Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale)

Article (PDF Available)inJournal of medicinal plant research 4(24):2674-2679 · January 2011with 51,691 Reads 
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR09.464
Cite this publication
The chemical composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueous and solvent extracts) of Ginger root (Zingiber officinale) were determined. The antioxidant components analysed were polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. Protein and fat of sample were 5.08 and 3.72 g/100 g respectively. Ash, minerals namely iron, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, copper, chromium and manganese) and vitamin C were 3.85 (g), 8.0 (mg), 88.4 (mg), 174 (mg), 0.92 (mg), 0.545 (mg), 70 (µg), 9.13 (mg) and 9.33 (mg) per 100 g of sample, respectively. Antioxidant components (polyphenols, flavonoids and total tannin) were higher in hot water (100°C) extract than other solvent extracts and 30°C water extract. Antioxidant activity by 3 different methods showed higher activity in solvent extract than water extract. Order of antioxidant activity by reducing power and free radical scavenging activity by DPPH was as follows, 80% methanolic > 80%ethanolic > methanolic > ethanolic > 30°C water >100°C water > acetonic extract.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 4(24), pp. 2674-2679, 18 December, 2010
Available online at
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR09.464
ISSN 1996-0875©2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of
ginger root (Zingiber officinale)
Shirin Adel P. R.* and Jamuna Prakash
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore 570 006, India.
Accepted 13 October, 2010
The chemical composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueous and solvent extracts) of Ginger root
(Zingiber officinale) were determined. The antioxidant components analysed were polyphenols, vitamin
C, β carotene, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity,
reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80%
methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. Protein and fat of sample were 5.08 and 3.72 g/100 g respectively.
Ash, minerals namely iron, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, copper, chromium and manganese) and vitamin
C were 3.85 (g), 8.0 (mg), 88.4 (mg), 174 (mg), 0.92 (mg), 0.545 (mg), 70 (µg), 9.13 (mg) and 9.33 (mg) per
100 g of sample, respectively. Antioxidant components (polyphenols, flavonoids and total tannin) were
higher in hot water (100°C) extract than other solvent extracts and 30°C water extract. Antioxidant
activity by 3 different methods showed higher activity in solvent extract than water extract. Order of
antioxidant activity by reducing power and free radical scavenging activity by DPPH was as follows,
80% methanolic > 80%ethanolic > methanolic > ethanolic > 30°C water >100°C water > acetonic extract.
Key words: Flavonoids, medicinal plant, polyphenol, spice, tannin.
Until synthetic drugs were developed in nineteenth
century, herbs were the basis for nearly all medicinal
therapy. Today, herbs are still found in 40% of
prescriptions, and the interest for use of herbal remedies
instead of chemical drugs is increasing because of lesser
side effects (Craig, 1999). A remarkable increase in the
use of medicinal plant products has been observed in the
past decade. Due to their properties, medicinal plants are
used as primary health care aid among 80% of the
world’s population in the form of plant extracts or their
active components (Word Health Organisation, 2008).
In the last decade, studies have also focused on new
group of bioactive components in some foods which have
protective effects against cell oxidation. These food
groups have been classified as functional foods. The
value of functional foods has been recognised for their
health benefits (Klein et al., 2000). Heart diseases
*Corresponding author. E-mail: Tel:
continue to be a major cause of death; cancer,
osteoporosis and arthritis remain highly prevalent.
Though, genetics play a major role in the progress of the
diseases mentioned, by and large most are considered
preventable or could be minimized by activity, a proper
diet, physical activity, weight management and a healthy
lifestyle. Functional foods can prevent or delay the onset
of chronic diseases and also provide basic nutritional
requirements (Medoua et al., 2009).
Ginger has been used as a spice and as natural
additives for more than 2000 years (Bartley and Jacobs,
2000). Also, ginger has many medicinal properties.
Studies have shown that, the long term dietary intake of
ginger has hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effect
(Ahmed and Sharma, 1997). Ginger has been identified
as an herbal medicinal product with pharmacological
effect. Ginger suppresses prostaglandin synthesis
through inhibition of cyclooxygenase- 1 and
cyclooxygenase- 2. In traditional Chinese and Indian
medicine, ginger has been used to treat a wide range of
ailments including stomach aches, diarrhea, nausea,
asthma, respiratory disorders (Grzanna et al., 2005). As
ginger is widely used both as a spice and for its medicinal
properties, the present study was undertaken to
determine the nutritional composition of dry ginger as well
as its antioxidant activity and components. An attempt
was also made to investigate association between the
antioxidant activities and components of dry ginger
extracted in different solvents.
