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Effect of Diet Supplemented with Natural Humic Compounds and Sodium Humate on Performance and Selected Metabolic Variables in Broiler Chickens



The effect of humic substances from different sources on the performance and selected biochemical indicators was studied in 150 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) divided into control (C) and two tested groups (n = 50). Chickens of tested groups were fed diets supplemented with natural humic compounds (group HS) and sodium humate (group HNa) at amounts of 5 g·kg -1 of feeds in phase 1 and 7 g·kg -1 of feeds in phases 2 and 3 of the fattening period. Higher final body weights (not significant) were observed in both tested groups (2527.6 g for HS; 2481.5 g for HNa) than in the control group (2476.6 g). The feed conversion ratio throughout the whole experiment was lower in the HS group (P < 0.001) and higher in the HNa group (P < 0.001) compared to the control group. The European Efficiency Index reached at the end of the experiment was the highest in the HS group (P < 0.001) and the lowest in the HNa group compared to the control group. Differences in total protein, albumin, total lipids, triglycerides and phosphorus among the tested groups were not significant. Higher values of Ca (P < 0.05) in the HS group and lower cholesterol (P < 0.05) in the HNa group were observed after 14 days; lower AST (P < 0.05) in the HS group and lower calcium (P < 0.05) and higher glucose (P < 0.01) in the HNa group were observed after 35 days of the experiment in comparison with the control group.
Effect of Diet Supplemented with Natural Humic Compounds and Sodium Humate
on Performance and Selected Metabolic Variables in Broiler Chickens
Alena Šamudovská, Mária Demeterová
Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Animal Breeding, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy,
Košice, Slovak Republic
Received June 16, 2009
Accepted January 19, 2010
The effect of humic substances from different sources on the performance and selected
biochemical indicators was studied in 150 one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) divided
into control (C) and two tested groups (n = 50). Chickens of tested groups were fed diets
supplemented with natural humic compounds (group HS) and sodium humate (group HNa) at
amounts of 5 g·kg-1 of feeds in phase 1 and 7 g·kg-1 of feeds in phases 2 and 3 of the fattening
period. Higher nal body weights (not signicant) were observed in both tested groups
(2527.6 g for HS; 2481.5 g for HNa) than in the control group (2476.6 g). The feed conversion
ratio throughout the whole experiment was lower in the HS group (P < 0.001) and higher in the
HNa group (P < 0.001) compared to the control group. The European Efciency Index reached
at the end of the experiment was the highest in the HS group (P < 0.001) and the lowest in the
HNa group compared to the control group. Differences in total protein, albumin, total lipids,
triglycerides and phosphorus among the tested groups were not signicant. Higher values of Ca
(P < 0.05) in the HS group and lower cholesterol (P < 0.05) in the HNa group were observed after
14 days; lower AST (P < 0.05) in the HS group and lower calcium (P < 0.05) and higher glucose
(P < 0.01) in the HNa group were observed after 35 days of the experiment in comparison with
the control group.
Humic substances, production, biochemical indices
Humic substances are natural, yellow to brown-black coloured organic compounds
with a relatively high molecular weight ranging from 2 to 200 kDa, that originate from
the decomposition of plant and animal remains (Stevenson 1994). This process of
decomposition is called humication. Humic substances can be found in soil, peat, lignites,
brown coals, sewage, natural waters and their sediments. The content of humic substances
in these materials varies from trace amounts in sands and clays to tens of per cents (3-
10%) in brown coal. Extremely high amount (up to 85%) is present in the lignite, the peat
and the oxyhumolite (oxidised brown coal) (Pe ña- Mén dez et al. 2005; Sko kan o and
Dercová 2008). Humic substances contain humin, humic acid, fulvic acid, ulmic acid and
some microelements (Stevenson 1994) such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc (Aiken
et al. 1985). Nowadays, humic substances are used in agriculture, industry (building
industry, woodworking industry, ceramic industry and paper industry), environmental and
bio-medicine. In agriculture they are used mainly as fertilizers in the form of humates to
increase soil fertility, to increase transfer of micronutrients from soil to plants, to increase
seed germination rates, and to reduce the usage of mineral fertilizers (P eña - nde z et
al. 2005). The main function of humic substances in environmental chemistry is to reduce
the toxic effect of residual amounts of heavy metals, herbicides, fungicides, insecticides,
nematicides, dioxins and radionuclides and other harmful substances in water and soil (Shin
et al. 1999; Loffre do et al. 2000; Kucuker san et al. 2005). In the veterinary medicine
they are used in horses, ruminants, swine and poultry for the treatment of diarrhoea,
dyspepsia and acute intoxications. They have a protective action on the mucosa of the
intestine via a protective lm formation (Kucuker san et al. 2005). They can also bind
ACTA VET. BRNO 2010, 79: 385–393; doi:10.2754/avb201079030385
Address for correspondence:
MVDr. Alena Šamudovská
Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Animal Breeding
University of Veterinary Medicine, Komenského 73
041 81 Košice, Slovak Republic
Phone: +421 910 460 957
toxic metals and other toxic substances by the formation of insoluble and non-resorbable
complexes (A lva rez -Puebla et al. 2004) and have antiphlogistic and antimicrobial
properties (EMEA 1999). In recent years the interest in the use of humic substances in
animal husbandry has increased. Many authors in their studies observed an improvement
in growth and feed conversion, and reduction of animal mortality after addition of humic
substances into feedstuff (Er en et al. 2000; Koc aba ğli et al. 2002; Karaoglu et al. 2004;
Ji et al. 2006; El- Hus sei ny et al. 2008). An improvement in egg production and egg
weight was observed in a study of the effect of humic acids in laying hens performed by
Kucukersan et al. (2005). Although there is not enough evidence to hypothesize how
humates promote growth, it is assumed that humates might increase the uptake of nitrogen,
phosphorus and other nutrients due to their chelating properties (Kocabağli et al. 2002).
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of
natural humic compounds and sodium humate on the performance and selected biochemical
indicators of broilers.
