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Understanding and predicting human behaviour has been of particular interest to researchers for many years. Moreover, the assumption that knowledge of attitudes will help in the task of predicting human behaviour has formed the basis for much consumer and social research. Attitudes are assumed to play an important role in human behaviour theory as the crucial link between what people think and what they do. Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) attitude-based questionnaire framework has been widely used for the purpose of predicting behaviour. However, despite much study and refinement, limitations still exist with both the application and the predictive ability of their approach. Labaw (1980) offers an alternative approach to predicting behaviour in which behavioural aspects of people's lives form the basis of questionnaire design. Although less widely operationalised and tested than Ajzen and Fishbein's approach, recent investigation found that Labaw's approach to predicting behaviour was equivalent in terms of predictive ability, and was superior from a survey research perspective. Thus, Labaw's behavioural approach presents a feasible alternative to attitudinal-based approaches to predicting behaviour.
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Understanding and predicting human behaviour
Judith Holdershaw and Philip Gendall
Massey University
Judith Holdershaw is a lecturer in the Department of Communication, Journalism and
Marketing at Massey University. Her research interests include social and health
related issues in Marketing. Email:
Philip Gendall is Professor of Marketing in the Department of Communication,
Journalism and Marketing at Massey University. His research interests include
questionnaire wording and questionnaire design, and survey research methodology.
Abstract: Understanding and predicting human behaviour has been of particular
interest to researchers for many years. Moreover, the assumption that knowledge of
attitudes will help in the task of predicting human behaviour has formed the basis for
much consumer and social research. Attitudes are assumed to play an important role
in human behaviour theory as the crucial link between what people think and what
they do. Ajzen and Fishbein’s (1980) attitude-based questionnaire framework has
been widely used for the purpose of predicting behaviour. However, despite much
study and refinement, limitations still exist with both the application and the
predictive ability of their approach. Labaw (1980) offers an alternative approach to
predicting behaviour in which behavioural aspects of people’s lives form the basis of
questionnaire design. Although less widely operationalised and tested than Ajzen and
Fishbein’s approach, recent investigation found that Labaw’s approach to predicting
behaviour was equivalent in terms of predictive ability, and was superior from a
survey research perspective. Thus, Labaw’s behavioural approach presents a
feasible alternative to attitudinal-based approaches to predicting behaviour.
It has generally been assumed that prediction of behaviour is best achieved by the
understanding and measurement of cognitive variables. Occupying a central position
in the study of behaviour research is the concept of attitude (Krosnick, Judd &
Wittenbrink, 2005). Kraus (1995) observed that the computerised database PsychLit
indexed more than 34,000 studies published since 1974 that address attitudes in some
way. Similarly, a review of empirical and conceptual developments on attitudes
between 1992 and 1995 by Petty, Wegener and Fabrigar (1997) reports that “a
voluminous amount of material was produced concerning attitude structure, attitude
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change, and the consequences of holding attitudes” (p. 609). Recent observation of
computerised literature databases suggests many more attitude-related studies, across
a range of research disciplines, have been published since Kraus and Petty et al.’s
earlier observations.
Perhaps the most fundamental assumption underlying the attitude concept is the
notion that attitudes in some way, guide, influence, direct, shape, or predict actual
behaviour (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1974; Gross & Niman, 1975; Kraus, 1995). Thus, it is
not surprising that researchers interested in human behaviour theory ascribe great
importance to the role of attitudes in predicting and explaining human action. With
few exceptions, the assumption that attitude is useful for predicting behaviour went
unchallenged until the 1960s (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). In fact, Kraus describes the
first few decades of the twentieth century as an era of indifference to the attitude-
behaviour relationship. Many researchers simply assumed implicitly that attitudes
would be closely related to behaviour. The need to demonstrate that attitudes
predicted behaviour was not seen.
However, between the 1960s and the late 1970s, attitude research received much
criticism (Tuck, 1976; Eagly & Chaiken, 1993; Kraus, 1995). Years of early research
failed to provide strong support for the behavioural consistency or predictive validity
of attitudes. It was found that people neither behaved consistently in different
situations, nor acted in accordance with their measured attitudes. Thus, in time the
feeling grew that stated attitudes are not always consistent with overt behaviour. In
particular, a review by Wicker (1969) of 47 empirical studies of attitudes and
behaviours concluded, “it is considerably more likely that attitudes will be unrelated
or only slightly related to overt behaviours than that attitudes will be closely related to
actions” (p. 65). This review resulted in considerable controversy and caused many
researchers to question seriously whether attitude was still useful as a scientific
construct to predict behaviour (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975; Tuck, 1976; Ajzen, 1987;
Kraus, 1995).
Ajzen and Fishbein’s approach to predicting behaviour
One explanation offered for the inconsistency in attitude-behaviour findings is that
historically researchers have not universally agreed on the components or elements of
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the attitude construct, and as a consequence, nor have they agreed on an explicit
definition of attitude. With no clear definition of attitude available there was no clear
approach as to how attitudes should be measured, leading to a variety of measures of
‘attitude’ reported in the early literature (Gross & Niman, 1975; Tuck, 1976;
McGuire, 1985). For example, in a review of research published between 1968 and
1970, Fishbein and Ajzen (1972; cited in Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) found more than
500 different procedures that had been used to measure attitude.
