food purpose in the local culture based on information provided by elderly inhabitants (ii) to verify the presence of wild plant species which have not been cited for food use in previous studies in the Mediterranean area (iii) to determine how many of the most frequently cited wild plant species are cultivated by the local population in the four Sicilian Parks. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out in the local communities of the four Regional Parks between 2007 and 2010. A total of 802 people over the age of 60 were interviewed. Cultural Importance Index was used to evaluate the level of importance given to any wild plant species as a food in the local culture. The level of appreciation of the wild plant species and the possible effects of wild plants on human health were also investigated. Results Local communities currently use a total number of 119 wild species for food purposes. Asteraceae and Brassicaceae were the most represented botanical families. In each of the four Sicilian Parks, Cichorium intybus L. and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. obtained the highest Cultural Importance Index values. Sixty-four species were indicated as also having medicinal properties. Leaves and other aerial plant parts were the parts most-used for the preparation of traditional recipes. Conclusions The research shows that the level of traditional knowledge on the food uses of wild plant species in the study area is poor. The food uses of plants which are most likely to survive over time are those at the interface of food and medicine. Further agronomic studies are needed for a number of species with a view to introducing them as a crop into non-intensive agricultural systems.
... Nowadays, food, and particularly food plants, is not only regarded as a basic source of nutrition, but also promises to be a source of wholesome and natural products [1][2][3][4]. Many wild edible plants, together with several cultivated plant species, can be classified as food-medicine as they contain different types of natural products [5,6] or active compounds [7][8][9]. ...
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This research examines sulforaphane (SFN), a phytochemical element that is found in certain plants and vegetables. SFN has particular biological behaviours and roles to combat many diseases. It can be found mainly in vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, kale, cauliflower, and broccoli. SFN is a nutritional isothiocyanate compound and is known as a glucosinolate precursor. It is reputed to have valuable pharmacological properties, namely antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, and also functions as an agent of defence against diabetes, ocular disorders and cardiovascular diseases as well as for neurodegenerative disease. It also efficiently searches out and feeds on ROS (reactive oxygen species). Sulforaphane is a potential antioxidant for relieving oxidative stress and reducing tissue/cell damage in various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The results of this research confirm that the natural compound, SFN, has several protective properties and that the nuclear factor, erythroid-2-related factor 2 system, which facilitates the expression of several antioxidant genes, plays a crucial role in the protective effect of such isothiocyanates against practically all the medical conditions mentioned above. The findings of this study serve to provide a more in-depth understanding of the nature of SFN and its functions, thus adding to the existing literature and research on the subject.
... Anticonvulsant and sedative-hypnotic effects have been demonstrated for the leaves of this plant (5,8). The whole plant has been used in the treatment of stomach problems to stimulate digestion, to enhance appetite and relieve inflammation (8,9), via the anti-inflammatory activities of triterpene lactones (10). An extract of lettuce seed contains triterpenoids, saponins and simple phenols, and possesses anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects (8). ...
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Background: Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components. There is some evidence in traditional medicine for the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in the treatment of anxiety in humans. Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of a hydro-alcoholic extract of lettuce on rat behavior in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the results compared with the effects of diazepam. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats weighing 200 – 240 g were used in the present study. Seven different groups of rats received an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of lettuce extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3, 0.6, or 1.2 mg/kg), or vehicle (control group), 30 minutes before entering the EPM test. The total distance covered by the animals, the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, the time spent in the open arms, and the number of entries into the closed arms were recorded for a 5 minutes duration. Results: An IP injection of both diazepam and lettuce extract before an EPM trial significantly increased the percentage of open arm entries and the time spent in the open arms. Diazepam decreased the total distance covered by the animals and the number of closed arm entries, whereas lettuce extract had no effect on these parameters. Locomotor activity was not significantly changed by the lettuce extract. Conclusions: Acute administration of lettuce extract has an anxiolytic profile in rats similar to that of anxiolytic diazepam at low dose. Future investigations are essential for better understanding of the anxiolytic properties and neurobiological mechanisms of lettuce extract.
... Flavonoids have been shown to possess an antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties due to their inhibitory effects on the production of chemical mediators of pain (histamine, bradykinins) (Owoyele et al, 2005). Similarly, triterpenes (Araruna & Carlos, 2010), tannins (Owoyele et al, 2010) and ...