Plant material
Fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) were procured from local market,
washed with distilled water and dried in oven at 40°C, then ground and
stored in air tight container under refrigeration.
Chemical reagents and solvents
The chemicals used for the study were procured from Qualigen
Company Mumbai, India, Himedia Company, Mumbai, India and Sigma
Company, USA. They were all of analytical grade. Double distilled
water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanol
were used for extraction.
Extraction of the sample
One gram of s ample was weighed accurately and suspended in 100 ml
of solvent. It was shaken for 3 h in an electronic s haker at room
temperature, unless otherwise specified, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20
min and filtered with Whatman No. 1 filter paper. For all experiments
fresh extracts were used.
Sample preparation for determination of antioxidant activity
250 mg of sample were mixed with 25 ml of extracting solvent and
extracted for 3 h, centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min, and passed
through filter paper (Whatman No.1) to get clear extract. Water extracts
were taken at 30 and 100°C.
Proximate composition and trace element estimation
Nutritional composition -Moisture, total protein, f at, ash, calcium,
phosphorus, iron, vitamin C (Horwitz and Latimer, 2005), dietary fibre
(Asp et al., 1983) - of all the samples were estimated with standard
techniques. The ash s olutions were prepared with wet digestion
(Ranganna, 1986) and analyzed for zinc, c opper, c hromium and
manganese using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) (GBC
Scientific equipment, Australia). Instrument parameters such as
resonant wavelength, slit width and air-acetylene flow rate that are
appropriate for each element were selected (AOAC, 2000). The
instrument was set up and calibrated as per the guidelines in the
manual provided by the manufacturer. A calibration curve
(Concentration Vs absorbance) for each mineral to be determined was
prepared using a range of working standards. The flame paramet ers
were optimized in accordance with the instrument manufacturer’s
The standard s olutions were read before estimation of each mineral.
The burner was flushed with water between samples and zero was re-
established each time. Suitable dilutions of the ash solutions were made
to read the contents of the minerals in the ash solution. The
concentration of metals in the ash solutions of samples as well as in the
blank solutions were read from the calibration curve and the
concentration in the test samples was calculated taking into account the
dilutions and the weight of the samples taken.
Shirin and Jamuna 2675
Antioxidant components estimation
Total phenolic compound analysis
Total polyphenol content was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC)
assay which is widely used in routine analysis (Wright et al., 2000; Atoui
et al., 2005). A known amount of extract (10 mg/ml) was mixed with 1.0
ml of FC reagent and 0.8 ml of 2% Na2Co3 was added and the volume
was made up to 10 ml using water- methanol (4:6) as diluting fluid.
Absorbance was read at 740 nm after 30 min using spectrophotometer.
Tannic acid (0 - 800 mg/L) was used to produce standard calibration
curve. The total phenolic content was expressed in mg of Tannic acid
equivalents (TAE) /100 g of sample (Matthaus, 2002).
Determination of total flavonoids
The total flavonoid content was determined using the Dowd method as
adapted by (Arvouet-Grand et al., 1994). A 5.0 ml of 2% aluminium
trichloride (AlCl3) in methanol was mixed with the same volume of the
extract solution (10 mg/ml). Absorption readings at 415 nm using Perkin
Elmer UV-VIS spectrophotometer were taken after 10 min against a
blank sample consisting of extract s olution with 5.0 ml methanol without
AlCl3. The total flavonoid content was determined using a standard
curve with quercetin. Total flavonoid c ontent is expressed as g of
quercetin equivalents / 100 g of sample.
Total tannin estimation
Colorimetric estimation of tannins is based on the measurement of blue
colour formed by the reduction of phosphotungstomolybdic acid by
tannin like c ompounds in alkaline solution (R anganna, 1986). A known
amount of extract was mixed with 5.0 ml of Folin- Denis reagent (FD)
and Na2Co3 solution and made up to 100 ml, mixed well and
absorbance was read at 760 nm after 30 min using spectrophotometer.
Total tannin c ontent as expressed as mg tannic acid equivalent /100 g
of sample.