In recognition of early difficulties with the attitude-behaviour relationship, Ajzen and
Fishbein advanced a theory in which the attitude concept is examined in separate parts
(Fishbein, 1963, 1967; Ajzen & Fishbein, 1973). Specifically, the foundation for
Ajzen and Fishbein’s conceptual framework is provided by their distinction between
four components: beliefs, attitudes, intentions and behaviours.
A person’s attitudes are believed to form in response to the acquisition of certain
beliefs. Beliefs, therefore, are the fundamental building blocks upon which Ajzen and
Fishbein’s conceptual framework is based. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) posit that
people may acquire beliefs on the basis of direct observation, or information received
from outside sources, or by way of various inference processes. East (1990) explains
that most people hold both positive and negative beliefs about an object (e.g. person,
action), and attitude is viewed as corresponding to the total affect associated with their
beliefs. For example, the belief that ‘the prime minister is an effective leader’ links
the object ‘the prime minister’ with the positive attribute ‘effective leader’. On the
other hand, a person may also believe that the object, ‘the prime minister’, is linked
with the negative attribute ‘is out of touch with ordinary people’.
Therefore, the attitude concept can be viewed as a set of beliefs, each belief can be
thought of as a separate attribute, and a person’s overall attitude toward the object is a
function of his or her evaluations of those attributes. Different people may have
similar beliefs about various objects but may give them quite different evaluative
weights. Thus, similar beliefs may result in different attitudes, depending on the
different evaluative weights given. Hence, individuals will vary in their attitudes
about, say, political voting preferences, depending on the strength and mix of beliefs
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they have about this concept. Moreover, in the course of people’s lives, their
experiences lead to the formation of many different beliefs about various objects,
actions, and events. Some beliefs may persist over time, others may be forgotten, and
new beliefs may be formed. Some beliefs can be relatively stable, whereas others can
vary considerably. Therefore it follows, as beliefs are not static, neither are attitudes;
some attitudes may be relatively stable over time, and others may frequently alter.
Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) introduced the idea of corresponding measures of attitude
and behaviour, which has become central to their conceptual framework. They argue
that the attitude to an object is not necessarily related to the attitude to behaviour
towards that object, and that researchers’ failure to recognise this attitudinal
distinction has led to inaccuracies in behavioural predictions. For example, someone
may have a very favourable attitude towards a political party (the object), but not be
inclined to vote at the next election (the behaviour towards the object). Hence,
correlations between attitude to the object and action toward that object may not be
high. Therefore, Ajzen (1988) suggests if it is the action toward the behaviour a
researcher wishes to predict, it is the attitude towards performing this action that
needs to be measured.
For many years researchers assumed that the relationship between attitude and
behaviour was direct. That is, the more favourable the attitude, the more likely
someone is to behave in accordance with that attitude, with no other variables
intervening the relationship. However, Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) disputed this
assumption, and argued that attempts to predict behaviour simply by measuring
attitudes will not succeed.
Within Ajzen and Fishbein’s conceptual framework, attitude is viewed as one major
determinant of the person’s intention to perform the behaviour in question. However,
other beliefs are also considered to be relevant for the formation of behavioural
intentions (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1970). Normative beliefs are those that occur due to
other people’s influence on whether an individual should or should not perform the
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behaviour in question. For example, the influence of friends, family or work
colleagues may impact upon a person’s intention to vote for a political party. This
explains why two people may have the same attitude toward, say, The Green Party,
but may behave differently in terms of political voting, depending on the degree to
which other people influence their actions. In addition to attitude and normative
beliefs, Ajzen (1985) acknowledged that the formation of intentions to act may also
be influenced by aspects that are not under a person’s volitional control, such as the
requirement of certain abilities, or necessary resources. For example, in addition to
attitudinal beliefs or normative beliefs, a person’s intention to vote may also be
influenced by his or her perceived ability to travel to a polling booth on Election Day.
For this reason, the concept of a person’s perceived ability to act, should he or she
want to, was later included in Ajzen and Fishbein’s conceptual framework, to account
for situations where behaviour is not considered to be under a person’s voluntary
Ajzen and Fishbein view behavioural intentions as the immediate antecedents of
corresponding overt behaviours; hence, the best prediction of behaviour is a person’s
intention to perform the behaviour. The apparent simplicity of this approach is
somewhat deceptive, however. Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) assert there are two factors
that can disrupt the intention-behaviour relationship. The first is the intervening time
between the stated intentions and the actual time of the act. Since it is often
impractical to measure a person’s intention immediately prior to performance of the
behaviour, the measure of intention obtained at one time may not be representative of
the person’s intention at the time of the behavioural observation (East, 1990). This is
due to the fact that behavioural intentions are affected by many situational factors,
which may intervene and disrupt the attitude-behaviour relationship. In turn this leads
to a situation where behavioural intentions do not correspond well with actual
behaviour. For example, Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) explain that if a person states an
intention to buy a car in three months time, any change in his or her financial position,
the price of the car, or the availability or price of petrol may influence that stated
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A second factor that Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) suggest causes problems in attitude-
intention-behaviour measurement is described as the degree of compatibility in levels
of specificity. That is, an intention can only provide an accurate measure of a
predicted behaviour if there is compatibility in what exactly is being measured.
