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Job Security and Productivity: Evidence From Academics

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Abstract

How does job security influence productivity? I create a dataset from the bibliographic records of the National Bureau of Economic Research working paper series and from hand collected data from individual curricula vitae to compare productivity of professors before and after tenure. This paper uses a fuzzy regression discontinuity design with fixed effects and finds that the number of papers produced drops immediately after tenure. Also, the pattern in productivity growth changes from increasing every year to having very little change in the years after tenure. Assuming researchers are similar pre-and post-tenure except for the new position, this finding is suggests that tenure causes the decrease in productivity. This gives credibility to the concern that tenured professors stop being productive.

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... On the other hand, some studies reveal that job security reduces employee performance (Ichino & Riphahn, 2005;Leung, 2009;Olsson, 2009), which may negatively affect labor productivity. ...
... Likewise, Olsson (2009) came across that when employees in small companies perceive higher job insecurity, their short-term calls-insick get reduced. Leung (2009) suggests that in academia, productivity drops in the year immediately after tenure. ...
... When job security is very high, the employment is too secure, and employees may lose incentives to work productively. This phenomenon may be typical for government bodies, but also academic institutions, as suggested by Leung (2009); however, the results of Ichino and Riphahn (2005) and Olsson (2009) suggest that the phenomenon may also be observed in the private sector. From the microeconomics point of view, this situation occurs when the income effect of employee turnover prevails. ...
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Purpose – to investigate the relationship between job security and labor productivity among 45,506 companies from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Slovenia, and Latvia. Design/Method/Approach. This article uses linear regression analysis based on data from the period of 2013-2017. Findings. The study indicates an inverse U-shaped relationship between employment volatility, as measured by the coefficient of variation, and labor productivity. Labor productivity increases along with employment fluctuation up to a certain point; however, when employees feel insecure, their labor productivity deteriorates. Surprisingly, for most companies, the relationship between employment fluctuation and labor productivity remains positive. Labor productivity gets affected positively by the security feeling rather than by guaranteeing the job position. Originality/Value. The results are consistent within the subsamples of the five individual countries in the sample and robust to two alternative measures of fluctuation, the mean absolute deviation, and the studentized range. Paper type – empirical.
... In 21 st Century, Organisational Psychologists (Perrin & Fulginiti 2005;Zwick, 2009) have directed increasing attention to the issue of workers' output and productivity (Leung, 2009;& Perrin & Fulginiti 2005;Zwick, 2009). These concerns reflect a growing interest in finding ways to make work more meaningful and satisfying to the workers. ...
... Despite the widely acclaimed importance of communication to family relationships found in the writings of theoreticians and researchers (Leung, 2009;& Perrin & Fulginiti 2005;Zwick, 2009) alike, research into the nature of workplace communication presents some challenging difficulties. ...
... Most empirical findings (Leung, 2009;Zwick, 2009) suggest that job security decreases employee effort. Ichino and Riphahn (2005) use data from 545 men and 313 women white collared workers and show that the number of days of absence per week increases significantly once employment protection is granted. ...
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The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers’ output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers’ output scale, Emotional intelligence scale, Communication Skills Scale, Job Security and Interpersonal Relationship Assessment Scale, and were used to generate data from randomly selected two hundred and fifty (250) local government employees. The collected data were subjected to Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed a statistical significant relationship between workers’ output and each of the independent variables. The predictors jointly accounted for 19.1% variation in workers’ output. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that periodic training on good interpersonal relationship, communication skills and emotional intelligence that will facilitate the attainment of organizational goals could be organized for all cadres of employees; organization are encouraged to train and develop their staff to the fullest advantage in order to enhance their effectiveness.
... Comprehensive Universities are those where the academic staff are treated as employees and consequently get detached from the research aspect (Colbeck, 1998). Leung, (2009) in his study to answer the question; how does job security influence productivity? Using academic careers of 934 researchers and papers produced from 1973-2008 there were two noticeable effects of job security. ...
... The academic staffs concern/worry about losing their lecturing jobs (Reback, Rockoff & Schwartz, 2011) some teachers were discouraged to raise the students proficiency and in the event that they failed to do so state would sanction them. A study conducted on Ph.D. European students in U.S indicated they preferred staying after their studies to continue the development of their career (75% of the 15,158 Europeans) because they felt safe at their jobs (Science and technology indicators, 2003).More to this are the findings that indicated job security has a negative impact on the productivity of academic staff with two effects a drop immediately after tenure and an almost flat productivity pattern (Leung, 2009). ...
