Article

Effects of Video Interaction Guidance on early childhood teachers

Authors:
  • University of Amsterdam & Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences
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Abstract

a b s t r a c t An experimental study showed that a video feedback intervention improved the interaction skills of early childhood education and care teachers. The teachers who had received the Video Interaction Guidance training appeared more stimulating in their behavior, were more sensitive and more verbally stimulating than teachers from the control group. The training results were still apparent three months after the training. An analysis of the behavior of teachers at micro-level also revealed positive outcomes. These findings show that video feedback training for early childhood educators is a promising method to increase their socio-emotional support and verbal stimulation in childcare practice.

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... A further essential purpose of the project is providing high quality learning opportunities and nurturing environments for all children, especially those coming from multiply marginalized backgrounds, and those that are experiencing social inequalities, poverty and racism. Drawing on the method of video-coaching and video-analysis, the project encourages high-quality interaction of ECEC professionals with children (Fukkink & Lont, 2007;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Fukkink, Trienekens & Kramer, 2010). The research teams and professionals from the different countries observe the video recordings collectively, or in one-to-one sessions, and reflect on the interactions between professionals and children and among children. ...
... The empirical case study focuses on ECEC services that are located in an urban setting, one of which is in an area densely populated by migrant families. Building on a corpus of literature that focuses on video-analysis as a tool for professional development (Tobin, Davidson, 1990;Bove, 2009), and on successful application of video-coaching methodology (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Fukkink, Trienekens & Kramer, 2010), the Italian case study aims to shed light on the potential and challenges that practitioners encounter when using video as a means to promote active learning and practices rooted in the inclusive paradigm. The two main questions guiding the Italian case study are: ...
Research
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The textbook is supplemented by our next publication: Lessons learnt from case studies and recommendations for practice. We have included our own video coaching experiences as well as the reflections of teachers, educators and tutors from the ECEC area who were involved in our project. We hope this publication will make it easier for users to get started with the method in their kindergartens, nurseries or children clubs.
... Two of the measures are positive and one is negative and none of them are statistically significant. Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010) reported two measures from the Caregiver interaction scale (Arnett, 1989). The single-study effect sizes are shown in Figure 10. ...
... The results reported in Jennings et al. (2017) and in Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010) needed adjustment for clustering. We did not, however, perform any sensitivity analyses as the individual study results were not combined in a meta-analysis. ...
... Although previous research has underlined the use of video records for teacher professional development in different fields and most of them focus on preservice periods (Kennedy and Lees 2016;McLeod, Kim, and Resua 2019), there remains relatively little empirical research on the use of VBPD within the context of early childhood in service teacher education (e.g. Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010;Jilink, Fukkink, and Huijbregts 2018;Pianta et al. 2008). An example of such research was Cherrington and Loveridge (2014)'s study focusing on the complexity of ECE classrooms through the use of video records. ...
... The participant teachers in this study had an opportunity to revisit their practices in relation to the use of pedagogical documentation, as well as to interpret and reflect upon their own classroom practices via VBPD. These findings corroborate with those of Durand, Hopf, and Nunnenmacher (2016) and Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010)'s studies, which suggested that video viewing and the provision of expert feedback establish the conditions for teachers to carry out self-evaluation which allows them to better reflect upon their experiences in the process of critiquing their strengths and in areas that needed improvement. Consequently, the present study provides findings that can add to the understanding and applicability of using such an innovative method as video technology for the professional development of teachers. ...
Article
This study examined how a video-based professional development (VBPD) initiative influenced early childhood teachers’ practices. A purposive sample of 22 early childhood education teachers voluntarily participated in this study. The confidentiality of all participants was assured and their informed consent was obtained prior to the study. The design of the study was qualitative in nature and video based interventions were carried out during the research process. The study data was drawn from a larger study and collected through informal and semi-structured individual interviews. A constant comparative method of data analysis was utilised in the study. The themes identified in the data were guiding teachers’ practices; self-awareness and desire to improve. The teachers expressed that VBPD was supportive for instructional awareness, instructional assessment practices, and the quantity and quality of classroom interaction. Furthermore, from the teachers’ perspectives, the VBPD was found to improve their self-awareness and aid them in staying up-to-date professionally.
... Children's need for extra support often becomes apparent in their behaviour and interaction with others (Wirtberg, Petitt & Axberg, 2013). Both parents and teachers have the opportunity to influence the children in their care on a day-to-day basis, for example, by promoting positive interaction using supportive dialogue (Aarts, 2008;Durlak, Weissberg, Dymnicki, Taylor & Schellinger, 2011;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Wirtberg et al., 2013). When a child is described as having problems, there is a risk that a problem-affirming system of communicative behaviour develops around her (Patterson et al., 1992;Sheridan & Moorman Kim, 2015), and cooperation between family and school have proved to be critical for children's positive adaption, e.g., behaviourally manifested social competence, or success at meeting stage-salient developmental tasks, and social-emotional adjustment such as positive relationships with classmates and teachers (Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000;Sheridan & Moorman Kim, 2015). ...
... It is suggested that VF improves the interaction skills of early childhood teachers (for example socio-emotional support, sensitivity and verbal responses) although there is a need to identify core factors correlating with the effectiveness of VF (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Fukkink, Trienekens & Kramer, 2011). A meta-analysis regarding VF in education and training demonstrated the effect size .40 on the interaction skills of professionals in a wide range of professions (Fukkink et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Children displaying early disruptive behaviour problems (DBP) in school are at risk for severe long-term problems. This study evaluated and compared a systemic school-based intervention, Marte Meo and Coordination meetings (MAC) with service as usual (SAU) in a randomised controlled trial. The teachers’ and parents’ ratings were collected before and after intervention. Target group were children aged 3–12 years that displayed DBPs in school (N = 99). MAC programme was more effective than SAU in reducing DBPs among school children based on teachers’ reports (dppc2 .30–.38), whereas the effect was equal according to parents’ reports. It is possible to achieve changes in children’s DBPs in a school setting. Advantages of MAC might be explained by a clear target for change enhancing children’s development in school, but might also be explained by shortcomings in SAU, which seems to generate more services and personnel.
... Whilst this research can be criticised for a number of methodological limitations including subjective observation and the limited duration of impact, other studies of VIG in ECEC have utilised a more rigorous design. For example, Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010) explored the use of VIG with teachers working in ECEC in the Netherlands alongside a control group, utilising independent assessment of changes. The results were mixed, with an improvement in the teachers' eye contact and turn taking with children post-intervention and at a three month follow up, although less likely to respond to the non-verbal initiatives of children in comparison to the control group. ...
... Key outcomes from undertaking VERP in the nursery included reflection, alongside collaboration, confidence and a greater understanding of children. This differs from other research on VERP and VIG, where the outcomes are often linked closely to interaction (Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010, Ferguson 2015, Jilink et al. 2018, however this is likely to relate to the research design. Additionally, although interaction was not a superordinate theme, it was a subordinate theme within both the super-ordinate themes of reflection and understanding children's needs. ...
Article
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Within professional development (PD), reflection is recognised as a key ingredient to developing high quality practice, however less is known about the context and mechanisms needed to enable this in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings. This article explores video enhanced reflective practice (VERP), an innovative model of professional learning, which enables staff reflection on their interaction and practice with children, students and other members of staff in a day nursery in England. The study utilises realistic evaluation as a framework to explore the key features of the context, the mechanisms, which are the central aspects of VERP, and the outcomes for the staff through analysis of semi-structured interviews with five of the six staff involved. The research highlights the importance of the individual choosing their focus for the videoing, good working relationships between staff, the support of the manager and the nature of the organisation as key to enabling the outcomes. The outcomes from VERP included reflection, improved confidence, collaboration and understanding of children.
... Therefore, VIG can function as a catalyst for critical reflection and the improvement of interactive skills. VIG as evaluated in this research is a further developed variant of the training program that was earlier evaluated in a different phase and setting by Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010). ...
... An a priori power analysis indicated that the size of the sample was sufficient to demonstrate medium-to-large effects (Cohen's d ≈ 0.65) at the conventional alpha level of .05 (one-sided) with a statistical power of .80; the a priori effect size was based on the results of the experimental research conducted by Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010). ...
Article
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Research has demonstrated that teachers working in early childhood education and care (ECEC) are proficient in offering emotional support to young children, but markedly weaker when it comes to instructional support. We conducted a controlled experimental study in the Netherlands, to investigate the effects of targeted in-service training on improving teachers’ instructional support. Teachers (N = 72) were randomly assigned to four conditions: an intensive early childhood education (ECE) training (N = 17), video interaction guidance (VIG) (N = 16), a combination of both training programs (N = 18), or a control condition with no training (N = 21). Teachers’ interactive skills were measured pre- and postintervention, according the scales of the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP). The ECE training improved the proficiency of teachers’ verbal communication and offering developmental stimulation. VIG proved to be effective in teachers’ fostering positive peer interactions between children. Intensive and targeted training can successfully improve the quality of teachers’ instructional support in ECEC settings, although more research on effective elements of professional development of ECEC teachers is needed.
... Face to face feedback with discussion in the classroom was provided. In 5 studies, teachers were videotaped while working with their groups, and then video-feedback sessions were implemented [4,5,26,30,31]. ...
... Total of 15 studies with pre-post intervention research design found positive improvements in teachers skills/behaviors over time [4][5][6]8,21,22,[24][25][26][27][30][31][32][33][34]. In particular, Fabiano et al. [24] found better improvements in teachers who received practical training and consultation and feedback by experts together with a psychoeducational workshop, and Moreno et al. [33] found better improvements in caregivers who received more minutes of in-class coaching with feedbacks. ...