Therefore, Fishbein and Ajzen state it is important that the measures of attitude and
intention that are obtained are at the same level of specificity as the behaviour they are
trying to predict, in order to match cause and effect. That is, the more precise the
behavioural intention which is obtained, the more likely it is to be accurately related
to the subsequent behaviour.
Fishbein and Ajzen (1975) refer to an early, and frequently cited empirical study by
LaPiere (1934) to illustrate this aspect of their theory. LaPiere undertook an
investigation into racial prejudice in which he travelled across the United States with a
young Chinese couple. They visited 251 hotels and restaurants, and were refused
service only once. Studies at the time indicated that there was much anti-Chinese
sentiment in the USA. Six months after the trip, LaPiere wrote to each of the
establishments asking if they would offer service to Chinese guests. Of the 128 who
responded, 118 (90%) claimed that they would not serve them, in spite of the fact that
all had previously done so. This early study was frequently cited as evidence that
little correlation exists between attitudes and behaviour. However, in Fishbein and
Ajzen’s view, the measure used, which was whether the hotel and restaurant owners
“would accept members of the Chinese race as a guest in their establishments” may
have received a different response if they had worded the question “would you accept
a young, well-dressed, well-spoken, pleasant, self-confident, well-to-do Chinese
couple accompanied by a mature, well-dressed, well-spoken….educated European
gentleman as guests in your establishment?” (p. 375). That is, in Ajzen and
Fishbein’s view there was no compatibility between the attitude toward the behaviour
measure and the behavioural intention measure used in this study.
The predictive ability of Ajzen and Fishbein’s approach
Ajzen and Fishbein’s conceptual framework has led to improvements in the prediction
of behaviour since Wicker (1969) earlier questioned the accuracy of predictions based
on attitudinal data, and forms the basis of most attitude research today (Foxall, 2005).
Yet meta-analyses of research using their framework show it only explains, on
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average, between 40% and 50% of the variance in intention, and between 19% and
38% of the variance in behaviour (Sutton, 1997). Thus, questions are still being
raised about the performance of attitude models in predicting and explaining
intentions and behaviour (Chandon, Morwitz & Reinartz, 2005; Foxall, 2005). Ajzen
(2002) recently conceded that, despite numerous attempts to improve the limitations
and predictive ability of their models “vexing problems remain” (p. 666).
Foxall (2002) argues that the main problem with investigations of human behaviour to
date is the prevailing view that prediction can occur from measures of beliefs,
attitudes and intentions, regardless of situational factors. Foxall does not single out
the Ajzen and Fishbein approach per se for criticism but suggests that as their
approach represents the most sophisticated methodology available to researchers,
whatever limitations apply to it will also affect the less sophisticated methods of
investigating or predicting behaviour. Clearly, there is a need to consider alternative
approaches to predicting behaviour than those based on attitudes.
Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour
One avenue of reappraisal of the use of cognitive variables to predict behaviour is to
consider an alternative approach based on behavioural variables, such as the one
proposed by Labaw (1980). Labaw’s background was as a researcher in the area of
public opinion surveying. She proposed a foundation for a systematic theory of
questionnaire design, which places much emphasis on the underlying framework of
questionnaire development (Gendall, 1998).
Labaw’s (1980) approach to questionnaire design developed as a result of her lack of
success using the accepted attitudinal approach to predicting behaviour. Labaw does
not believe that accurate prediction of human behaviour using attitude concepts is
possible using questionnaire techniques. She states:
Frustrated with the lack of predictability of purely attitudinal
questions, and rather stunned by the huge gap between what
people say and what they then do, I felt it necessary to re-evaluate
the role of these types of questions within surveys and to find
alternatives to them which could be used in predicting behaviour.
Consequently, attitude questions have become a minute part of
surveys I design (p. 32).
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To Labaw, attitudes are often what she refers to as “mere surface manifestations of
larger, structural movements beyond the control or even the consciousness of
individuals” (p. 82). The inference of this statement is that rather than ask
respondents about their attitudes, which they may not understand themselves, it is
more helpful simply to ask direct questions about the aspects of their lives upon which
their attitudes are based. Labaw’s rationale for this approach is that people are much
better able to say what they do now and have done previously, compared with what
they might do in the future.