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Loxostylis alata belongs to the family Anacardiaceae. In South Africa, the bark and leaves of Loxostylis alata are used in traditional medicine during childbirth and also to stimulate the immune system. This study was aimed at investigating the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the crude acetone extract of Loxostylis alata. In vivo experimental models that include egg albumin, prostaglandin E 2 , and histamine-induced-paw oedema, and vascular permeability test were used to screen the extract for antiinflammatory effect. While formalin-induced nociception, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests were carried out to evaluate analgesic effects of the extract. The extract inhibited egg-albumin, prostaglandin and histamine-induced oedema in a dose-dependent (50-200 mg/kg) manner. It also inhibited vascular permeability cause by acetic acid in a similar fashion. Furthermore, the extract inhibited pain induced by formalin; acetic acid and heat dose-dependently (50-200 mg/kg). These findings propose the antiinflammatory and analgesic effects of Loxostylis alata and provide a rationale for its medicinal use against pain and inflammation.
... Lettuce is believed to have a soothing effect, to facilitate expectoration, and to increase appetite and urination (5). Recent research has confirmed that lettuce leaves contain a huge number of substances that exhibit antioxidant (3,(6)(7), antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties as well as protect from cardiovascular diseases (7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13). Many studies have also confirmed that lettuce leaves and seed have a tranquilizing and anti-anxiety effect (14)(15)(16)(17). ...
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Lettuce is a vegetable that is always consumed raw. The number and types of microorganisms that may be found on the lettuce leaves depend on growing, harvesting, and particularly on handling practices, like proper washing and preparing lettuce before eating. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect that washing under running water has on the microbiological status of lettuce leaves purchased from the local market place in Banja Luka. Smears were taken from the obverse and reverse sides of lettuce leaves, and the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and molds was determined as well as the presence of sulphite-reducing clostridia, the coagulase positive staphylococci, Salmonella species, and Escherichia coli. The analysis showed that the washing reduced the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria by approximately 10 times, and the total count of yeasts and molds by approximately 8 times. Of the lettuce samples examined, 66,67% contained sulphite-reducing clostridia and 13,33% Salmonella species, before the washing. The number of samples with sulphite-reducing clostridia was reduced by five times after the washing, but the number of samples contaminated with Salmonella species remained the same.
... It is also showed that inflammatory process is involved in the ischemic-induced neural damages (Iadecola and Anrather, 2011) and anti-inflammatory agents have potential to be used in cerebral stroke (Cai et al., 2006;Gupta and Chauhan, 2011). On the other hand, antiinflammatory properties have been reported for L. sativa (Sayyah et al., 2004;Araruna and Carlos, 2010). Therefore, inhibition of inflammation may be another plausible mechanism for alleviating effects of L. sativa against ischemic insults. ...
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This study was planned to investigate whether Lactuca sativa is capable of protecting neurons against glucose/serum deprivation (GSD)-induced cell injury, an in vitro model of brain ischemia. Two neuron-like cells, rat pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12) and mouse neuroblastoma-like cell line (N2a), were cultivated for 24 h in standard media or for 6 and 12 h in GSD condition in the absence or presence of hydro-alcoholic extract (HAE), water fraction (WF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) or N-butanol fraction (NBF) of L. sativa. At the end of the experiments, the cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The L. sativa exhibited no cytotoxicity under standard condition unless at very high concentrations. Exposure of PC12 cells to GSD condition for 6 and 12 h led to 44 and 90% decrease in cell viability, respectively. The NBF and especially EAF significantly attenuated GSD-induced cell death. Also, GSD caused a significant reduction in N2a cell viability after 6 h (28%) and 12 h (84%). On the other hand, treatment of N2a cells with EAF blocked the cytotoxic effects of GSD condition. The present study revealed that intermediate polarity fraction of L. sativa (EAF) exerts neuroprotection and has the potential to be used as a new therapeutic strategy for common neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke. Key words: Lactuca sativa, glucose/serum deprivation, brain ischemia, rat pheochromocytoma-derived cell line (PC12), mouse neuroblastoma-like cell line (N2a).
... [6][7] The whole Lactuca sativa plant has been used in the treatment of stomach problems to stimulate digestion, to enhance appetite and relieve inflammation 8 via the anti-inflammatory activities of triterpene lactones. 9 Lactuca sativa gives protection against D-galactose-induced oxidative stress and reduces accumulation of lipofuscin granules. 10 Lactuca sativa is known to be rich in antioxidants viz. ...