Determination of antioxidant activity of different extract
Radical scavenging activity by DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-
Effect of different extracts on DPPH free radical was measured
according to Lee (Lee et al., 1996). Positive control (standard) was
prepared by mixing 4.0 ml of ascorbic acid (0.05 mg/ml) and 1.0 ml of
DPPH (0.4 mg/ml) for water extract, and negative control (blank) was
prepared by mixing extract base (water/methanol/ethanol/acetone) with
1.0 ml of DPPH. Four different c oncentrations of extract was mixed with
4.0 ml of DPPH, the volume made up to known volume, mixed well and
left to stand at room temperature in a dark place for 30 min. Absorbance
was read us ing a spectrophotometer at 520 nm. The ability of extract to
scavenge DPPH was calculated using the following equation:
Control OD − Sample OD
Radical scavenging activity % =
Control OD
Reducing power
A spectrophotometric method was used for the measurement of
reducing power. Different concentrations of extracts were mixed with
2.5 ml phosphate buffer (0.2 M, pH 6.6) and 2.5 ml of 1% potassium
ferricyanide (10 mg ml-1). The mixture was incubated at 50°C for 20 min,
then rapidly cooled, mixed with 2.5 ml of 10% trichloroactic ac id and
centrifuged at 6500 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant (2.5 ml) was mixed
with distilled water (2.5 ml) and then ferric chloride (0.5 ml, 0.1%) was
added and allowed to stand for 10 min. The absorbance was read
spectrophotometrically at 700 nm (Oyaizu, 1986).
2676 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Table 1. Nutritional composition of ginger (per 100g).
Constituent Value Constituent Value
Moisture 15.02 ± 0.04 Ash (g) 3.85 ± 0.61 (4.53)
Protein (g) 5.087 ± 0.09(5.98) Calcium (mg) 88.4 ± 0.97 (104.02)
Fat (g) 3.72 ± 0.03 (4.37) Phosphorous (mg) 174±1.2 (204.75)
Insoluble fibre (%) 23.5 ± 0.06 (27.65) Iron (mg) 8.0 ± 0.2 (9.41)
Soluble fibre (%) 25.5 ± 0.04 (30.0) Zinc (mg) 0.92 ± 0 (1.08)
Carbohydrate (g) 38.35 ± 0.1 Copper (mg) 0.545 ± 0.002 (0.641)
Vitamin C (mg) 9.33 ± 0.08 (10.97) Manganese (mg) 9.13 ± 001 (10.74)
Total carotenoids (mg) 79 ± 0.2 (9296) Chromium (µg) 70 ± 0 (83.37)
All value in this table represent the mean ± SD (n = 4). Figures in the parenthesis represent the dry weight values.
Total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method
The extract (0.1 ml) (10 mg/ml) was mixed with reagent solution (0.6 M
sulphuric acid, 28 mM s odium phosphate and 4 mM ammonium
molybdate in 100 ml). The tubes were capped and incubated in boiling
water bath at 95°C for 90 min, then cooled to room temperature and
absorbance was read at 695 nm with spectrophotometer against blank.
Water s oluble antioxidant capacity expressed as equivalent of ascorbic
acid (µmol/g of sample) (Prieto et al., 1999).
Statistical analysis
Data were expressed as mean ± SD. (n = 4) in all the experiments. To
determine the extent of association between antioxidant activity and
antioxidant components in different extracts, data were subjected to
correlation coefficient in Excel 2007.
Nutritional composition
The nutritional composition of dry ginger was determined
with standard techniques and results are shown in (Table
1). Protein and fat content was found to be 5.98 and 4.37
g /100 g DW. The reported values for composition of
ginger by various authors are in the following range; for
protein, 7.2 to 8.7, fat, 5.5 to 7.3 and ash, 2.5 to 5.7 g/100
g DW (Nwinuka et al., 2005; Hussain et al., 2009;
Odebunmi et al., 2010). In our study, ash, iron, calcium
and phosphorous contents were 4.53 g, 9.41 mg, 104.02
mg, 204.75 mg/100 g DW, respectively. Ash content was
in the range of reported values and calcium content, that,
104.02 mg/100 g DW was very close to the value
reported for Indian foods (Gopalan et al., 2004).
Trace minerals namely zinc, copper, manganese and
total chromium were estimated with atomic absorption
spectrophotometer and found to be 1.08 mg, 0.641 mg,
10.74 mg and total chromium was 83.37 µg/100g DW,
respectively. Vitamin C and total carotenoids content
were found to be 10.97 and 92.96 mg/100 g, respectively.
Soluble and insoluble fibre of sample was determined
and as shown in Table 1, soluble fibre was slightly higher
than insoluble fibre. Antioxidant components were
estimated in seven extracting media and results are
shown in Table 2. Total polyphenols, tannin and
flavonoids were found to be more in 100°C water extract
than other extracts. It can be because of more solubility
of these components in hot water than other solvents.