An underlying theme of Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour is to determine
levels of respondent consciousness. She argues that, as a rule, people have not
thought about, and do not know their feelings about most issues that have not directly
affected them. Thus it is important to determine how close to the issue or action of
interest the respondent is. Closeness for survey purposes is equivalent to firsthand (or
fairly direct) personal experience. Accordingly, Labaw’s approach to predicting
behaviour is to determine respondents’ levels of consciousness about the behaviour of
interest using experience-related questions. Using an analogy based on blood
donation, Labaw’s approach suggests that someone who has donated blood knows his
or her feelings about blood donation better than someone who hasn’t, and similarly,
someone who knows someone else who has donated blood has a greater level of
consciousness about the topic than someone who doesn’t know someone who has
donated blood. Hence, she argues, there are various levels of consciousness,
depending on a person’s level of experience with an action. As a consequence,
Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour assumes that someone with greater direct
or even indirect experience of blood donation would be more capable of accurately
indicating their willingness to donate blood themselves than someone with no
Labaw argues that by replacing attitudinal questions with behavioural questions, it is
the researcher not the respondent who analyses and projects meaning from the
responses. In her view, cognitive questions, based on hypothetical situations, often
shift the responsibility for analysis from the researcher to the respondent. Instead, she
argues the researcher should use questions in which the respondent can accurately
describe what he or she does, and in this way, the answers do not require imaginative
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skill, or projectable consciousness on the part of the respondent. In essence, Labaw
concluded that to predict behaviour, attitudinal questions, the answers to which can
never be externally validated, should be replaced by questions that respondents can
‘truthfully’ answer: that is, questions with a verifiable answer on which researchers
can base predictions of future behaviour.
Specifically, Labaw argues that respondent consciousness in relation to the topic or
action of interest relates to three components, which she believes provide a means of
predicting actual behaviour. Labaw argues that by adopting an approach in which we
establish the respondents’ environment, what respondents know, and their past
behaviour, researchers could make better predictions of their behaviour than is
possible by measuring their attitudes. Each component of Labaw’s approach to
predicting behaviour is discussed in the following sections.
Environmental Influences
The first component of Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour is the environment,
which Labaw describes as the physical aspects of people’s lives over which they have
little control but which impinge on their ability to act or respond in specific ways,
regardless of their attitudes. These aspects include age, gender, health status, location,
mobility level, and education level. Labaw argued these aspects are important
because they provide greater depth to understanding human behaviour than attitudes,
which may be much shorter lived.
Labaw refers to the second component in her approach, knowledge, as a respondent’s
level of knowledge about the topic or related action. Whilst definitions of the exact
components of knowledge and techniques to measure knowledge may vary, it is
generally agreed that an individual’s level of knowledge about an action relates to his
or her subsequent behaviour to that act (Brucks, 1986; Allen & Butler, 1993;
Andreasen, 1995). Thus, Labaw argues that the way people behave often results from
what they know about an action, or equally, their behaviour may relate to what they
do not know. Hence, based on her approach it could be reasoned that a respondent’s
level of knowledge about, say, a product’s country of origin may have a direct
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influence on his or her purchase behaviour. For example, purchase behaviour of fresh
produce from a supermarket may be influenced by whether or not people know if it
was produced locally or imported from overseas.
Past Behaviour
The third component of Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour is people’s actual
behaviour; in particular, her approach emphasises the importance of past behaviour as
a predictor of future behaviour. Debate frequently arises among behaviour
researchers as to the role of past behaviour in determining future behaviour. For
example, within Ajzen and Fishbein’s conceptual framework, future behaviour is
shaped by beliefs, and beliefs are thought to incorporate past experience. However,
even proponents of attitude-based models have found that people’s future behaviour is
more accurately determined by measures of past behaviour, compared with those
provided by cognitive measures (Foxall, 1997; Sutton, 1998).
Labaw argues that behaviour questions are particularly important in areas where
potential future behaviour is under study. In particular, the frequency with which
behaviours have been performed in the past tends to correlate well with later actions.
Thus, she posits, when designing a questionnaire aimed at determining potential
future behaviour, the most important design technique is to include a battery of
behaviour questions detailing past and present behaviour that is similar to or related in
some way to the potential behaviour under study.
Comparison of two approaches to predicting behaviour
Labaw’s approach to predicting behaviour, using questions that can be ‘truthfully’
answered, has not been as widely operationalised or tested as Ajzen and Fishbein’s
conceptual framework. Numerous studies have been undertaken in which various
aspects of Ajzen and Fishbein’s approach have been examined and tested, and the
results are widely disseminated in the academic literature. By contrast, Labaw’s
approach is not cited in any of the well-known survey research or questionnaire
design texts. Nevertheless, given the limitations currently identified with cognitive
approaches to predicting behaviour, a need clearly exists to consider alternative
approaches such as Labaw’s.
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The main distinction between Ajzen and Fishbein’s approach to predicting behaviour,
and Labaw’s approach lies in the nature of the questions used to formulate a
questionnaire. Ajzen and Fishbein’s questionnaire design incorporates questions in
which respondents are asked their feelings and beliefs about the behaviour under
investigation. This typically involves the use of numerous questions using standard
attitude scaling procedures, most commonly the semantic differential. By contrast,
Labaw’s approach uses questions that, at least theoretically, have verifiable answers.