Materials and Methods
Birds and diets
In this study, a total of 150 unsexed one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308) obtained from a commercial supplier
were used. Chickens were weighed, randomly divided into three groups: one control (C) and two tested groups (HS,
HNa) with 50 chicks per group. Birds were housed on deep bedding in agreement with the technological instruction for
Ross 308 chickens, with controlled light, temperature, animal hygiene and feeding regime. Birds were fed a complete
mixture in the mash form according to the growth phases (phase 1: week 1 to 2; phase 2: week 3 to 5; phase 3: week
6) ad libitum. The composition of feed mixtures is shown in Table 1. The tested group diets were supplemented with
natural humic compounds (oxyhumolite - total humic acids 68%, free humic acids 48%, minerals 18%; locality Dudar,
Hungary) (group HS) and sodium humate (dry matter 84.8%, humic acids 63.2%, ash 36.9% in dry matter) (group
HNa) at different amounts: 5 g·kg-1 of diet during rst two weeks and 7 g·kg-1 of diet from week 3 to 6. No antibiotic
growth promoters or anticoccidials were used in the diets.
Birds were individually weighed and the feed consumption was observed weekly. Body weight gain (BWG) and
feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Mortality was recorded as it occurred and percentage of mortality
was determined on day 35 and at the end of the study. The following equation was used for the evaluation of
results using European Efciency Index (EEI):
EEI = live weight (kg) × liveability × 100
age (days) × feed conversion
Blood samples were collected from ten birds in each group on days 14 and 35 of experiment from the jugular
vein for biochemical analysis.
The experiment was carried out in the barns of the Institute of Animal Nutrition and Dietetics at the University
of Veterinary Medicine in Košice in compliance with the EU regulations concerning the protection of experimental
animals. The experiment was carried out with the consent of the institutional Animal Care and University Ethics
Analytical methods
Diets were analyzed for dry mater, crude protein, ether extract, crude bre and ash by the AOAC (2001).
Total protein, albumin, glucose, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate
aminotransferase, calcium and phosphorus blood serum concentrations were determined by spectrophotometry
using commercial Bio-La-Tests (Pliva-LaChema Brno Ltd., Czech Republic).
Statistical analysis
Statistical evaluation of the effects of natural humic compounds and sodium humate on body weight, feed
conversion ratio, European Efciency Index and biochemical indices of chickens among the groups was performed
by one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) and signicance of mean differences between the groups was tested by
Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test (level of signicance set at P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001).
Results and Discussion
Composition, nutrient and metabolizable energy content of diets for the control and
tested groups used in experimental periods are shown in Table 1. Diets used in the control
and tested groups in respective periods were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous.
There were no signicant differences in the initial body weights of chicks between
groups at the beginning of the experiment (C 41.5 ± 0.5 g; HS 40.8 ± 0.5 g; HNa 40.9 ± 0.5
g). Birds in both tested groups had higher nal body weights than birds in the control group
(Table 2). The highest nal body weight was found in the group of birds fed the diet with
natural humic compounds (HS), but with no signicant differences between groups. The
body weights of chickens in both tested groups were lower compared to the control group
in the individual weeks of
the experiment until week 5.
Signicant differences were
observed between the HNa
group and the control group
after the rst week of the
experiment (10.3 %; P < 0.01).
The average body weight
gain and feed conversion ratio
values in respective phases are
shown in Table 3. The average
BWG was lower in both tested
Table 1. Composition, nutrient and metabolizable energy content of diets
C - control group; HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium humate; DM - Dry
matter; ME - Metabolizable energy
1, 2, 3 mineral-vitamin premix (per kg) 1 – Ca 95 g, P 135 g, Na 75 g, Mg 5 g, DL-methionine 80 g, vit.A 600,000
IU, D3 135,000 IU, E 900 mg, K3 150 mg, panthotenic acid 600 mg, niacin 4000 mg, cholin chloride 20,000 mg,
B6 150 mg, B12 900 g, biotin 3000 g, folic acid 76,000 g, vit. C 2000 mg, Fe 1500 mg, Cu 500 mg, Zn 3000
mg, Mn 5000 mg, I 25 mg, Se 23 mg, Co 10 mg, 2 – Ca 100 g, P 135 g, Na 75 g, Mg 5 g, DL-methionine 80 g,
vit. A 425,000 IU, D3 84,000 IU, E 900 mg, K3 100 mg, pantotenic acid 420 mg, niacin 3400 mg, cholin chloride
14,200 mg, B6 100 mg, B12 640 g, biotin 2150 g, folic acid 54,500 g, vit.C 1400 mg, Fe 1500 mg, Cu 500 mg,
Zn 3000 mg, Mn 5000 mg, I 25 mg, Se 23 mg, Co 10 mg, 3 – Ca 110 g, P 145 g, Na 75 g, Mg 9 g, DL-methionine
55 g, vit. A 370,000 IU, D3 135,000 IU, E 900 mg, K3 95 mg, panthotenic acid 370 mg, niacin 3880 mg, cholin
chloride 14,000 mg, B6 95 mg, B12 560 g, biotin 1850 g , folic acid 47,000 g, vit.C 1240 mg, Fe 1500 mg, Cu
500 mg, Zn 3000 mg, Mn 5000 mg, I 25 mg, Se 23 mg, Co 10 mg
4 – oxyhumolite - (locality Dudar, Hungary)
Week 1–2 Week 3–5 Week 6
Ingredients (g·kg-1) C HS HNa C HS HNa C HS HNa
Maize 435 435 435 500 500 500 500 500 500
Wheat 121 116 116 90 83 83 104 97 97
Soybean meal (45%) 360 360 360 330 330 330 310 310 310
Vegetable oil 40 40 40 40 40 40 50 50 50
Limestone 20 20 20 16 16 16 15 15 15
Vitamin-mineral premix1,2,3 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20
Lysine 4 4 4 4 4 4 1 1 1
Natural humic compounds4 5.0 7.0 7.0
Sodium humate 5.0 7.0 7.0
Analysis (
Dry mater 896.9 895.6 898.3 900.2 898.0 897.0 893.9 896.6 905.8
Crude protein 249.9 251.2 249.4 230.5 225.6 232.1 218.7 214.6 221.9
Ether extract 70.1 69.5 72.3 71.9 69.7 69.0 80.3 81.8 78.3
Crude bere 36.7 37.1 40.2 44.3 42.3 37.2 42.6 36.3 38.3
Ash 82.3 81.7 73.7 66.9 68.9 66.3 66.0 70.8 68.6
ME ( DM) 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.5 13.5
Table 2. Average body weight (g/chick) of broilers during experiment
(x ± SEM)
Week Control HS HNa
1 125.7 ± 3.1a 119.5 ± 2.5 112.7 ± 2.7b
2 342.9 ± 11.6 332.9 ± 8.4 312.0 ± 10.9
3 726.2 ± 29.4 706.4 ± 22.6 677.1 ± 30.4
4 1292.0 ± 45.4 1264.7 ± 31.5 1201.2 ± 49.3
5 1926.9 ± 56.0 1918.5 ± 42.6 1880.3 ± 54.7
6 2476.6 ± 74.7 2527.6 ± 68.8 2481.5 ± 80.6
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium
humate, ab signicant differences (P < 0.01)
groups than in the control
group throughout phase 1 of
the study. The lowest BWG
was observed in the HNa
group. Throughout phase 2 the
highest BWG were in the HS
group and the lowest in the
HNa group. Both tested groups
had higher BWG than the
control group in phase 3. The
highest BWG were observed
in the HS group. Considering
the whole experiment period
the BWG were higher in both
tested groups than in the control
group (HS 2486.8 g, HNa
2440.8 g, C 2435.1 g) (Fig. 1). The most intensive growth rate was noticed in chickens of
the HS group. Noticeably higher intensity of growth was observed in both tested groups
from week 4 of the experiment.
