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Using personal and psychological strengths leads to increases in well-being over time: A longitudinal study and the development of the Strengths Use Questionnaire

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Abstract

a b s t r a c t Positive psychology focuses on the benefits of both possessing and using personal strengths, however existing research has focused exclusively on having rather than using strengths. This study validates the Strengths Use Scale and presents the first test of whether strength use leads to improved well-being. A community sample (N = 207) completed measures at baseline and three and six month follow-up. The scale had a clear one-factor structure, high internal consistency (a = .94–.97), and impressive three-and six-month stability (r = .84). Strengths use led to less stress, and greater self-esteem, vitality and positive affect over both longitudinal assessment periods. Strengths use is an important longitudinal predictor of well-being, and the new scale is a reliable and valid measurement tool.

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... Personal strengths are discussed to be among the most important personal characteristics playing a key role in optimal human functioning across the lifespan (Douglass & Duffy, 2014;Proctor & Linley, 2013;Proctor et al., 2011;Ruch et al., 2014;Shoshani & Aviv, 2012;Waters, 2015;Weber & Ruch, 2015). Personal strengths are related to one's positive traits and (or) psychological capacities refined with knowledge and skills (Proctor et al., 2011) and enable a person to function successfully or as well as one is capable (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Nevertheless, there are claims that knowing one's personal strengths and the ability to utilize them in everyday life (often referred to as personal strengths use) might be more important for the psychosocial functioning than the fact of solely possessing qualities which might, in theory, be considered as strengths (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Personal strengths use pertain "to the extent to which one is both driven to apply and opportunities to use one's strengths in different situations" (van Zyl et al., 2021 p.3). Research reveals that the ability to use personal strengths energizes and enables a person to enjoy their actions and results and is related to life satisfaction (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Huber et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011), positive emotions (Douglass & Duffy, 2014), psychological well-being (Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011,), optimal functioning (Huber et al., 2017) and vitality (Dubreuil et al., 2014). ...
... Nevertheless, there are claims that knowing one's personal strengths and the ability to utilize them in everyday life (often referred to as personal strengths use) might be more important for the psychosocial functioning than the fact of solely possessing qualities which might, in theory, be considered as strengths (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Personal strengths use pertain "to the extent to which one is both driven to apply and opportunities to use one's strengths in different situations" (van Zyl et al., 2021 p.3). Research reveals that the ability to use personal strengths energizes and enables a person to enjoy their actions and results and is related to life satisfaction (Govindji & Linley, 2007;Huber et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011), positive emotions (Douglass & Duffy, 2014), psychological well-being (Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011,), optimal functioning (Huber et al., 2017) and vitality (Dubreuil et al., 2014). ...
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The aim of this study was to determine the importance of high school students’ personal strengths use and the perceived school climate on their psychological functioning. The sample of 258 students from a gymnasium filled in measures for adolescent psychological functioning, strengths use and perceived school climate. Contrary to what was expected, the results revealed that personal strengths use did not moderate the relationship between students’ perceived school climate and their psychological functioning. However, both factors – perceived school climate and strengths use – independently of each other, significantly predicted students’ psychological functioning. Therefore, in order to achieve more positive developmental outcomes, it is not enough to create a good climate at school, it is also important to create opportunities for students to use their personal strengths.
... Character strengths are the characteristics that allow an individual to perform well or at their personal best (Park et al., 2004;Wood et al., 2011). When individuals capitalize on their character strengths (e.g., humor, creativity, and social intelligence), they are more likely to be flourishing, feel energized, and deal with environmental challenges effectively (Lavy and Littman-Ovadia, 2017;Bakker et al., 2019). ...
... When individuals capitalize on their character strengths (e.g., humor, creativity, and social intelligence), they are more likely to be flourishing, feel energized, and deal with environmental challenges effectively (Lavy and Littman-Ovadia, 2017;Bakker et al., 2019). Previous studies have shown that the use of strengths leads to greater vitality, lower perceived stress, and sustainable well-being among a variety of groups including students, employees, and older adults (Wood et al., 2011;Douglass and Duffy, 2015;Dubreuil et al., 2016). In a work context, strengths use has been found to facilitate work engagement, organizational citizenship behavior, and job performance (Kong and Ho, 2016;van Woerkom et al., 2016c;Lavy and Littman-Ovadia, 2017;Yi-Feng Chen et al., 2021). ...
... To further understand individuals' strength use for tasks and strengths use for relationships, there is a need for validated scales to measure these phenomena. Although previous studies have developed several scales for measuring strengths use, the existing measurements (e.g., Govindji and Linley, 2007;Wood et al., 2011;van Woerkom et al., 2016b) treat strengths use as a single factor and are not able to capture different forms of strengths use in the workplace. As a result, we still have limited insights regarding how individuals use their strengths for important, but distinct, goals (e.g., task accomplishment and relationship maintenance) in organizations. ...
Article
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Individual character strengths have been increasingly valued, as they facilitate social functioning, well-being, and performance. However, little is known about how individuals use their strengths for important but distinct goals including task accomplishment and relationship maintenance in organizations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a Strengths Use Scale that can be used to measure the use of strengths for tasks and relationships in the workplace. For this purpose, we used the exploratory mixed-method design and conducted a series of studies. In Study 1, we conducted an exploratory factor analysis to ensure the construct validity of the Strengths Use Scale on a sample of 187 employees. We found that the scale comprises two dimensions: strengths use for tasks and strengths use for relationships. In Study 2a, we verified the two-factor structure of the Strengths Use Scale using the confirmatory factor analysis on a separate sample of 213 employees. The results of Study 2b demonstrated that the scale has good measurement invariance across gender and age groups, on the sample of 205 employees. Moreover, strengths use for tasks and strengths use for relationships positively correlated with well-being and work engagement and negatively correlated with turnover intention, supporting the criterion-related validity of the scale. In Study 3, a test–retest reliability analysis with a sample of 94 employees indicated that the scale has high reliability. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Harmony is recognized as fundamental to being and functioning well in philosophical traditions and empirical research globally and in Africa. The aim of this study was to explore and describe harmony as a quality of happiness in South Africa (N = 585) and Ghana (N = 420). Using a qualitative descriptive research design, participants’ responses to an open-ended question from the Eudaimonic-Hedonic Happiness Investigation (EHHI, Delle Fave et al., Soc Indic Res 100:185–207, 2011) on what happiness meant to them were coded according to the formalized EHHI coding manual. Responses that were assigned any of the following codes were considered: codes from the “harmony/balance” category in the “psychological definitions” life domain; and codes from any other life domain containing the words “harmony”, “balance”, or “peace”. This resulted in 222 verbatim responses from South Africa and 80 from Ghana that were analyzed using content analysis to get a sense of the experiential texture of harmony as a quality of happiness. Findings showed that happiness was often expressed as harmony and balance within and between intrapersonal, interpersonal, transcendental, and universal levels of functioning, with wholeness, interconnectedness, and synergy implied. These findings, resonating with philosophical reflections on harmony from Africa and elsewhere, suggest that harmony as a quality of happiness is essentially holistic and contextually embedded and that context-sensitive interdisciplinary approaches to theory building and intervention development pertaining to harmony are needed locally and globally.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Positive mental health, and the validity of its assessment instruments, are largely unexplored in the Ghanaian context. This study examined the factor structure of the Twi version of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form and explored the prevalence of positive mental health in a sample of rural Ghanaian adults (N = 444). A bifactor exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) model fit the data better than competing models (confirmatory factor analysis [CFA], bifactor CFA, and ESEM models). We found a high omega reliability coefficient for the general positive mental health factor (ω = .97) and marginal reliability scores for the emotional (ω = .51) and social well-being (ω = .57) subscales, but a low reliability score for the psychological well-being subscale (ω = .41). Findings support the existence of a general mental health factor, and confirm the underlying three-dimensional structure of mental health, but suggest that caution should be applied when interpreting subscale scores, especially for the psychological well-being subscale. Based on Keyes’s criteria for the categorical diagnosis of the presence of positive mental health, 25.5% of the sample were flourishing, with 74.5% functioning at suboptimal levels (31.1% languishing, 41.4% with moderate mental health) and may benefit from contextually relevant positive psychological interventions, which may also buffer against psychopathology.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Psychology is concerned with human behaviour, therefore all psychologies are contextually-embedded and culturally informed. A movement towards globalising psychology would invariably diminish the localised socio-cultural situatedness of psychology, and instead seek to advance a dominant Euro-American centred psychology even in regions where such applications do not fit. The emergence of strong voices, and theoretically grounded and empirically supported positions from the global South in general and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, in studies of well-being allows for the opportunity to explore and describe an Africa(n) centred positive psychology. Acknowledging the limitations of cross-cultural psychological approaches, which have encouraged the uncritical transportation of Euro-American centred concepts and values, in this chapter we utilise assumptions from critical, cultural and African psychology to present our initial thoughts about a culturally embedded, socially relevant and responsive, and context respecting Africa(n) centred positive psychology. This challenge warrants consideration of early contributions to the study of well-being, its current data-driven positivist tendency, as well as African worldviews grounded in interdependence, collectivism, relatedness, harmony with nature, and spirituality. For an Africa(n) centred positive psychology, it is also essential to consider questions of epistemology, ways of knowing about the world and the human condition, context respecting knowledge, and theory building. Drawing on current scholarly evidence in sub-Saharan Africa, which emphasises relationality and societal values and norms shaping experiences of well-being, we propose future directions and discuss implications for empirical research and theory building within positive psychology which seeks to centre Africa and African experiences.