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The utilization of natural products for their pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals purposes have high value in prevention and treatment of myriad illness. In pharmaceutical industry the formulation of natural products into an effective and stable dosage form necessitate evaluation of the processing techniques required and the properties of the product obtained. Therefore the objective of the present study was to prepare and evaluate lettuce leaves Lactuca sativa granules in a view to develop solid dosage forms. Lettuce leaves were washed with water, one batch was dried in open air and the other one in oven and grinded into fine powder. Dried powdered lettuce leaves were granulated without and with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at various water concentrations. The prepared granules were evaluated for its particle size distribution, bulk density, tapped density, hausners index, Carr's index, friability, flowability and water absorption. The influence of water concentration, PVP addition and drying methods on the granule properties were also investigated. The results obtained showed that lettuce granules possess good flow properties and can be used as a candidate for the formulation of solid dosage forms particularly tablets.
... Lipoxygenases (LOX) are the members of a class of non-heme iron containing dioxygenases that catalyze the addition of molecular oxygen to fatty acids containing a cis-1, 4-pentadiene system to give unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides. In mammals, LOX's catalyzes the first step in the arachidonic acid cascade [19,20] . The 5-LOX and 15-LOX's together lead to the formation of biologically active lipoxins, where as 5-LOX's lead to formation of 5,6epoxy-leukotrienes which are involved in the variety of inflammatory responses, including neutrophil chemotaxis, vascular permeability and smooth muscle contraction. ...
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To evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extracts and fractions of Mangifera indica in in vitro conditions. In vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assays were used to evaluate the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities respectively. Methanolic extract (MEMI), successive water extract (SWMI) and ethyl acetate fraction (EMEMI), n-butanol fraction (BMEMI) and water soluble fraction (WMEMI) of methanolic extract were evaluated along with respective reference standards. In in vitro DPPH radical scavenging activity, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have offered significant antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 13.37, 3.55 and 14.19 μg/mL respectively. Gallic acid, a reference standard showed significant antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 1.88 and found to be more potent compared to all the extracts and fractions. In in vitro LOX inhibition assay, the MEMI, EMEMI and BMEMI have showed significant inhibition of LOX enzyme activity with IC50 values of 96.71, 63.21 and 107.44 μg/mL respectively. While, reference drug Indomethacin also offered significant inhibition against LOX enzyme activity with IC50 of 57.75. Furthermore, MEMI was found to more potent than SWMI and among the fractions EMEMI was found to possess more potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These findings suggest that the MEMI and EMEMI possess potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in in vitro conditions.
... The IC 50 of bergenin was determined by monitoring the inhibitory effect of various concentrations of the bergenin in the assay. The IC 50 values were expressed in mean ± SEM (lM) of 3-5 assays (Johns et al., 2011;Mamadou et al., 2011;Kolar et al., 2010;Araruna and Carlos, 2010). IC 50 values were then calculated using the EZ-Fit Enzyme Kinetics program (Khan et al., 2009). ...
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... The literature revealed that gall's oil of P. integerrima possesses CNS depressant activity 9 . Discovery of new bioactive natural products based on ethanopharmacological investigations is a well established methodology [10][11][12][13][14] . So based on ethanopharmacological importance of P. integerrima in infectious diseases, we have made an effort to identify potential bioactive compound(s) responsible for its folk use. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the whole plant of Pistacia integerrima Stewart in order to examine the pharmacological basis of the use of the plant in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and disorder. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies led to the isolation of a new triterpene pistagremic acid (3-methyl-7-(4,4,10,13,14-pentamethyl-3-2,3,4,5,6,7,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-oct-3-enoic). Pistagremic acid showed significant leishmanicidal activity (IC(50): 6.71 ± 0.09 µM) against Leishmania major (DESTO) promastigotes in comparison to standard compound amphotericin B (IC(50): 0.21 ± 0.06 µM).
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Lettuce (Lactuca spp.) is a characteristic annual crop of the Asteraceae family (Compositae). This is one of the most important economical vegetables and is used in salads and sandwiches. Leaves of Lactuca are also used to make nicotine-free cigarettes. The seeds and shoots include the consumption of oil and dry latex. The Genebanks maintained a huge collection of lettuce germplasm from wild species with the same chromosome number 2n = 18. They have a wide variety of Lactuca based on geographical areas and agronomic traits. Promoting new alleles by hybridizing commercial cultivars with the help of national modified genotypes increases genetic diversity and facilitates state filing of interesting traits. The main goal of breeders is to improve lettuce for various desired properties, including stresses and high yield. These goals can be achieved with modern genomic tools using classical breeding methods. The current chapter provides an outline of origin and distribution, economic importance, germplasm diversity and conservation, conventional breeding, molecular breeding, gene editing and genetic engineering, mutation breeding beside hybridization.