Total polyphenols
Total polyphenols were highest in aqueous extract with
almost similar amounts at different temperatures (840
and 830 mg/g). Least polyphenols were seen in acetonic
extract. Antioxidant activities of plant extracts were
usually linked to their phenolic content. Hydrogen
donating characteristics of the phenolic compounds is
responsible for the inhibition of free radical induced lipid
ability to scavenge free radicals and give oxygen species
such as singlet oxygen, superoxide free radicals and
hydroxyl radicals (Hall, 1997), though, it is well accepted
that non phenolic antioxidants might also contribute to the
antioxidant activity of plant extract (Hassimotto et al.,
2005; Harish and Shivanandappa, 2006). In a study,
researchers estimated total polyphenol content of 35
different herbs and medicinal plants in 80% methanolic
extract. The polyphenol content was between 0.8 to 42.1
mg of gallic acid equivalent /g dry weight (DW)
(Kahkonen et al., 1999). Hinneburg et al. (2006) found
the total phenolic content of aqueous ginger extract to be
23.5 mg gallic acid/g of sample. Another researcher
(Rababah et al., 2004) estimated the total phenolic
content of 60% ethanolic extract of ginger to be 39.9 mg
of chlorogenic acid equivalent/g DW. In our study, when
we calculated total polyphenols content in 80%
methanolic extract/g of DW ginger, it showed 780 mg of
TAE/ 100 g of sample.
Flavonoids were estimated in all the extracts and data is
shown in Table 2. Highest flavonoid content was reported
in 30 and 100°C aqueous extract at 1.37 and 2.98 g/100
g of sample, respectively. Flavonoid content of 80%
methanolic extract and 80% ethanolic extracts were
Shirin and Jamuna 2677
Table 2. Antioxidant c omponents and total antioxidant activity of ginger in different solvent extracts.
Antioxidant components Water Methanol Ethanol Methanol
(80%) Acetone
(0.060) (0.010)
Total polyphenols mg/100 g 840 ± 2.1 838 ± 3.0 510 ± 2.2 565 ± 4.1 780 ± 5 800 ± 4.3 325 ± 1.9
Tannin g/100 g 1.51 ± 0.05 1.34 ± 0.08 1.12 ± 0.05 0.98 ± 0.03 1.28 ± 0.01 1.15 ± 0.1 0.67 ± 0.08
Flavonoids g/100 g 2.98 ± 0.06 1.371 ± 0.01 0.685 ± 0.005 0.278 ± 0.003 0.404 ± 0.002 0.352 ± 0.002 0.249 ± 0.002
Total antioxidant activity µmol/ g of sample 73529.4 ± 121 79400 ± 88 98822.5 ± 74 91176.25 ± 66 85294 ± 47 80000 ± 38 32056 ± 27
All values in this table represent the mean ± SD (n = 4).
Table 3. Correlation between antioxidant activity and antioxidant component of sample in different solvent extracts.
Correlation (R
values) Water extract Solvent extract
Antioxidant components Method of assay Method of assay
DPPH Reducing power Total antioxidant DPPH Reducing power Total antioxidant
Flavonoids -1 -1 -1 0.493 0.505 0.613
Polyphenols 1 1 1 0.901 0.847 0.579
Total tannin -1 -1 -1 0.985 0.887 0.885
For solvent extract in DPPH method, 80% methanolic extract was not included for statistical analysis since the concentration did not match with other extracts.
found to be more than methanolic and ethanolic
extracts,respectively, but lesser than aqueous
extract. It can be due to higher solubility of ginger
flavonoids in water than other solvents.
Tannin estimation
Tannin was also estimated in all seven different
extracts (Table 2). As was observed for the other
antioxidant components, 30 and 100°C aqueous
extract had the highest tannin (1.34 and 1.51
g/100 g of sample, respectively) and acetonic
extract showed the least content (0.67 g/100 g).
As shown in Tables 2 and 3, tannin content did
not show any correlation with antioxidant activity
in aqueous extract, but high correlation was seen
with solvent extract.
Estimation of antioxidant activity
Antioxidant activity of dry ginger was estimated
with three different methods.
Total antioxidant activity
Total antioxidant activity (Table 2) was highest in
methanolic extract at 98822 µmol/g followed by
ethanolic extract at 91176 µmol/g. Least total
antioxidant activity was found in acetonic extract.
Free radical scavenging activity
DPPH is a stable free radical in methanol or
aqueous solution and accepts an electron or
hydrogen radical to turn into stable diamagnetic
molecule. It is usually used as a substrate to
evaluate the antioxidative activity of antioxidants
(Duh et al., 1999), thus we have estimated the
antioxidant activity through free radical
scavenging of ginger. Free radical scavenging
potency of sample is shown in Figure 1 which
showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging
activity in 80% methanolic extract followed by
80% ethanolic extract. In a study, by Chen et al.