... A sum score was used, and an example item is "I am regularly able to do what I do best." The SUS has excellent internal consistency (α = .94-.97; Govindji & Linley, 2007;Wood et al., 2011) and high test-retest reliability (r icc = .85; Wood et al., 2011). ...
... The SUS has excellent internal consistency (α = .94-.97; Govindji & Linley, 2007;Wood et al., 2011) and high test-retest reliability (r icc = .85; Wood et al., 2011). The internal consistency for this study was .93. ...
Article
This study tested the Strengths-Based Inclusive Theory of Work (S-BIT of Work), a vocational theory that emphasizes positive psychological and cultural factors, among a sample of service industry workers during COVID-19. Service industry workers ( N = 320) were recruited via social media sources across the United States, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the model. This model included privilege and COVID-19 impact as contextual variables; organizational support and workplace dignity as promotive workplace variables; hope, strengths use, adaptability, empowerment, and perceived COVID-19 threat as individual variables; and fulfilling work and psychological distress as outcome variables. Privilege and workplace dignity were identified as particularly important variables; results suggested privilege was positively associated with a promotive work context and negatively related to psychological distress. Additionally, the greater the amount of privilege and dignity the service industry workers experienced, the greater their positive individual characteristics were able to flourish.
... Similarly, positive correlations between character strengths and SWB have been found both in cross-sectional (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011) and longitudinal studies (Wood et al., 2011). ...
... Our results regarding the relationship between virtues/character strengths and SWB are relatively similar to previous studies (Botha & Mostert, 2014;Douglass & Duffy, 2015;Harzer & Ruch, 2013;Huber et al., 2017;Linley et al., 2010;Littman-Ovadia et al., 2017;Proctor et al., 2011;Wood et al., 2011). Our highest correlation coefficients (hope, zest, and perspective) are somewhat similar to the studies by Lounsbury et al. (2009) andJackson et al. (2014), in which zest and hope are two of the highest correlations with SWB. ...
Chapter
Child marriage has been identified as a violation of human rights and an obstacle to promoting the development goals concerning gender, health and education. All these impacts undermine the development of the girl child. Despite the potential for negative outcomes, the presence of intrinsic and extrinsic resources can buffer the adverse effects (e.g., psychological, physical and economic impact) of early marriage. This study employed a qualitative exploratory, descriptive design to explore and describe protective resources utilised by married girls in the Northern region of Ghana to cope with the challenges in their marriage and to promote positive outcomes. Using semi-structured interviews, data was collected from 21 married girls who were aged between 12 and 19 years. Findings, from a thematic analysis of data, showed that intrinsic resources that promoted positive outcomes included possession of resilience attitudes, the use of help-seeking and active coping, and in some instances avoidance coping for problems they perceived as unsolvable. Extrinsic resources included interpersonal support networks, however, participants reported limited access to community and NGO support, which were also identified as protective resources. Policy makers and clinicians should consider a social justice approach in evaluating and recommending protective resources to girls in early marriages when working to promote their well-being. In so doing, attention should be placed on making external support systems accessible to married girls.
... In recent two decades, strengths-based approaches in the workplace have triggered more and more scholars' interest (Bakker et al., 2019). One important reason why strengthsbased approaches have captured such attention in the workplace is that strengths reflecting the characteristics that allow individual to achieve near-perfect performance (Wood et al., 2011) are regarded as the greatest room of individual's growth and development (Moore et al., 2022;Van Woerkom et al., 2016a). Extant empirical research has also shown that strengths-based approaches can bring out various desirable outcomes. ...
... In order to better take advantage of human resources, the organization puts employees in positions where they excel and allows employees to do their tasks in a manner that best suits them (Van Woerkom et al., 2016a). To evaluate the effectiveness of employee strengths use and motivate employee to proactively leverage strengths at work, performance appraisal of the organization pays particular attention to employees' outstanding performance because strengths use is generally thought to be associated with near-perfect performance (Wood et al., 2011). In addition, the organization praises excellent performance of employees (i.e., motivation) and designs and implements employees training programs based on strengths of employees (i.e. ...
Article
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Although strengths-based approaches in the workplace are able to bring out various positive outcomes, relatively little research has considered the dark sides of strengths-based approaches in the workplace. This study sought to examine whether perceived strengths-based human resource (HR) system as a specific form of strengths-based approaches is able to stimulate employees to execute unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) and considered the mediating role of organizational identification in the relationship. Data with a sample of 210 employees from various organizations in China were collected at three points in time. Structural equation modelling analysis was deployed to test our hypotheses. The authors found that perceived strengths-based HR system spurs UPB, and organizational identification acts as a mediator in the relationship between perceived strengths-based HR system and UPB. This study extends previous literature on strengths-based approaches in the workplace by considering its dark side and advances HR system and UPB theories and research.
... Specifically, we focus on the relationship between strengthsbased job crafting and employee creativity. Individual strengths are the personal characteristics that enable individuals to achieve their best performance (Wood et al., 2011). The goal of strengthsbased job crafting is to change the parameters of one's job for better use of individual strengths. ...
... Strengths-based job crafting was conceptualized as the selfinitiated changes within the work constraints to make better use of their strengths. Personal strength refers to the unique characteristics of an individual to perform best (Wood et al., 2011), and allow him or her to be energized, keep learning, and have peak experiences (Brewerton and Brook, 2010). Releasing individual strengths makes the employees authentic and productive, and crafting the job gives them a sense of meaning, identity, and calling. ...
Article
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While argued to be fostering creativity, the effect of job crafting on creativity often turned out to be less effective than expected. The reason is that most existing studies focused on the top-down job design interventions. We proposed an elaborated theoretical model to explain the influence of strengths-based job crafting (SJC) on employee creativity (EC). Specifically, we examined the mediating effect of job self-efficacy (JSE) and the moderating effect of workplace status (WP) based on self-affirmation theory. A sample of 480 employees and their supervisors completed a battery of questionnaires. The results revealed that strengths-based job crafting was positively related to employee creativity, with job self-efficacy acting as a mediator for this relationship. Workplace status moderated both the direct and the indirect effects of job self-efficacy. For employees with a higher workplace status, strengths-based job crafting may generate more forces to promote employee creativity. The results suggest that strengths-based job crafting and workplace status can inspire employee creativity through a self-affirmation process.
... When an organization identifies and uses employees' strengths, it enhances employees' well-being (Wood et al., 2011). It makes employees pay more attention to the positive outcomes of voice and ignore potential risks (Bandura, 1997). ...
... However, few empirical studies have focused on the strengths-based HR practices. Existing studies have delved into its in-role outcomes, such as job performance, job satisfaction, and well-being (Dubreuil et al., 2014;Lavy & Littman-Ovadia, 2017;Meyers & Van Woerkom, 2017;Van Woerkom & Meyers, 2015;Wood et al., 2011). It limits the further development and application of strengths-based HR practices without exploring extra-role outcomes (Miglianico et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Based on positive psychology, this study investigates how a strengths-based psychological climate promotes voice behavior via two motivation states. Drawing on the model of proactive motivation, we develop a moderated-mediation model of the motivation processes linking a strengths-based psychological climate and voice behavior. We further argue that these relationships are moderated by employees’ collectivism. To test our hypotheses, we performed a three-wave survey to collect data from 192 Chinese employees. Results showed that a strengths-based psychological climate directly promoted employees’ voice behavior while self-efficacy and felt obligation mediated the relationship. Employees’ collectivism moderated the indirect effects of a strengths-based psychological climate and voice behavior via self-efficacy and felt obligation. These findings advance our knowledge of how and when strengths-based HR practices function in organizations and contribute to the voice literature.
... According to SU theories, it has been demonstrated that employees use the positive psychological states mentioned above as resources to encourage work engagement and proactivity in the work environment [13][14][15]. This suggests that opportunities to apply one's strengths provide a feeling of professional effectiveness, promote excitement, and heighten motivation. ...