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This study analysed the influence of research productivity in Private Universities in Uganda. The objectives included; to find out whether the organisational culture has an effect on Research productivity, to establish the effect of employee job satisfaction on research productivity and to establish the relationship between resource availability and research productivity. Research Productivity in universities has remained low in publication counts, affecting the web rankings of different universities. As such determining academic staff tenure, promotion and the reward systems becomes complex. Case study design using quantitative and qualitative approach was adopted to explore the objectives .A questionnaire was administered to only academic staff (N=148) and the response rate was at 70%. Interviews were conducted for the 3 Librarians; 3 Research Unit Directors and 3 Post Graduate Directors. The analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) software and 75 variables were analyzed in the dimensions of culture, employee job satisfaction, resource availability. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to ascertain the relationship between the variables as well answering the hypothesis. The measure of reliability of the instruments took on the Cronbach Alpha (0.9).The findings showed academic staffs were not quite sure of the research, person and reward culture, and employee job satisfaction reflected agreement to the variables where a level of job insecurity is evident. Resource availability revealed inadequate information about the available information to support the research. In conclusion research outputs were still relatively low in Universities, academics staffs" involvement in research was influenced by job insecurity, there seems to be little or no information about the available resources that foster the growth of research. The study recommended establishment of reward systems, development of proper communication procedures and establish networks with other institutions.
... The literature suggests that individuals who have unmet expectations regarding the continuity of the job have a greater tendency to exhibit neglect behaviour (Turnley and Feldman, 1999). In educational settings, academics might expect to show inadequate performance in forms of publishing fewer papers, decreasing their teaching quality and engaging less research and development projects in response to rising insecurity perceptions (Leung, 2009). Following this corollary, H4 Perceived job insecurity will be positively related to neglect behaviour. ...
... Contrary to expectations, the direct effects of job insecurity on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect were found to be non-significant. This finding is not parallel with the literature arguing that job insecurity leads to higher levels of exit (Kickul and Lester, 2001) and neglect (Leung, 2009), while lower levels of voice (Schreurs et al., 2014) and loyalty (Cheng and Chan, 2008). These insignificant findings may be explained by other plausible and overarching variables, such as work stressors, psychological contract violation, major economic conditions and employability affecting the EVLN responses of academics. ...
Article
This study investigates the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relation between job insecurity and exit, voice, loyalty and neglect (EVLN) responses. Data were collected from 232 academic employees. The authors test whether job satisfaction transmits the effects of the job insecurity on exit, voice, loyalty and neglect using path analyses via structural equation modelling. The analyses reveal that job satisfaction fully mediates the relationship between job insecurity and all of the employee responses (EVLN). However, the mediating role of job satisfaction is marginally significant for job insecurity–voice linkage. Within the insecure working context, our study has relevant implications for the managers/administrators whose aim to increase their staff’s loyalty and to retain qualified employees, which in turn enables their organisations to be competitive. The findings of this study highlight that job satisfaction can be used as a remedy to alleviate the adverse effects job insecurity.
... One such argument against tenure, easily accepted by the public, is that tenure causes low productivity (Allen 2000, Antony & Hayden 2009, Kaplan 2010). This is well described by Kaplan (2010, p 124): 'Critics of tenure in the United States and Europe say that it … allows senior faculty members to become unproductive and complacent.' Yet, this belief has not been confirmed (Allen 2000), and the slight evidence from the 'tenure literature' either supports (Katz 1973, Holley 1977, Levin & Stephan 1991, Hammermesh 1994, Harrison 2006, Leung 2009, Estes & Polnick 2012 or rejects it (Bonzi 1992). ...
... The reasoning behind the belief that productivity declines, or even vanishes, after tenure (Henry 1980, Finkelstein & Schuster 2001 is that academics, once tenured, lose motivation for publications and research because of the long-term job security (Bess 1998, Estes & Polnick 2012. Supporting evidence comes from physics and earth sciences (Levin & Stephan 1991), sociology (Holley 1977), economics (Hammermesh 1994, Leung 2009), law (Harrison 2006), and education (Estes & Polnick 2012). Nevertheless, an analysis of data on faculty from economics, electrical engineering, English, French, history, mathematics, physics, political science, psychology, sociology, and zoology showed that publication records of tenured faculty only decline temporarily, right after tenure is granted (Katz 1973). ...
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In this essay we explore parallels in the birth, evolution and final 'banning' of journal impact factors (IFs) and university rankings (URs). IFs and what has become popularized as global URs (GURs) were born in 1975 and 2003, respectively, and the obsession with both 'tools' has gone global. They have become important instruments for a diverse range of academic and higher education issues (IFs: e.g. for hiring and promoting faculty, giving and denying faculty tenure, distributing research funding, or administering institutional evaluations; URs: e.g. for reforming university/department curricula, faculty recruitment, promotion and wages, funding, student admissions and tuition fees). As a result, both IFs and GURs are being heavily advertised-IFs in publishers' webpages and GURs in the media as soon as they are released. However, both IFs and GURs have been heavily criticized by the scientific community in recent years. As a result, IFs (which, while originally intended to evaluate journals, were later misapplied in the evaluation of scientific performance) were recently 'banned' by different academic stakeholders for use in 'evaluations' of individual scientists, individual articles, hiring/promotion and funding proposals. Similarly, URs and GURs have also led to many boycotts throughout the world, probably the most recent being the boycott of the German 'Centrum fuer Hochschulentwicklung' (CHE) rankings by German sociologists. Maybe (and hopefully), the recent banning of IFs and URs/GURs are the first steps in a process of academic self-reflection leading to the insight that higher education must urgently take control of its own metrics.