While in phase 1 the FCR in the HS group was higher (P < 0.01) and in phase 2 similar
to control, in phase 3 it was signicantly lower (P < 0.01). The FCR was higher in the
HNa group in all phases of the study (signicantly in phase 2, P < 0.01) compared to
control. The FCR throughout the whole experimental period was signicantly lower in
the HS group (1.69 kg·kg-1 BWG) (P < 0.001) and signicantly higher in the HNa group
(1.86 kg·kg-1 BWG) (P < 0.001) compared to control (1.77 kg·kg-1 BWG) (Fig. 2).
Apparently, the higher weight gain in the HS group was caused by better feed efciency,
whereas in the HNa group by higher feed intake.
Similar to our study, the best stimulating effect on the growth of chickens in the last
weeks of experiment was observed in the study by Kocabli et al. (2002) who examined
the effects of dietary humate (Farmagülatör DRYTM) supplementation at 2.5 kg/per ton of
feed on broiler performance from day 0 to day 42. Body weights of chickens at 21 days
were not affected by the dietary regimens. Body weights and feed conversion ratio of
broilers were signicantly affected by the dietary humate treatments at 42 days.
Table 3. Average body weight gains (g/chick) and feed conversion
ratio (kg feed consumed/kg weight gain) of broilers during experiment
(x ± SEM)
Control HS HNa
Body weight gains
week 1 - 2 301.4 292.2 271.0
week 3 - 5 1584.1 1585.6 1568.3
week 6 549.6 609.1 601.5
Feed conversion ratio
week 1 - 2 1.15 ± 0.017a 1.24 ± 0.012b 1.18 ± 0.015
week 3 - 5 1.71 ± 0.013a 1.72 ± 0.013a 1.80 ± 0.010b
week 6 2.29 ± 0.033a 1.85 ± 0.073b 2.38 ± 0.068c
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium
ab signicant differences (P < 0.01); bc signicant differences (P < 0.001)
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium humate
Fig. 1. Average body weight gain (g/chick) throughout the experiment (42 days)
Signicantly higher growth rate and better
feed conversion were also observed in chickens
fed diets containing 0.25% and 0.125% of humic
substances (Farmagülatör DRYTM) compared to
chickens fed a diet without any supplements and
chickens fed a diet containing natural mineral
clay (Diatomaceous Earth) in the study of El -
Husseiny et al. (2008).
Karaoglu et al. (2004) reported that
humate supplementation to diets of broilers (at
concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%) had no
effect on the performance. A slight improvement
(approximately 2% compared to control) was
observed in the feed conversion ratio for the
group fed the diet containing 0.1% humate.
Ozturk et al. (2010) found improved body
weight gains and feed efciency without affecting
the feed intake of broiler chicken when humic
acid was added to the drinking water at a dose of
300 ppm. The high humic acid-treated chickens
(450 ppm) showed a reduction in body weight.
Yörük et al. (2004) observed that feed
conversion efciency (weight of feed/weight
of eggs) in laying hens decreased linearly with
increasing concentrations of supplemental
Mortality in the control group fed the diet
without supplementation was higher than that
in groups fed diets containing humic substances
(C 4.1%; HS 4.0%; HNa 0%). No changes in the
health status of chickens were noticed during the
whole experimental period. The cause of death
of chickens in control and HS groups was the
sudden death syndrome. Our results were similar
to the results of studies by rük et al. (2004),
Karaoglu et al. (2004) and Islam et al. (2008).