... Consistent with findings reported in previous psychology studies, this correlation suggests that SU has a positive relation with work engagement [10,11,16,18,20,21]. This finding is also consistent with SU theories [13][14][15] positing that having the opportunity to use one's strengths makes one feel effective, energized, and motivated, and these positive mental states as resources help workers to promote both engagement and proactive behavior in the work setting. Furthermore, our results show that increased implementation of SU is associated with increased BPNS, which reinforces previous findings that SU and BPNS are positively associated [26][27][28]. ...
Article
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Work engagement is a core indicator that reflects the quality of teachers’ occupational lives and the development of students, but few studies have explored the connection between strengths use and work engagement of teachers and the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This paper aimed to investigate how the relation of strengths use with work engagement is affected by a teacher’s satisfaction of basic psychological needs. For this purpose, 648 teachers in China completed questionnaires. The results revealed that strengths use exhibited a positive correlation with work engagement and needs satisfaction. Furthermore, autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction mediated the effect of strengths use on work engagement for teachers. The results suggest that autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction serve as factors that mediate the effect of strengths use on work engagement. The significance and limitations of the study are discussed.
... In terms of secondary clinical measures, global improvement and therapeutic response was assessed using the clinician-administered Clinical Global Impression Scale that consists of two items to assess global improvement and severity of illness [49]. We also assessed social support using the self-reported Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support that includes 12 items (eg, "I get the emotional help and support I need from my family) [50]; self-esteem and perceived strengths using the self-reported Self-Esteem Rating Scale that consists of 40 items (eg, "I feel that I am a very competent person") [51], the self-reported Strengths Knowledge Scale that includes 8 items (eg, "I know what I do best") [52], and the self-reported Strengths Use Scale that consists of 14 items (eg, "I am regularly able to do what I do best") [52,53]; and symptoms using the following interviewer-administered assessments: the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms that consists of 34 items in four symptom domains (hallucinations, delusions, bizarre behavior, and positive formal thought disorder) [54]; the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms that includes 25 items in five symptom domains (affective flattening or blunting, alogia, avolition-apathy, anhedonia-asociality, and attention) [55]; the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale that includes 24 items assessing psychiatric symptoms such as somatic concern, anxiety, depression, and suicidality [46]; and the Calgary Depression Scale that includes nine items assessing depressive symptoms such as depressed mood, hopelessness, and suicide [56]. ...
Article
Background Psychotic disorders are among the most disabling of all mental disorders. The first-episode psychosis (FEP) often occurs during adolescence or young adulthood. Young people experiencing FEP often face multiple barriers in accessing a comprehensive range of psychosocial services, which have predominantly been delivered in person. New models of service delivery that are accessible, sustainable, and engaging are needed to support recovery in youth diagnosed with FEP. Objective In this paper, we describe a protocol to implement and evaluate the acceptability, safety, and potential efficacy of an online psychosocial therapeutic intervention designed to sustain recovery and prevent relapses in young adults diagnosed with FEP. This intervention was originally developed and tested in Australia and has been adapted for implementation and evaluation in Canada and is called Horyzons-Canada (HoryzonsCa). Methods This cohort study is implemented in a single-center and applies a pre-post mixed methods (qualitative-quantitative convergent) design. The study involves recruiting 20 participants from a specialized early intervention program for psychosis located in Montreal, Canada and providing them with access to the HoryzonsCa intervention for 8 weeks. Data collection includes interview-based psychometric measures, self-reports, focus groups, and interviews. Results This study received funding from the Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (United States), the Quebec Health Research Funding Agency (Canada), and the Canada Research Chairs Program. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de l'Ouest-de-l'Île-de-Montréal on April 11, 2018 (#IUSMD 17-54). Data were collected from August 16, 2018, to April 29, 2019, and a final sample of 20 individuals participated in the baseline and follow-up interviews, among which 9 participated in the focus groups. Data analysis and reporting are in process. The results of the study will be submitted for publication in 2021. Conclusions This study will provide preliminary evidence on the acceptability, safety, and potential efficacy of using a digital health innovation adapted for the Canadian context to deliver specialized mental health services to youth diagnosed with FEP. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN43182105; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN43182105 International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) RR1-10.2196/28141
... Psychological capital components individually and jointly facilitate positive well-being (e.g., Luthans et al., 2013;Lyubomirsky et al., 2005;Wood et al., 2011). For example, psychological capital is positively associated with job satisfaction and work performance (Culbertson et al., 2010), diminished depressive symptoms (Avey et al., 2010), reduced job burnout and psychological distress (Leon-Perez et al., 2016). ...
Thesis
This dissertation emphasizes the social value creation mission of social entrepreneurship, and redirects attention to the pivotal role of social entrepreneurs in tackling grand challenges and resolving societal problems, such as that of gender inequality. Recognizing the urgency of empowering women, this dissertation focuses on social entrepreneurship programs aimed at encouraging women’s entrepreneurship. While previous studies have explored macro level structures and policies related to social change initiatives, this study foregrounds the lived experiences and voices of women entrepreneurs, and examines the drivers and outcomes of initiatives at the micro level. This dissertation comprises three articles that address different stages of the social change process. Article 1 considers the interpretation of the issue from the perspective of the individual embedded in the community. Drawing on the literature on social movements and framing, this conceptual article asks, how do social entrepreneurs frame social change, secure community support, and motivate action? Article 2 explores ways of shifting values in a manner that is non-violent and sensitive to the local culture. Accordingly, the research questions are, how do social enterprises work with and around entrenched cultural values to create positive social change? How can practices shift values without alienating members? Article 3 attempts to understand the effects of social change at the individual level and asks the question, how does entrepreneurship training and venture creation impact the well-being of women entrepreneurs at the BOP? In accordance with the inductive nature of the research and the aim of uncovering strategies and tactics, an inductive, qualitative method was adopted. While article 1 is a conceptual analysis, articles 2 and 3 use the qualitative case study method. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation. Taken together, the three articles in this dissertation offer creative approaches for social entrepreneurs tackling grand challenges at the community level. The articles reveal strategies of: (1) framing issues in ways that appeal to both emotions and cognitions, thereby garnering commitment for social change; (2) introducing value-laden practices to subtly reorient and augment values; and (3) developing the psychological capacity of women entrepreneurs and supporting their personal well-being needs. Advocating for a more holistic view of social change processes, this dissertation shows that incremental changes and local solutions bode well for scalable and sustainable change efforts, and tend to be less disruptive and violent than radical changes.
... Se visualizan en los pensamientos, emociones, actitudes y conductas de la persona (Niemiec, 2010) y posibilitan a las personas dar lo mejor de sí mismas. (Wood et al., 2011). Estas características psicológicas pueden ser variables relacionadas a la hora de mostrar una serie de actitudes, además estas pueden ser aprendidas y/o entrenadas mediante la educación/aprendizaje. ...
Article
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Las actitudes se definen como un constructo que implica un estado de disposición mental (aspectos cognitivos y afectivos) que influyen en nuestra percepción, pensamiento y motivación, y dirigen nuestras conductas. Las actitudes se convierten en elementos determinantes para predecir conductas positivas o negativas hacia los demás, especialmente hacia las personas mayores. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer las actitudes del alumnado de títulos universitarios de educación, ya que serán los próximos profesionales que eduquen. Conocer las actitudes y variables que puedan influir en estas puede ser un aspecto clave para desarrollar intervenciones posteriores, así como, para mejorar las actitudes hacia el mayor, y, por ende, su atención. Este estudio muestra que la actitud es moderadamente positiva, y que una actitud más positiva está relacionada con tener interés por temas de vejez, y con cuatro fortalezas humanas como son el amor, la bondad, la gratitud y la humildad.
... A tenacious student expresses a passion and perseverance for pursuing long-term goals [2] and has the ability to overcome adversity and continue striving despite challenges they may face [3]. A student who is particularly tenacious in their academic studies will use their personal strengths in different situations and work towards improving on their strengths [4,5]. They can regulate their study habits, control their impulses and manage their own ...
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Academic success at University is increasingly believed to be a combination of personal characteristics like grit, resilience, strength-use, self-control, mind-set and wellbeing. The authors have developed a short 12-item measure of tenacity, the Bolton Uni-Stride Scale (BUSS) which incorporates these elements. Previous work in the UK had established the reliability and validity of the BUSS. The present paper reports the findings of an International validation of BUSS across 30 countries ( n = 1043). Participants completed the BUSS alongside other recognised scales. Factor analysis revealed an almost identical two-factor solution to previous work and the reliability and validity of the scale were supported using an international sample. The authors recommend however that the scale be used as a single score combining all 12 items. In the light of this, the authors suggest that the BUSS will be a useful measure to incorporate in studies of academic attainment.