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Pain is a public health problem. Its pharmacological treatment is performed through conventional synthetic drugs (non-opioid analgesics and opioids), which have negative effects at the liver, gastric and renal levels. Less aggressive alternatives which use different plant species are under study. Lactuca sativa is a plant used as a popular remedy to treat insomnia, stomach problems, pain and inflammation. Its extracts have been evaluated pharmacologically as anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotics and antioxidants, mainly in animal models. A study was carried out to evaluate the analgesic property of two topical pharmaceutical forms elaborated with Lactuca sativa extract, for the alternative treatment of patients with acute muscular pain. Through a randomized, controlled clinical trial, a cream and gel at 10% extract were evaluated. Pain was assessed using the modified Wong-Baker Facial Expression Scale at the beginning and end of treatment, as well as the degree of relief and adverse reactions. Both products are an alternative for the treatment of acute pain versus the use of conventional synthetic drugs.
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In this modern era, gastrointestinal disorders are the universal problem. Peptic ulcer is one of the major diseases affecting the human population. It develops due to the imbalance between aggressive factors like acid, pepsin, H. pylori and bile salts and defensive factors like mucous, bicarbonate, blood flow, epithelial cell restoration and prostaglandins. The anti-ulcer activity of Ethanol extract of leaves of Lactuca sativa (EELS) was estimated using the experimental models of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress in Wistar albino rats. Animals pre-treated with doses of 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg of EELS were statistically analyzed and compared to the standard and control group with the parameters like volume of gastric secretion, total acidity and ulcer index. The results suggested that EELS significantly decreased volume of gastric acid secretion, total acidity and ulcer index in comparison with standard drug Omeprazole. EELS shown significant reduction in lesion index, total affected area and percentage of lesion in comparison with control group in Ethanol induced ulcer in experimental models. The gastric mucosal protective effect of EELS is brought by inhibiting the gastric secretion, which shows it may act like a proton pump inhibitor. Thus the present study indicates that EELS has anti-ulcerogenic potency in Ethanol induced, pylorus ligation and cold restraint stress induced ulcers in rats. Keywords: Antiulcer, ulcer index, cold stress, peptic ulcer, pylorus ligation
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Plant origin drugs have played a vital role in the prevention and management of diseases in Unani medicine and it becomes popular day by day due to its low cost and less adverse effect. One such drug is Kahu (Lactuca sativa L.) belong to the Asteraceae family. Kahu (Lactuca sativa L.) is a popular salad vegetable and consumption of Kahu has many health benefits. The garden Kahu is considered to have originated in the warmer temperate parts of western Asia, including eastern Mediterranean region. In Unani System of Medicine two species are used, Kahu Bustani (Lactuca sativa) and Jangali Kahu (L. Scariola L.). It is and important herbal drug and various parts of the drug such as Barg-i-Kahu (leaves), Tukhm-i-Kahu (seeds), Afiyun Kahu (latex) are used medicinally to alleviate several ailments, such as cough, pruritus, melancholia, mania, jaundice, fever, insomnia, headache, gonorrhoea etc. it is also used as preventive treatment during epidemic /pandemic spread and also play a role of very useful nutritional material. Several activities such as sedative, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant have validated. These activities my occur due to the presence of chemical constituents e.g. lectucin, Kalam et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 1322 lectopicrin, hyoscyamine, palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidic acid, oleic acid, caproic acid etc. Kahu can potentially act as a strong traditional herbal drug due to its multiple pharmacological effects and is therefore generating interest in drug discovery and development of formulations. The present review provides a summary of recent knowledge of significant traditional uses, phytochemical, and pharmacological activities of various parts of the plant.
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Vegetables come in varied colors, forms, and tastes. Health specialists highly encourage inclusion of vegetables in one’s diet due to their inherent nutritional worth. This chapter will cover selected vegetables from wide-ranging families like roots, stems, leafy greens, and cruciferous varieties. The broad choice of the designated vegetables is predicated on popular household preferences, nourishing value, and health benefits. These vegetables are also in common use and are obtainable at the market. The health features of the vegetables are covered in such a way that they provide the distinctive phytonutrient quality coupled with prominent health findings.
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A growing number of evidences from clinical and preclinical studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) function contributes to the progression of cancer and thus miRNA can be an effective target in therapy. Dietary phytochemicals, such as quercetin, are natural products that have potential anti-cancer properties due to their proven antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative effects. Available experimental studies indicate that quercetin could modulate multiple cancer-relevant miRNAs including let-7, miR-21, miR-146a and miR-155, thereby inhibiting cancer initiation and development. This paper reviews the data supporting the use of quercetin for miRNA-mediated chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies in various cancers, with the aim to comprehensively understand its health‐promoting benefits and pharmacological potential. Integration of technology platforms for miRNAs biomarker and drug discovery is also presented.