... One such argument against tenure, easily accepted by the public, is that tenure causes low productivity (Allen 2000, Antony & Hayden 2009, Kaplan 2010). This is well described by Kaplan (2010, p 124): 'Critics of tenure in the United States and Europe say that it … allows senior faculty members to become unproductive and complacent.' Yet, this belief has not been confirmed (Allen 2000), and the slight evidence from the 'tenure literature' either supports (Katz 1973, Holley 1977, Levin & Stephan 1991, Hammermesh 1994, Harrison 2006, Leung 2009, Estes & Polnick 2012 or rejects it (Bonzi 1992). ...
... The reasoning behind the belief that productivity declines, or even vanishes, after tenure (Henry 1980, Finkelstein & Schuster 2001 is that academics, once tenured, lose motivation for publications and research because of the long-term job security (Bess 1998, Estes & Polnick 2012. Supporting evidence comes from physics and earth sciences (Levin & Stephan 1991), sociology (Holley 1977), economics (Hammermesh 1994, Leung 2009), law (Harrison 2006), and education (Estes & Polnick 2012). Nevertheless, an analysis of data on faculty from economics, electrical engineering, English, French, history, mathematics, physics, political science, psychology, sociology, and zoology showed that publication records of tenured faculty only decline temporarily, right after tenure is granted (Katz 1973). ...
Article
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The introduction of market forces into higher education (i.e. marketization) in recent decades goes along with a sharp decline in tenured positions offered, accompanied by polemic voices against tenure. The main claim, that tenure reduces the productivity of senior faculty, has not been thoroughly tested, with existing scarce evidence being controversial. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing the number of publications of 2136 currently full professors of natural sciences, drawn from 123 universities distributed in 15 countries, during the period 1996 to 2014. Our results showed that long-term productivity of full professors increased, irrespectively of subject field, geographic area, and university rank. This suggests that tenure does not lead to motivation loss and academic deadwood. Our results have policy, academic, and ethical implications related to human resource management, academic freedom, and educational quality, and tenure polemicists should find an argument other than lowered post-tenure productivity to support their stand.
... The majority of companies are focusing on motivating their employees, to make them work hard and to be loyal to the company. Hence, they are offering the employees a job security as a part of their plans in motivating them to invest more time and effort (Leung, 2009). ...
Chapter
In the last decade a social responsibility for the environment, local communities, working conditions, and the ethical practices have become necessary for any organization that is aiming to be sustainable and successful in the business world. Also, job satisfaction reflects the positive and favorable attitudes of the workers that have a great effect on their performance. The purpose of this paper is to reviewing the literature and the associations among internal corporate social responsibility, job satisfaction and their dimensions.
... Employees are more worried about their current job performance which makes them to constantly look for ways to improve their work effectiveness (Uygur, 2009). They may exhibit lesser absenteeism, and unnecessary lateness as compared to employees who are perceived to have lower job involvement levels (Leung, 2009). Such employees with high job involvement are more beneficial for the organization (Mohamed, Munirah & Mustapha, 2014). ...
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... Job Tenure Influences Career Mobility negatively which means that the more an employee works in an organization the more the organization takes them for granted hence there are very few chances of promotion for these employees. These results are in tandem with those found by Leung(2009) that university professors publish less when they have stayed in an academic institution for a long time as opposed to when they had not stayed for a long period of time. Organizations prefer to source employees externally because they believe that they can get new innovative ideas from external sources than the internal sources. ...
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The objective of the study is to determine the effect of job tenure on employees' career mobility. The study used a descriptive survey and a population study of 169 employees with a response rate of 122(72.2%). This is considered sufficient as recommended by experts (Mugenda and Mugenda, 2009). Primary data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse the data and the hypothesis formulated was analysed using linear regression analysis. The results confirmed the hypothesis that job tenureinfluences employee career mobility (R 2 =.141, F=19.77, P≤0.05). The correlation coefficient for the model was 0.376 which also confirms that there is a positive but weak relationship between length of service and career mobility. The study recommends that employees who have served and organization for long should be considered for promotion this brings about employees loyalty and commitment to the organization. The paper suggests that other variables can be added in terms of moderating and mediating variables to strengthen the model.