The values of European Efciency Index
were lower in both tested groups (321.9 for
HS; 317.5 for HNa) compared to the control
group on day 35 of the study (326.7) (Fig. 3)
with a signicant difference between the HNa
and control groups (P < 0.05). The highest EEI
values were observed in the HS group (342.7)
(P < 0.001) on day 42 of the experiment due
to more intense growth and better FCR, which
represents a difference of 7.2% (319.7) and
8.0% (317.4) compared to control and HNa
groups, respectively. The lowest EEI value
was in the HNa group. A higher EEI in the
treatment group compared to the control group
was reported by He rzi g et al. (2001) who
After 14 days After 35 days
Control HS HNa Control HS HNa
Total protein (g·l-1) 26.54 1.89 28.97 1.10 27.45 1.22 29.93 0.90 27.04 0.78 27.97 0.73
Albumin (g·l-1) 12.90 0.30 14.01 0.47 12.91 0.45 13.85 0.50 13.67 0.45 12.15 0.70
Glucose (mmol·l-1) 13.81 0.34 14.87 0.83 14.86 0.47 12.54 0.67a 14.02 0.51 15.03 0.33c
Total lipids (g·l-1) 5.27 0.26 5.85 0.43 5.43 0.25 3.88 0.40 3.93 0.17 4.84 0.22
Cholesterol (mmol·l-1) 3.66 0.39a 2.88 0.15 2.41 0.38b 3.00 0.14 3.05 0.16 3.55 0.15
Triglycerides (mmol·l-1)
2.94 0.50 2.84 0.39 2.97 0.39 0.61 0.13 0.64 0.10 0.55 0.09
ALP (μkat·l-1) 437.27 53.02 615.49 80.50a 319.86 45.11b 111.46 27.48 118.30 12.89 108.55 19.13
AST (μkat·l-1) 1.70 0.15 1.59 0.19 1.54 0.25 3.17 0.32a 1.96 0.23b 2.54 0.35
Ca (mmol·l-1) 2.63 0.05a 3.68 0.35b 3.25 0.17 2.38 0.06a 2.20 0.06 2.11 0.05b
P (mmol·l-1) 2.35 0.10 2.00 0.08 2.26 0.19 2.77 0.14 3.10 0.27 2.99 0.30
Table 4. Metabolic variables in chicken blood serum (x SEM; n = 10) after 14 and 35 days of experiment
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium humate; ab signicant differences (P < 0.05); ac signicant differences (P < 0.01)
spread a humin acid-based sorbent (oxyhumolite) onto the oor of the room where the
experimental group of broiler chickens was kept.
The metabolic variables in blood serum analysed on days 14 and 35 of the study are
shown in Table 4. While after 14 days of experiment, the concentrations of total protein
and albumin were higher in both tested groups than in control, after 35 days of experiment
the values of both variables were lower in the tested groups than in control. Differences
between groups were not signicant. The variables of energy metabolism after 14 days
of the study showed non-signicantly higher concentrations of glucose and total lipids,
and lower concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in the HS group than in control.
Higher concentrations of glucose, total lipids and triglycerides and signicantly lower
concentrations of cholesterol (P < 0.05) were observed in the HNa group compared to
control. Values of the above mentioned energy metabolism variables were higher in the
HS group than in control after 35 days. No signicant differences were observed between
groups. Lower concentrations of triglycerides, higher concentrations of cholesterol and
total lipids, and signicantly higher concentrations of glucose (P < 0.01) were measured in
the HNa group compared to control after 35 days. The activity of AST after days 14 and 35
was lower in both treatment groups than in control with a signicant difference after day 35
between control and the HS group (P < 0.05). Signicantly higher activity of ALP in the HS
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium humate; ***P < 0.001
HS - group with natural humic compounds; HNa - group with sodium humate; *P < 0.05; ***P < 0.001
Fig. 2. Average feed conversion ratio throughout the experiment (42 days)
Fig. 3. European Efciency Index on days 35 and 42 of the study
day 35 day 42
group than in the HNa group (P < 0.05) was noticed after day 14. The difference between
HS and control groups was not signicant. Higher values of ALP activity in the HS group
compared to the HNa and control groups but without any signicant differences were also
found after day 35. The increase of ALP activity may be induced by osteoblast activity,
such as skeletal growth, which is greater in young and growing animals (Hassanaba di
et al. 2007). Herzig et al. (2009) found non-signicantly higher ALP activity in chickens
after treatment with a diet containing humic acid (500 mg per chicken and day). Whereas
in both tested groups higher contents of Ca and lower contents of P compared to control
were found after day 14, lower contents of Ca and higher contents of P were found in
tested groups compared to control after day 35. Signicant differences were noticed in the
contents of Ca between HS and control groups after day 14 (P < 0.05) and between HNa
and control groups after day 35 (P < 0.05). The increase of serum Ca after day 14 can be
one of the contributory factors of better growth and performance (Kadam et al. 2009).
The reduction of serum concentrations of Ca after day 35 may be due to metal chelating
effects of humic acids that are affected by a large number of carboxylic acid side chains
(Klocking 1994).
Rath et al. (2006) using humic acids in the diets for broiler chickens at concentrations of
0.5, 1.0 and 2.5% observed their effect on serum chemistry values at high concentration after
5 weeks of trial. Except for cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase,
there was a trend of decrease in protein, albumin, glucose, creatine kinase, blood urea
nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotranspherase, Ca, Fe and P concentrations.
Avci et al. (2007) reported that biochemical indicators such as P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, total
protein, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride of Japanese quails were not affected by the
dietary humic acids at amounts of 360, 480 and 600 mg/kg of diet. But concentrations of
Ca were signicantly increased in the experimental groups compared to control.
Signicantly lower concentrations of cholesterol in serum of chickens fed a diet
supplemented with humate (Farmagülatör DRYTM) at concentrations 0.25 and 0.125% on
day 35 of trial were found by El-Husseiny et al. (2008).
Kaya and Tunc er (2009) found that live weights, weight gains, feed intake, feed
conversion ratio as well as serum total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol values in broiler
chickens were not signicantly affected by the addition of humic acids at the amount of
2.5 kg per ton of feed.
Comparing results of studies by many researches worldwide, performance differences
due to humate supplementation might result from the compositional differences among the
commercially available humate products (Kocabağli et al. 2002).
In conclusion, our study showed that the addition of natural humic substances to the broiler
chicken diets yields better results on the performance than the addition of sodium humate.
The nal body weight was non-signicantly higher in both tested groups than in the control
group. The feed conversion ratio was signicantly better in the HS group and worse in
the HNa group compared to the control group. At the end of the experiment, on day 42 of
chickens age, signicantly higher EEI values were observed in the HS group due to more
intensive growth and better feed conversion compared to the control and HNa groups.