Article
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Sensitive caregiver–child interactions appear fundamental throughout childhood, supporting infants’ wellbeing and development not only in a familial context but in professional caregiving as well. The main aim of this review was to examine the existing literature about Early Childhood Education Context (ECEC) intervention studies dedicated to caregiver–child interaction, fostering children’s socioemotional developmental pathways. Studies published between January 2007 and July 2021 were identified in four electronic databases following PRIMSA guidelines. The initial search yielded a total of 342 records. Among them, 48 studies were fully reviewed. Finally, 18 of them met all inclusion criteria and formed the basis for this review. Main factors characterizing implemented programs were recorded (e.g., intervention and sample characteristics, dimensions of the teacher–child interaction targeted by the intervention, outcome variables, main results) in order to frame key elements of ECE intervention programs. Our review points to a range of fundamental issues that should consider to enhance ECEC interventions’ efficacy, supporting children’s socioemotional development and caregiver–child interaction. Reflections and considerations for future research are provided.
... Huhra (2008) reported that video supervision can affect changes in the professional's self-perception, enhance their self-analysis, and offer supervisors a more accurate picture of the supervisee's practice. Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010), who used video supervision with teachers, highlighted how staff gained a realistic perception of their performance, reflected more critically about their behaviour as they watched themselves from a distance, and became more aware of non-verbal interaction. Bölter et al. (2012) highlighted similarly how video allowed the supervisor access to the room without actually being there, so that the supervisor did not have to rely on the supervisee's self-report of their practice. ...
... Barnett, 2011), as well as more sporadically in social work education (Bolger, 2014) and with staff caring for adults with autism ( James et al., 2012). Video supervision has also been used in the field of health, for example, with final year general practice students (Bölter et al., 2012), GPs and nurses (Holstrom and Rosenqvist, 2004;Noordman et al., 2011), dementia geriatric nurses ( Alnes et al., 2010;Caris-Verhallen et al., 1999) and speech and language therapists (Stoke, 2013), and in education with final year students (Colasante, 2011), qualified teachers (Fukkink and Tavecchio, 2010;Roth et al., 2011;Allen et al., 2011), child autism care staff (Huskens et al., 2012) and nursery staff (Fulford, 2000). ...
Article
Purpose This study presents a novel online video-based approach to supervision for statutory caseworkers. Caseworkers recorded a video of their meetings with their clients and sent the video to their supervisor. The supervisor selected clips in the video. They held an online meeting where they reviewed the clips, and the supervisor gave feedback and they reflected together. The caseworker then used what they had learnt in their future practice. The caseworker then recorded a new meeting, and the supervision cycle restarted. Design/methodology/approach 11 statutory caseworkers from three municipalities in the Copenhagen area participated in semi structured qualitative interviews. The interviews focused on the professional learning and challenges caseworkers faced in relation to participating in the supervision process. Findings The caseworkers reported they used the method to assess their own practice in a more realistic way as the use of video gave a more accurate image than merely recalling what had occurred. They reflected about and developed their relationship with clients, their conversational style and use of communication techniques, skills in relation to running meetings, skills in relation to eliciting the young person’s perspective. Caseworkers were anxious when they received their first feedback from supervisors, but this diminished. The focus on supporting clients in their personal development challenged caseworkers who identified as having an administrative rather than interventional role. Some found the online meeting technology difficult to master. Originality/value This study presents and explores the use of a novel approach to statutory casework supervision.
... The participants mentioned in their feedback that the videos helped them draw the connections from theory to practice and they were a useful tool for learning. In addition, studies in various educational contexts highlighted the usefulness of videobased learning for teachers (e.g., Fukkink and Tavecchio, 2010;Cherrington and Loveridge, 2014;Michalsky, 2020). It has been stated that a video can act as a tool for reflection and feedback, and as a way to identify children's learning and thinking (van Es and Sherin, 2002). ...
... Observing own teaching and interaction practices from the video data can be an effective way of reflection and professional learning in ECEC (Fukkink and Tavecchio, 2010). However, with the present learning program, that would have been impractical to implement. ...
Article
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The aim of this article is to introduce a research-based work-integrated collaborative learning program that focuses on early childhood education and care (ECEC) professionals’ skills in co-regulation of emotions. The collaborative learning program draws on the theoretical framework that acknowledges the situated and socially shared nature of regulated learning and emotion regulation as well as years of research highlighting the importance of versatile and sensitive adults in supporting children’s learning of regulation skills during their early years. The program aims to improve professionals’ shared awareness of children’s emotion regulation development and abilities to identify and develop practices that support children in learning these skills, so that professionals can provide conscious and consistent co-regulation of emotions for children in everyday interactions. The design of the program has been developed by considering the aspects of effective collaborative and professional learning. This paper focuses on describing the theoretical grounding and implementation of a 32-week long collaborative learning program for ECEC professionals in Northern Finland (N = 450). Also, the development of a video-stimulated questionnaire (VSQ) for assessment of professionals’ learning during the program will be described. VSQ measures professionals’ abilities to identify and interpret everyday ECEC interactions from the point of view of (co-)regulation of emotions. Developing research-based collaborative programs that increase systematic support for children to learn regulation skills is essential, as these skills affect children’s lives well into adulthood. They set a basis for children’s learning and social skills and general wellbeing.
... Identifying positive examples of teachers implementing effective practices from videotaped observations aligns with the literature on video self-modeling. Use of video clips of teachers correctly implementing practices has been effective in increasing appropriate caregiving behaviors (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010) and evidence-based practices of secondary special education teachers (Hawkins & Heflin, 2011). However, no studies of the use of video models with EI/ECSE teachers or preservice teachers were found. ...
... In this study, coaches viewed the observations and provided feedback at their convenience, offering flexibility in the process of delivering feedback. The use of video clips to provide supportive and constructive feedback relates to the literature that indicates video selfmodeling is an effective way of increasing desired behaviors (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010). Using video observations and providing specific video feedback via email may be a viable and cost-effective option to provide more opportunities for faculty or supervisors to observe preservice teachers in situ. ...
Article
In this study, we examined the effects of training and coaching via video and email feedback on preservice teachers’ use of recommended practices. Two preservice teachers in an early childhood special education program developed action plans for implementing recommended practices and videotaped their interactions with children in a blended preschool program. Coaches reviewed videos and provided email feedback with video examples of participants’ use of the practices. The training and coaching with email and video feedback was effective in increasing participants’ use of recommended practices. The results of this study strengthen the evidence base for distance coaching as a viable support for preservice teachers.
... This is a significant weakness in the research. Fukkink and Tavecchio (2010) showed retention of learning at three months post-intervention. The long-term impact of CPD was not reported in any of the Eurofound studies. ...
Technical Report
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Background: South Africa has a well-developed Early Childhood Development Policy. A number of channels of delivery are in place for early learning programmes for three- to five-year-old children. The current study is the first to examine the relative effectiveness of different programmes in improving early learning outcomes for young children. Design: Three playgroup and two centre-development models targeting economic quintile 1-3 children are compared using a quasi-experimental pre-test post-test field study design. Samples: The sample comprised 369 children (average age 54 months at baseline and 62 months at endline) attending five day per week centre-based programmes (n= 195) or playgroups (n= 174) on either one two or three mornings per week. Children were assessed on the Early Learning Outcomes Measure (ELOM) at baseline (March 2018) and endline (October 2018). ECD practitioners were interviewed to capture programme variables likely to affect early learning outcomes and 327 caregivers were interviewed to obtain data on each child’s home learning environment. Analytical approach: Descriptive analyses were undertaken for all programmes. Two of the playgroups and both centre-development programmes had the necessary data for multilevel modelling. This was undertaken to investigate their relative effectiveness, as well as the contributions of practitioner, child and home background variables to change in ELOM performance over the course of the interventions. Key Findings: Statistically significant improvements in Total ELOM scores were observed for all four programmes included in multi-level modelling with the extent of change ranging from 13 to 20 ELOM standard score points. One playgroup programme offering either two or three sessions / per week and one five session / per week centre-based programme experienced the greatest improvement (1.34 SD and 1.41 SD respectively). Those who attended more sessions showed most improvement in ELOM scores. Other factors that contributed to improvement included practitioners’ reported support from their organisations, children’s height for age, and their baseline ELOM scores (those with lower baseline scores made the greatest gains). Changes in ELOM scores are largely attributable to programme participation rather than to opportunities for stimulation at home. However, children with more books and toys at home performed significantly better on the Fine Motor Coordination and Visual Motor Integration, and Cognition and Executive Functioning domains of the ELOM. The limited influence of the home environment is likely due to the restricted time caregivers had for activities with (more than two thirds of the sample reported having two hours or less during the week and weekends). Also, significant proportions never engaged in activities likely to improve early learning outcomes (reading, telling stories, or singing to children). Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of programmes targeting low income children. Well designed and closely monitored playgroup programmes can perform as well as more expensive centre-based models. The limited time and resources low income parents have to devote to early stimulation suggests that children’s direct participation in a group programme may be a more effective vehicle for improving developmental outcomes than interventions that target parents.
... Si bien los tres reconocen un alto grado de satisfacción en relación con el asesoramiento desarrollado, señalan que tener que responder a preguntas abiertas del tipo «¿Por qué creéis que los niños aprenden a hablar?» o haberse tenido que enfrentar a registros en vídeo de su desempeño profesional (Fukkink y Tavecchio, 2010), especialmente al inicio del proceso, les generaba cierto sentimiento de inseguridad y ansiedad, al no estar seguros de que respondían aquello que se esperaba de ellos. ...