... Bu olumsuz bakış açısına göre çalışanlara iş güvencesinin olması onların daha az işi yapmasına neden olabilir. Aynı zamanda çalışanların işten çıkarılması daha fazla zaman, çaba ve tazminat gerektirdiğinden iş güvencesi organizasyon için maliyetli olabilir (Leung, 2009;2). İş güvencesinin hem olumlu hem olumsuz yönlerinin olduğu düşünülürse, işte var olamama ile arasında farklı ilişkilerin gerçekleşebileceği düşünülmektedir. ...
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Günümüz organizasyonlarında hem lider hem de yöneticilere özelliklerini barından bireylere ihtiyaç artmaktadır. Bu özellikleri bir arada barındıran diğer bir ifadeyle, görevlerini yerine getiren çalışanını destekleyen aynı zamanda da cezai uygulamaları ön plana alan babacan liderlik tarzı ve bu tarzın etkileri dikkati çekmektedir. Bu etkinin çalışan davranışlarına yansıdığı temel kavramlardan biri çalışanların işte varol(a)masıdır. Bu durumla ilişkili olduğu düşünülen organizasyonel unsurlardan biri de iş güvencesidir ve bu kavramın rolü ve önemi günden güne daha da artmaktadır. Bu çerçevede çalışmanın temel amacı, babacan liderlik ve işte var olamama ilişkisinde iş güvencesinin aracı rolü olup olmadığının belirlenmesidir. Ayrıca çalışma, ülkemiz işletmelerinde sıklıkla görüldüğü belirlenen babacan lider davranışlarının, çalışanların işte varol(a)ması üzerindeki etkilerinin gösterilebilmesi açısından önemlidir. Bu etki de iş güvencesinin varlığının hissedilmesi de süreci etkileyebilecek önemli değişkenlerden biridir. Çalışma, özellikle ulusal literatür bağlamında öncü nitelikte denilebilir. Çünkü iş güvencesinin en çok hissedilebileceği kesimlerden biri de araştırma görevlileridir. Bu çerçevede çalışılan üniversitede iş güvencesinin varlığının algılanması önemli bir sorunsalın temel vurgusu olarak düşünülmüştür. Çalışma üç ana kavram üzerine odaklanmıştır. Bu kavramlar, babacan liderlik, işte var olamama ve iş güvencesi olarak belirlenmiştir. Araştırma, Türkiye'deki kamu ve vakıf üniversitelerinde 33A ve 50D kapsamında çalışan araştırma görevlilerine yönelik olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada veri toplama aracı olarak anket tekniği kullanılmıştır. Veriler Windows için IBM-SPSS 24.0 istatistiksel paket programı kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; babacan liderliğin işte var olamama eğilimini azalttığı bulgusuna ulaşılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra babacan liderliğin iş güvencesi üzerinde etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca, iş güvencesinin işte var olamama eğilimi üzerinde bir etkisinin olduğu ve babacan liderlik ile işte var olamama ilişkisinde iş güvencesinin kısmi aracılık rolüne sahip olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmada; öncelikle babacan liderlik, daha sonrasında işte var olamama ve iş güvencesi kavramları açıklanmıştır. Ardından da bu kavramlar arasındaki ilişkileri ölçmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen araştırmanın bulgu ve yorumlarına değinilmiştir. Son olarak araştırma sonuçlarından hareketle gelecekte bu konuyu çalışmak isteyen araştırmacılara önerilerde bulunulmuştur. ABSTRACT In today's organizations, there is an increasing need for both leaders and managers. In this sense, it is noteworthy that the paternalistic leadership style and the effects of this style, which support the employees who carry out their duties, and which puts the criminal practices at the same time. One of the basic concepts in which this effect is reflected in employee behavior is the presenteeism. One of the organizational factors that are thought to be related to this situation is job security and the role and importance of this concept is increasing day by day. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is a mediator role in the relationship between paternalist leadership and presenteeism. In addition, the study is important in terms of showing the effects of paternalist leadership behaviors, which are frequently seen in our country enterprises, on the existence of the employees. This effect is one of the important variables that can affect the process. The study is particularly pioneering in the context of national literature. Because one of the areas where job security can be felt most is the research assistant. In this framework, the perception of the existence of job security in the university is considered as the main emphasis of an important problem. This study focuses on three main concepts. These concepts are defined as paternalist leadership, presentism, and job security. The study was conducted in public and private universities in Turkey as a research assistant for the employees covered by 33 and 50D. The questionnaire was used to collect data. The data were analyzed using the IBM-SPSS for Windows 24.0 statistical package program. According to the research results; paternalist leadership has been shown to reduce the tendency of presentism. In addition, paternalist leadership has an effect on job security. In addition, it was concluded that job security had an impact on the tendency of presentism, and that job security had a partial mediating role in the relationship between paternalist leadership.