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Plant origin drugs have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of diseases in Unani medicine and it becomes popular day by day due to its low cost and less adverse effect. One such drug is Tukhme kahu (Seeds) belong to the family Asteraceae is an important herbal drugs which have hypoglycaemic activity, anti-dysenteric, anodyne, sedative, anaesthetic, hypnotic, desiccative etc. and is recommended for various disease like insomnia, headache, dribbling of urine, hummae damwi, alopecia etc. Several activities have been validated such as sedative, Hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory activity etc. Further more potent antioxidant activity has been reported making it an important drug all together, Tukhme kahu can potentially act as a strong traditional herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore generating interest in drug discovery and development of formulations. The present review provides a summary of recent knowledge of significant traditional uses, pharmacognosy, phytochemical, and pharmacological activities of the plant Lactuca sativa Linn.
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Вступ. Проблема фармакологічної корекції запалення, як і раніше, залишається актуальною, оскільки сучасна медицина повністю її не вирішила. Одним із перспективних напрямів створення безпечних та ефективних протизапальних препаратів є фітотерапія. В останні роки підвищився інтерес до препаратів рослинного походження. Мета дослідження – вивчити протизапальну активність сухого екстракту з листя салату посівного в експерименті з модельованим карагеніновим набряком лапи щурів. Методи дослідження. При визначенні протизапальної активності екстракту з листя салату посівного використовували безпородних білих щурів-самців масою 180–200 г. Індукцію гострого асептичного запалення проводили шляхом субплантарної ін’єкції 0,1 мл 1 % розчину карагеніну. Досліджуваний зразок екстракту в дозі 100 мг/кг маси тіла вводили піддослідним щурам внутрішньошлунково у профілактичному режимі одноразово за 1 год до індукції запалення. Через 1, 3, 6 та 24 год вимірювали об’єм здорової та ураженої кінцівок за допомогою механічного онкометра. Антиексудативну активність екстракту визначали за ступенем зменшення набряку в піддослідних тварин порівняно з контрольними та виражали у відсотках. Як препарат порівняння використовували диклофенак натрію в дозі 8 мг/кг. Результати й обговорення. Встановлено, що у групі тварин, які отримували екстракт з листя салату посівного, максимальний позитивний вплив на розвиток набряку спостерігали через 3 год від початку запалення (31,22 %), і тривав він до кінця експерименту. Через 24 год від початку розвитку запалення ефект від застосування екстракту був дещо нижчим. Але найменш виражений його вплив на розвиток запалення відзначали через 1 год дослідження. Аналогічний вплив мав диклофенак натрію, щоправда значний ефект від його застосування проявився вже через 1 год від початку експерименту. Висновок. Доведено виразну протизапальну активність сухого екстракту з листя салату посівного, який найбільш активно пригнічує розвиток набряку лапи щурів через 1 год запалення.
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Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), a leafy vegetable belonging to Asteraceae family, possesses sedative-hypnotic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. Currently, only a few microsatellite markers have been developed from lettuce, which hindered the genetic research. In the present study, EST-SSRs were developed and characterized from 81,518 expressed sequence tags of lettuce. The results showed that tri-nucleotide motif (40.789%) was the most abundant, followed by di-nucleotide (33.109%) and hexa-nucleotide repeats (16.295%). Among 100 primer pairs designed according to SSR-containing sequences, a set of 35 could give out reproducible and clear amplification products, and 15 were polymorphic. These novel microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity of lettuce and its related species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 11, with a mean value of 6.2. The expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO) ranged from 0.5141 to 0.8346 and 0.0484 to 0.6000, respectively. Eleven could be transferable to three related species, including Artemisia argyi H. Lév. & Vaniot, Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers., and Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. These novel microsatellite markers will not only enrich current resource of genetic markers, but also be useful in the following cultivar identification, germplasm evaluation, and marker-assisted selection of L. sativa and related species.
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Peanut is a potent natural source of phytochemical compounds and is associated with human health. In the present study, we determined the biological activity and chemical constituents of peanuts germinated for 0-9 days. The ungerminated seed coat exhibited the highest antioxidant potential, phenolic compound content and anti-inflammatory activity. During the germination process, on the first germination day, root extract showed the highest antioxidant potential, phenolic compound content and anti-inflammatory activity. The kernel exhibited a low phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity at the early stage of germination and significantly increased after 9 days of germination. Resveratrol increased to 7.19 ± 0.07 µg/g dry weight on the second day of germination. LC-MS/MS showed a variety of phenolic compounds and stilbene derivatives in different parts of germinated peanut. These results suggest that the peanut sprout exerts high anti-inflammatory effects that may be related to the polyphenolic content and antioxidant properties.