Vplyv suplementácie kŕmnych zmesí prírodnými humínovými látkami
a humátom sodným na produkciu a niektoré ukazovatele
intermediárneho metabolizmu u brojlerových kurčiat
V pokuse bol sledovaný vplyv humínových látok z rozličných zdrojov na produkciu
a niektoré biochemické ukazovatele u brojlerových kurčiat (n = 150, Ross 308) rozde-
lených do kontrolnej (skupina C) a dvoch pokusných skupín (n = 50) kŕmených diétou su-
plementovanou prírodnými humínovými látkami (skupina HS) a humátom sodným (skupi-
na HNa) v množstve 5 g·kg-1 krmiva v prvej a 7 g·kg-1 krmiva v druhej a tretej fáze výkrmu.
V oboch pokusných skupinách bola zaznamenaná nesignikantne vyššia nálna hmotnosť
kurčiat (HS 2527,6 g; HNa 2481,5 g) ako v kontrolnej skupine (C 2476.6 g). Za celé sle-
dované obdobie bola v skupine HS zaznamenaná nižšia (P < 0,001) a v skupine HNa vyššia
(P < 0,001) konverzia krmiva v porovnaní s kontrolnou skupinou. V skupine HS bola na
konci pokusu stanovená vyššia (P < 0,001) a v skupine HNa nižšia hodnota Indexu efek-
tívnosti výkrmu oproti kontrolnej skupine. Rozdiely v koncentrácii celkových proteínov,
albumínu, celkových lipidov, triglyceridov a fosforu v krvnom sére medzi skupinami nebo-
li štatistický významné. Po 14 dňoch pokusu bola v skupine HS nameraná vyššia hladina
vápnika (P < 0,05), v skupine HNa nižšia hladina cholesterolu (P < 0,05) a po 35 dňoch
bola v skupine HS nameraná nižšia hladina AST (P < 0,05) a v skupine HNa nižšia hladina
vápnika (P < 0,05) a vyššia hladina glukózy (P < 0,01) ako v kontrolnej skupine.
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Slovak Republic (research project VEGA No.
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... Studies on the use of HAs in livestock nutrition have confirmed their positive effects on animal growth, yield and reproduction (Ji et al. 2006;Agazzi et al. 2007;Cusack 2008;Wang et al. 2008;Gasparovic et al. 2017;Sladecek et al. 2018). The beneficial effects of HAs on selected production indicators, such as the increased gains, feed conversion, egg production, egg weight and the decreased mortality have been confirmed in poultry (Kocabagli et al. 2002;Yoruk et al. 2004;Kucukersan et al. 2005;Avci et al. 2007;Ozturk et al. 2010;Samudovska and Demeterova 2010;Ozturk et al. 2012;Supriyati et al. 2015;Arpasova et al. 2016;Lala et al. 2016). ...
... The Ca concentration increase could be considered as a positive effect for their roles in the bone metabolism and structure (Ozturk et al. 2012). On the other hand, Samudovska and Demeterova (2010) reported a potential effect of HAs depending on the length of administration in broiler chickens. Higher concentrations of Ca and lower concentrations of P occurred after 14 days when compared to the control group, and lower concentrations of Ca and higher concentrations of P were observed after 35 days in the experimental groups in comparison to the control. ...
... In our study, only slight and non-significant changes in these values were observed. Contrary, an increase of such indicators following a 14-day administration and a decrease after 35 days were reported by Samudovska and Demeterova (2010). Furthermore, a decrease of CK and ALT is comparable with Rath et al. (2006), however, the activities of ALP showed an opposite tendency in the present study. ...
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This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of humic acids (HAs) on the selected serum biochemistry parameters and oxidative status markers in common pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). The control birds were fed a diet with no HA additives, while the birds in the experimental groups were fed diets containing HAs at the level of 0.5% (EG1), 0.75% (EG2) and 1.0% (EG3) from 1 to 90 days of age. The blood sodium concentration decreased (P < 0.01) in the group fed by 1.00% HAs compared to the control birds. The concentration of potassium in the EG2 group increased (P < 0.05) in comparison to the control group. The EG1 group showed a higher (P < 0.01) serum glucose than the EG2 group. Significant differences (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) were also found between the experimental groups (EG1 vs EG2, and EG2 vs EG3) in the cholesterol concentrations. The birds in the experimental groups showed lower ROS (reactive oxygen species) and MDA (malondialdehyde) production. An opposite effect was observed in the TAC (total antioxidant capacity), where its values significantly increased in the experimental groups. The diet supplementation affected the enzymatic antioxidant system of the fattened pheasants, and so the HAs exhibited an antioxidant potential in these birds.
... However, HA supplementation did not significantly affect on albumin and Alb/Glo ratio of broiler at 39 day of age. In this connection, Šamudovská and Demeterová (2010) reported that fed diets supplemented with natural humic compounds (HS) and sodium humate (HNa) improved total protein. However, Avci et al. (2007) reported that no significant differences in serum total protein was observed for chicks received HA compared with the control group. ...
... With respect to blood glucose, , Rath et al. (2006) revealed that there was a trend for decrease in glucose in broiler chickens of humic acid (HA). However, Šamudovská and Demeterová (2010) reported that when chickens were fed diets supplemented with humic compounds, higher value of glucose was observed at 35 days of age compared to control group. Data concerning the effects of HA on the blood serum lipid profile of broiler at 39 day of age are shown in Table 6. ...
... In the majority of the publish research, it is evident that HS modulates the use of energy toward reductions of the lipid content in chicken and pig meat but increases the milk fat content in cows and goat. In HS-added broilers, reductions of the total lipid content of liver [125] fat content in the breast meat [62, 114,129] and blood cholesterol levels [68,110,[135][136][137] have been reported. In HS-added broilers and laying hens, HS linearly decreased serum triglycerides and very low-density lipoproteins concentrations [68,130] and also reduced the cholesterol content in the eggs yolk [138]. ...