... Some scholars (Reisel et al (2010(Reisel et al ( , 2007Cheng and Chang, 2007;Probst, 2002) find out in their studies that job insecurity is a major contributory factor to reduced productivity and it increases employee turnover, job insecurity has a direct effect on organisational performance these are in consonance with this present study which also established that job insecurity negatively affects organisation performance and induced employee turnover. Some other studies however show that job insecurity could actually enhance improved productivity wherein employee whose job is threatened work harder to earn the recognition of the manager and secure his job (Sverke et al, 2006;Probst et al 2007); whereas other studies established that when workers have established the security of their job after initial threat, productivity could suffer (Leung, 2009). ...
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Layoffs and alternative staffing seem to be a phenomenon in many workplaces, many employees seem uncertain of their continuing in their job as a result of threats that they face on the job which could lead to job loss, and these call for concern. This paper therefore examines some of the factors responsible for job insecurity and employee turnover and the attendant effects of job insecurity on organisation. The study investigates the relationship between job insecurity and organisation performance, as well as relationship between job insecurity and employee turnover. Self-developed structured questionnaire titled ‘Job Insecurity, Organisation Performance and Employee Turnover’ (JIOPET) was used as the instrument to collect data from one hundred and twenty randomly selected respondents from organised private sector (financial institutions) in Akure and public sector (state secretariat) in Ibadan, Nigeria. The data were analysed and the two hypotheses drawn up for the study were tested using Pearson Product- Moment Correlation. The findings establish that job insecurity negatively affect organisation performance and induce employee turnover. It is recommended that organisation policy makers should diligently address the factors that contribute to job insecurity, have training policy and train employees as work procedures are becoming more dynamic with new technologies.
... Job security - Leung (2009) stated that employees with high job security may invest more in their companies out of loyalty or because they view their jobs as long term commitments. Job security is one's expectation about continuity in a job situation. ...
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Employee Productivity which measures the output relative to the input per person with reference to a point of time is a major dynamic and vigorous concern of any organizations as it is engage in shaping the success of an organization. The organizations in Apparel Industry is highly employee oriented and their employees are the main driving force of the success where the employers pay their highest attention on maintaining job satisfaction on their valuable assets, employees. This study is an attempt to find out the impact of employee job satisfaction by different perspectives on employee productivity. Therefore apparent three perspectives has been chosen for the study at the assumption of other perspectives are been constant where if any. Employee relation which engrosses proper relationship between employer and employee is one of the perspectives emphasized as a sub division of job satisfaction. Organizational culture and Competitor organizations are the perspectives other than employee relations for employee job satisfaction. Organization culture and Competitor organizations refer to peers and subordinates relationships at the organization and attitudes towards competitor organizations or other similar organizations respectively. More specifically this study underscores which perspective has the highest impact on employee job satisfaction in varying employee productivity as a whole. The study was conducted in Colombo District. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study where primary data was collected through questionnaires from the sample of 200 employees selected by the stratified random sampling techniques and secondary data was used to gain information towards dependent variable, employee productivity which measured by the organization specifically. Further descriptive analysis and chi-square analysis were used to analysis of data with the tool of SPSS software. This study came out with the results that employee satisfaction towards employee relations has the highest impact on employee productivity other than the satisfaction towards organizational culture and competitor organizations. The least impact on employee productivity has given by competitor organizations. Therefore the management of the organizations included to Apparel Industry of Sri Lanka should be considered about maintaining healthy relationship between employer and employee as well as employee and employee in order to ensure employee job satisfaction which enhance employee productivity that resulting success of the organization
... Although job security was considered as a dimensional or sub variable, it was found that job security is not significantly related to organizational performance. This study was necessary as most studies linking job security and performance has been conducted in Europe and Asia as evidenced in Chirumbolo & Hellgren, 2003; Lucky, Minai & Rahman, 2013; Leung, 2009; Subramaniam, Shamsudiam, & Ibrahim, 2011; Anwar, 2011; Probst, 2008; Sverke et al., 2002. However a few studies have been reported in the African context that shows the link between job security and employee performance. ...
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This study examined the effect of Adjunct Lecturers' Job Security on Employee performance: Evidence from Universities in Kakamega County, Kenya. Using a descriptive survey research design, data was collected from a sample of 51 adjunct lecturers from these Universities using structured questionnaires. It was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. For descriptive statistics mean, standard deviation, frequencies and percentages were used whereas for inferential statistics factor analysis and regression analysis were used. The study concluded that job security had no significant effect on employee performance in the Universities in Kakamega County, Kenya and therefore the null hypothesis is not rejected. The study recommends that organizations should give employees the assurance that their job is secured in order to enhance employee performance.
... Employees are more worried about their current job performance which makes them to constantly look for ways to improve their work effectiveness (Uygur, 2009). They may exhibit lesser absenteeism, and unnecessary lateness as compared to employees who are perceived to have lower job involvement levels (Leung, 2009). Such employees with high job involvement are more beneficial for the organization (Mohamed, Munirah & Mustapha, 2014). ...