Article
Resumen En este artículo describimos un programa de asesoramiento colaborativo dirigido a docentes, enmarcado en las perspectivas teóricas socio-interactiva (Bruner, 1986) y eco-funcional (Bronfenbrenner, 1987). El objetivo principal es promover procesos de reflexión y crítica respecto a las estrategias, herramientas y orientaciones que los docentes pueden ir progresivamente incorporando en el aula para optimizar la manera de enfocar el trabajo de la comunicación y el lenguaje, con el fin último de mejorar la competencia comunicativa y lingüística de los alumnos con discapacidad. El asesoramiento consiste en el desarrollo de 9 reuniones, 8 de asesoramiento y una de cierre, mediante las cuales se enseña a los docentes, principalmente a: a) optimizar la organización del aula, b) seguir en mayor medida la iniciativa de los alumnos, c) usar estrategias para promover la interacción y alargar los turnos conversacionales, y d) usar estrategias de modelado del lenguaje. La eficacia del programa de asesoramiento se ha probado en una investigación-acción colaborativa con tres docentes de escuela especial, aportando resultados diversos tanto en relación con el desarrollo profesional de los docentes como en el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa y lingüística de los alumnos. Los resultados indican que el modelo de asesoramiento colaborativo es una herramienta útil para ayudar a los docentes a construir un entorno más adecuado para el desarrollo de la competencia comunicativa y social de los alumnos.
... The majority of participating teachers recognized that thinking about their own teaching and making changes could improve student learning. Self-reflection has been documented in the literature as a process as it can lead to new ideas or perspectives (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010) and can help teachers develop a more productive framework for implementing best practice (Bayat, 2010). ...
Article
This article is centred on the constructs of teacher quality as defined by early childhood (EC) teachers in Belize. Using the concept of teacher beliefs as a framework, the researchers analyse teachers’ perceptions of quality teaching, which should guide policy and practice decisions. For this pilot study, data were collected from 22 teachers using open-ended and Likert-scale questions from a questionnaire (n = 13) or focus groups (n = 9). Guiding research questions first sought to identify behaviours teachers believed were important or need to be stopped or improved, and second, to determine teacher agreement with guiding standards for excellence in EC teacher preparation as identified by National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC). Open-coding and descriptives were used to interpret qualitative and quantitative findings. Themes identified by teachers as important EC teacher behaviours and behaviours that needed to be stopped or improved are presented, as well as teachers’ agreement with standards of excellence in EC as identified by NAEYC.
... However, video recordings in childcare settings raise issues such as what equipment will best capture the nature of these dynamic moments, where will the videos be stored, and teachers' comfort with being recorded. Many coaching models have successfully used video recordings as a reflection tool (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010), but we found few studies that addressed the feasibility of I/T teachers recording their classroom interactions in the absence of a coach or research team. The field of early childhood educator professional development would do well to produce video recording guidelines for teachers in the unique settings of I/T classrooms. ...
Article
We collaborated with Early Head Start (EHS) coaches to qualitatively explore the feasibility delivering a professional development approach designed to enhance the quality of conversations in infant-toddler (I/T) classrooms and family child care homes. First, we reviewed empirical literature about oral language discourse skills in infants and toddlers. Second, we examined the frameworks and evaluation tools EHS practitioners and programmes used to guide conversations, e.g. the Head Start Early Learning Outcomes Framework and the Quality of Caregiver-Child Interaction for Infants and Toddlers (Q-CCIIT) Scale. Third, we adapted the Conversation Compass© approach for ages birth to 24 months. Lessons learned were (1) teachers report that the Conversation Compass approach was user-friendly, (2) due to teachers’ limitations with computer skills the online course was difficult for them to complete independently, and (3) the approach can be used to facilitate and model conversation in mixed-age group settings with infants and toddlers.
... Los resultados van en la misma línea que otros trabajos centrados en la mejora de las conversaciones docenteaprendiz (Cabell et al., 2015;Fukkink y Tavecchio, 2010;Pence, Justice y Wiggins, 2008;Pianta et al., 2008;Powell, Diamond, Burchinal y Koehler, 2010;van der Veen et al., 2017;Wasik, Bond y Hindman, 2006. Ver los metaestudios de Eger et al., 2018y Werner et al., 2016, pero se diferencia de ellos en la metodología. ...
Article
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La escuela constituye un contexto natural en el que las estrategias comunicativas de los docentes en su interacción con los alumnos son esenciales para el desarrollo de la competencia oral de estos. El objetivo del estudio es contribuir a la mejora de la práctica docente de maestras en relación con la competencia comunicativa oral mediante el uso de una herramienta digital. Participan 8 maestras y sus grupos de alumnos de educación infantil y primaria de 6 escuelas de Cataluña, de las cuales 5 son públicas (2 ordinarias y 3 cíclicas) y 1 privada (especial). Del conjunto de maestras, 4 participan como grupo de intervención y 4 como grupo de comparación. Durante 6 meses, las 4 maestras de los grupos de intervención utilizaron la herramienta para autoevaluar sus prácticas, tomar decisiones para mejorarla e introducir cambios. Cinco sesiones de clase de cada maestra fueron observadas y evaluadas por las investigadoras. Las evaluaciones de las sesiones de clase dan lugar a diferencias significativas entre las puntuaciones obtenidas por las maestras que participaron en el proceso de desarrollo docente y las que no lo hicieron. Se concluye que la herramienta digital ha contribuido al desarrollo profesional de las docentes y a la mejora de la competencia comunicativa oral de sus alumnos. Las implicaciones que se derivan de esta investigación se centran en la necesidad de formar a los docentes en el área de la enseñanza de la competencia comunicativa y lingüística de los alumnos con la ayuda de la tecnología digital.
... For example, a practitioner struggling to support a family and recognizing their own frustration with lack of progress might return to fidelity checklists to better understand what aspects of their work (e.g., flexibility in supporting family routines, recognizing family worries about aspects of their child's behavior) they were de-valuing. Selfanalysis of video has been used to not only shape educators' behavior (e.g., implementation of intervention practices; Baecher et al. 2013;Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010), but also to change assumptions about their practice (Cherrington and Loveridge 2014;Tripp and Rich 2012). By incorporating a practice of viewing videos of home visits, practitioners should focus not only on the mechanics of their work, but also on the values, beliefs, and assumptions represented in their choices and focus during home visits, family meetings, and team meetings. ...
Article
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The complex and collaborative work of early childhood practitioners (e.g., educators, speech and language pathologists, occupational therapists, social workers) and families requires effective implementation of evidence-based practices. Effective implementation of early childhood practices can be hindered by deeply held assumptions practitioners relate to their own capacity, the capacity and culture of families, and the needs and capacity of the child at the core of their collective work. Transformative learning theory offers a helpful lens to support practitioners in recognizing and shifting assumptions or perspectives hindering their work through reflective discourse strategies. This article explores potential practitioner assumptions and provides guidance on how reflective discourse may facilitate a transformation in practitioners’ assumptions to more successfully implement evidence-based practices, such as those outlined by the Council for Exceptional Children’s Division on Early Childhood.
... Curbow et al. (2000) report good psychometric properties. Also a Dutch study has reported adequate psychometric results (Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010). The reliability of this scale was satisfactory in this study (α = 0.78). ...
Article
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Whereas various studies have examined the effects of in-service training, relatively little is known about effective approaches for improving interaction skills among pre-service teachers for early childhood education and care. In this study, the evidence-based in-service Caregiver Interaction Profile training course was implemented in Dutch pre-service teacher training. The pre-service teachers on the program with relatively low scores at the pretest showed a significant growth in relation to four interaction skills: sensitive responsiveness, respect for autonomy, structuring and limit setting, and verbal communication. We discuss these results in the context of effective professional development in early childhood education and care.
... MTP has been evaluated in a number of other studies, with researchers finding teachers who took part in coaching were more likely to use strategies that facilitate children's higher-order thinking skills, provide more intensive and frequent feedback, and support children's language development , and influence greater language and literacy gains compared to control classrooms (Mashburn, Downer, Hamre, Justice, & Pianta, 2010). In addition to programmes based specifically on the TTI Framework, several recent studies have evaluated efforts to improve responsive interactions through teacher training (Driscoll & Pianta, 2010;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Landry et al., 2014;Lyon et al., 2009). Providing teachers with knowledge, skill and support within the context of their individual classroom appears to be an effective means to improve relationships and interactions between teachers and children. ...
Article
High-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) programmes can strengthen the social, emotional and cognitive skills that are crucial for future learning and wellbeing. Teacher–child interactions are the most vital component of ECEC service quality in terms of children’s social-emotional functioning. However, many children are not consistently exposed to the quality of interactions required for optimal development. We propose a conceptual model to encourage social and emotional learning in preschoolers by targeting the quality and intentionality of teacher–child interactions. We draw upon two frameworks relevant in early childhood settings, the Teaching Through Interactions Framework, describing the type of interactions associated with positive child outcomes, and The Pyramid Model for Supporting Social Emotional Competence in Infants and Young Children, a tiered, systematic approach to implement strategies that improve social-emotional health. This model could inform the development of social and emotional learning programmes that support educators to apply responsive techniques through everyday interactions.
... Video interaction and its engaging and exploring effect have an influence on the learning in education [40,47]. For example, video watching is the central learning activity in the context of MOOC van der Meij [47] and video feedback intervention improved the interaction skills of early children education and care [20]. These video interaction applications were generally based on the physical world. ...