... Peterson and Seligman, founders of positive psychology, have studied the mainstream values and cultural heritage of various ethnic groups, including Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism in China, and found six virtues and twenty-four character strengths of human beings (Peterson & Seligman,2004). From a strengths perspective, everyone has unique strengths that can help them to achieve well-being and perform well (Wood et al., 2011). China's positive education model "6+2" organically integrates these 24 character strengths into the 6 modules, with the purpose of educating students through entertainment and exerting a subtle influence . ...
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Academic boredom is negatively related to students’ academic outcomes like intrinsic motivation. Positive education is dedicated to improving both students’ academic outcomes and wellbeing. In this study, China’s “6+2” positive education model was adopted to develop an intervention program that aimed to reduce academic boredom and improve positive emotions, thought-action repertoires, and intrinsic motivation. Theoretically, this emotion-oriented treatment is expected to cultivate positive emotions to broaden students’ attention scope, widen their thought and action repertoires, facilitate intrinsic motivation and build up enduring psychological resources that help them better cope with negative emotions like academic boredom and trigger upward spirals toward emotional wellbeing. This proposed model fills a research gap in existing interventions and provides new theoretical knowledge in terms of reducing academic boredom and improving academic success as well as wellbeing among Chinese college students. The theoretical framework of this study consisted of the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, basic psychological needs theory, and the control-value theory of academic emotions. Received: 11 August 2021 / Accepted: 3 October 2021 / Published: 5 November 2021
... Nakamura & Condren, 2018). The diverse and unique ways of applying one's strengths appears to influence wellbeing not only in the short term, but also across longer periods (Linley, Nielson, Gillet, & Biswas-Diener, 2010;Wood et al., 2011). We suggest that optimal development occurs as a person flexibly fits themselves to their environment in virtuous ways (Csikszentmihalyi & Rathunde, 2014;Nakamura & Condren, 2018), applying one's best self to manage the processes required of the developing adult in their life and work during periods of both growth and loss (Tse et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Vital engagement has been described as a focused, meaningful, and active relationship with work across one’s lifetime (Nakamura, 2001, 2014). Theoretically, vital engagement goes beyond short-term interest and engagement in one’s work, representing instead an ongoing, homeostatic sense of engagement that sustainably occurs across years and decades. However, it is unclear how vital engagement manifests in the modern workplace. In the footsteps of Nakamura (2014), we present the VIVA model, which conceptualizes sustainable work engagement as comprised of four mutually reinforcing elements: virtue, involvement, vitality, and acceptance. We first describe the rationale and conceptual underpinnings of the model. Then, we provide a preliminary empirical test of the model using archival data collected from a panel of school staff (N = 327) assessed five times over a three year period. Based on available data, the VIVA domains were operationalized as strengths use, work-related flow experiences, subjective vitality, and a sense of meaning in life. Using structural equation modelling, results provided preliminary support for the hypothesized model, which was relatively stable over time despite changes and challenges occurring in the school. The construct was strongly correlated with but distinct from other wellbeing measures. Although additional testing with measures that specifically align with the four theoretical dimensions is needed, the results support the relevance of the VIVA model in defining specific domains that can be supported in the workplace to help employees sustainably thrive.
... As the story is narrated by main character of the novel, Nabokov makes a reader trust that figure-the murderer. So, his honest confessions, useless but real combat with his inner world make a reader believe, analyse his situation, features, morality, psychological condition and contemplate about Humbert rather than judging him as wicked and murderer (Wood et al., 2011;Power & Khmelkov, 1998;Hoosain, 1992). ...
Article
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Lolita" written by Vladimir Nabokov has been considered as an important occasion in the history of world literature for its theme and concept of its characters. Humbert is one of the main characters in the novel "Lolita" with literary mission, serving to demonstrate several psychological and physiological problems, reflecting reasons and effects of various problems that were actual for the society during that time. Since "Lolita" was written during the period when postmodernism influence was observed in the works of Nabokov, it is very noticeable to find postmodern tendencies in the writer's style and in his main character. While assessing Humbert in this context, author's original approach becomes apparent due to some occasions which are caused by psychological and physiological problems. For this purpose, research on interpretation of Humbert's stance showed that Humbert's attitude towards Lolita and his controversial traits are presented in comparison with Freud psychoanalytic theory. Comparative analysis has showed that Humbert is a character who directly affects interpretation of characters and evaluation of events. It involves tendencies of that time and takes upon a mission to analyse existing wishes of human that can't be openly expressed and to reveal threats that are triggered by those traits.
... Research suggests that under and overuse of specific strengths can result in depressive symptoms [83,84]. Specifically, among individuals with social anxiety disorder, the under-or overuse of social intelligence, self-regulation, zest, humour, and humility were apparent [83]. ...
Article
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Social anxiety disorder or social phobia is a condition characterized by debilitating fear and avoidance of different social situations. We provide an overview of social anxiety and evidence-based behavioural and cognitive treatment approaches for this condition. However, treatment avoidance and attrition are high in this clinical population, which calls for innovative approaches, including computer-based interventions, that could minimize barriers to treatment and enhance treatment effectiveness. After reviewing existing assistive technologies for mental health interventions, we provide an overview of how social robots have been used in many clinical interventions. We then propose to integrate social robots in conventional behavioural and cognitive therapies for both children and adults who struggle with social anxiety. We categorize the different therapeutic roles that social robots can potentially play in activities rooted in conventional therapies for social anxiety and oriented towards symptom reduction, social skills development, and improvement in overall quality of life. We discuss possible applications of robots in this context through four scenarios. These scenarios are meant as ‘food for thought’ for the research community which we hope will inspire future research. We discuss risks and concerns for using social robots in clinical practice. This article concludes by highlighting the potential advantages as well as limitations of integrating social robots in conventional interventions to improve accessibility and standard of care as well as outlining future steps in relation to this research direction. Clearly recognizing the need for future empirical work in this area, we propose that social robots may be an effective component in robot-assisted interventions for social anxiety, not replacing, but complementing the work of clinicians. We hope that this article will spark new research, and research collaborations in the highly interdisciplinary field of robot-assisted interventions for social anxiety.
... In the framework developed by Van der Klink et al. [7], the capability set for work refers to an individual worker's abilities on the one hand, but also to workplace opportunities to achieve valuable work goals. We argue that, in a broader sense, the capability set for work, person-job fit [15], the use of character of strengths (i.e., individual abilities that allow a person to perform at their best) [16], and the opportunity to craft (i.e., a person's perceived opportunity to proactively shape his or her job environment) [17] are related constructs that aim to enhance the fit between person and job, which, in turn, yields optimized functioning at work. Thus, investigating the convergent validity of the CSWQ with those constructs would be relevant. ...
Article
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Background The capability set for work questionnaire (CSWQ) is being used to measure the new model of sustainable employability building on the capability approach. However, previous studies on the psychometric properties of the instrument are limited and cross-sectional. This two-way study aimed to (1) evaluate the convergent validity of the CSWQ with the theoretically related constructs person-job fit, strengths use, and opportunity to craft and (2) test the predictive and incremental validity of the questionnaire for the well-established work outcomes, including work ability, work engagement, job satisfaction, and task performance. Methods A representative sample of 303 Dutch workers, chosen with probably random sampling, were surveyed using a one-month follow-up, cross-lagged design via the Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social Sciences panel. The convergent validity was assessed by exploring the strength of associations between the capability set for work questionnaire and the theoretically related constructs using Pearson’s correlations. The predictive and incremental validity was evaluated by performing a series of linear hierarchical regression analyses. Results We found evidence of the convergent validity of the capability set score by moderate correlations with person-job fit, strengths use, and opportunity to craft ( r = 0.51–0.52). A series of multiple regression analyses showed that Time 1 capability set score and its constituents (i.e., importance, ability, and enablement) generally had predictive and incremental validity for work ability, work engagement, job satisfaction, and task performance measured at Time 2. However, the incremental power of the CSWQ over and above conceptually related constructs was modest. Conclusions The findings support the convergent, predictive, and incremental validity of the capability set for work questionnaire with not previously investigated work constructs. This provided further evidence to support its utility for assessing a worker’s sustainable employability for future research and practical interventions.