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In today’s world of competitiveness, training and development has become an integral part in most of the global organizations and it contributes significantly to the success and effectiveness of these organizations. The aim of this research work is to develop an extended framework on the concept of transfer of training through the indicators of trainee characteristics and work environment in relation to transfer of training. Organizations are more increasingly concerned about the investment made in training and this has necessitated it to be justified in terms of improved employee and organizational performance, such as higher profit, enhanced market share, higher productivity, and reduced error and safety climate. However, aiding employee development, providing employees with meaning and purpose, providing a supportive work environment and providing training opportunities are the basic principles of gaining commitments from the workforce. Moreover, the supervisor’s and peer’s ability to provide encouragement and support such as guidance on how to use training on the job, encouragement given to attend training program and sufficient time and opportunities provided for applying training would motivate employees to transfer training knowledge and skills to the job. Baldwin and Ford worked in analyzing the impact of training design factors, trainee characteristics factors and work environment factors on the occurrence of training transfer. Arguably, this is a way forward in propelling the learning and training transfer system.
... Third, this research highlights the impact of job security as the most influential determinants of perceived teleworking productivity. Although some empirical findings suggest that job security decreases employee effort (Leung, 2009), the teleworking case is entirely different. Ichino and Riphahn (2005) explained that the worker learns what is acceptable in the firm over the first months while his ability is unobservable. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the impact of demographic, technology, individual and organizational factors on perceived productivity of Egyptian teleworkers. Design/methodology/approach Data from 199 usable questionnaires are collected and analyzed by means of factor analysis and stepwise linear regression analysis. Findings The results highlight the crucial role of individual and organizational factors in influencing the perceived productivity of Egyptian teleworkers. In addition to the emergence of job security as a key determinant of perceived teleworking productivity, the role of satisfaction, commitment, work flexibility and management support is also emphasized. Surprisingly, the impact of demographic, attitudes and technological factors are barely observable. Practical implications The paper has important implications for managers and practitioners to boost teleworking productivity. Managers must ensure teleworkers' job security, work flexibility, and satisfaction. Also, addressing the efficient use of IT combined with user training should be based on clear understanding of teleworkers' need, knowledge and skills. Originality/value The paper is one of the first studies that examine determinants of perceived teleworking productivity. Also, the paper highlights teleworking productivity in an Arab world context, which is barely examined in teleworking research.
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This study analyzed and compared airport security screeners' perception of the employment system and cooperation within a company working at both Incheon and Gimpo international airports. Based on empirical research, suggestions for changes to policy were made to improve the disaster response of an airport authority. It was proven that, if the current transition policy of aviation security screeners' employment systems were implemented as planned, the efficiency of security screening would improve and the number of aviation security breaches would significantly decrease. Additionally, it was found that surveyed employees from both airports perceived that the employment transition to establish a government-owned company must be expedited to improve aviation security for effective disaster response of an airport authority.
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South African government has promised to create jobs in this democratic era; however workers continue to find themselves in unsecured or contingent labour market. As a consequence job security has captured the attention of public and private sectors since jobs are becoming scarcer than they used to be as a result of poor economic climate. Economic recession, new information technology, industrial restructuring and accelerated global competition contribute to job insecurity as employers cannot retain employees under a lifetime employment. The paper argues from the premise that without proper contract of employment the labour market will continue to fluctuate and become unstable. The survey design was used as it fit perfectly with the quantitative research approach. Target population (N=2836) comprised domestic workers, while accidental sampling was chosen as it was convenient to administer questionnaires to domestic workers. Finally, questionnaires were administered to a sample of 203 (n) participants with the rate return of 202. The research was based on voluntary participation. The empirical results of this study revealed, that particular factors exist that continually maintain the vulnerability of workers in the domestic sector. These factors are: poor movement of trade unionism, employment relationships without written contracts of employment, and lack of education. This serves as a reflection of little pressure on domestic employers to comply with new labour laws that cover domestic workers. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n2p221
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Nobel laureates in science publish more and are more apt to collaborate than a matched sample of scientists. Interviews with 41 of 55 laureates and comparison of their research output with the output of the matched sample indicate that these patterns hold at every stage of the life-work-cycle. As laureates report and as their publications corroborate, they exercise noblesse oblige in arranging co-authorship in collaborative publications. Receipt of the Nobel prize is followed by declining productivity and changed work practices, as a result of changed role obligations and activities. Reductions in productivity are more severe for laureates who experience comparatively large increments in prestige through the prize than for those who were already eminent. The prize generates strain in collaborative associations so that most of these terminate soon after the award.