(2008), DPPH radical scavenging activity of
methanolic extract was found to be in a range of
2678 J. Med. Plant. Res.
Figure 1. Free Radical sc avenging activity of ginger in different solvent extracts. Concentration of sample (in mg):
In 80% methanolic extract, A: 0.4, B: 0.6, C: 0.8 and D: 1.0. For all other extracts, A: 2.5, B: 5.0, C: 7.5, D: 10.
tracting solvent
Optical density
Figure 2. Reducing power of ginger in different solvent extracts.
32 to 90.1% in 100 mg of 18 different ginger species. In
the present study, DPPH free radical scavenging activity
of methanolic extract was 39.6, 64.7, 77.6 and 84.4% in
0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg of sample, respectively, which
is higher than the reported values.
Reducing power
It has been reported that the reducing power of bioactive
compounds is associated with antioxidant activity (Yen et
al., 1993; Siddhuraju et al., 2002). Hence, it is essential
to determine the reducing power of phenolic constituents
to explain the relationship between their antioxidant effect
and their reducing power. The reducing power of different
solvent extracts of ginger was estimated. Highest
reducing power was also in 80% methanolic extract
followed by 80% ethanolic extract (Figure 2). As reported
by Chen et al. (2008), the reducing power of methanolic
extract of 18 different species of ginger ranged from 0.34
to 1.6 nm in 100 mg of sample. In our study, methanolic
extract of sample showed much higher activity of 0.208,
0.393, 0.558, 0.681 nm for 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 mg of
Antioxidant components and activity are highly
dependent on extracting solvent and concentration of
solvent (Turkmen et al., 2006), but they also vary within
the samples. Many researchers have reported the
relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant
activity. In some studies, they found a correlation
between the phenolic content and antioxidant activity
(Velioglu et al., 1998), whereas others found no
relationship (Kahkonen et al., 1999). As it is shown in
Table 3, in this study we also found high correlation
between polyphenol content and antioxidant activity in
both water extract (R2 = 1) and solvent extract (DPPH, R2
= 0.901, reducing power, R2 = 0.847 and total antioxidant
activity R2 = 0.579). Total tannin and flavonoids did not
show any correlation with antioxidant activity in aqueous
extract. In solvent extract, total tannin showed high
correlation with reducing activity (R2 = 0.887), total
antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.885) and free radical scavenging
activity (R2 = 0.985). Flavonoids showed correlation with
reducing power (R2 = 0.505), total antioxidant (R2 = 0.613)
and DPPH (R2 = 0.493). Since the antioxidant activity was
higher in alcoholic extract than aqueous extract, it is
advisable to use the extracting media capable of extracting
the lipophilic antioxidant compounds from ginger.
It can be concluded that ginger is a good source of
antioxidant and most of the antioxidant components
exhibit higher activities in alcoholic media as determined
by different assays. Hence, apart from its medicinal
properties, ginger can also be used as an antioxidant
Ahmed R, Sharma S (1997). Biochemical studies on c ombined effect of
garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) in
albino rats. Indian journal of experimental biology 35: 841-843.
AOAC (2000). Official methods of analysis. Arlington, USA, Association
of Official Analytical Chemists.
Arvouet-Grand A, Vennat B, Pourrat A, Legret P (1994).
Standardisation d'un extrait de propolis et identification des
principaux constituants= Standardization of a propolis extract and
identification of the main constituents. J. de pharmacie de Belgique,
49(6): 462-468.
Asp NG, Johanss on CG, Hallmer H, Siljestrom M (1983). Rapid
enzymatic assay of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber. J. Agric. Food
Chem., 31(3): 476-482.
Atoui A, Mansouri A, Boskou G, Kefalas P (2005). Tea and herbal
infusions: their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. Food Chem.
89(1): 27-36.
Bartley J, Jacobs A (2000). Effects of drying on flavour compounds in
Australian-grown ginger (Zingiber officinale). J. Sci. Food Agric.,
80(2): 209-215.
Chen I, Chang C, Ng C, Wang C, Shyu Y , Chang T (2008). Antioxidant
and antimicrobial activity of Zingiberaceae plants in Taiwan. Plant
Food Hum. Nutr., 63(1): 15-20.
Craig WJ (1999). Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J.
Clin. Nutr., 70(3): 491S.
Duh P, Tu Y, Yen G (1999). Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of
harn jyur (Chyrsanthemum morifolium Ramat). LWT. J. Food Sci.
Tech., 32: 269-277.