Article
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Museums are good places for learning and nowadays many museums are integrating digital media such as video and increasingly moving towards using virtual reality. In the physical world people used to seek information from object surfaces e.g. posters on the wall and this has been used as a metaphor in the virtual reality museum: numerous videos were inhabited within virtual objects and shaped cross-objects user interfaces (COUIs). However, how such interfaces perform for video interactions still needs more investigations. In this study we implemented and investigated COUIs in comparison with the conventional card-style user interfaces and the plain virtual reality user interfaces in the virtual reality museum. The results reported no significant differences in the perceived usability or learning experience between these user interfaces, except the COUIs had a lower level of satisfaction than the card-style user interfaces. However, the COUIs showed greater efficiency with shorter eye fixation durations and higher saccade frequencies, and within these COUIs instances, namely the fully-detached, semi-attached, and fully-attached COUIs, the fully-attached instance was closest to the form of interacting with physical object surfaces and it reported highest efficiency as well. Rationales behind these results and implications generalising for the future design of COUIs, are discussed.
... Many of the findings confirmed findings in previous research about video-based supervision and findings from the first cycle of the project. Despite initially anxiety about filmed, caseworkers valued the fact that video-based supervision offered a realistic view of what transpired in meetings, which enabled critical reflection, and increased caseworkers' consciousness about their role when engaging with clients in meetings (Antczak et al., 2017;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Huhra, 2008). The study added to our understanding of caseworkers' longing for concrete guidance. ...
Article
This article concerns an approach to supervision for statutory youth casework. The model involves caseworkers recording a video of their meetings with their clients and sending it to an external supervisor. The supervisor selects video clips. They then hold an online meeting where they review the clips, and the supervisor gives feedback based on a standardized model. The caseworker then uses the feedback in their future practice and the cycle is repeated. 16 statutory youth caseworkers and 6 supervisors from three municipalities in Denmark participated in semi-structured interviews regarding their experiences with the video supervision and feedback model. The interviews focused on facilitating and inhibiting factors with regard to the use of the model. A thematic analysis was conducted. Communication regarding the law, giving clients space to find their voice, and paying heed to how each relationship was progressing were emphasized as central focus points. Advice had to be concrete and achievable and come from supervisors with statutory experience. Participants highlighted the significance of viewing practice directly via video footage. Film clips used for feedback needed to be short and well chosen. The technology, logistics and infrastructure, including management support, were important. Findings were used to develop the model.
... Videobasierte Fortbildungsverfahren können die professionelle Entwicklung der Fachkräfte vermutlich besonders effektiv unterstützen (vgl. Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010). ...
... CARE: https://ecec-care.org focusing on the analysis of daily interactions with children, have very positive effects on enhancing practitioners' reflexive competences (Fukkink, Tavecchio, 2010;Peleman, Lazzari, et al. 2018): from this perspective, video coaching becomes an effective tool for improving the quality and inclusiveness of ECEC services. ...
Technical Report
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The TRACKs project developed various products, each with a different purpose. This report summarizes them. In addition, we present recommendations that arose after an international analysis of the project results in each of the partner countries: Poland, Belgium and Italy.
... For example, practitioners can ask more experienced team members, mentors, or coaches to observe their use of EBPs using implementation checklists so that both the professional seeking feedback and the observer are clear on expected behaviors. Another approach to seeking feedback is to self-analyze a video of implementation (Baecher, Kung, Jewkes, & Rosalia, 2013;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010). For example, teachers can video-record themselves conducting a peermediated instruction and intervention and afterward analyze EBP implementation using a checklist or step-by-step directions. ...
... Similarly, the European Quality Framework for ECEC indicates the need for methods that stimulate reflective group learning of these professionals (Peeters et al., 2015). Secondly, following the principles of video-interaction guidance (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010) and the results of the 'verbeelding' (imagination) research (Bracke, Hostyn, & Steverlynck, 2014), the daily work with children is an important starting point for professional reflection and development. The focus on children, their needs and interests, furthers the commitment of the staff and motivates them for further learning and development as a professional. ...
Article
The advantage of pedagogical documentation has been widely documented in the field of early childhood education and care (ECEC). However, little research points out how and why professionals are using pedagogical documentation from the staff’s perspective itself. Therefore, this research aimed to examine how pedagogical documentation is employed in their professional practice. The data for this descriptive qualitative study were collected by interviewing 56 ECEC professionals (heads of organizations, teachers and child minders) after their informed consent. Three purposes in using pedagogical documentation were detected: 1/ to demonstrate facts and growth, 2/ to provoke further thinking; 3/ to facilitate adult–child interaction and interaction among adults. These uses were directed at children, parents, professionals, the neighbourhood, and the interactions across these groups. The results show that staff uses pedagogical documentation in multiple ways, but not often as a tool for professional development. This yields future perspectives to support reflective professional development.
... Outre l'intérêt de privilégier le processus itératif de la pratique réflexive, l'expérience suggère aussi des moyens concrets d'enrichir cette pratique, notamment en filmant de courtes séquences lors de chacune des séances de cointervention (environ 20 minutes), pour que chaque intervenant [éducatrices et orthophonistes (stagiaires)] complète ensuite une grille d'observation de ses comportements et de ceux de son co-intervenant. Tel que proposé par Fukkink et Tavecchio (2010), visionner la vidéo avec les grilles en main faciliterait et enrichirait la rétroaction. L'originalité de ce type de projet repose pour beaucoup sur le partenariat égalitaire établi entre des éducatrices en SGÉ et des orthophonistes. ...
... Recently, the resources for developing high-quality interactions have been invested on targeted intervention programmes with trainings, such as video guidance and individualised feedback provided for the ECPs (Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010;Werner et al. 2016). For instance, Biringen and colleagues (2012) studied the effects of the intervention, including informational and practical training on ECPs' emotional availability for infants and toddlers. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of pedagogical intervention on early childhood education professionals’ emotional availability to children with different temperament characteristics. Participants were 136 children (intervention group = 87; control group = 49) aged 1–6 years from 16 early childhood and care centres in Finland. The PedaSens intervention was a 9-month programme that included theory and video-based training for the professionals. Adult–child interaction was assessed with the Emotional Availability Scales before and after the intervention, and children’s temperament was assessed with the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire. According to results, early childhood professionals’ emotional availability increased in the intervention group, especially to children with high levels of activity and pleasure seeking and with low levels of attentional focusing. We argue that the quality of interaction in early childhood education and care can be increased by targeting professional trainings to support children with different temperament characteristics.
... The Brown and Kennedy ( 2011 ) explain with reference to the dialogic approach of Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) with teachers. Structured observation is followed up with video-focused refl ective dialogue in order to gain insight into teacher-pupil interactions and communication (Brown & Kennedy, 2011 ;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010 ): 'VIG is a method used to support practitioners in refl ecting positively on communication and uses principles of effective communication to guide observations of interactive behaviour. The aim is to improve the quality of interactions between those involved by supporting the teacher in activity identifying and extending the positive elements of communication observed in interactive sequences' (p. ...
... The Brown and Kennedy ( 2011 ) explain with reference to the dialogic approach of Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) with teachers. Structured observation is followed up with video-focused refl ective dialogue in order to gain insight into teacher-pupil interactions and communication (Brown & Kennedy, 2011 ;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010 ): 'VIG is a method used to support practitioners in refl ecting positively on communication and uses principles of effective communication to guide observations of interactive behaviour. The aim is to improve the quality of interactions between those involved by supporting the teacher in activity identifying and extending the positive elements of communication observed in interactive sequences' (p. ...
... The Brown and Kennedy ( 2011 ) explain with reference to the dialogic approach of Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) with teachers. Structured observation is followed up with video-focused refl ective dialogue in order to gain insight into teacher-pupil interactions and communication (Brown & Kennedy, 2011 ;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010 ): 'VIG is a method used to support practitioners in refl ecting positively on communication and uses principles of effective communication to guide observations of interactive behaviour. The aim is to improve the quality of interactions between those involved by supporting the teacher in activity identifying and extending the positive elements of communication observed in interactive sequences' (p. ...
... The Brown and Kennedy ( 2011 ) explain with reference to the dialogic approach of Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) with teachers. Structured observation is followed up with video-focused refl ective dialogue in order to gain insight into teacher-pupil interactions and communication (Brown & Kennedy, 2011 ;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010 ): 'VIG is a method used to support practitioners in refl ecting positively on communication and uses principles of effective communication to guide observations of interactive behaviour. The aim is to improve the quality of interactions between those involved by supporting the teacher in activity identifying and extending the positive elements of communication observed in interactive sequences' (p. ...
... Video-feedback may be a powerful approach for increasing teacher's use of praise during classes [17]. The teachers appeared more stimulating in their behavior, were more sensitive and more verbally stimulating [18]. Video feedback promotes a change in preservice teachers' self-reflection [13,19]. ...
Article
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This article presents a study on in-service professional development of Lithuanian secondary school language teachers. The motivation is based on the understanding of language education as a highly interactive, complex process that requires a teacher’s digital literacy skills combined with integrated instructional approaches. This requires the implementation of a set of professional development activities. As a research methodology, we use a mixed method approach based on collecting eye tracking data in the first phase and, then, focus on comparative teacher self-reflection using data analysis and qualitative interviews. Finally, based on the collected qualitative and quantitative data, educational experts develop and present recommendations on the scope and direction of professional development. As a result of this study, a comprehensive set of the eye tracking data from the experiment involving 93 participants in total and 23 recorded lessons is presented. This includes variables such as number of visits, time to first fixation, number of fixations, and fixation duration vertically and horizontally. The discussion presents the results of the qualitative part of the study, including comprehensive teachers’ feedback. In conclusion, an integrated training program for in‑service language teachers is presented, including an eye tracking experiment that provides data for extensive self-reflection and feedback.