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The relationship between age and the publishing productivity of Ph.D. scientists is analyzed using data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients (National Research Council) and the Science Citation Index. The longitudinal nature of the data allows for the identification of pure aging effects. In five of the six areas studied, life-cycle aging effects are present. Only in particle physics, where scientists often speak of being on a "religious quest," is the indication that scientific productivity is not investment-motivated. Vintage effects are also considered. The expectation that the latest educated are the most productive is not generally supported by the data. Copyright 1991 by American Economic Association.
Article
Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates. In Safelite, productivity effects amount to a 44-percent increase in output per worker. This firm apparently had selected a suboptimal compensation system, as profits also increased with the change.
Article
The publication records of 2,205 holders of the Ph.D. in sociology are examined for the period 1940-70. The predictive efficiency of six independent variables: sex, age at Ph.D., years between bachelor's degree and Ph.D., age at first publication, publication before Ph.D., and quality of department of doctoral training is assessed via regression analysis. A seventh variable-year of Ph.D.-is entered into the regression equation as a control. The standardized partial regression coefficients indicate that only age at first publication and publication before Ph.D. exert important independent effects upon research productivity. Of the four remaining independent variables, sex emerged as a particularly weak predictor of publication output. Possible reasons for these results, as well as directions for future research, are presented and discussed.
Article
We examine the research productivity of German academic economists over their life cycles. It turns out that the career patterns of research productivity as measured by journal publications are characterized by marked cohort effects. Moreover, the life cycles of younger German economists are hump shaped and resemble the life cycles identified for US economists, whereas the life cycles of older German economists are much flatter. Finally, we find that not only productivity, but also research quality follows distinct life cycles. Our study employs econometric techniques that are likely to produce estimates that are more trustworthy than previous estimates.
Article
Age-publishing profiles are estimated for four fields of science using data from the 1977 Survey of Doctorate Recipients. The five measures of publishing activity used allow for analysis of the sensitivity of the age-publishing relationship to output measure. Results are presented separately for graduate faculty and faculty at nongraduate departments. Although age is found to be a fairly weak predictor of performance, in physics and earth science older scientists publish less than their youngest peers and in physiology and biochemistry older scientists publish less than their middle-aged colleagues. Given the time frame of the data, the results suggest that the graying of America''s scientific community was accompanied with slowed rates of research in higher education.
Article
Temporary contracts provide employers with a tool to screen potential new employees and have been shown to provide “stepping stones” into permanent employment for workers. For both reasons, workers on temporary contracts have an incentive to provide more effort than permanent employees. Using indicators for unpaid overtime work and absences taken from the Swiss Labor Force Survey (SLFS), we present evidence that temporary workers indeed provide higher effort than permanent employees: Their probability of working unpaid overtime exceeds that of permanently employed workers by 60%. We show the heterogeneity of this effect across different types of temporary contracts, investigate differences between men and women, and discuss the relevance of endogenous selection into temporary employment.
Article
In regression discontinuity (RD) designs for evaluating causal effects of interventions, assignment to a treatment is determined at least partly by the value of an observed covariate lying on either side of a fixed threshold. These designs were first introduced in the evaluation literature by Thistlewaite and Campbell [1960. Regression-discontinuity analysis: an alternative to the ex-post Facto experiment. Journal of Educational Psychology 51, 309–317] With the exception of a few unpublished theoretical papers, these methods did not attract much attention in the economics literature until recently. Starting in the late 1990s, there has been a large number of studies in economics applying and extending RD methods. In this paper we review some of the practical and theoretical issues in implementation of RD methods.
Article
Most papers that employ Differences-in-Differences estimation (DD) use many years of data and focus on serially correlated outcomes but ignore that the resulting standard errors are inconsistent. To illustrate the severity of this issue, we randomly generate placebo laws in state-level data on female wages from the Current Population Survey. For each law, we use OLS to compute the DD estimate of its "effect" as well as the standard error of this estimate. These conventional DD standard errors severely understate the standard deviation of the estimators: we find an "effect" significant at the 5 percent level for up to 45 percent of the placebo interventions. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate how well existing methods help solve this problem. Econometric corrections that place a specific parametric form on the time-series process do not perform well. Bootstrap (taking into account the autocorrelation of the data) works well when the number of states is large enough. Two corrections based on asymptotic approximation of the variance-covariance matrix work well for moderate numbers of states and one correction that collapses the time series information into a "pre"-and "post"-period and explicitly takes into account the effective sample size works well even for small numbers of states.