Two recent studies (Holdershaw, Gendall & Wright, 2003; Holdershaw, 2006), in
which direct comparisons were made of the ability of each approach to predict blood
donation behaviour, found that Labaw’s approach was equivalent to Ajzen and
Fishbein’s in terms of the variance explained. In absolute terms, neither approach was
good at predicting blood donation behaviour. Lack of variation in the sample may
have been a factor in this finding; only 12% of respondents reported that they had
donated blood. Thus, additional research is needed to further test the predictive
ability of Labaw’s approach using various behaviours of interest.
However, an important finding of the two studies was that greater ease of
questionnaire application in the field was achieved using Labaw’s survey design,
compared with Ajzen and Fishbein’s attitudinal approach to questionnaire design. No
discernible difficulties occurred with the application of Labaw type questions in the
field, but limitations were identified with application of Ajzen and Fishbein’s belief-
based questions. Liska (1984) also noted that Fishbein and Ajzen models are more
strongly supported in laboratory than field studies. Given that Ajzen and Fishbein’s
conceptual framework is so pervasive in survey methodology, this finding was
One aspect of respondent dissatisfaction with cognitive questions occurred due to an
apparent difficulty respondents had in differentiating between the two components of
the belief-based measures, which consist of paired items. Ajzen (1985) provides
sound methodological reasons for the wording and question order of paired items, yet
application in the field does not appear to complement the rationale for the
methodology. For example, one respondent in Holdershaw’s (2006, p. 252) study
commented, “there are too many scale questions which seem completely irrelevant.
They all seem to be asking the same thing.” In a similar study, Knight (1983) too
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reported difficulties with respondent fatigue when presenting an Ajzen and Fishbein
type questionnaire in several parts. Initially he had intended to use three parts to a
question, but proceeded with two parts after pilot testing found respondent fatigue to
be a problem, even with only two sections to each question. Knight states:
It was impossible to avoid repetition which led to irritation and
boredom on the part of some respondents. In fact, two questions
were dropped mid-way through the survey and two others were
deliberately omitted for certain respondents to ensure that the most
important questions were answered (p. 68).
Oppenheim (1992) explains a difficulty with attitudinal based research is that
attitudinal questions are more sensitive than factual questions to changes in wording,
context, emphasis, and so on; therefore it becomes almost impossible to assess
reliability by asking the same question in another form. Hence, typically numerous
questions are asked and then it is necessary to ask the same question in similar forms.
Of course, the rationale for this approach is not obvious to respondents.
When comparing Ajzen and Fishbein’s and Labaw’s survey methodology,
Holdershaw (2006) also found that some respondents experienced difficulty
understanding what certain attitude-based questions asked. No such difficulty with
question understanding occurred with the Labaw-type questions, which are factual in
nature, rather than based on internal thoughts and feelings. Labaw defines one
example of a bad question as one that is incomprehensible to the respondent because
the wording, the concepts, or both, cannot be understood. In her view, bad questions
are any questions that obscure, prohibit, or distort the fundamental communication
from respondent to researcher. Instead, Labaw posits that a questionnaire should be
designed to prevent it becoming simply an instrument of the writer’s perceptions,
values, and language, which is then inflicted upon the respondent. Arguably, many
attitude-based questions routinely used in survey research would be labelled ‘bad’
questions according to Labaw’s definition.
Examination of current research practice suggests that, by and large, researchers opt
for a cognitive-based questionnaire framework, designed to attempt to understand
‘what is going on inside people’s heads’, as a basis for predicting future behaviour. In
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particular, Ajzen and Fishbein’s attitude-based approach is considered the most
sophisticated survey methodology available to researchers for behavioural prediction.
However, recent research supports the use of a viable alternative to the continued, and
often unquestioning, reliance on attitudinal questions as a basis for understanding and
predicting behaviour. Instead, it is suggested that greater use of questions that, at least
theoretically, have verifiable answers is incorporated into research design.
Comparison of Ajzen and Fishbein’s attitude-based survey methodology with
Labaw’s behavioural approach found that the predictive ability of the two approaches
was equivalent; however, Labaw’s behavioural approach was superior from a survey
research perspective.
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... Hala ere, hizkuntza jarrerak ez dira nahikoa hizkuntza jokaerak ziurtasunez ondorioztatzeko; izan ere, gorago aurreratu bezala, bestelako faktore eragileak ere badaude (Briñol et al., 2019;Holdershaw & Gendall, 2008, 4. or.). Luzea da hizkuntza jokaeretan eta hizkuntza jarreretan euretan eragin dezaketen faktoreen zerrenda (adibidez, Ajzen, 2005;Briñol et al., 2019;Juvrianto, 2016;Holdershaw & Gendall, 2008). ...
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This article analyses the attitudes and motivations of 14 to 18 years old young people from Barakaldo towards the Basque language and, more specifically, the most remarkable subjective factors that can hinder or favour the use of it. For this purpose, surveys and conversations (conducted in 2017-2018) were used. The most relevant conclusions are the following: (a) the most positive attitudes and motivations towards Basque are internal, integrative and identity; (b) those who have a closer relationship with Basque have a more positive attitude and motivation towards it; and (c) very proactive attitudes in favour of Basque have not been detected.