... When employees deploy their strengths at work, they are more confident in successfully accomplishing work tasks (Van Woerkom et al., 2016c) and are more likely to achieve greater work performance (Dubreuil et al., 2014). Additionally, employees high in strengths use can experience higher levels of satisfaction, are more willing to help colleagues (Lavy and Littman-Ovadia, 2017), tend to craft their job (Ding et al., 2020a), and can experience lower levels of stress and negative affect (Wood et al., 2011). Strengths use differs from strengths knowledge (Govindji and Linley, 2007). ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of follower’s strengths-based leadership (FSBL) with follower work engagement. Additionally, this study also examined the mediational effect of employee strengths use and the moderating effect of core self-evaluation (CSE) on the relationship between FSBL and follower work engagement. Data were garnered at two points in time with a time lag of 2 months. Moderated-mediation path analysis with a total of 238 employees working in a research and design institute in Beijing was deployed to examine our hypotheses. As hypothesized, FSBL was a statistically significant predictor of work engagement, and strengths use acted as a mediator in the FSBL-work engagement relationship. In addition, we also found that CSE significantly and negatively moderates the direct effect of FSBL on strengths use and the indirect effect of FSBL on work engagement through strengths use. This study advances the FSBL theory and research and provides a new insight into the driving force of work engagement.
... LTM is a vast store of knowledge and a record of prior events [29]. LTM is supported by stronger and more stable neuronal connections compared with short-term memory and working memory [30]. The process of strengthening these connections that results in the LTM formation is long-term potentiation (LTP), which takes place mostly in the hippocampus [31]. ...
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Cisplatin is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug that leads to DNA damage and is used in the treatment of various types of tumors. However, cisplatin has several serious adverse effects, such as deterioration in cognitive ability. The aim of our work was to study neuroprotectors capable of preventing cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity. Methylene blue (MB) and AzurB (AzB) are able to neutralize the neurotoxicity caused by cisplatin by protecting nerve cells as a result of the activation of the Ntf2 signaling pathway. We have shown that cisplatin impairs learning in the Morris water maze. This is due to an increase in the amount of mtDNA damage, a decrease in the expression of most antioxidant genes, the main determinant of the induction of which is the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway, and genes involved in mitophagy regulation in the cortex. The expression of genes involved in long-term potentiation was suppressed in the hippocampus of cisplatin-injected mice. MB in most cases prevented cisplatin-induced impairment of learning and decrease of gene expression in the cortex. AzB prevented the cisplatin-induced decrease of genes in the hippocampus. Also, cisplatin induced disbalance in the gut microbiome, decreased levels of Actinotalea and Prevotella, and increased levels of Streptococcus and Veillonella. MB and AzB also prevented cisplatin-induced changes in the bacterial composition of the gut microbiome.
... In addition, considerable research has confirmed that strengths-based approaches such as strengths use and strengths-based psychological climate are positively correlated with employee positive affect (Van Woerkom & Meyers, 2015;Wood et al., 2011). In a similar vein, strengths mindset may be positively associated with positive affect in that employees concentrating on their own strengths are more inclined to be authentic self that in turn, experiences higher levels of positive feelings (Ghielen et al., 2018). ...
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Although strengths-based approaches have reaped substantial interest from researchers and practitioners alike, little attention was paid to strengths mindset. This study investigated the relationship between employee strengths mindset and positive affect and job performance (i.e., task performance and innovative behavior), and considered the mediating role of positive affect in the strengths mindset-job performance relationship. Data with a sample of 407 employees from different industries in China were collected using a time-lagged research design. Structural equation modeling analysis was employed to test our research hypotheses. Analytical results illustrated that strengths mindset positively relates to positive affect and job performance. More importantly, positive affect was found to significantly mediate the relationship of strengths mindset with task performance and innovative behavior. This study contributes to advancing strengths mindset theory and research, and identifies a new pathway for improving employee job performance.
... In terms of strength use, the adolescents' awareness of what they are good at, although to a low degree, still contributes to helping them in the period of transition. This supports the findings of Green (2018) and Wood (2010) where knowing what and how to utilize strengths leads to better life. ...
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Students in the adolescent stage experience a plethora of challenges asthey transition from childhood to adulthood. Among students, these challengesare compounded by the abrupt shift to online classes due to the COVID-19pandemic. There may be undesirable behavioral and social outcomes inadolescence, but it cannot be merely assumed that these outcomes raise threats;several aspects seen as challenging may turn out to stimulate positive progress.Like other positive psychology studies, this undertaking sought to appreciate theoptimistic and emotionally gratifying aspects of human behavior and experiences.It describes the curiosity and strengths used by adolescents that contribute to theirlife, and provides information on the examined relationship between thecomponents of curiosity (exploration and absorption) and strengths used, as wellas the possible differences of the responses when grouped based on sex, gradelevel, academic performance, and membership in organizations. Findings showedthat most adolescents use their strengths 70 percent to 80 percent of the time, albeitto a low degree. They also have a fairly large amount of motivation to seek andexperience new knowledge and experiences. Furthermore, curiosity andexploration, as well as strengths use, significantly differ between adolescents inthe secondary level and those in the tertiary level of education. Curiosity andstrengths use do not differ in terms of sex, academic performance, andparticipation in co-curricular activities. More so, a significant positive relationshipbetween curiosity and strength use was found.
... In terms of strength use, the adolescents' awareness of what they are good at, although to a low degree, still contributes to helping them in the period of transition. This supports the findings of Green (2018) and Wood (2010) where knowing what and how to utilize strengths leads to better life. ...
... In contrast, the inclusive approach recognizes 'the full range of talent in the organization' (Swailes et al., 2014, p. 534) and 'aims at investing in a broad variety of different talents' (Meyers, 2016, p. 4). Leveraging the literature on positive psychology (Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), a scientific discipline that is devoted to what is good and well-functioning in human life, the inclusive approach defines talent as individual strengths or personal characteristics which allow individuals to be at their personal best (Peterson and Seligman, 2004;Wood et al., 2011;Quinlan et al., 2012). That is, it advocates that talent should be regarded from a within-and not a between-person perspective. ...
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Background Organizations worldwide increasingly adopt inclusive talent management, and this approach appears to rhyme particularly well with the Nordic welfare model. Questions about its value remain understudied, however. The inclusive approach is rooted in positive psychology and focuses on recognizing each employee's individual talents and assessing whether they fit the long-term needs of the organization, since a fit is assumed to be associated with employees' wellbeing. In the present study, we test this assumption focusing specifically on a key talent management practice, talent identification, and the social dimension of employee wellbeing. Method Data were collected through an employee survey conducted within the Finnish units of four international manufacturing organizations and analyzed using logistic regression ( n = 618). Results We found that the recognition of individual talents for long-term deployment by the organization is positively associated with social wellbeing in terms of supervisor support and social climate in the work unit, as perceived by the employees. Conclusion Our results tentatively suggest that inclusive talent management creates value through the identification of employees' individual talents as this practice can be associated with their enhanced wellbeing.
... Strengths-based approach to management is managing employees with a strengths focus. It is argued that the employees whose strengths are recognised in the workplace are happier, more fulfilled, and have more energy to achieve their goals and perform better at work (Linley et al., 2009 Park et al., 2004;Welch et al., 2014;Wood et al., 2011;Woerkom & Meyers, 2015). Ideally, organisations should have a strengths culture (applying a strengths framework to the organisation's human resource activities) (Linley & Harrington, 2006a;Tombaugh, 2005) and a strengths-based psychological climate (employees' positive perceptions of strengths-based philosophies) (Woerkom & Meyers, 2015) for managers and employees to realise their strengths and strengths requirements of the different roles in organisations. ...
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Shaikh, A., et al. "Impact of microfinance on poverty alleviation in SAARC countries." (2016).
... As the story is narrated by main character of the novel, Nabokov makes a reader trust that figure-the murderer. So, his honest confessions, useless but real combat with his inner world make a reader believe, analyse his situation, features, morality, psychological condition and contemplate about Humbert rather than judging him as wicked and murderer (Wood et al., 2011;Power & Khmelkov, 1998;Hoosain, 1992). ...
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“Lolita” written by Vladimir Nabokov has been considered as an important occasion in the history of world literature for its theme and concept of its characters. Humbert is one of the main characters in the novel “Lolita” with literary mission, serving to demonstrate several psychological and physiological problems, reflecting reasons and effects of various problems that were actual for the society during that time. Since “Lolita” was written during the period when postmodernism influence was observed in the works of Nabokov, it is very noticeable to find postmodern tendencies in the writer’s style and in his main character. While assessing Humbert in this context, author’s original approach becomes apparent due to some occasions which are caused by psychological and physiological problems. For this purpose, research on interpretation of Humbert’s stance showed that Humbert’s attitude towards Lolita and his controversial traits are presented in comparison with Freud psychoanalytic theory. Comparative analysis has showed that Humbert is a character who directly affects interpretation of characters and evaluation of events. It involves tendencies of that time and takes upon a mission to analyse existing wishes of human that can’t be openly expressed and to reveal threats that are triggered by those traits.