... Curbow et al. (2000) report good psychometric properties. Also a Dutch study has reported adequate psychometric results (Fukkink and Tavecchio 2010). The reliability of this scale was satisfactory in this study (α = 0.78). ...
Technical Report
Waar diverse studies de effecten van training hebben onderzocht, is er nog relatief weinig bekend over effectieve aanpakken voor het verbeteren van interactievaardigheden van studenten, die de opleiding tot pedagogisch medewerker volgen, in de omgang met jonge kinderen op het kinderdagverblijf. In deze studie is de bestaande en effectief bevonden Caregiver Interaction Profile-Training voor pedagogisch medewerkers geïmplementeerd in de beroepsopleiding Pedagogisch Werk (CIP-PW-training) om de kwaliteit van de interactievaardigheden van studenten op de ROC-opleiding Pedagogisch Werk (PW) aan te leren en te verbeteren. Een groep studenten Pedagogisch Werk (N= 73) is getraind door ROC docenten (N= 41) van verschillende Regionale Opleidingscentra (N = 5). De ROC-docenten volgden hiervoor de train-de-trainer-module van de CIP-PW-training. Daarnaast is een aantal niet-getrainde PW-studenten betrokken in het onderzoek (N= 27). De studenten die getraind werden door hun docenten, lieten een significante groei zien voor vier vaardigheden: respect voor autonomie, structureren en grenzen stellen, praten en uitleggen, en begeleiden van interacties tussen kinderen; sensitieve responsiviteit en ontwikkelingsstimulering lieten alleen een positief trendeffect zien (effectgroottes varieerden van 0.13 tot 0.44 met een gemiddelde van 0.37). De analyse met een vergelijkingsgroep liet een positief beeld zien voor praten en uitleggen. De resultaten laten zien dat interactievaardigheden uit het kwalificatiedossier van professionals-in-opleiding zijn te verbeteren in de beroepsopleiding door CIP-getrainde eigen opleiders. Verder was het niveau van de interactievaardigheden hoger voor studenten op mbo-niveau 4 dan 3. Zorgvuldigheid uit de Big Five-persoonlijkheidstest bleek een voorspeller voor het niveau van de educatieve vaardigheden van de getrainde PW-studenten.
... A study of childcare center caregivers examined six interactional skills, reporting several positive effects after 5 weeks of video feedback usage: mid to high effect size in sensitive response, respect for autonomy, verbal communication, developmentally-sensitive stimulation, and facilitation of positive interactions among peers, and mid to low effect size in structure and boundary setting (Helmerhorst et al., 2017). An experimental study showed that after a video feedback intervention, early childhood teachers showed an increased sensitivity and verbal stimulation, in comparison to the control group (Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010). ...
Article
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Preschool teachers can become attachment figures that complement the children’s families of origin, becoming relevant actors in their early development. This article presents the results of a group video feedback program on early childhood teachers in public centers. The model, which focuses on promoting “educational sensitivity”, comprises 5 group sessions. A pre-post evaluation of 157 participants was conducted by coding dyad and group interaction videos. After the intervention, a significant increase relative to the baseline was found in measures of dyad (d = 0.67) and group sensitivity (d = 0.13), among other positive outcomes. Likewise, a significant association was found between variables of dyadic sensitivity and group sensitivity, concurrently and prospectively. The promising results obtained support the viability of the model in early education. Future studies should include a control group and randomization measures to strengthen these conclusions and incorporate a follow-up component to evaluate the program’s long-term impact on educators.
... Therefore, unsurprisingly, video-based self-reflection and feedback has also become a frequently used tool in teacher education programs supporting in-and pre-service teachers' professional development (e.g. Kleinknecht & Gr€ oschner, 2016;Brantlinger, Sherin, & Linsenmeier, 2011;Brouwer et al., 2017;Dobie & Anderson, 2015;Fukkink & Tavecchio, 2010;Gregory et al., 2017;Kong, 2010;Lee & Wu, 2006;Rich & Hannafin, 2008;So, Pow, & Hung, 2009;Tripp & Rich, 2012a, 2012b. Regarding the professional vision of pre-service teachers, research has shown that the use of videos not only promotes pre-service teachers' professional vision but also fosters theoretical knowledge and supports field experiences (Stürmer, Seidel, & Holzberger, 2016). ...
Presentation
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Combining functional analyses with strengths based approaches to assess and address the behaviours of children and young people with SLD and PMLD
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Video is increasingly used to support in-service teacher professional development (TPD). Advances in affordability and usability of technology mean that interest is set to develop further. Studies in this area are diverse in terms of scale, methodology and context. This places limitations on undertaking a systematic review; therefore the authors use a scoping review approach. Their analysis involves 82 studies from which they thematise subtopics and assess research characteristics. This provides a much-needed analysis to inform researchers and practitioners. Additionally, the authors identify robust studies that consider the effect of video on teacher cognition and classroom practice. A consistent finding is that video is effective when used as part of TPD. Since studies largely use thematic qualitative analysis, however, this consensus needs further examination. Further qualitative and quantitative research is needed to identify how the use of video impacts on classroom practices.
Article
Video interaction guidance (VIG) is an increasingly recognised evidence-based intervention. VIG was used to enhance pupil responses during a group work programme. Fifteen primary-aged classes across a range of socio-economic status received regular group work over a year. A mixed methods repeated measures design involved nine experimental classes receiving intervention of three cycles of VIG. Six control classes did not receive the VIG intervention. Pre-to-post-test measures included: pupils’ self-esteem in relation to learning, using the Myself as a Learner Scale; a peer assessment schedule based upon Frederickson and Cameron’s Social Inclusion Survey; and a researcher devised pupil questionnaire. Pupils’ communicative behaviours were analysed for a random sample of 12 video clips. Results showed that reinforcement of desirable group work behaviours using VIG enhanced pupils’ self-esteem. The VIG intervention significantly enhanced the experimental group. There was greatest impact on increasing the self-esteem of younger children. Experimental pupils’ retrospective ratings of group work significantly increased, again youngest pupils showed greatest improvement. Film observations showed a trend towards an increase in pupils’ open questions replacing closed questions. There was a significant positive increase in peer assessment of communicative behaviours across the whole sample, irrespective of the VIG intervention. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Article
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Much research has been done into the relationship between students’ motivation to learn and their basic psychological needs as defined by the self-determination theory (autonomy, competence, relatedness). However, few studies have explored how these psychological needs relate to different types of maladaptive behavior in the classroom. To prevent or remedy such behavior, more insight into its relationships is required. The present study attempted to determine the relationship between maladaptive behavior of secondary school students (grades 8 and 9) and the degree to which both teachers and peers address their needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Results show significant, negative correlations between maladaptive student behavior in the classroom and the extent to which students’ basic psychological needs are met by teachers and fellow students. Both teachers and fellow students play a role in students’ maladaptive behavior toward school and withdrawn behavior. When it comes to unfriendly behavior, the perceived support of teachers appears to be particularly relevant, while the role of peers is an important factor in delinquent behavior.
Article
Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to assess the nurse-child interaction during medical or nursing interventions. Background: Communication is an important competency for the professional practice of nurses and physicians. The nurse-patient relationship is fundamental for high-quality care. It has been suggested that if nurses have more skills to interact with children, care will be less distressing and less painful for the children. Design: A qualitative observational psychometric study; the GRRAS checklist was used. Methods: In-depth video-analyses, taxonomy development (19 videos) and testing it's psychometric properties (10 videos). Three observers micro-analysed video recordings of experienced nurses changing children's wound dressing in a specialized Burn Centre. Results: The nurse-child interaction taxonomy (NCIT) was developed to observe and score the interactional behavior between nurse and child. The taxonomy has three main patterns: being considerate, attuning oneself, and procedural interventions, subdivided in 8 dimensions. These dimensions contain 16 elements that can be observed and scored on a 7-point scale. Intrarater-, interrater-reliability and agreement were good. Conclusions: This study shows that interaction between nurses and children can be assessed reliably with the NCIT by an experienced observer or alternatively, scoring by two observers is recommended. Relevance to clinical practice: The development of the taxonomy is an important step to find evidence for the best way for nurses to interact with children during nursing interventions or medical events and as such, ultimately, contributes to providing the best care possible.
Chapter
Policies and professional development which focuses on pedagogical skills, beliefs, and agency are essential to ensure the sustainability of multilingual teaching approaches. This chapter begins with an overview of research studies on language policies, teacher agency and beliefs with a focus on multilingual settings. The intertwining of policy and teaching practice is then illustrated by means of the Finnish case, demonstrating how recent ECEC policies advocating diversity and plurilingualism have gradually changed teacher beliefs. The second part of the chapter focuses on professional development (PD) in so far as it is able to support teachers in implementing policies, changing pedagogical practices, and amending beliefs. This section presents different pathways for professional learning and explores the effectiveness of various models of professional development. These observations are taken up in two empirical studies on teachers’ professional development within multilingual preschool classes in Luxembourg and primary schools in the Netherlands. The interview and observation data provided in the two contexts point to the centrality of teacher beliefs and agency in moving towards multilingual practices and sustainable change. Furthermore, it unveils the ways in which teachers’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices change over time, and how effective PD programmes can support teachers in interpreting policies and developing new practices.
Research
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The main goal of the project was to explore which aspects of daily practices contribute to children learning processes. We chose the method of video analysis and video coaching in order to ‘explicit the implicit thinking’ underlying the daily practices of professionals where dynamics of inclusion/exclusion are played out. We believe that this innovative and active learning method will deepen their own understanding of their individual daily practices as well as offering their team a strong methodology to strengthen a culture of reflection. What this tool has to offer? the framework that lies behind video analysis and video coaching, and the key elements or basic principles of why and how to implement video analysis and video coaching. three country perspectives, how all the partners translated these general frameworks and key elements according to their own context.