Gopalan C, Rama Sastri BV, Balasubramanian SC, Rao N BS,
Deosthale YG, Pant KC (2004). Nutritive value of indian foods.
Hyderabad, National Institute of Nutrition Indian Council of Medical
Shirin and Jamuna 2679
Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza C (2005). Ginger-A herbal medicinal
product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J. Med. Food, 8(2):
Hall C (1997). Structure-Activities of natural antioxidants. In" Antioxidant
Methodology. in vivo and in vitro. concepts., Ed. by Aruoma, OI and
Cuppett, SL, AOAC press: Champaign, IL.
Harish R, Shivanandappa T (2006). Antioxidant activity and
hepatoprotective potential of Phyllanthus niruri. Food Chem. 95(2):
Hassimotto N, Genovese M, Lajolo F (2005). Antioxidant activity of
dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J. Agric.
Food Chem., 53(8): 2928-2935.
Hinneburg I, Damien Dorman H, Hiltunen R (2006). Antioxidant activity
of extracts from selected culinary herbs and spices. Food Chem., 97:
Horwitz W, Latimer J (2005). Official methods of analysis of AOAC
International, AOAC international Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
Hussain J, Bahader A, Ullah F, Rehman N, Khan A, Ullah W , Shinwari
Z (2009). Proximate and Nutrient Analysis of the Locally
Manufactured Herbal Medicines and its Raw Material. J. Am. Sci.,
5(6): 1-5.
Kahkonen M, H opia A, Vuorela H, R auha J, Pihlaja K, Kujala T ,
Heinonen M (1999). Antioxidant activity of plant extracts containing
phenolic compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 47(10): 3954-3962.
Klein C, Sato T, Meguid MM, Miyata G (2000). From food to nutritional
support to specific nutraceuticals: A journey across time in the
treatment of disease. J. G astroenterol., 35: 1-6.
Lee J, Park J, Choi J (1996). The antioxidant activity of Ecklonia
stolonifera. Archives Pharmacal Res., 19(3): 223-227.
Matthaus B (2002). Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained fr om
residues of different oilseeds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50(12): 3444-
Medoua GN, Egal AA, Oldewage-Theron W H (2009). Nutritional value
and antioxidant c apacity of lunch meals consumed by elderly people
of Sharpeville, South Africa. Food Chem., 115(1): 260-264.
Nwinuka N, Ibeh G, Ekeke G (2005). Proximate composition and levels
of some toxicants in four commonly consumed spices. J. Appl. Sci.
Environ. Mgt., 9(1): 150-155.
Odebunmi E, Oluwaniyi O, Bashiru M (2010). Comparative Proximate
Analysis of Some Food Condiments. J. App. Sci. Res., 6(3): 272-274.
Oyaizu M (1986). Studies on product of browning reaction produced
from glucose amine. Jap. J. Nutr., 44: 307-315.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation
of antioxidant c apacity through the f ormation of a
phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the
determination of Vitamin E. Analy Biochem., 269: 337-341.
Rababah T, Navam S, Hettiarachchy, Ronny H (2004). Tota Phenolic
and Antioxidant Activity of Fenugreek, Green Tea, Black tea,Grape
Seed,Ginger, Rosemary, Gotu Kola, and Ginkgo Extract, Vitamin E,
and tert-Butylhydroquinone. J. Agri. Food Chem., 52: 5183-5186.
Ranganna S (1986). H andbook of analysis and quality c ontrol for fruit
and vegetable products, T ata McGraw-Hill.
Siddhuraju P, Mohan P, Becker K (2002). Studies on the antioxidant
activity of Indian Laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): A preliminary
assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers and
fruit pulp. Food Chem., 79(1): 61-67.
Turkmen N, S ari F, Velioglu Y (2006). Effects of extraction solvents on
concentration and antioxidant activity of black and black mate tea
polyphenols determined by f errous tartrate and Folin-Ciocalteu
methods. Food Chem., 99(4): 835-841.
Velioglu Y, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah B (1998). Antioxidant activity and
total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables, and grain products. J .
Agric. Food Chem., 46(10): 4113-4117.
Word Health Organisation. (2008). Traditional medicine. Retrieved 29-
07-2010, from actsheets/fs134/en/.
Wright L, Mphangwe N, Nyirenda H , Apostolides Z (2000). Analysis of
caffeine and flavan-3-ol composition in the fresh leaf of Camellia
sinesis for predicting the quality of the black tea produced in Central
and Southern Africa. J. Sci. Food Agric., 80(13): 1823-1830.
Yen G, Duh P , Tsai C (1993). Relationship between antioxidant activity
and maturity of peanut hulls. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41(1): 67-70.