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Otantik yaşam, alan yazında bireyin kendi yaşamındaki kendi gerçek benliğine uygun şekilde hareket etme yeteneği olarak açıklanmaktadır. Otantik yaşam kavramı, birey için motivasyon kaynağı olmasının yanında bireyin özel yaşamı ve iş yaşamındaki ilişkisiyle son zamanlarda büyük ilgi gören kavramlardan biri olmuştur. Bu araştırmada Denizli’de sağlık sektöründe çalışanların otantik yaşam düzeylerinin kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde etkisi olup olmadığını; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracı rolünün olup olmadığını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Toplam 254 sağlık çalışanından çevrimiçi anket formları aracılığıyla toplanan veriler yapısal eşitlik modeli ile analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonunda elde edilen bulgulara göre otantik yaşamın kariyer tatmini, bağlamsal performans ve iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif yönde ve anlamlı etkisinin olduğunu; ayrıca işe adanmışlığın otantik yaşam ile söz konusu bağımlı değişkenler arasında aracılık rolü üstlendiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Background: As the number of people living with chronic illnesses increases, providing wide-reaching and easy-to-use support tools is becoming increasingly important. Supporting people in this group to recognize and use more of their personal strengths has the potential to improve their quality of life. With this in mind, we have developed the MyStrengths app prototype, a gamefully designed app aimed at aiding users in both identifying their strengths and using these strengths more actively in their daily life. Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the user-reported feasibility and usefulness of the MyStrengths app. The study additionally aimed to explore whether the use of MyStrengths could be associated with selected psychosocial outcomes. Methods: A 31-day explorative feasibility trial with a pretest-posttest design and an optional end of study interview was conducted. Data collection included system-use log data, demographic information, pre– and post–psychosocial measures (ie, strengths use, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, depression), user experience measures (ie, usability, engagement, flow), and interview data. Results: In total, 34 people with at least 1 chronic condition were enrolled in the study, with 26 participants (mean age 48 years, range 29-62 years; 1 male) completing the trial. Among these individuals, 18 were also interviewed posttrial. Participants used the MyStrengths app an average of 6 days during the trial period, with 54% (14/26) using the app over a period of at least 19 days. In total, 8738 unique app actions were registered. Of the psychosocial outcome measures, only 1 subscale, general health in the RAND 36-Item Health Survey, yielded significant pre- and posttest changes. Posttrial interviews showed that the number of participants who considered the MyStrengths app to be useful, somewhat useful, or not useful was evenly distributed across 3 groups. However, every participant did voice support for the strengths approach. All participants were able to identify a multitude of personal strengths using the MyStrengths app. Most participants that reported it to be useful had little or no previous experience with the personal strengths approach. A multitude of users welcomed the gameful design choices, particularly the rolling die feature, suggesting strengths exercises, activities that use a specific strength, were well received. Conclusions: Although the reported usefulness and feedback from use varied, most participants were favorable to the strengths-focused approach to care and support. Consequently, low-threshold and wide-reaching mobile health tools that use a strengths-focused approach, such as MyStrengths, hold the potential to support people living with chronic illness in performing self-management and achieving mastery of their life.
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The overall goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the integration of positive psychology and personal recovery into the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). First, an overview of the research field of positive psychology interventions for serious mental illness (SMI) and of economic studies for BD is provided. This aims to summarize the current state of the art of positive psychology interventions for SMI and cost-effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for BD. Second, two measurement instruments, the Questionnaire about the Process of Recovery (QPR) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA), are psychometrically validated. Although these constructs constitute relevant outcomes for BD, the two measurement instruments were not translated into Dutch before and/or have not been validated in people with BD. Third, this thesis aims to widen our knowledge of what contributes to personal recovery in BD, by exploring factors that are associated with personal recovery in people with BD. Fourth, a novel positive psychology group treatment is developed aimed at improving personal recovery and mental well-being in euthymic BD patients. The effectiveness of this treatment is evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT). We could show in a full RCT, that the positive psychology group treatment developed and evaluated in this thesis represents an effective treatment to enhance mental well-being and personal recovery in euthymic patients with BD. This intervention may therefore represent a valuable addition for TAU for BD, since it complements current treatment with an intervention that contributes to live a joyful, meaningful and engaged life, also in the presence of a severe mental illness. Furthermore, we found that a Dutch translation of the QPR represents a reliable and valid instrument to measure personal recovery in BD. The QPR is now available to be used in the Netherlands. We could also show that the RPA is a psychometrically sound instrument to assess positive emotion regulation in BD. The RPA can be used to assess positive emotion regulation strategies in BD, which may represent important facilitators or barriers for recovery. Furthermore, we found that positive rumination, anxiety symptoms and social participation are independently associated with personal recovery in BD and might therefore represent valuable treatment targets when aiming to improve personal recovery. Possible future directions for practice and research include the implementation of this intervention in the current treatment landscape, the integration of idiographic research and data science approaches in mental health research and the development of personalized treatments to advance the care we provide for patients with mental disorders.
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Aims Based on conservation of resources theory, the study aimed to investigate how nurses' strengths use affects their turnover intention and its potential mechanisms and boundary conditions. Design The study adopted a time-lagged research design. Methods The study was conducted from October 2019 to January 2020, with a sample of 234 registered nurses in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. The study used bootstrapping to test the hypotheses. Results Strengths use had a significant negative effect on turnover intention, and job crafting completely mediated the relationship between strengths use and turnover intention. Furthermore, self-efficacy positively moderated the direct relationship between strengths use and job crafting and the indirect relationship between strengths use and turnover intention via job crafting. Conclusion The study is the first to examine the relationships among nurses' strengths use and turnover intention, demonstrating that the activation and accumulation of work resources through job crafting can effectively reduce nurses' turnover intention. Additionally, by emphasizing the moderating effect of self-efficacy, the study contributes to finding a way for hospitals to enhance the effectiveness of nurses' strengths use in terms of increased job crafting and reduced turnover intention. Impact Nurse managers should help nurses identify their strengths to improve their strengths use, provide nurses with more freedom to craft their jobs and take actions to build nurses' self-efficacy and positive expectations about their jobs.
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Este trabajo presenta una revisión sistemática sobre las fortalezas psicológicas propuestas por el modelo Values in Action (VIA) y su relación con el bienestar, la satisfacción vital, la felicidad, la resiliencia y la salud en diferentes poblaciones. Los resultados de la revisión de 47 estudios permiten concluir que las fortalezas psicológicas están relacionadas positivamente con la satisfacción vital, el bienestar, la felicidad, la resiliencia y la salud, y en menor medida con indicadores de afecto negativo. Estos resultados son similares en distintos contextos y en diversos grupos de edad. Se discuten los hallazgos de los diversos estudios y se proponen implicaciones y perspectivas futuras del estudio y del desarrollo de las fortalezas psicológicas en los individuos, en los grupos y en la sociedad en general.
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Purpose This study aims to examine how perceived supervisor support for strengths use (PSSSU) directly and indirectly facilitates career satisfaction and perceived employability as mediated by strengths use behavior. Design/methodology/approach A two-wave questionnaire survey was administered to nurses ( n = 221) and analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings Results indicated that PSSSU directly enhanced career satisfaction and indirectly enhanced perceived employability through strengths use behavior. Research limitations/implications As the sample was limited to nurses in a Japanese hospital, it is possible that the characteristics of the national culture and occupation affected the results. Practical implications Support for strengths use is important especially in stressful work environments in order to retain professional employees by enhancing their employability and career satisfaction. Originality/value This study extends the literature by identifying the different effects of PSSSU on the two types of career-related well-being. The present research is the first study to show the mediating role played by strengths use behavior in linking PSSSU to perceived employability.
Thesis
Notre thèse est un travail interdisciplinaire (sciences de l'éducation – psychologie) qui a pour objet d’étudier si l’éducation à la santé mentale peut prévenir la radicalisation violente. Nous supposons alors que la méditation pourrait à la fois développer des compétences psychosociales et des indicateurs relatifs au modèle d’ouverture d’esprit comme la connexion à la nature et la flexibilité cognitive et diminuer par conséquent, des indicateurs de fermeture d’esprit comme le dogmatisme, la rigidité mentale ou la coupure émotionnelle. Dans cette perspective, nous avons mené trois études empiriques : la première est de type corrélationnel visant l’évaluation de l’impact du programme de méditation « connected » tandis que la deuxième et la troisième étude, sont de type expérimental visant l’évaluation de deux autres programmes incluant de la méditation. Les résultats étaient significatifs dans la première étude au niveau de la focalisation sur les détails et la connexion à la nature, alors qu’ils étaient significatifs dans la troisième étude au niveau de la connexion à la nature, la responsabilité et le dogmatisme. Sachant que pour les deux dernières variables, la différence constatée va dans le sens inverse de nos hypothèses. Notre résultat de recherche pourrait constituer un point de départ pour d’autres projets afin de promouvoir la santé mentale et favoriser l’ouverture d’esprit.