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A review of the latest research on the addition of humic substances (HSs) in the drinking water or feed of farm animals including poultry, pigs, dairy cows and calves, goats, and rabbits was carried out. The results reinforces the promoted protective action of HS on the digestive mucosa, their antioxidant properties, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory attributes, the suggested microbial shift to a probiotic-type bacteria in the gut, including antiparasitic and antifungal effects, as well as their influence on the higher efficient of minerals, proteins, and lipids utilization within the body. The outstanding improvements in health, productivity, and meat and milk quality obtained from animals supplemented with HS are common features in the majority of available research. The main benefits in the gastrointestinal tract stem from the formation of protective barriers on the epithelial mucosa due to its colloidal properties and stimulation of mucin production. HS also promotes the development of probiotic microbiota and positive changes in bacterial fermentation patterns, which results in improved intestinal health and integrity. As a result, a cascade of benefits is derived within the body, reinforcing antioxidant protection responses, immunomodulation, and anti-inflammation mechanisms, as well as improving nutrient utilization efficiency. However, the truly molecular mechanisms of action of HS in the intestine and throughout the body remain unknown.
... Humic substances-humic acids, fulvic acids, and humins-are natural organic substances found in soil, formed by humification of dead organic matter. A rich source of these compounds is oxyhumolite (oxidised brown coal) [11]. Humic acids are the main component of these substances. ...
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The study was conducted to determine the effect of humic mineral substances from oxyhumolite added to the diet of Holstein-Friesian cows on the coagulation properties, proximate chemical composition, and mineral profile of milk. The experiment was conducted on 64 cows divided into two groups of 32 each, control (CON) and experimental (H). The group H cows received the humic mineral substances as feed additive, containing 65% humic acids, for 60 days (100 g cow/day). Milk samples were collected twice, after 30 and 60 days. After 30 days no significant changes were observed in the chemical composition, somatic cell count (SCC), mineral content (except potassium), or curd texture parameters. However, the coagulation properties improved. The milk from group H after both 30 and 60 days coagulated significantly (15%) faster on average (p < 0.05), and the curd was about 36% and 28% firmer after 30 and 60 days, respectively (p < 0.05). After 60 days there was an increase in the content of fat (by 0.27 p.p.; p = 0.041), protein (by 0.14 p.p.; p = 0.012), and casein (by 0.12 p.p.; p = 0.029). SCC decreased by 20% (p = 0.023). The curds were significantly harder and less fracturable compared to the control. Calcium and iron content increased as well. The results indicate that humic mineral substances from oxyhumolite in the diet of cows can improve the suitability of milk for cheese production.
... Simultaneously, with an increase in productivity, the redox balance may change [7][8][9][10][11]. Due to the broad interest in the antioxidant properties of humic substances, a comparison of the mechanisms of their effect on poultries and rodents (animals far removed from each other in the systematic evolutionary hierarchy) is an urgent issue in biology, veterinary medicine, ecology, and agriculture [12][13][14][15]. The elucidation of such mechanisms and the establishment of interconnections between different living organisms that differ in metabolism and regulation of the antioxidant system make it possible to give recommendations when raising highly productive animals. ...
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Our study's goal was to determine the oxidation states of formed elements of the blood, and mitochondria of liver and muscles of chicken and gerbils could help establish and compare the humic substance's impact. The experiment was carried out on hens of the Lohmann Braun, chicken-broilers of the Cobb 500 cross, and 6-months-old gerbils, which were kept under standard conditions. Experimental hens, chicken-broilers, and gerbils were divided into 2 groups: 1 – intact animals (control), 2 – animals, which added to the drinking water a 1% solution of the fodder biologically active additive of humic nature (Humilid or Hydrohumate) in the optimal amount for 21 days. Results showed that Humilid and Hydrohumate tested in our experiment activated the protective systems in cells against toxic radicals. The species-specific effects of the components of studied humates were established: the activation of the glutathione blood protection system of hens; catalase activation in mitochondria of white muscles of chicken-broilers; activation of catalase and increase of concentration of cytochrome C in liver mitochondria of gerbils. Our results indicate the elucidation of the mechanisms of humic.
... The authors also recorded a decrease in the concentrations of ALP and AST in the blood of broilers fed with a 1.0% and 1.25% HS feed addition. On the other hand, no significant decrease of AST and ALP after feeding with HS was found by Šamudovská and Demeterová (2010), however, it is important to consider that the concentration of added HS was lower (0.5%) in their experiment. ...
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Humic substances are currently being considered as a new feed component in replacement of antibiotic growth stimulators to improve growth and health in animals. The aim of our work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of humic substances to the feed at concentrations of 0.8% and 1.0% on the growth parameters, carcass yield, selected blood enzymes, minerals, and the bone quality in broiler chickens. One hundred fifty COBB 500 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into one control and two experimental groups (n = 50) with three replications (16, 16 and 17 per pen), and fattened for 35 days. The broilers of the experimental groups (H0.8 and H1.0) were fed commercial feed mixtures with added humic substances (at 8 g·kg ⁻¹ and 10 g·kg ⁻¹ ). The control group was fed a diet without the addition of humic substances. A slight increase in the final body weight and feed conversion ratio was noted in the experimental groups ( P > 0.05). Significantly higher yields of breast and thigh meat ( P < 0.05) were recorded for the experimental group H1.0. The blood cholesterol level was lower for both experimental groups. A lower concentration of alkaline-phosphatase was observed in group H1.0. A decrease in aspartate aminotransferase and calcium was recorded for group H0.8. A significantly higher content of calcium and lower content of phosphorus was found in the bones of experimental animals. The 1% addition of humic substances had a positive impact on growth parameters ( P > 0.05), improved selected blood indices and increased the calcium content in the bones of broilers ( P < 0.05).