... The attitude as an element of change refers to an individual's evaluation to a response. It has a role of predicting and explaining the human action or what they do (Holdershaw & Gendall, 2008). In this case, after earning something by end month, the characters in the song evaluate themselves thus some go for cooked rice mixed with fried steak and pepper, chicken and rice, and also pastry and beef. ...
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The 'lunch time' music that was sung by a music guru Gabriel Omolo in the 1970's basically talks about behaviors of workers specifically at the industrial area in Nairobi, Kenya. These workers are casual laborers who earn low wages on a daily basis but accumulated by the employer and paid only at the end of the month. These paid wages are normally little that cannot sustain them up to the end month. Before end month, many of these workers appear so tired and therefore lie under trees while others go round the shops pretending to be window shopping. These behaviors explicated by Gabriel Omolo clearly augur well with the basic tenets of both psychological and realism theories. Thus the paper exposes the psychological and the realistic aspects manifested in this hit song 'lunch time'. The paper concludes that the 'lunch time' hit song augurs well with the basic tenets of both the psychological and realism theories whereby the industrial area workers generally change behaviors as soon as they receive their little pay. These behaviors are truly manifested in the real working environments especially industrial areas in the developing countries.
... Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü öğrencileri kapsamında yapılan bu araştırma, lisans öğrencileri üzerinden gerçekleştirilmiştir. Öğrencilerin kültürel miras okuryazarlık durumlarıyla ilgili verilerin toplanmasında anket tekniğinden yararlanılmıştır. Anket, insan davranışlarını ve yeteneklerini tanımlamada önemli rol oynayan görüşleri araştırmak için tercih edilen bir veri toplama tekniğidir (Holdershaw ve Gendall, 2008 Araştırma kapsamında kullanılan anket 1 , ...
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Kültürel miras ürünlerinin sürdürülebilir bir anlayışla korunması söz konusu ürünlere ilişkin bilgilerin erişilebilir, kullanılabilir ve paylaşılabilir olmasını gerektirmektedir. Bu sürecin temelini oluşturan kültürel miras okuryazarlığı becerileri, herkes için önemli olmakla birlikte, kültürel miras alanında hizmet verme sorumluluğu taşıyan bilgi profesyonelleri için çok daha gereklidir. Bilgi profesyoneli adaylarının kültürel miras okuryazarlığı becerilerinin değerlendirilmesi, gelecekte hizmet verirken ihtiyaç duyacakları donanıma sahip olup olmadıklarını anlamak ve eğer varsa eğitim gereksinimlerini belirlemek açısından oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmada Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü öğrencilerinin kültürel miras okuryazarlığı ile ilgili mevcut durumları saptanmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu amaçla 2018-2019 Bahar Döneminde lisans düzeyindeki 356 öğrenciye, e-posta yoluyla, 28 sorudan oluşan bir anket gönderilmiştir. Anket toplam 142 kişi tarafından yanıtlanmıştır. Araştırma verileri tanımlayıcı istatistikler ve ki-kare testi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular, katılımcıların çoğunun kültürel miras okuryazarlık becerilerine sahip olduklarını, yetkinliklerinin kültürel mirasa ilişkin bilgi gereksinimlerini tanıma ve kültürel miras bilgilerini paylaşma konusunda oldukça baskın olduğunu göstermiştir. Kültürel mirası koruma ve gelecek nesillere aktarma işlevi bulunan bilgi profesyonelleri için, kültürel miras okuryazarlığı ile doğrudan ilgili derslerin ya da ders içeriklerinin Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi bölümlerinin lisans programlarına eklenmesi faydalı görülmektedir.
... To determine cultural heritage literacy skills of academics in the field of humanities and social sciences, an online questionnaire was distributed to academics at the Hacettepe University Faculty of Letters (see Appendix I). Questionnaires are used to explore opinions, which play an important role in describing human behaviours and abilities (Holdershaw and Gendall, 2008). Therefore, a questionnaire was preferred in data collection process of this research. ...
In the 21st century, some factors, such as the awareness of multiculturalism, the preservation of local culture and the recognition of national cultural heritage, have led to the need for a new literacy skill called cultural heritage literacy. This study aimed to draw attention to the concept of cultural heritage literacy, defining the competencies of this literacy and investigating these competencies among academics from the humanities and social sciences at Hacettepe University Faculty of Letters, Turkey. Cultural heritage information needs and the information behaviours of academics were found to have differences in practices and perceptions across age, gender, status and subject disciplines. Within the scope of the study, a questionnaire with 30 questions was given to 114 academics from the humanities and social sciences at Hacettepe University Faculty of Letters, Turkey. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test. The findings show that most of the academics reported having strong cultural heritage literacy abilities. There are statistically significant correlations between participants’ demographic features and cultural heritage literacy. It is expected that this study will contribute to the professionals of cultural heritage institutions. By considering cultural heritage literacy skills, professionals of cultural heritage institutions can develop new information services for cultural-heritage literate people.
... Sometimes people do show to others how they are feeling by merely not answering in with words rather showing just gestures. Behavior of human being keep changing constantly and it's hard for anyone to always remain in the same mood [1]. It is commonly known remedy that people who are sad and getting bored usually go for shopping. ...