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Strength based development approach is a new concept and not yet investigated vastly in the organization. In this paper the researcher has tried to identity some relationship between SBA and other variables like productivity, performance appraisal, turnover, job satisfaction etc. This is a literature review based paper which will help us to gain the knowledge of profound influence of SBA on numerous apsects of organization’s development. Organizations need to use SBA to be more competitive in the market place and gain competitive advantage over its rivals.
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Women’s entrepreneurship at the base of the pyramid can offer a way out of poverty for families, foster the development of communities, and provide a route to modernizing countries. Yet, we know little about what entrepreneurship means for the well-being of these entrepreneurs. This study investigates the well-being of marginalized women entrepreneurs engaged in an entrepreneurship training and venture creation program. Based on a qualitative case study method, our findings show that despite successful venture creation, the women differed in their experiences of well-being, with some flourishing and others languishing. Specifically, we found that the languishing women entrepreneurs lacked family support and prior work experience outside the home, which was associated with abstract goals and unrealistic expectations of venture creation outcomes. In contrast, flourishing women entrepreneurs, benefitting from prior work experience and family support, tended to set concrete goals for their entrepreneurial endeavors and had realistic expectations. Our findings provide new insights into some of the limitations of entrepreneurship programs for women at the base of the pyramid and emphasize the importance of well-being as a measure of successful venture creation.
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Positive psychology postulates that using one’s strengths can facilitate employee well-being and performance at work. However, whether strengths use is associated with attentional performance has remained unanswered in the literature. Attention plays a role in job performance, and previous literature has suggested a contrasting link between well-being (i.e., positive affect) and attentional performance. We hypothesize that, within work episodes, strength use is positively associated with eudaimonic (i.e., meaningfulness and personal growth) and hedonic well-being (i.e., positive affect). Further, we test the episodic process model by arguing that strengths use and well-being during one work episode are negatively related to subsequent attentional performance. In total, 115 participants registered for the current study, and 86 participants filled out the daily questionnaire once per day across five working days (a total of 365 daily reports). Multilevel analyses showed that episodic strengths use was not directly related to subsequent attentional performance. Episodic strengths use was positively related to a higher level of meaningfulness, personal growth, and positive affect. In turn, experienced meaningfulness was negatively related to subsequent attentional performance. However, personal growth and positive affect did not explain variance in attentional performance. These findings suggest that strength use may be accompanied with higher experienced meaningfulness, although the latter may be detrimental for subsequent attentional performance. Theoretical implications and contributions are discussed.
Article
Purpose This study aims to review the development of strengths assessment in mental health services and evaluate the features of those newly developed strengths assessments. Method A systematic literature review approach was adopted to identify relevant articles from September 2010 to August 2021. Results The results reveals that 1) the Value in Action Inventory of Strengths is the most widely studied strengths assessment but contains shortcomings in the application of mental health services; 2) 12 strengths assessments have been newly developed, which demonstrated quantitative measure, brief questionnaire, and contextual consideration are the tendency of measure development; 3) domains of strengths assessments were categorized into individual strengths, environmental strengths, and interpersonal strengths, in which individual strengths was the most commonly focus; 4) strengths conceptualization and psychometric properties are two remained limitations of existing strengths assessments. Discussion Developing a brief, quantitative, holistic, contextualized, recovery-oriented, psychometrically sound, and strengths-based assessment for people with mental illnesses is promising.
Chapter
This study aimed to understand the existing relationships between virtues, character strengths, subjective well-being and academic achievement in Angolan university students. Two hundred and eighteen students from the Catholic University of Angola participated in this research. Virtues and character strengths were assessed with the VIA survey 24; subjective well-being with the Mental Health Continuum—Short Form—for youth, and academic achievement with cumulative grade-point average and the number of previous school retentions. Regarding virtues and character strengths, transcendence, hope and love had the higher values, and temperance, self-regulation and creativity the lower ones. Our participants had higher levels of psychological well-being, and lower levels of social well-being. The correlations between virtues and character strengths, well-being and academic achievement showed that the overall well-being score is positive and significantly correlated with all virtues and the majority of character strengths. On the other hand, psychological well-being was more strongly related to virtues and character strengths. Finally, the correlations with academic achievement were scarce, in which only love of learning, temperance, appreciation of beauty and excellence and forgiveness seem to have correlations with the first variable. There is a further need to understand how these variables interact with academic achievement.
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We sought to identify the social process through which communal support can be established among veteran couples and families. On the basis of the social organization theory of action and change, a sense of community is crucial for military veterans' well‐being and may serve as a resource for intervention. We interviewed service providers (n = 8) and corroborated their perspectives by triangulating evaluations from veteran family participants (n = 143). Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Providers suggested promoting a sense of community in prevention and intervention programming by (a) establishing a safe and empowering space, (b) bridging existing gaps within family and community systems, and (c) encouraging interpersonal healing by promoting connection and facilitating the sharing of common experiences. Providers also described challenges to facilitating the program, including logistics, time, and funding constraints. According to our results, fostering community among veterans and their family members may be achieved by applying an integrative approach that goes beyond siloed individual, couple, and group therapy orchestrated by practitioners. We recommend multicomponent interventions that create synergy between different levels and forms of social support. Providers recommended being intentional about the program structure to focus on community strengths and shared connection.
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What is positive psychology? Where has it come from? Where is it going? These are the questions we address in this article. In defining positive psychology, we distinguish between the meta-psychological level, where the aim of positive psychology is to redress the imbalance in psychology research and practice, and the pragmatic level, which is concerned with what positive psychologists do, in terms of their research, practice, and areas of interest. These distinctions in how we understand positive psychology are then used to shape conceptions of possible futures for positive psychology. In conclusion, we identify several pertinent issues for the consideration of positive psychology as it moves forward. These include the need to synthesize the positive and negative, build on its historical antecedents, integrate across levels of analysis, build constituency with powerful stakeholders, and be aware of the implications of description versus prescription.
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Responds to comments by A. C. Bohart and T Greening, S. B. Shapiro, G. Bacigalupe, R. Walsh, W. C. Compton, C. L. McLafferty and J. D. Kirylo, N. Abi-Hashem, A. C. Catania, G. K. Lampropoulos, and T. M. Kelley (see records 2002-15384-010, 2002-15384-011, 2002-15384-012, 2002-15384-013, 2002-15384-014, 2002-15384-015, 2002-15384-016, 2002-15384-017, 2002-15384-018, and 2002-15384-019, respectively) on the January 2000, Vol 55(1) special issue of the American Psychologist dedicated to positive psychology. M. E. P. Seligman and M. Csikszentmihalyi expand on some of the critical themes discussed in the commentaries. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the performance of 5 methods for determining the number of components to retain—J. L. Horn's (see record 1965-13273-001 ) parallel analysis, W. F. Velicer's (see record 1977-00166-001 ) minimum average partial (MAP), R. B. Cattell's (see PA, Vol 41:969) scree test, M. S. Bartlett's (1950) chi-square test, and H. F. Kaiser's (see record 1960-06772-001 ) eigenvalue greater than 1 rule—across 7 systematically varied conditions (sample size, number of variables, number of components, component saturation, equal or unequal numbers of variables for each component, and the presence or absence of unique and complex variables). Five sample correlation matrices were generated at each of 2 sample sizes from the 48 known population correlation matrices representing 6 levels of component pattern complexity. Results indicate that the performance of the parallel analysis and MAP methods was generally the best across all situations; the scree test was generally accurate but variable; and Bartlett's chi-square test was less accurate and more variable than the scree test. Kaiser's method tended to severely overestimate the number of components. (65 ref)
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This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.
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Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology.
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The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N = 479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18–76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n = 130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n = 118) or a waitlist control (n = 231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n = 40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n = 22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n = 120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables.
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Positive psychology looks at areas like well-being and fulfillment. While the larger question of optimal human functioning is hardly new, positive psychology offers a common language on this subject to professionals working in a variety of subdisciplines and practices. Applicable in many settings and relevant for individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and societies, positive psychology is a genuinely integrative approach to professional practice. This chapter examines how physical activity acts to promote positive psychology in motion.