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Recently, the problem of increasing the productivity of farm animals is one of the most important for veterinary medicine. Since the animals “programmed” for maximum productivity by selection turned out to be excessively exposed to anthropogenic and biological negative factors, the result of this is a decrease in their productivity. Conducted toxicological, microbiological, mycological and chromatographic studies of the organic feed additive ˮGreenat“, which includes humic acids. It is promising to study the possibility of using preparations containing humic substances to increase the productivity of farm animals and poultry, to enhance the general nonspecific resistance of the body. Given that peat is the raw material for the manufacture of the additive, toxicity, mycological and microbiological indicators are extremely important. Toxicological studies (bioassays on rabbits and Colpoda steinii culture) proved the absence of toxic substances, as evidenced by the activity of the colpoda infusoria for 10 minutes and 3 hours of the study, and the absence of hyperemia and inflammation on the skin of the rabbit. The number of mold fungi does not exceed the allowable limits of 1.5x102 CFU/g (according to the norm 5.0x104), qualitative studies revealed and identified by mass spectrometry the mold fungi A. alternata; C. cladosporioides, which belong to saprophytes and get into the organic feed additive "Grinat" from the remains of plants during their decomposition. Microscopic fungi Alternaria spp. participate in the decomposition and mineralization of plant residues due to the polygalacturonase enzyme complex, which allows them to attach themselves and exist in various conditions. Cladosporium spp. found outdoors and indoors, in degraded organic debris, produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics that are inhibitors of B. subtilis, E. coli, and C. albicans. Microbiologically, Maldi Tof mass spectrometry detected Bacillus megaterium, which belongs to soil bacteria, and Staphylococcus hominis, found as a harmless commensal on the skin of humans and animals. Chromatographically confirmed the presence of essential amino acids: leucine (0.120%), valine (0.089%), threonine (0.064%), phenylalanine (0.039%), isoleucine (0.024%), histidine (0.021), methionine (0.011%), lysine (0.05%), tryptophan (0.007%). Accordingly, conditionally replaceable and non-essential amino acids, which can help to avoid a shortage of feed components in animal diets. Key words: Greenate, Colpoda steinii, general toxicity, amino acids, molds, Maldi Tof, Bacillus megaterium, Staphylococcus hominis, A. alternata, C. cladosporioides.
This study aimed to assess the protective effect of encapsulating humic acid-iron complexed nanoparticles (HA-Fe NPs) inside glucanmannan lipid particles (GMLPs) extracted from yeast cell wall against aflatoxin B (AFB1) toxicity in vivo. Four groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally for 2 weeks included the control group, AFB1 treated group (80 µg/kg b.w); GMLP/HA-Fe NPs treated group (0.5 mg/kg b.w), and the group treated with AFB1 plus GMLP/HA-Fe NPs. GMLPs are empty 3–4 micron permeable microspheres that provide an efficient system for the synthesis and encapsulation of AFB1-absorbing nanoparticles (NPs). Humic acid nanoparticles (HA-NPs) were incorporated inside the GMLP cavity by complexation with ferric chloride. In vivo study revealed that AFB1 significantly elevated serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, uric acid, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide. It significantly decreased total protein, high-density lipoprotein, hepatic and renal CAT and glutathione peroxidase content and induced histological changes in the liver and kidney (p ≤ 0.05). The coadministration of the synthesized formulation GMLP/HA-Fe NPs with AFB1 has a protective effect against AFB1-induced hepato-nephrotoxicity, oxidative stress and histological alterations in the liver and kidney.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a humic acid (HA)‐supplemented diet on productive performance and some physiological parameters of growing rabbits. A total of 80 weaned V‐line rabbits at an age of 4 weeks were randomly divided into four groups. Rabbits of groups 2, 3 and 4 were fed diet containing 35 (HA35), 70 (HA70) and 105 (HA105) mg Humic acid/kg diet while the first group served as control (HA0). Body weight gain was positively affected by HA treatment. HA105 rabbits had the improved feed conversion value. HA treatments had significantly reduced plasma cholesterol concentration and significant increased red blood cells, white blood cells count and plasma high‐density lipoprotein concentrations. However, serum aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase activities, creatinine and the apparent nutrients digestibility values were not affected by HA treatments. Organic matter digestibility of all HA‐treated groups significantly increased compared with HA0. At 63 days of age (after 35 days of treatment), caecum microbial counts decreased (total bacteria and Escherichia coli) with HA treatments. Generally HA could be considered as a biological as growth promoter feed additive alternative to antibiotics.
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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of humic acid on fattening performance, carcass quality and some blood parameters of broilers. Therefore, a total of 160 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were assigned to 2 treatments with 4 replicates each containing 20 chicks. The treatment groups were employed: Control group (C) without additive and experimental group (H) supplemented with 2.5 kg ton-1 humic acid. Experimental period lasted 42 days. There was no statistical difference in the cases of live weight, live weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, hot and cold carcass yield, ileum, cecum lengths, total intestinal weight, serum total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol scores among the groups of C and H. As a result, the values obtained by the addition of humates to broiler ratios are generally in a acceptable level.
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Six diets containing 0,0.3,0.6,1.2,2.4, and 4.8 g commercially procured humic acid (74% humic acid in DM) /kg were offered to 480 (6 treatments×10 replicates × 8 birds/replicate) Lohmann-Hybrid newly hatched male chicks to know the performance and health status. The formulated diets were based on wheat and soybean meal (25.3% CP, 12.8 MJ ME/kg). After 35 days feeding trial 60 birds (1 per replicate) were killed for necropsy. Initially HA depressed weight gain, but recovery started in the third week, so that at the end no significant differences could be observed (2,408, 2,369, 2,335, 2,355,2,310 and 2,301 g for the groups with 0,0.3,0.6,1.2,2.4, and 4.8 g humic acid/kg respectively). Feed intake was not affected by the treatment. Feed efficiency of the 4.8 g humic acid/kg group was significantly lower (689) than control (723 g gain /kg feed) at the end of trial. Mortality ranged between 1.25 and 8.75%, being highest in the control. The relative weight of liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thyroid gland did not differ among the groups. Morphometric parameters (number and diameter of follicle, epithelial height, length and width of nucleus, number of hyperplasia and follicular epithelial index) of thyroid gland demonstrated absence of any dose related response of HA. So, the inclusion of HA at the level of 8% (2.4/0.3) is possible without hampering performance and without causing any clinical condition in broiler.
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Humic substances as part of humus-soil organic matter - are compounds arising from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformation (humification) of biomolecules. They are important because they constitute the most ubiquitous source of non-living organic material that nature knows. Approximately 80% of the total carbon in terrestrial media and 60% of the carbon dissolved in aquatic media are made up of humic substances. Humic substances have important roles in soil fertility, and are considered to have primal relevance for the stabilization of soil aggregates. They can be divided into three components according to their solubility: humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. Humic acids are the most explored group of humic substances. Beyond their relevance for life these substances have industrial applications in the development of absorbents to be used at the sources of metal-poisoning. Being natural substances, their purification process is cheaper than the synthesis of any other sorbent and, moreover, due to their high operability, they absorb more than the absorbents used to date, such as active charcoals or clays. The specific properties of humic acid products enable their application in industry, agriculture, environmental and biomedicine.