Article
Research Findings: Early care and education (ECE) quality is critical for children’s learning, and ECE programs’ support of teachers’ learning may be important for ensuring high-quality classrooms. Yet little is known about how such supports operate outside of resource-intensive research studies and interventions. This study explores pathways through which “naturally occurring” professional development supports are related to improved classroom quality. Structural equation modeling results reveal indirect associations of support for mentoring with gains in structural and interactional aspects of classroom quality the following year via teachers’ participation in mentoring. Improvements in classroom quality were not similarly associated with support for degree attainment, nor were they related to teachers’ participation in a degree program, beliefs about teaching and learning, or job satisfaction. Practice or Policy: These findings help to expand our understanding of the complex relations among characteristics of ECE programs, individual teachers, and classroom quality. Specifically, mentoring may be an accessible and effective choice for improving classroom quality and thus may serve as a desirable target for policy aimed at improving ECE quality at scale.
Thesis
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Pre-service teachers need to develop professional competence to be able to provide students with the best possible learning environment. Professional competence manifests itself when teachers combine theory with practice productively. Professional competence encompasses dispositions (i.e., knowledge, beliefs, motivational components, and self-regulatory skills), situation-specific skills (e.g., professional vision), and actual performance. Professional competence can be fostered productively by authentic, practice-based learning opportunities. Teaching practicums can offer practice-based learning opportunities. Educational research has shown that reflection and feedback are crucial for substantial development of pre-service teachers’ professional competence. However, reflection and feedback sessions are not a standard element of teaching practicums due to time- and location-constraints. Digital practicum environments can lift these constraints. Digital reflection and feedback environments have typically applied either textual accounts or video sequences of classroom practice, with varying effects. Consequently, the studies presented in this cumulative dissertation are focused on how the use of text- or video-based digital reflection and feedback environments during a practicum influence specific components of pre-service teachers’ professional competence (i.e., beliefs about teaching and learning, self-efficacy, professional vision of classroom management, feedback competence). All studies followed a quasi-experimental, pre-test-post-test design. Pre-service teachers at the fourth-semester bachelor level in a German university took part in the studies. Pre-service teachers participated in a four-week teaching practicum at local schools. During the teaching practicum, pre-service teachers were divided into five different groups. The control group (CG) took part in a traditional practicum with live observations and face-to-face reflection and feedback with peers and experts. Pre-service teachers of the intervention groups (IG 1, IG 2, IG 3, IG 4) reflected and received feedback in highly structured text- or video-based digital environments. Intervention groups 1 (IG 1) and 2 (IG 2) participated in a text-based digital reflection and feedback environment. While IG 1 participants only received feedback from peers, IG 2 pre-service teachers also received expert feedback. Intervention groups 3 (IG 3) and 4 (IG 4) took part in a video-based digital reflection and feedback environment. IG 3 pre-service teachers only received peer feedback, whereas IG 4 participants also received expert feedback. Mixed methods were applied by generating quantitative and quantitative-qualitative data was with questionnaires, a standardized video-based test and content analysis. The studies demonstrated that classroom videos and video-based digital reflection and feedback environments can effectively enhance pre-service teachers’ professional competence. This finding can be predominantly attributed to two characteristics of the application in the digital reflection and feedback environments: (a) being able to revisit a multitude of authentic teaching situations without time pressure and (b) the degree of decomposition by deliberate, focused practice and scaffolding elements. Furthermore, expert feedback seemed to be of better quality and entailed more substantial effects than peer feedback. The results of our studies on professional vision of classroom management, beliefs about teaching and learning and feedback competence showed that expert feedback can be seen as a lens reducing and focusing classroom complexity, enabling pre-service teachers to perceive crucial teaching situations that would have otherwise gone unnoticed and to benefit from expert modelling of high-quality feedback. Consequently, video-based digital reflection and feedback environments with expert feedback can significantly improve pre-service teachers’ professional competence during teaching practicums and, thus, better prepare pre-service teachers for future classroom challenges, leading to better learning environments for school students.
This mixed-method, three-phased study examined four early educators’ experiences in implementing pedagogical documentation. Pedagogical documentation is a collaborative process between adults and children by which concrete examples of an individual child’s thinking are observed, analyzed, interpreted, and then applied to extend the child’s learning. Study results identified three themes, including (a) changes to teaching and learning behaviors, (b) relationship building and, (c) customization of inclusion and individualization. Participants credited pedagogical documentation with facilitating changes to their teaching practices and to how they individualized and included four children with disabilities. They reported that the collaboration and observation components of pedagogical documentation strengthened their relationships with and altered their perspective of the child. The participating early educators also linked positive changes in the child’s learning behaviors to the child’s participation in the process. These findings affirm the utility of pedagogical documentation in supporting early educators’ efforts to include and individualize for young children with disabilities.
Article
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Video and coaching as vehicles for teachers’ professional development have both received much attention in educational research. The combination of the two, video coaching, where teachers watch and discuss videos of their own practice with a coach, seems especially promising, but there is limited insight into how the design leads to desired teacher and student outcomes through mediating enactment processes. This review systematically synthesized the occurrences and co-occurrences of video coaching design features, enactment processes, teacher outcomes, and student impacts as reported in 59 empirical studies. The literature corpus contained information on design features for all studies, but the video coaching enactment processes were described in only half of the studies. Altogether, the studies showed that video coaching can support some positive teacher outcomes, such as changes in pedagogical behavior, but evidence was not consistently reported for all types of outcomes. Few studies examined impacts on learners. Taken together, this review revealed important gaps in knowledge, which highlights the importance of paying attention to unpacking teacher learning processes.
Chapter
Erken çocukluk dönemi, 0-8 yaş aralığını kapsar. Bu yıllar çocuk gelişiminin en önemli evresini oluşturmaktadır. Çocukların fiziksel, zihinsel ve sosyal gelişimi bu yıllarda çok hızlı bir şekilde değişmektedir. Erken çocukluk yıllarında, fiziksel, sosyal açıdan gelişme potansiyeli en yüksek yıllardır ve bu nedenle de bu dönemdeki eğitim çok önemlidir. Yapılan araştırmalar, bu dönemde geliştirilen davranışların büyük bir kısmının yetişkinlikte bireyin kişilik yapısını, tutumlarını, alışkanlıklarını, inançlarını ve değer yargılarını şekillendirdiğini göstermektedir. (Oktay, 2002; Akduman, 2010; Aral ve diğ., 2000). Bu dönemde çocuğun gelişimi çevre ile etkileşim sonucu gerçekleşir. Erken çocukluk döneminde çocuklarda elde edilmek istenen kazanımlar arasında sosyal ve düşünme becerilerinin geliştirilmesinin yanında kültürel farkındalığın oluşturulması da yer almaktadır (Senemoğlu, 1994). Kültürel miras kavramını tanımlarken nesiller arasında gerçekleşen doğal ve kültür ile ilgili değerlerin aktarımı ifade edilmektedir. Bu aktarımların gerçekleşmediği toplumsal değerlerin sürdürebilirliği mümkün değildir. Son yıllarda gerçekleşen değişimler (hava kirliliği, kentleşme, iklimsel nedenler, sanayileşme) toplumların hayat tarzını değiştirmektedir, bu da kültürel mirasın korunmasını ve aktarımını zorunlu kılmaktadır.
Article
Language skills are vital to children's learning and well-being, and the first 5 years of life are an especially critical time for language acquisition. Research suggests that when early childhood teachers create language-rich environments, children develop stronger receptive and expressive language abilities, especially children from low-income households who are more at risk for language delays. This study investigated the effects of a 10-week professional learning intervention focused on language-based interactions in early care and education settings that serve infants and toddlers on state childcare subsidy. The intervention with childcare providers was titled Filming Interactions to Nurture Development (FIND), which utilized video-based reflective practices to promote positive interactions between providers and children. Using a treatment–control design (control: n = 44; treatment: n = 42), we compared childcare providers' language practices. Provider language use was measured using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA), a wearable digital language processer. Results indicate that, as compared with the control group, FIND participation was associated with increased adult word count and conversational turns in facilities that serve the most vulnerable children. These results suggest the utility of video-based professional learning and automated data collection for supporting providers' positive interactions and improving the quality of infant/toddler programs.
Book
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Multilingual Approaches for Teaching and Learning outlines the opportunities and challenges of multilingual approaches in mainstream education in Europe. The book, which draws on research findings from several officially monolingual, bilingual, and multilingual countries in Europe, discusses approaches to multilingual education which capitalise on students’ multilingual resources from early childhood to higher education. This book synthesises research on multilingual education, relates theory to practice, and discusses different pedagogical approaches from diverse perspectives. The first section of the book outlines multilingual approaches in early childhood education and primary school, the second looks at multilingual approaches in secondary school and higher education, and the third examines the influence of parents, policy-makers, and professional development on the implementation and sustainability of multilingual approaches. The book demonstrates that educators can leverage students’ multilingualism to promote learning and help students achieve their full potential. This book will be of great interest to academics, researchers, and postgraduate students in the fields of language education, psychology, sociolinguistics, and applied linguistics.
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A variety of feedback strategies, including video feedback, have been employed to provide accurate and meaningful feedback to pre-service teachers about their own teaching. In addition, semi-structured interviews following teaching sessions can serve as an opportunity for self-analysis of desired teaching behaviors. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of video feedback and semi-structured interviews following teaching sessions for physical education pre-service teachers. Self-confidence and positive perceptions about their own teaching resulted and all participants improved in several target behaviors (use of feedback and use of student names) from the first round to the second round of teaching.