Article
Most papers that employ Differences-in-Differences estimation (DD) use many years of data and focus on serially correlated outcomes but ignore that the resulting standard errors are inconsistent. To illustrate the severity of this issue, we randomly generate placebo laws in state-level data on female wages from the Current Population Survey. For each law, we use OLS to compute the DD estimate of its "effect" as well as the standard error of this estimate. These conventional DD standard errors severely understate the standard deviation of the estimators: we find an "effect" significant at the 5 percent level for up to 45 percent of the placebo interventions. We use Monte Carlo simulations to investigate how well existing methods help solve this problem. Econometric corrections that place a specific parametric form on the time-series process do not perform well. Bootstrap (taking into account the autocorrelation of the data) works well when the number of states is large enough. Two corrections based on asymptotic approximation of the variance-covariance matrix work well for moderate numbers of states and one correction that collapses the time series information into a "pre"- and "post"-period and explicitly takes into account the effective sample size works well even for small numbers of states. © 2004 the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Article
Employment protection systems are widely believed to generate distortions in firms' hiring and firing decisions. However, much less is known about the impact of these regulations on workers' behavior. In this paper we provide evidence on the latter question using data from a large Italian bank. Our analysis is based on weekly observations for 545 men and 313 females hired as white-collar workers between January 1993 and February 1995. These workers begin to be protected against firing only after the 12th week of tenure, and we observe them for one year. We show that-particularly for men-the number of days of absence per week increases significantly once employment protection is granted at the end of probation. This suggests that the provision of employment protection causes the increase in absenteeism. Alternative explanations based on career concerns or on learning about social norms would predict a smooth relationship between absenteeism and tenure instead of the observed discrete jump. This consequence of employment protection seems to have been neglected in European policy debates so far. (JEL: J2, D2, D8, M5) Copyright (c) 2005 by the European Economic Association.
Article
In this paper we study empirically the labor market of economists. We look at the mobility and promotion patterns of a sample of 1,000 top economists over thirty years and link it to their productivity and other personal characteristics. We find that the probability of promotion and of upward mobility is positively related to past production. However, the sensitivity of promotion and mobility to production diminishes with experience, indicating the presence of a learning process. We also find evidence that economists respond to incentives. They tend to exert more effort at the beginning of their career when dynamic incentives are important. This finding is robust to the introduction of tenure, which has an additional negative ex post impact on production. Our results indicate therefore that both promotions and tenure have an effect on the provision of incentives. Finally, we detect evidence of a sorting process, as the more productive individuals are allocated to the higher ranked universities. Copyright 2006, Oxford University Press.
Article
We investigate how and why the productivity of a worker varies as a function of the productivity of her co-workers in a group production process. In theory, the introduction of a high productivity worker could lower the effort of incumbent workers because of free riding; or it could increase the effort of incumbent workers because of peer effects induced by social norms, social pressure, or learning. Using scanner level data, we measure high frequency, worker-level productivity of checkers for a large grocery chain. Because of the firm‘s scheduling policy, the timing of within-day changes in personnel is unsystematic, a feature for which we find consistent support in the data. We find strong evidence of positive productivity spillovers from the introduction of highly productive personnel into a shift. A 10% increase in average co-worker permanent productivity is associated with 1.7% increase in a worker’s effort. Most of this peer effect arises from low productivity workers benefiting from the presence of high productivity workers. Therefore, the optimal mix of workers in a given shift is the one that maximizes skill diversity. In order to explain the mechanism that generates the peer effect, we examine whether effort depends on workers’ ability to monitor one another due to their spatial arrangement, and whether effort is affected by the time workers have previously spent working together. We find that a given worker’s effort is positively related to the presence and speed of workers who face him, but not the presence and speed of workers whom he faces (and do not face him). In addition, workers respond more to the presence of co-workers with whom they frequently overlap. These patterns indicate that these individuals are motivated by social pressure and mutual monitoring, and suggest that social preferences can play an important role in inducing effort, even when economic incentives are limited.
Article
Much of the theory in personnel economics relates to effects of monetary incentives on output, but the theory was untested because appropriate data were unavailable. A new data set for the Safelite Glass Corporation tests the predictions that average productivity will rise, the firm will attract a more able workforce, and variance in output across individuals at the firm will rise when it shifts to piece rates. In Safelite, productivity effects amount to a 44-percent increase in output per worker. This firm apparently had selected a suboptimal compensation system, as profits also increased with the change.
Article
Employment protection systems are known to generate significant distortions in firms’ hiring and firing decisions. We know much less about the impact of these regulations on workers behaviour. The goal of this Paper is to fill in this gap and in particular to assess whether the provision of employment protection induces more absenteeism among workers. Our analysis is based on weekly observations for the 858 white-collar workers hired by a large Italian bank between January 1993 and February 1995. These workers begin to be protected against firing only after the twelfth week of tenure and we observe them for one year. We show that the number of day’s absence per week more than doubles once employment protection is granted. This result offers a preliminary but robust piece of evidence to evaluate a consequence of employment protection systems that has been relatively neglected in the policy debate in Europe.
Article
This paper discusses the bias that results from using nonrandomly selected samples to estimate behavioral relationships as an ordinary specification error or "omitted variables" bias. A simple consistent two stage estimator is considered that enables analysts to utilize simple regression methods to estimate behavioral functions by least squares methods. The asymptotic distribution of the estimator is derived.
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