  • ... As shown in Table 4, the total phenol contents of ginger extract obtained in this study is higher than that of the results reported by Sharif and Bennett [26] and Adel and Prakash [27]. However, methanol extract reported by Ghorab et al. [28] was found to be higher than the results of this study. ...
    Full-text available
    Ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) is a popular spice which used for the treatment of different gastrointestinal and inflammatory discomfort. In the present study , the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of ginger extract using four solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate) were determined. Among the four solvents, methanol extract showed that the maximum phenolic (1183.813 mg GAE/100 g at Ayikel and 1022.409 mg GAE/100 g at Mandura) and the least were found in acetone extract (748.865 mg GAE/100 g at Ayikel and 690.152 mg GAE/100 g at Mandura). In addition, the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (84.868% at Ayikel and 82.883% at Mandura) was observed in methanol. However, acetone showed the least DPPH radical scavenging activity (73.864% at Ayikel and 70.597% at Mandura). Antioxidant activities of ginger extracts were also expressed as IC 50 values and acetone extract has maximum IC 50 value (0.654 and 0.812 mg/mL) followed by ethyl acetate and ethanol, while the lowest for methanol extracts (0.481 and 0.525 mg/mL). The result of this study showed that extraction solvents significantly affected the total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of ginger. Thus, ginger can be regarded as promising candidates for natural sources of antioxidants with high value of phenolic contents.
  • ... The increase in ash content observed in this study could be due to the removal of moisture which tends to increase the concentration of nutrients (Morris et al., 2004) [14] . Similar results were by research outcome of Shirin and Jamuna (2010) [23] . Agu et al. (2016) [1] studied the effects of oven drying on chemical composition of ginger and concluded that during drying of ginger rhizomes, not only the moisture of the produce was affected but other nutritional parameters were also affected. ...
  • ... The correlation analysis reported by Akinola et al. (2014) showed a close relationship between total phenolic content and DPPH radical scavenging activity of ginger rhizomes, including Zingiber officinale. Ginger contains a high content of compounds demonstrating antioxidant properties such as β-carotene, ascorbic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, and polyphenols such as flavonoids and tannins (Shirin & Prakash, 2010). Shogaol, gingerol, and their related compounds are the major polyphenols of the ginger rhizome responsible for its antioxidant activity (Dugasani et al., 2010;Kikuzaki & Nakatani, 1993). ...
    Full-text available
    The antioxidant effects of individual natural compounds have been extensively investigated. However, studies on their interactions are still lacking. This study aimed to observe the interaction effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with ascorbic acid on antioxidant activity by applying response surface methodology. The results from the quadratic model showed that individually tested DPPH free radical scavenging capacities of GE and ascorbic acid manifested positive effects on the antioxidant index (AI%). However, interaction of their combination demonstrated an antagonistic effect that negatively influenced the AI%. An optimization process revealed that the highest AI% could be achieved by applying maximum effective concentrations of GE (0.49 mg/mL) and ascorbic acid (0.82 mg/mL). Although, the mechanisms behind these interactions need to be further explored, the results of this study suggested that antagonistic interaction between the combination of ginger or other herbal extracts with ascorbic acid should be taken into consideration to prevent any potential health complications.
  • ... 29 Adel and Prakash, 2010 have reported its antioxidant properties. 30 Sida cordifolia is known for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. 31 Tinospora cordifolia is a wonder drug plant with various medicinal roles. ...
  • ... Ginger is also an antioxidant food and good for human health. Ginger root contains many bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, tannins, β carotene and vitamin C which have a strong antioxidant capacity (Shirin and Prakash, 2010). Besides, ginger also has many uses to treat many diseases such as nausea, cough, digestive aid, inflammation, swelling (Truong, 2001), digestion, treatment of bronchitis (Pham, 2014). ...
    The main purpose of this study is to determine the best microwave-assisted extraction conditions such as type of solvent, solvent concentration, material/solvent ratio, microwave of power and extraction time. These factors affect strongly total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AC). The achieved best parameters for the extraction process were aqueous ethanol concentration of 50%, material/solvent ratio of 1/40 (w/v), extraction time of 3 minutes and microwave power of 127 W. TPC and AC peaked at 22.79±0.29 mg GAE/g DW and 9.85±0.03 mmol Fe/g DW, respectively. Besides, the treatment by microwave can affect the cell structure of material which was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM).