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Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of Lactuca sativa (LS) Linn. (Asteraceae) against scopolamine- induced amnesia and to validate its traditional claim as memory enhancer. Methods: Ethanol extract of fresh LS leaves (LSEE), standardized on the basis of quercetin content, was successively partitioned using various solvents viz., hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol in increasing order of polarity. LSEE (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) and its various fractions (at a dose equivalent to dose of LSEE exhibiting maximum activity), administered orally for 14 days, were evaluated for their memory enhancing effect against scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg, i.p.) amnesia in 3-4 months old male Laca mice (n = 6 in each group). The memory enhancing effect was evaluated using behavioural (elevated plus maze, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests) and biochemical parameters (acetylcholinesterase activity, malonaldehyde, superoxide dismutase, nitrite, catalase, and reduced gultathione content). The results of the test substances were compared with both scopolamine and donepezil that was used as a standard memory enhancer and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Results: Scopolamine elicit marked deterioration of memory and alteration in biochemical parameters in comparison to the control group. LSEE and its n-butanol and aqueous fractions significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated the scopolamine- induced amnesia that was evident in all the behavioural and biochemical test parameters. LSEE (200 mg/kg) and n-butanol fraction (15 mg/kg) exhibited maximum anti-amnesic effect among various tested dose levels. Discussion: The results exhibited that LS prophylaxis attenuated scopolamine- induced memory impairment through its acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activity validating its traditional claim.
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The family Asteraceae (earlier known as Compositae) comprises 43 tribes, 1600–1700 genera and about 24,000–30,000 species. This is one of the most evolved and largest families of flowering plants representing approximately 10 % of all flowering plants worldwide. The members of this family are distributed worldwide and show rich diversity of habit and habitat. Asteraceae members occupy almost every environment and continent including in the temperate regions and tropical mountains except Antarctica. In India this family is represented by nearly 177 genera and 1052 species. In the present review we tried to compile the important tissue culture works done in the family Asteraceae.
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Polysaccharides from mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju (PS1) and Lactuca Sativa (PS2) were isolated and purified (22.40 and 26.80g/100g respectively). Cytotoxic activities of PS1 and PS2 were examined In vitro using colon (HCT 116), liver (HEPG2), cervical (HELA) and breast (MCF7) carcinoma cell lines. The present results indicated that these polysaccharides (PS1 and PS2) have more inhibitory effects on HCT-116 than the other carcinoma cell line (HEPG2, HELA and MCF7). Polysaccharides (PS1 and PS2)-treated HCT-116 cells showed a high percentage of cell death, indicating promising anti-tumorigenic properties, and demonstrate their direct effect on colon cancer cell proliferation. Evaluation of the two polysaccharides (PS1and PS2) was carried out through determination of the tumor markers (CEA and C19.9) in cancer rat groups treated with either PS1 or PS2 compared versus carcinogenic control rats. Polysaccharides (PS2) administration caused higher inhibitory effect on chemically-induced colorectal cancer in rats through the histological examination and a marked reduction in the levels of ALP and ALT more than that of PS1 in serum of rats. It can be concluded that polysaccharides (PS1 and PS2) are more effective for inhibition of chemically induced colorectal cancer in rats.
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Biological properties of Sphaeralcea angustifolia have recently attracted attention because of the potential that this Mexican medicinal plant has as a remedy to treat inflammation. The dichloromethane extract of the plant's aerial parts inhibits pro-inflammatory molecules such as Interleukin (IL)-1, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 with a maximum expression in the late phase, an effect that is consistent with the findings in the present study, which showed that in rats with induced chronic inflammation by means of Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), the extract (100 mg/kg per day for 8 days) produced a sustained and significant inhibition of the edema (62.6%). Topical application of the dichloromethane extract produced ear edema reduction (50.6%) and a protective effect against 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear irritation. Active fractions contain β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, α and β-amyrins, transcinnamic acid, and scopoletin, with scopoletin the main constituent found in the more active fraction of the extract. The results obtained here demonstrated both the systemic and topic effects of S. angustifolia on experimental chronic-inflammation models with no evidence of toxic effects of the extract.