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Effects of humates supplemented to the broiler feeds on fattening performance, serum mineral concentratiOlI and bone ash Summary: The objectives of this study were to compare weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion, carcass dressing pen:entaKe, bone (tibia) ash and serum Ca, Na, K and CL levels (~l broiler chickens consuming control diet or humate (FarmaKulator DrylM) added diets. In the experiment, a total of 273 one dayold male broiler chicks (Avian Farms) were used, and they were assiKned in three groups as Group 1 (Control), Group 2 (humate, 1.5g/kg), Group 3 (humate, 2.5g/kK). Also each KrouP was divided into 7 replicate groups each containing 13 chicks. The experiment lasted 42 days. DurinK the jirst three week.~, all groups were fed on the broiler starter feeds prepared as isocaloric and isonitroKenic, and for the next week.~ they were given broiler Krower feeds as isocaloric and isonitroKenic, ad tibitum. Feeds ol Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3 were supplemented with O, 1.5 and 2.5 K/kg Farmagulator Dry"'Mrespectively. For the }irst 21 days, d(fferences between body weight Kain, feed cemversion ratio and feed consumption value (~l the groups were not found valuable statistically. At the end ql the trial, dietary humate concentrations (~l O, 1.5, or 2.5 K/kg did not eflect carcass dressinK percentage, feed consumption and serum concentration (d Ca, K and CL(P>0.05). However, at 40 days of aKe, serum Na concentration (P<0.05) and tibia bone ash (P<O.Ol) were siKnificantly increased with 2.5 K/kg humate addition, but not in diets O and 1.5 g/kg humate added. In addition, 2.5 K/kK humate supplementation signUicantly improved body weight gain andfeed ettidency (P<0.05) but not O and 1.5 g/kK humate supplementation at 42 days olaKe. Key words: bone ash, broiler, humate, mineral, performance
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The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of different doses of humic substances (HS) in waterer pan on broiler performances and meat quality. For the trial, 480 chicks (ROSS 308) were allocated into four groups (HS0, HS150, HS300 and HS450) of 120 equally mixed-sex birds, each receiving a drinking water supplemented with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ppm of a humic acid (provided by 0.0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% of HS, v/v) respectively. At the age of 21 and 42 days, feed consumption and live weight were taken. At the age of 42 days, 16 birds per treatment were slaughtered, dressing percentages, digestive tract traits were evaluated and samples of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (iliotibialis) meat were taken to evaluate the changes in colour characteristics (CIE L*, a* and b*) and chemical composition. The body weight gain increased by the HS300 in relation to the HS0 and HS450, and decreased by the HS450 in relation to the HS0. The feed consumption of birds in the HS450 and feed efficiency of birds in the HS300 were lower and higher than those in the other treatments respectively. The carcass weight of broilers in the HS150 and HS300 were higher than those of in the HS0 and HS450. The carcass weight decreased by the HS450 in relation to the other treatments. The dressing percentage increased by the HS150 in relation to the HS450. The HS450 resulted in breast and thigh meat colour that were lighter than those found in the HS0 birds. The HS450 increased fat content of thigh meat in relation to the HS0. It was concluded that the humic acid supplementation at 300 ppm and 450 ppm appears to have a measurable impact on live performance improving feed efficiency and lightness of breast and thigh meat colours in broilers respectively.
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The effects of humic acid on feed consumption, egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight and external and internal egg quality of laying hens were studied during feeding periods. A total of 180 (Hysex Brown) layers (36 weeks of age) were used in this experiment. There was one control and two experimental groups, each containing 60 hens and 4 subgroups. The experimental period lasted 16 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the supplementation of humic acid had a significant effect on feed consumption and feed efficiency. An increase in egg production was determined when humic acid was added to the diets at 30 g/t of feeds (91.70%) and 60 g/t of feeds (91.32%). There were no significant differences between the groups in egg shell thickness, egg shell breaking strength, yolk index, albumen index and Haugh unit. It can be therefore concluded that the dietary supplemen- tation of humic acid at doses of 30 and 60 g/t feed can be used to improve egg production, egg weight and feed efficiency.
Humic acids are a major part of naturally occurring organic humic substances. They can be isolated from several natural matrices (soil, peat, oxyhumolite, and lignite) where they occur in different amounts. Humic acids are amorphous mixtures of reactive aromatics with phenolic and carboxylic groups. They are used in agriculture, medicine, and environment protection.
The objective of our investigations was to assess the effects of a humine acid-based sorbent on the amount of ammonia released from droppings and on performance characteristics of broiler chickens. The sorbent (oxihumolite) contained 94.51% of humine acids in dry matter (Table 1) and was used under controlled conditions in chicken houses. Ammonia concentrations were determined by Czech Standard ČSN 83 4728. Ammonia was absorbed in 0.05 M sulphuric acid, distilled with water vapour from the alkaline milieu, and determined spectrophotometrically in the distillate after addition of Nessler reagent. The sensitivity limit for the given sample size was 0.05 mg/m3. Mean efficacy measured at four sampling sites (A-D) varied between 54.0 and 23.2% during the monitoring period. The corresponding range for sampling sites at head level (sites A and B) were 66.8 to 42.7% (Table 4). The lowest efficacy was found at fan outlets (sites C and D). The efficacy of the sorbent decreased during the monitoring period apparently with increasing live weight and feed consumption (Table 5). Performance characteristics of the experimental group significantly exceeded those of the control group (Table 6). The differences were highly significant at the end of the starting period (P < 0.01) and significant at the end of the fattening period (P < 0.05). The use of the sorbent, prepared of a natural local material, is an alternative approach to the control of aerial ammonia concentration in broiler houses. The sorbent saturated with ammonia can be used as a nitrogen-rich fertiliser, thus providing conditions for a waste-free technology.