  • ... It is generally used for it safe herbal medicine, and also as spice widely used as food ingredient in many types of cuisine [13]. Ginger has been reported to be rich in mineral elements (magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and zinc), vitamins (retinol, cholecalciferol, ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, pantothenic acid and pyridoxine) and phytochemicals such as gingerol, shogaols, zingerone, alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, saponin and steroids [14][15][16][17] which have a high antioxidant activity [18]. Phamacological studies reported that ginger is anti-platelet, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-worm and anti-inflammatory, with effects on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. ...
    Full-text available
    Citation: Nyadjeu P, Ekemeni RGM, Tomedi MET (2020) Growth Performance , Feed Utilization and Survival of Clarias gariepinus Post-larvae Fed with a Dietary Supplementation of Zingiber officinale-Allium sativum Mixture. J Aquac Fisheries 4: 028.
  • ... All chemicals were of analytical grade and were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). The chemical composition of 100 g ginger was 5.98, 38.35, 3.72 mg of Protein, Carbohydrate and fat respectively [21]. Table 1 is shown the content of the pollen grains. ...
    Date palm spathes are by-products of date cultivation, which normally go to waste. To improve sustainability, this study reports the development of a date palm pollen beverage prepared from date palm spathes and examines the impact of ginger and pollen grains on its nutritional and sensory properties. Date spathe pollen beverage fortified with 1% ginger exceeded all other beverages in total protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin C, Mn, and Fe contents (P < 0.05). The unfortified date palm pollen beverage displayed the highest values of Bo, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mb, color, flavor, texture, appearance, and overall quality (P < 0.05). The pollen beverage supplemented with 1% ginger and 1% pollen grains exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Overall, fortification of date palm pollen beverage with ginger showed a varied impact as it improved some nutritional properties, but compromised others and had a negative impact on the sensory quality of the product.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    Culinary herbs and spices have received great attention as rich sources of polyphenols, which contribute to their putative health benefits. Nevertheless, the comprehensive profiling of these polyphenols in herbs and spices is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively characterize phenolic compounds from three commonly consumed Australian herbs and spices, garlic (Allium sativum), ginger (Zingiber officinale), and onion (Allium cepa) using the LC‐ESI‐QTOF/MS, and to evaluate their antioxidant potential. The LC‐ES‐QTOF/MS analysis led to the tentative identification of 28, 67, and 118 phenolic compounds in garlic, ginger, and onion, respectively, with flavonoids and phenolic acids being the major components. The obtained results showed that the ginger exhibited highest radical scavenging capacities for the DPPH (0.22 ± 0.01 mg AA/g), ABTS (1.15 ± 0.01 mg AA/g), and ferric reducing capacity (0.08 ± 0.01 mg AA/g) as compared to garlic and onion. In HPLC, garlic contains high concentration of quercetin (>1 mg/g), while onion is enriched in protocatechuic acid (>1 mg/g). The current finding highlights the importance and potential application of garlic, ginger, and onion as ingredients in functional foods, nutraceuticals, and drug development. Food processing requires quick and more efficient tools to screen and characterize bioactive compounds especially “polyphenols” from different plant‐based materials. This study suggests that the application of advance mass spectroscopy and some spectrophotometry techniques could be a viable and fast techniques, which can be used for the screening, characterization, and monitoring of novel bioactive compounds from different food materials and suggest to further estimate their biological activities including antioxidant potential. These cutting‐edge techniques could be helpful for the development of novel functional food products in food industry.
  • Article
    Various quantities of ginger (Zingiber officinale) root extract were used to prepare X-type BariumeZinc hexaferrite with the chemical composition Ba2Zn2Fe28O46. The powders were prepared using a combustion treatment method, being pre-heated at 550 deg C for 4 h with the ginger as a fuel, followed by final heating to 900 deg C for 5 h and natural cooling to room temperature to obtain Ba2Zn2Fe28O46 hexagonal ferrite powder. The phase composition of heated powder samples was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), indicating the formation of a mixture of X-type and hematite (a-Fe2O3). Up to 82.6%, X-ferrite was formed at 900 deg C with 52.5 g of ginger root extract. Dielectric analysis of the prepared samples shows the frequency-dependent phenomena. All samples were hard magnets, with coercivity values (HC) between 262.2 and 318.3 kAm-1, and squareness ratios > 0.5. The sample prepared with 52.5 g ginger root extractpossesses the highest value of saturation magnetisation (MS = 33.87 Am2 kg-1) in comparison with the other prepared samples. Therefore, ginger was shown to be a useful natural plant extract as a reducing fuel for the low-temperature synthesis of X-ferrites. The sample prepared with 35 g ginger root extract shows a broad loss tangent resonance peak between 10 kHz and 100 kHz, while other samples show losstangent resonance peaks between 300 kHz and 2MHz frequency range.