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The phenomenon chosen is the Mangga Besar which adapts to the differences in the city, namely stress due to a significant increase in population. Mangga Besar sub-district d is one of the biggest culinary places in Jakarta, therefore visitors who come to this place to find food and also look for places of entertainment because of the causes that cause problems in this village. Among other things, there is an informal improvement sector that sells street vendors and also illegal parking lots that cause congestion. Therefore the issue in this region has the characteristics of the informal sector that affects daily activities in the Mangga Besar The purpose of the research works to address informality with the system to improve one's human behaviour by using the method of urbanism that looks at developments in which cities in Jakarta affect one's behaviour. Hypothetically added that an integrated system will change one's human behaviour, eliminate illegal parking, and the informality that exists in large mangoes. The language used is to present a system consisting of a cycle system that can be reused then can be reused and add a belt system to change human behaviour. In this way, the Project benefits needed to provide benefits to the scale of the region are expected to increase comfort in terms of transportation, welfare, and improve human efficiency with the system. The results that can be obtained from this project are giving users access from the sub-district to public transportation, having a living room that can be used to sell, having access to third place, increasing the social balance for this sub district. Keywords: Human behavior; Culinary; Diversity; Third placeAbstrakFenomena yang diangkat dalam studi adalah proses adaptasi Kelurahan Mangga Besar dari permasalahan yang ada di kota terkait stress karena peningkatan jumlah penduduk secara signifikan. Kelurahan Mangga Besar merupakan salah satu tempat kuliner terbesar yang ada di Jakarta oleh sebab itu banyak pengunjung yang datang ke tempat ini untuk mencari makan dan juga mencari tempat hiburan. Kepopuleran kawasan Mangga Besar menyebabkan timbulnya masalah pada kelurahan ini. Salah satunya adalah peningkatan sektor informal berupa pedagang kaki lima dan juga tempat parkir ilegal yang mengakibatkan kemacetan. Kawasan Mangga Besar memiliki karakteristik berupa sektor informal yang mempengaruhi aktivitas keseharian di Kelurahan Mangga Besar. Tujuan studi berfungsi untuk menyikapi informalitas dengan sistem agar mempengaruhi human behaviour seseorang dengan menggunakan metode pendekatan urbanism yang dimana melihat dari perkembangan di suatu kota yaitu Jakarta yang mempengaruhi perilaku seseorang. Secara hipotesa dengan menambahkan sistem terintegrasi akan merubah human behaviour seseorang, menghilangkan parkiran ilegal, dan mengatur informalitas yang ada di Mangga Besar. Langkah yang digunakan yaitu menghadirkan sistem berupa cycle sistem yang dapat di reuse kembali dan menambahkan sistem belt untuk mempengaruhi human behaviour. Dengan cara ini didapatkan bahwa manfaat proyek ini berfokus untuk memberikan manfaat terhadap skala wilayah yang diharapkan dapat meningkatkan kemudahan dalam segi transportasi, kesejahteraan, serta mempengaruhi kebiasaan manusia dengan sistem. Hasil yang di dapat pada proyek ini adalah menghadirkan akses bagi user dari kelurahan ke transportasi umum, mempunyai living space yang dapat digunakan untuk berjualan, memiliki sarana hiburan berupa tempat third place, meningkatkan keseimbangan sosial bagi kelurahan ini.
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The diversity of public space configurations resemble various components of urban surroundings, they interconnect at times and isolate at others, in each case, they sprout different notions within users’ interaction, being spiritual or secular. In this research, these notions will be explored through studying paradoxic terms; spiritual and secular against public and private and comprehending how they connect to the behavioral aspect of users. Furthermore, this connection between private or public space types and spiritualities -as the spaces are working as spiritual incubators- or secularities, will impose questions in the likes of ‘what is spiritualit- ies’, how are they enhanced or diminished, why are such spaces in decline or incline. To study that, terminologies such as ‘Secular’ will appear to Aestablish a way to categorize public spaces in the spiritual manner. After defining ‘spiritual’, ‘secular’, ‘private’ and ‘public’, a combi- nation between them will appear to comprehend different space types and how a certain behavior is stimulated by certain elements in each of these space types, before that, environmental behaviors in public spaces as well as proxemics in private spaces will be studied to reason why users behave the way they do in these space types. To investigate this matter, this research observes user behaviors in these spaces, as well as linking to architecture through image analysis and case studies.
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Deforestation issues are more problematic when indigenous (adat) communities, living within a forest, have lived there for many generations. These adat communities, who employ traditional land-use, are frequently accused of encroaching on the forest. To understand existing and future trends in the spatial patterns of the expansion of traditional land-use and deforestation, we conducted a case study in the Kandilo Subwatershed using mixed methods with image interpretation, spatial modelling and sociocultural surveys to examine the interrelationships between physical conditions, community characteristics and traditional land-use expansion. We investigated community characteristics through household interviews, communication with key informants, and discussions with focus groups. By using an area production model, we were able to analyze the effect of improved farming systems, policy intervention and law enforcement on traditional land-use expansion and deforestation. Based on our examination of a 20-year period of traditional land-use activities in adat forests, the evidence indicated that the steeper the slope of the land and the farther the distance from the village, the lower the rate of deforestation. Our study found that customary law, regulating traditional land-use, played an important role in controlling deforestation and land degradation. We conclude that the integration of land allocation, improved farming practices and enforcement of customary law are effective measures to improve traditional land productivity while avoiding deforestation and land degradation.