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The effect of ion exchange substrate Biona-312 addition (2 or 5%) on the macronutrients composition of butterhead lettuce cv. ‘Justyna’ plants under conditions of basic (1.5-) and intensive (3-times concentrated Hoagland solution) mineral nutrition level was investigated. Both experimental doses of Biona-312 introduced into 1.5-times concentrated Hoagland nutrient solution [electrical conductivity (EC) 2.41-2.47 dS m−1] dropped nitrogen (N) content in roots. Simultaneously statistically proven increase in foliar concentration of total sulfur (S) as well as a decrease in phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) contents in lettuce above- and underground organs were observed. The changes in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) content were insignificant. Ion exchange substrate supplementation into 3-times concentrated Hoagland nutrient solution (EC 6.85-7.30 dS m−1), significantly elevated N and K contents in above- and underground organs, raised the foliar S content, decreased Ca and Mg contents in leaves, as well as dropped P concentration in roots and increased content in leaves.
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A new guaianolide named 8-α-acetoxy-15β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-guaia-1(10),3(4)- diene-2-one-6,12-olide and 12 known compounds were isolated from the roots of Pterocypsela elata (Hemsl.) C. Shih, and eight of which were isolated from this genus for the first time. The structure of the new compound was elucidated mainly by spectroscopic methods , including 2D NMR techniques.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radical scavenging, and biomolecule protective property of Lactuca sativa, an important and commonly used leafy vegetable known for its medicinal properties. The hydro-alcohol extract of Lactuca sativa exhibited strong scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and nitric oxide, protection against DNA and protein damage. IC 50 values of radical scavenging activity were found to be 162.8 μg/mL for super oxide, 492 μg/mL for nitric oxide radical, 558 μg/mL for metal chelating, and 1236.7 μg/mL for hydroxyl radical. DNA and protein oxidation was prevented dose-dependently and the tail length of DNA as observed in COMET assay was decreased by Lactuca sativa treatment. These results suggest that the extract of Lactuca sativa has potent activity against free radicals and oxidative damage to major biomolecules.
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Exposure to aluminium, though toxic in various ways is unavoidable owing to the abundant presence and use of aluminium in everyday living. Also, the fact that aluminium toxicity can lead to serious, life-threatening complications provides compelling reasons to find novel and effective therapeutic interventions. A distinct feature of aluminium toxicity is its ability to create pro-oxidant environment. The present study investigates the effectiveness of the anti-oxidant property of Lactuca sativa as a neuroprotective agent against aluminium induced neurotoxicity. The lyophilized hydro-ethanol extract of Lactuca sativa (LS) was reconstituted in water and administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight to mice for a period of 30 days. Aluminium chloride was injected intraperitonially at a conc. of 10 mg/kg body weight. Behavioral tests viz., novel object recognition and open field test were performed to assess the exploratory behavior of mice. Biochemical parameters including lipid peroxidation, nitrite levels, ROS, LDH, glutathione, catalase and acetylcholinesterase activity was assayed in the plasma and brain homogenates. Administration of the plant extract significantly improved the exploratory behavior of mice and also attenuated oxidative stress and decreased the acetylcholinesterase activity. Hence, we report a significant recoupment in the blood and biochemical parameters with the treatment of Lactuca sativa extract against aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.
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In order to find more biologically active substances, we have carefully investigated the chemical constituents of Pterocypsela elata. One new guaianolide, (4S)-11-methoxycarbonyl-guaiane-1(10),5(6),7(11),8(9)-tetraen-6,12- olide was isolated from the EtOAc extracts of the roots of P. elata. Its structure was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods and confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. © 2012 Fu-Lin Yan. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.
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In this work we focused on the characterization of a novel plant rennet purified from lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa L. cv Romana). The lettuce protease, lettucine, showed trypsin-like, SV8-like, and caseinolytic activities. Although the enzyme did not recognize peptides having hydrophobic amino acid residues in the P(1) position of the target bond, it did show milk-clotting activity, suggesting that different bonds rather than the Phe(105)-Met(106) of the kappa-casein might be cleaved, still inducing milk-clotting. The enzyme exhibited proteolytic activity toward alpha-casein, beta-casein, kappa-casein, and milks with different fat contents, with the highest activity observed with partially skimmed milk, total casein, and alpha- and kappa-casein. SDS-PAGE studies showed that lettucine cleaved alpha-casein, beta-casein, and kappa-casein. In particular, we showed that alpha-casein breakdown occurred even though total casein or milks were supplied, suggesting that the lettuce enzyme is able to operate a significant disorganization of the casein's micellar structure. Moreover, the proteolytic activity of the enzyme analyzed under various technological parameters, such as temperature and pH, indicated that the lettuce enzyme is highly consistent with the milk-clotting process.