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The European Union wants to combat the effects of the aging population by creating complete employment. In order to achieve this, the combination of work and family must be made easier. However, for the European Union, childcare is not only seen as a prerequisite for employment, but also as a source of employment. In addition to wanting to create further jobs, the EU has emphasized the importance of these jobs being of ‘good quality.’Work must be made more attractive for more people. In other words: Europe wants to create not only more – but also better -- jobs in the childcare sector-. Quality employment is central to the EU’s objective of becoming a knowledge-based economy (European Commission 2001). Within the scientific community, there is a consensus on the fact that quality ECEC in the early years has a positive effect on the development of the child. In order to create a basis for ‘good quality childcare,’ it is necessary ‘to create a sustainable workforce, with the competencies and knowledge to deliver services of high quality’. There is a growing consensus within Europe regarding the necessity of improving professionalism in the childcare sector. However, there is no agreement regarding how this improvement should occur. The aim of this study is to better define the concept of professionalism in the professions dealing with young children. The overview of the scientific literature in the first part of this study shows That the professionalization of individuals is a learning process in which, again and again, meaning is given to the interpretation of the profession and which is continually done in relationship to others: the colleagues, the parents and the children. In light of this, the professionalization process can be seen as a social practice that is the consequence of interaction between, on the one hand, social evolutions, policy measures and new scientific insights and, on the other hand, the researchers, the staff at childcare centres and the parents and the children. The second part of the book focusses on the gender aspect. Caring for children is still seen in many member states as ‘women’s work’. Research clearly links this gender-biased concept of professionalism to poor salaries and low qualifications. A new concept of professionalism in care work with young children must be based on a gender-neutral concept. The presence of male staff members and the active involvement of fathers in the facilities are essential conditions for achieving a gender-neutral structure of professionalism. After all, gender-neutral professionalism can only develop through critical consideration and discussion between the male and the female staff members and with the fathers and mothers. The third part of the study will give an overview of professionalism in care work for young children in various EU countries and New Zealand. Our study has shown that Flanders is counteracting this evolution: for the past 25 years, the Flemish childcare sector has been undergoing a process of deprofessionalization. A more detailed study of professionalism in ECEC was initiated in four countries, selected because (according to the international surveys) they have developed an ‘interesting practice and policy’ with regard to professionalism. The study concludes that the integration of childcare (0 to 3 and 4-year olds) into a broader whole (education or ‘social welfare activities’) has given rise to a process of professionalization (the demand for higher education and higher salaries). In most EU-countries, there has been a tendency towards establishing bachelor level training courses. These graduates are assisted by less-qualified personnel who generally have a secondary education. The bachelor-level training courses in France, Denmark and New Zealand – and a number of ‘Early Years Foundation Degrees’ in England - train students to be reflective practioners, who must be capable of constructing practical, new knowledge. In these countries, we see methods develop in which the analysis of practices steers the learning process (reflective practice cycle, ‘analyse de pratiques’). In the training courses in France and Denmark, this is taken a step further by also including the coaching of lesser-qualified workers in the curriculum of the bachelor training course. In some Member States, unqualified workers from underprivileged groups receive dispensation for relevant practical experience if they take on a more advanced study. Finally, we will conclude that the countries with a clearly developed system of professionalism have invested a great deal in expanding the possibilities for vertical and horizontal mobility within all the professions dealing with young children. Everywhere in Europe, professionalism in childcare is on the political agenda. The ‘care concept’ is being increasingly set aside and childcare is becoming imbedded in a larger whole in which the parenting and social functions are being given an important place. Because of this, the professions in the childcare sector are being radically reformed in many European countries. Some countries are choosing a social-pedagogic vision, others have integrated childcare into the educational system. Within the EU and other international organizations, there is a consensus that the competencies and qualifications of staff members in the professions dealing with young children must be upgraded. There is a fascinating debate going on concerning the manner in which this must be done. The development of action-oriented competencies which give the staff member the ability to deal with complex situations and to develop his/her own practical pedagogic knowledge is a central focus here.
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Research Findings: This article reports on two studies. Study 1 considered ways in which Head Start teachers' (n = 90) psychosocial stressors are related to teachers' ability to maintain a positive classroom emotional climate and effective behavior management in preschool classrooms. Study 2 tested the hypothesis that among teachers randomly assigned to a treatment condition (n = 48), psychosocial stressors serve as important predictors of their use of an intervention designed to improve classroom emotional climate and behavior management. Practice or Policy: Findings from Study 1 were mixed; notably, teachers' personal stressors were moderately predictive of lower use of effective strategies of behavior management in the classroom. Findings from Study 2 suggest that psychosocial stressors are not a barrier to teachers' use of intervention services. Contrary to our expectations, teachers reporting more stressors attended more training sessions than did teachers reporting fewer stressors. Teachers reporting higher levels of stress availed themselves of less support from mental health consultants during classroom consultation visits offered to treatment group classrooms as part of the intervention.
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This randomized controlled trial tested whether teaching quality in Head Start classrooms could be improved with the addition of evidence-based curriculum components targeting emergent language or literacy and social-emotional development and the provision of associated professional development support. Participants were lead and assistant teachers in 44 Head Start classrooms. Teachers received 4 days of workshop training along with weekly in-class support from a mentor teacher. End-of-year observations indicated that compared with the control group, intervention teachers talked with children more frequently and in more cognitively complex ways, established a more positive classroom climate, and used more preventive behavior-management strategies. Results supported the conclusion that enriched curriculum components and professional development support can produce improvements in multiple domains of teaching quality.
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Over 1300 teachers from randomly selected child care centers in five representative metropolitan areas of the United States were interviewed and observed. Most were women in their childbearing years. Years of experience in the field of child care was not a good indicator of teacher behavior. Formal education was a better predictor than specialized training. However, both formal education and very high levels of specialized training prepare teachers to be effective in the classroom. For preschool teachers, it seems a bachelor''s degree in any subject or specialized training at the college level is an effective route in competent teaching. Infant and toddler teachers appear more likely to need college level specialized training.
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This meta-analysis demonstrates that the video feedback method has a statistically significant effect on the interaction skills of professionals in a range of contact professions. The aggregate effect, calculated on the basis of 217 experimental comparisons from 33 experimental studies involving a total of 1,058 people, was 0.40 standard deviation (SE = 0.07). The effects of training were greater for programs working with a standard observation form of target skills that were central to the program. Results were more positive for outcome measures that measured positive skills rather than negative ones. In addition, molar outcome measures, which were obtained by means of an assessment scale, showed larger effects than micromeasures, which were scored using event sampling. Finally, recommendations are made for video feedback design and for future research. KeywordsVideo feedback–Interaction skills–Professional communication–Meta-analysis
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Chapter
This book has provided a detailed analysis of skilled communication theory and practice. Without the necessary linguistic terminology to guide cognitive processes, it is not possible to conceptualise and deal effectively with complex problems. Since social interaction is a multifaceted process, it is essential to have a language with which to describe, analyse and attempt to understand this milieu. The wide glossary of interactional terms elucidated in this text, pertaining to verbal and nonverbal communication in groups and dyadic contexts, can be employed when observing, describing and evaluating interpersonal communication. An increased knowledge of the nature of communication should, in turn, be followed by an increase in interpersonal skill. Therefore, the information contained in this book can be used by the reader, who should be prepared to experiment with various social techniques to ensure the most effective response repertoire in any particular situation. It is anticipated that such experimentation will, for many professionals, occur in the context of a skills training programme. This chapter therefore examines the rationale for the skills approach to training, and the large body of research which has shown the effectiveness of this approach, as well as discussing criticisms of the skills perspective.
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In this paper, we describe the participation in a MOOC which was arranged by and for teachers in Sweden. The MOOC was organized as a community rather than a course, which meant that there was a skeletal structure to facilitate community engagement but no set learning goals or tasks that had to be done by the participants. This loose structure enables participants to attend to the MOOC in different ways. Based on answers to surveys, four ways of participation are mapped out in this article. The structure of the MOOC was based on connectivist notions of knowledge building and the central principals of autonomy, diversity, openness and interactivity. How connectivist thinking can be related to the participation in the MOOC is explored and tensions between the two are discussed. The importance of dialogue in order to develop connections for learning is an aspect which is regarded as important in this article. As professional development for teachers, the MOOC has both advantages and disadvantages. The openness of the MOOC is considered an advantage by some participants, but an obstacle by others. The openness means a flexibility of when and to what extent to participate, but it also creates an uncertainty of what is expected and how to participate.
Article
In a survey of a national sample (n = 568 children) of parents and nonparental caregivers from four types of child care—day care, after-school care, family day care, and babysitter care—we studied the attunement of childrearing attitudes between parents and nonparental caregivers and perceptions of their relationships to one another and to the child from an ecological systems perspective. Parents within the same family were rather consistent in their childrearing attitudes and beliefs, but we found some discontinuities between parents and professional caregivers in their childrearing attitudes and perceptions of the quality of the child-caregiver relationship. Lack of attunement in authoritarian control and support was associated with a lower degree of child well-being. Better communication between parents and caregivers was associated with greater attunement and with a higher degree of child well-being.
Article
Associations between early child care and children’s functioning though the end of third grade were examined. Some of the relations that had been detected before children’s school entry were maintained. Higher-quality child care continued to be linked to higher scores in math, reading, and memory. More time spent in center care was associated with better memory but also with more conflictual relationships. Some new associations were detected: More hours of care were linked to poorer work habits and poorer social skills. The relation between amount of care and externalizing behaviors decreased and was not significant in third grade. These findings support the relative independence of quality, quantity, and type of child care in relation to child developmental outcomes.