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We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
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An emphasis of the coaching psychology and positive psychology movements has been strengths and well- being. This study examined two generic aspects of strengths - strengths knowledge and strengths use, together with organismic valuing, and their relations with subjective well-being, psychological well-being, and subjective vitality. Theory suggests that people who know their strengths, use their strengths, and follow the directions that are right for them (i.e. organismically valuing) will be happier. Participants (N=214) completed measures of these variables, as well as measures of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Analyses showed that strengths knowledge, strengths use, and organismic valuing were all significantly associated with well- being and vitality. Regression analyses showed that self-esteem, organismic valuing, and strengths use all predicted unique variance in subjective well-being and psychological well-being, but only self-esteem significantly predicted unique variance in subjective vitality. The discussion locates the findings in relation to strengths coaching, and suggests directions for future research and coaching psychology applications.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
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Factor analysis is an analytic technique that permits the reduction of a large number of correlated variables to a smaller number of latent dimensions. The goal of factor analysis is to achieve parsimony by using the smallest number of explanatory concepts to explain the maximum amount of common variance in a correlation matrix. In this article, we provide an overview of factor analysis techniques. We provide a conceptual explanation of factor analysis, a discussion of the relation of factor analysis to other multivariate techniques, and an explanation of characteristics of the data to consider in determining the appropriateness of factor analysis. We review considerations in making decisions about communality estimates, methods of factor extraction, the number of factors to rotate, and methods of factor rotation. We conclude with suggestions on how to interpret factor analysis results, calculate factor scores, and report factor analysis results. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article describes 2 studies testing hypotheses that perceived social support operates in part as a cognitive personality construct. Both studies found that perceived support manifested a pattern of correlations more similar to cognitive variables than did support received from the environment and that the relation between perceived support and psychological distress was reduced substantially when the cognitive personality variables were controlled statistically. Study 2 also tested hypotheses generated from schema theory that perceived support would be related to the interpretation and recall of novel supportive behaviors. As predicted, low-perceived-support students interpreted novel supportive behaviors more negatively than high-support students and remembered a lower proportion of behaviors perceived as helpful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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a b s t r a c t Hope comprises two components: agency (''goal directed determination") and pathways (''planning of ways to meet goals"). We tested whether these two components can be dissociated and therefore differ-entially predict dropout from two unguided self-help interventions to reduce worry (gratitude vs. thought monitoring and cognitive restructuring interventions, N = 247 entered, 136 completed). The two hope components significantly predicted attrition in opposite directions; agency predicted comple-tion (OR = 2.15, CI = 1.27–3.64, p = .004), whereas pathways predicted dropout (OR = .47, CI = .29–.77, p = .003). Gratitude and thought monitoring reduced worry compared a wait list control, and for compl-eters there was no difference in outcome. Conclusion: hope facets can be dissociated; gratitude tech-niques are as effective and have better retention than a technique commonly used in cognitive behavior therapy.
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Popular statistical software packages do not have the proper procedures for determining the number of components in factor and principal components analyses. Parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP) test are validated procedures, recommended widely by statisticians. However, many researchers continue to use alternative, simpler, but flawed procedures, such as the eigenvaluesgreater-than-one rule. Use of the proper procedures might be increased if these procedures could be conducted within familiar software environments. This paper describes brief and efficient programs for using SPSS and SAS to conduct parallel analyses and the MAP test.
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The development of a classification of strengths, the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths, has done much to advance research into strengths of character. Using an Internet sample of 17,056 UK respondents, we present data on the character strengths of a large UK sample. Women typically scored higher on strengths than did men. However, four of the top five “signature strengths” of the UK men and women overall were the same (open-mindedness, fairness, curiosity, and love of learning). Strengths typically showed small but significant positive associations with age, with the strongest associations with age between curiosity and love of learning (strengths of wisdom and knowledge), fairness (a strength of justice), and forgiveness and self-regulation (strengths of temperance). The discussion addresses potential limitations and suggests pertinent directions for future research.
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We investigated relations among strengths of character in 881 students from Croatian universities. We also examined links between strengths and various well-being indices. Our conceptualization was based on the Values in Action classification system with 24 strengths organized within six superordinate virtues (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). A factor analysis led to a four-factor solution; factors were defined as Interpersonal Strengths, Fortitude, Vitality, and Cautiousness. Of these factors, Vitality (with zest, hope, curiosity, and humor as indicators) emerged as the most relevant to well-being. When examining individual strengths, zest, curiosity, gratitude, and optimism/hope emerged with the strongest associations with elevated life satisfaction, subjective vitality, satisfaction of autonomy, relatedness, and competence needs, and a pleasurable, engaging, and meaningful existence. Results have implications for understanding the structure and variability of benefits linked with particular strengths.
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In two longitudinal studies, the authors examined the direction of the relationships between trait gratitude, perceived social support, stress, and depression during a life transition. Both studies used a full cross-lagged panel design, with participants completing all measures at the start and end of their first semester at college. Structural equation modeling was used to compare models of direct, reverse, and reciprocal models of directionality. Both studies supported a direct model whereby gratitude led to higher levels of perceived social support, and lower levels of stress and depression. In contrast, no variable led to gratitude, and most models of mediation were discounted. Study 2 additionally showed that gratitude leads to the other variables independently of the Big Five factors of personality. Overall gratitude seems to directly foster social support, and to protect people from stress and depression, which has implications for clinical interventions.
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There are few topics so fascinating both to the research investigator and the research subject as the self-image. It is distinctively characteristic of the human animal that he is able to stand outside himself and to describe, judge, and evaluate the person he is. He is at once the observer and the observed, the judge and the judged, the evaluator and the evaluated. Since the self is probably the most important thing in the world to him, the question of what he is like and how he feels about himself engrosses him deeply. This is especially true during the adolescent stage of development.
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The aims of this study were to (a) identify the predictors of attrition from a fully self-directed intervention, and (b) to test whether an intervention to increase gratitude is an effective way to reduce body dissatisfaction. Participants (N=479, from the United Kingdom) aged 18-76 years took part in a self-help study via the Internet and were randomized to receive one of two interventions, gratitude diaries (n=130), or thought monitoring and restructuring (n=118) or a waitlist control (n=231) for a two week body dissatisfaction intervention. The gratitude intervention (n=40) was as effective as monitoring and restructuring (n=22) in reducing body dissatisfaction, and both interventions were significantly more effective than the control condition (n=120). Participants in the gratitude group were more than twice as likely to complete the intervention compared to those in the monitoring and restructuring group. Intervention content, baseline expectancy and internal locus of control significantly predicted attrition. This study shows that a gratitude intervention can be as effective as a technique commonly used in cognitive therapy and is superior in retaining participants. Prediction of attrition is possible from both intervention content and psychological variables.
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We review recent research to establish that the associations between positive emotional experience and major forms of psychopathology show considerable specificity. Although indicators of low positive affect are consistently related to both social anxiety/social phobia and schizophrenia/schizotypy, they are more strongly linked to depression, thereby displaying relative specificity. Moreover, low positive affect actually shows greater specificity than the diagnostic criteria for depression and is most strongly related to those symptoms (anhedonia, dysphoria, lassitude, suicidality) that are specific to the disorder. With regard to social phobia, findings suggest that low positive affect is more strongly related to the generalized subtype than to the non-generalized performance subtype. Analyses of schizophrenia/schizotypy indicate that although low positive affect is consistently associated with the negative symptoms (e.g., constricted affect, social aloofness), it is only weakly related to positive symptoms (e.g., magical thinking, perceptual aberrations, suspiciousness). Other data suggest that schizophrenia is associated with an anticipatory pleasure deficit, such that individuals with the disorder engage in rewarding activities less frequently because they do not expect to derive pleasure from them. Finally, we summarize evidence indicating that elevated positive affect is both a risk factor for bipolar disorder and a concomitant of manic symptoms.
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In this article, we examine subjective vitality, a positive feeling of aliveness and energy, in six studies. Subjective vitality is hypothesized to reflect organismic well-being and thus should covary with both psychological and somatic factors that impact the energy available to the self. Associations are shown between subjective vitality and several indexes of psychological well-being; somatic factors such as physical symptoms and perceived body functioning; and basic personality traits and affective dispositions. Subsequently, vitality is shown to be lower in people with chronic pain compared to matched controls, especially those who perceive their pain to be disabling or frightening. Subjective vitality is further associated with self-motivation and maintained weight loss among patients treated for obesity. Finally, subjective vitality is assessed in a diary study for its covariation with physical symptoms. Discussion focuses on the phenomenological salience of personal energy and its relations to physical and psychological well-being.
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Did Americans change following the September 11 terrorist attacks? We provide a tentative answer with respect to the positive traits included in the Values in Action Classification of Strengths and measured with a self-report questionnaire available on-line and completed by 4,817 respondents. When scores for individuals completing the survey in the 2 months immediately after September 11 were compared with scores for those individuals who completed the survey before September 11, seven character strengths showed increases: gratitude, hope, kindness, leadership, love, spirituality, and teamwork. Ten months after September 11, these character strengths were still elevated, although to a somewhat lesser degree than immediately following the attacks.