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The succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) inhibitory component was isolated from the EtOAc fraction of Lactuca sativa through repeated column chromatography; then, it was identified as phytol, a diterpenoid, based on the interpretation of several spectral data. Incubation of SSADH with the phytol results in a time-dependent loss of enzymatic activity, suggesting that enzyme modification is irreversible. The inactivation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with the second-rate order constant of 6.15 x 10(-2) mM(-1) min(-1). Complete protection from inactivation was afforded by the coenzyme NAD+, whereas substrate succinic semialdehyde failed to prevent the inactivation of the enzyme; therefore, it seems likely that phytol covalently binds at or near the active site of the enzyme. It is postulated that the phytol is able to elevate the neurotransmitter GABA levels in central nervous system through its inhibitory action on one of the GABA degradative enzymes, SSADH.
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A method is presented for measuring the edema induced by injection of 0.05 ml of 1% solution of carrageenin, an extract of Chondrus, into the plantar tissues of the hind paw of the rat. Peak edema develops within the first 3 to 4 hours, and is inhibited by pretreatment of the animals by single oral doses of antiinflammatory agents, steroid or non-steroid. Log dose responses to drugs are linear and parallel, and yield potency ratios with relatively narrow confidence limits. The potency ratios obtained for aspirin, phenylbutazone and hydrocortisone are fairly close to the ratios of their respective daily doses in the treatment of rheumatic disease. A potent antihistaminic-antiserotonin compound, cyproheptadine, is without effect on carrageenin-induced edema.
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Lactuca sativa (Lettuce) is a member of Compositae family. In folk medicine of Iran, the seeds of this plant were used for relieving of inflammation and osteodynia. In this study, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanol/petroleum ether (70/30, v/v) extract of the seeds have been evaluated. The extract exhibited a time- and dose-dependent analgesic effect in formalin test and also a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan model of inflammation. The extract had no analgesic effect in tail-flick test up to the highest dose used (6 g/kg). No abnormal behavior and lethality was observed by the extract up to 6 g/kg. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids, saponins and simple phenols in the extract.
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The effect of exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on antioxidative compounds of romaine lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) was investigated. Lettuces were treated with various MeJA solutions (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM) before harvest. Total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity of romaine lettuce significantly increased after MeJA treatments (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mM). The total content of phenolic compounds of the romaine lettuce treated with 0.5 mM MeJA (31.6 microg of gallic acid equivalents/mg of dry weight) was 35% higher than that of the control. The increase in phenolic compound content was attributed to a caffeic acid derivative and an unknown phenolic compound, which also contributed to increased antioxidant capacity. The induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity by the MeJA treatment indicated that phenolic compounds were altered due to the activation of the phenylpropandoid pathway. Total content of carotenoids, including lutein and beta-carotene, of the MeJA-treated lettuce did not change after 8 days of treatment, whereas the content of the control without MeJA decreased after 8 days. This research indicated that preharvest application of MeJA could increase the nutritional value of romaine lettuce under determined conditions discussed in this work.
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Taxus wallichiana Zucc. (Himalayan Yew) is often used in northern areas of Pakistan for the treatment of pyrexia, acute pains and epilepsy. We have investigated certain pharmacological activities of the methanol leaf extract against convulsion, nociception and pyrexia induced in rodents. The aim was to justify and explore its folk uses in these pathological conditions, on scientific basis. The studies were carried out using acetic acid-induced nociception and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice, while formalin test and yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Significant analgesic (67.77 and 74.29%) effect was found in acetic acid-induced model at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Crude extract exhibited significant (P<0.05) inhibition of the formalin noxious stimulation on both early and late phases of pain by the extracts (100 and 200mg/kg doses). In case of yeast-induced pyrexia model, 200mg/kg dose showed very significant (P<0.01) inhibition while 50 and 100mg/kg dose caused a significant (P<0.05) inhibition. Plant extract has controlled the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in mice. 100 and 200mg/kg i.p doses of the extract significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the mioclonus and clonus while inhibition of tonus and hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was highly significant (P<0.01). The anticonvulsant activity of this plant has been reported for the first time throughout the whole genus. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis for the folkloric use of the plant in treating epilepsy, pyrexia and acute pain.
Carrageenan induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs
  • Ca Winter
  • Ea Risely
  • Gw Nuss
Winter CA, Risely EA, Nuss GW. (1962). Carrageenan induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 111: 544-547.