Article
Child care quality depends on child care regulation as plants depend on water. An insufficient amount guarantees problems, but an excessive amount may also be problematic. The principal responsibility for child care regulation in the United States resides with state government officials, who must regulate a highly diverse industry. Research shows that regulation promotes quality but that trade-offs exist. Quality improvements that undermine availability or affordability should be evaluated with care. Also, regulatory enforcement deserves as much attention as regulatory standard setting. To improve child care regulation, state policymakers should consider eliminating some local regulations, regulating more family day care homes, upgrading teacher-training requirements, allocating more resources to regulatory enforcement, and designing more effective enforcement strategies.
Article
In this cross-national study, observed process quality in preschool classrooms was compared across five countries—Austria (n = 37), Germany (n=103), Portugal (n=88), Spain (n=80), and the U.S.A. (n=390). Process quality was assessed using the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale (ECERS) and the Caregiver Interaction Scale (CIS). Both instruments had comparable properties when used in the different countries. A MANOVA found overall ECERS differences between countries, with Austria and Germany scoring higher than Spain, and Austria higher than the U.S.A. CIS Sensitivity scale differences showed Austria and Spain with higher scores than the U.S.A. Tests of homogeneity of variance showed U.S.A. with the highest standard deviations. A discriminant analysis, using countries as groups and ECERS items as criterion variables, revealed differences between countries on two discriminant functions: Personalized Care and Availability and Use of Space and Play Materials. Results are discussed in terms of the early childhood traditions and infrastructures found in the five countries.
Article
This investigation was conducted to teach paraprofessional staff members working with infants in a mainstreamed day care program to engage in more positive interactive behaviors during caregiving routines. Staff members were taught through brief individual training sessions to engage in interactive games during diaper changing. We used a multiple probe design across staff members to evaluate the training. Data were collected from video tapes of diapering and feeding routines. The results indicated that the staff members increased their frequency of game playing and other interactive behaviors during diapering, but the increases were not evident in the generalization feeding routines. This paper describes implications for training staff in mainstreamed settings.
Article
Previous studies consistently indicate that caregivers with more formal education in early childhood tend to provide higher quality child care. Caregiver training in these studies was characterized by the highest level of formal education that the caregiver achieved. Nevertheless, many caregivers continue to receive further training such as attending workshops or classes, even if they have obtained higher levels of formal education previously. In this study of 553 infant, toddler, and preschool-center classrooms, the association between classroom quality and both the highest level of formal education and whether the caregiver had attended training workshops at the center, in the community, or at professional meetings was examined. Results indicated that caregivers with formal education in early children or who attended workshops were rated as more sensitive in interactions with children and as providing higher quality care than other caregivers, even after adjusting for the caregivers' experience and differences related to state, adult-child ratios, and type of classroom. Furthermore, children in those caregivers' classes also had more advanced language skills if caregivers reported either formal or informal training. These findings must be interpreted cautiously because they are based on caregiver report of training, but they are encouraging because informal training is a common mechanism used to promote better quality child care.
Article
Reviews research demonstrating a positive relationship between children's quality interactions with teachers and their enhanced cognitive, socio-emotional, and language development. Discusses most frequently studied aspects of teacher behavior including roles, sensitivity/detachment, involvement and teacher talk. Describes influences on interactions including child characteristics, training, ratio, group size and curriculum. Summarizes implications for teachers, and lists recommended adult-child ratios. (AMC)
Article
Synthesizes research findings on how general education, specialized education, and experiences relate to early childhood professionals' teaching practices. Finds that teachers' formal education relates to classroom quality and effective teacher behavior. Specialized education may be causally related to classroom quality and is correlated with effective teacher behavior. Teacher's experience cannot be consistently linked to classroom quality or effective behavior. (KB)
Article
This introduction attempts to provide a context for the chapters that follow. In particular, it identifies the Good Start, Grow Smart initiative as a key policy context fostering greater emphasis on early childhood professional development as a means to enhance children's school readiness. This initiative addresses issues across all major types of early care and education (what we refer to as sectors): home- and center-based child care, Head Start, and pre-kindergarten. Although it would be far easier to focus on only one sector of early care and education (e.g., to make progress in measuring the size and qualifications of the child care workforce alone), a theme throughout the book will be the need to address research and practice to strengthen professional development across all sectors. To provide a context for this focus on all early care and education sectors, the chapter briefly summarizes recent findings on the numbers of young children participating in each of the types of early care and education and the extent of the public investment in each type. Then it turns to an overview of the facets of early childhood professional development examined in the different sections of this book, briefly previewing each chapter and the critical issues it raises. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The goal of this study was to explore the effects of reflective and traditional supervision and training on caregiver insightfulness. Caregiver insightfulness, or caregiver ability to understand “motives underlying the child's behavior in a complete, open, and accepting way” (D. Oppenheim, D. Goldsmith, & N. Koren-Karie, 2004, p. 352) was assessed at two time points with 21 new caregivers at two university-based childcare sites. Trends suggest that caregiver insightfulness was relatively stable while increased levels of components of caregiver insightfulness over a period of approximately 2.5 months were positively associated with reflective supervision and training. These findings suggest that encouraging caregivers to reflect on their interactions with the children in their care fosters caregivers' ability to see from the child's perspective in an open and accepting way.
Article
About 150 studies exist in print, examining the use of self modeling (mostly in the video medium) in a variety of training and therapeutic applications. Evidently, two lines of thoughts have driven the development of these applications: (a) an extension of peer modeling or (b) a description of personal success. Studies report self-modeling interventions for physical skills (rehabilitation, sports), academic and vocational issues, communication, and personal and social adjustment. A wide range of ages (toddler to grandparent) and diverse developmental conditions have been addressed. The most fruitful applications may be those that emphasize the image of future success—skills not previously attained and adaptive responses to a challenging context. Rather than examine efficacy related to target “problems,” this review identifies categories of application made possible by current knowledge and technology (e.g., use of hidden supports, selectively editing low-frequency behaviors). Seven such categories are identified and illustrated with descriptions of interventions. The evidence is used to argue for the recognition of learning from the observation of one's own successful or adaptive behavior (or images of it) as a mechanism in its own right.
Article
After a series of instrument development studies, a mail survey was conducted with 196 randomly selected family day care providers (FDCPs) and child care center workers (CCCWs) residing in the state of Maryland (response rates were 76.6% and 70.5%, respectively). Embedded in the instrument were three job stress scales, specific to child care workers, measuring job demands, job control, and job resources. Extensive psychometric testing of the three 17-item instruments demonstrated several areas of strength. The job demands scale, because of its breadth of stressors covered, fared slightly worse on indicators of reliability (alpha = 0.77; mean interitem correlation [MIC] = 0.17; item-to-total correlations [ITCs] = 0.14 to 0.49) than did job control (alpha = 0.88; MIC = 0.31; ITCs = 0.26 to 0.69) and job resources (alpha = 0.89; MIC = 0.35; ITCs = 0.32 to 0.70). Known groups validity was demonstrated through a conceptually meaningful pattern of differences between FDCPs and CCCWs. Construct validity for all three scales was demonstrated by a pattern of stronger correlations with conceptually similar versus dissimilar instruments. Average correlations with similar versus dissimilar instruments were: job demands, 0.54 versus 0.24; job control, 0.74 versus 0.30; and job resources, −0.53 versus 0.30. Similar to the reliability analysis, results of factor analysis were stronger for job control and job resources than for job demands.
Article
Given the importance of effective teaching to children’s development in child care and the difficulty of keeping highly educated teachers in the field, we examined pathways to effective teaching within a group of primarily African-American and Latino teachers working in child care programs serving low-income children. We used classroom observations to assess effective teaching, and clinical interviews and participant observation to understand pathways. Less than one-quarter of the teachers had BA degrees or higher. Only 20% of the teachers had had preservice training, and almost all of the teachers with preservice experiences were the BA level teachers. Over half of the teachers had been mentored as they began teaching either as a mother volunteer or as a beginning teacher. About 40% of the participants talked of staying in the field because of feeling responsible to and for a community; the remainder talked of staying for the children. About 40% of the participants experienced reflective supervision. The participants in this study, even those with less formal education than a BA degree, were more responsive and more engaged with children than participants in two more representative studies. In this sample, after controlling for formal education, responsive involvement could be predicted by staying in the field for the community, being mentored and being supervised. Engaging children in language play could be predicted by formal education and being supervised. Providing language arts activities could be predicted by formal education, being mentored and being supervised.
Article
Based on a series of qualitative and quantitative studies, a 20-item measure of work–family interface was developed and tested with a group of 188 childcare providers. The instrument, the Work–Family Interface Scale (W-FIS), had an overall alpha of .90 and a mean inter-item correlation (MIC) of .31. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test a five-factor structure with supportive evidence emerging. The factors were named General Overload (4 items), Conflict of Family to Work (4 items), Spillover of Family to Work (4 items), Spillover of Work to Family (3 items), and Conflict of Work to Family (5 items). Alpha coefficients were (in order) .85, .73, .83, .74, and .86; MICs were .59, .43, .55, .48, and .56. Multivariate analyses indicated that when entered into a regression analysis with job demands, job control, and job resources, only the W-FIS and job resources were related to depression symptoms (R2=.23). Work–family interface was found to mediate the association between job demands and depression symptoms; and the interaction term between job resources and work–family interface was significant when added to the regression analysis (p<.0001). Regression lines for low, medium, and high levels on work–family interface indicated that high levels of work–family interference and low job resources are associated with higher levels of depression symptoms.