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The initial aim of this research is to determine the level of Düzce University preparatory class students’ motivation, attitude and their preparatory class achievement scores. In addition to that, it is also aimed to identify differences in students’ motivation level and their annual achievement scores in respect of (i) gender, (ii) being a daytime or evening class student, (iii) attending to prep class compulsorily or voluntarily, (iv) department, (v) amount of time spent on studying English, (vi) amount of time spent on extra-curricular activities. Finally, it is aimed to examine the relationship between the variables in the research. This research was conducted in 2014-2015 academic year in Duzce University- Hâkime Erciyas School of Foreign Languages and 364 preparatory class students participated to the study. Quantitative research methods were employed and correlational research design was utilized for this study. Research data was collected by a questionnaire which consisted of two parts. The first part was “Personal Information Form” and the second part consisted of four subtests of Gardner’s (1985) Attitude and Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) which were adapted and translated into Turkish by Doğan (2009). In data analysis, SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used. As a result of analysis of the findings, it has been concluded that even though students generally have a high level of motivation toward learning English, they neither make the necessary effort nor fulfill their responsibilities to learn English, as a result of which they have low achievement scores at prep class. In addition, it has been seen that students give the greatest importance to instrumental orientation which refers to practical advantages of learning English in finding a job or in career advancement. However, it has been found that the relationship between instrumental orientation and annual achievement scores is low, so it is concluded that giving great importance to instrumental orientation does not affect students’ English proficiency in the same way. Finally, a moderately significant relationship was identified between the other subtests and students’ annual achievement scores. As for the implications of the study, it is suggested that students should be informed about other uses of English apart from its instrumental benefits. Students should be encouraged to set some short-run goals such as; studying abroad by exchange programs which will also enable them to use English in real life. Keywords: Preparatory Class Students, English Achievement, Motivation, Attitude, Instrumental Orientation
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Understanding player behavior has an interest to computer games researchers and developers since allows them to improve the design and implementation of computer games and to ensure that players have the expected experiences. Currently this knowledge is not usually reported to players as feedback, although sometimes it is already used as an analysis tool. This paper presents a novel technology for automatically generating linguistic reports and immediate feedback from actions performed by players during play sessions. These reports allow developers to provide players with a more complete and personalized feedback about their behaviors, abilities, attitudes, skills or movements. In order to show and explore the possibilities of this new technology, we have incorporated it in the core of a computer game. We have evaluated positively that the incorporation of this kind of feedback into the core of YADY computer game allows us to improve the overall player experience.
Most people operate on the assumption that when a person states that he believes or feels a particular way about something he will behave in a manner consistent with his statements. If this is so, why do researchers report such a poor relationship between attitude and behavior? Personal, situational, and methodological factors contributing to this discrepancy are examined.
Since the "discovery" of attitude-behavior inconsistency in the 1930s by LaPiere and others, the study of the relationship between attitudes and behavior has come a long way. During the 1960s and early 1970s researchers systematically examined the problem of attitude-behavior incosistency, showing that the attitude-behavior relationship depends on "other" variables. In the middle and late 1970s much of this research was integrated and synthesized in various general models of behavior, the most significant of which is the Fishbein/Ajzen model. This paper critically examines the causal structure of that model. Specifically, it examines the theoretical problems and issues generated by the parsimonious causal structure of the model, that is, the structure underlying the traditional attitude concept and the relationships between other varibles and the model concepts.
In the domain of personality psychology, the trait concept has carried the burden of dispositional explanation. A multitude of personality traits has been identified and new trait dimensions continue to join the growing list. In a similar fashion, the concept of attitude has been the focus of attention in the explanations of human behavior offered by social psychologists. Numerous attitudes have been assessed over the years and, as new social issues emerge, additional attitudinal domains are explored. The chapter provides little evidence to support the postulated existence of stable, underlying attitudes within the individual, which influence both verbal expressions and actions. It examines the relation between two or more actions that were assumed to reflect the same underlying disposition. The aggregation of responses across time, contexts, targets, or actions or across a combination of these elements permits the inferences of dispositions at varying levels of generality.
Conceptual and methodological ambiguities surrounding the concept of perceived behavioral control are clarified. It is shown that perceived control over performance of a behavior, though comprised of separable components that reflect beliefs about self-efficacy and about controllability, can nevertheless be considered a unitary latent variable in a hierarchical factor model. It is further argued that there is no necessary correspondence between self-efficacy and internal control factors, or between controllability and external control factors. Self-efficacy and controllability can reflect internal as well as external factors and the extent to which they reflect one or the other is an empirical question. Finally, a case is made that measures of perceived behavioral control need to incorporate self-efficacy as well as controllability items that are carefully selected to ensure high internal consistency.