Article

The Effects of Eyeglasses and Race on Juror Decisions Involving a Violent Crime

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Past research has demonstrated the influence of appearance on legal decision-making at trial. We investigated how defendant race and eyeglass wearing affect juror decisions. We used a 2 (defendant race: African-American versus Caucasian) x 2 (eyeglasses: present versus not present) experimental design. Two hundred and twenty undergraduates were given a vignette and 1 of 4 photographs of the defendant. Participants rendered a verdict and rated the defendant on a number of characteristics. Eyeglasses had an indirect effect on verdict by increasing ratings of intelligence, which decreased guilty verdicts. Overall, eyeglasses did not affect ratings of defendants' attractiveness, friendliness, or threateningness. However, there were several significant interaction effects for race of the defendant and the presence of eyeglasses on these ratings.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The mathematical model presented herein abstracts human decision makers so as to be broadly applicable. We are motivated in part by a study about the correlation between a defendant's physical appearance and juror decisions [10]. It states that jurors feel a defendant more intelligent when the defendant is wearing eyeglasses, which leads to fewer guilty verdicts. ...
... Superscript alphabet A (B) means "upon observing Alexis's (Blake's) decision"; we sometimes use 0 or 1 instead of the Roman alphabet to specify a decision value. For example, q AB 3 denotes the updated belief of the third agent, Chuck, upon observing Alexis's and Blake's decisionsĤ 1 andĤ 2 , and q 10 3 denotes Chuck's updated belief upon observingĤ 1 = 1 andĤ 2 = 0. Subscript alphabet A (B) means "that Alexis (Blake) thinks." For example, Blake thinks that the probability of Alexis choosing 0 when the true state is 0 is pĤ 1 H (0 0) B . ...
Article
We show that it can be suboptimal for Bayesian decision-making agents employing social learning to use correct prior probabilities as their initial beliefs. We consider sequential Bayesian binary hypothesis testing where each individual agent makes a binary decision based on an initial belief, a private signal, and the decisions of all earlier-acting agents---with the actions of precedent agents causing updates of the initial belief. Each agent acts to minimize Bayes risk, with all agents sharing the same Bayes costs for Type I (false alarm) and Type II (missed detection) errors. The effect of the set of initial beliefs on the decision-making performance of the last agent is studied. The last agent makes the best decision when the initial beliefs are inaccurate. When the private signals are described by Gaussian likelihoods, the optimal initial beliefs are not haphazard but rather follow a systematic pattern: the earlier-acting agents should act as if the prior probability is larger than it is in reality when the true prior probability is small, and vice versa. We interpret this as being open minded toward the unlikely hypothesis. The early-acting agents face a trade-off between making a correct decision and being maximally informative to the later-acting agents.
... Women who wear lipstick are considered more attractive, albeit the intensity and shade of the colour may influence attractiveness, too (26,32). Furthermore, people who wear glasses are reportedly labelled as less attractive (27), less friendly, but also as more intelligent and duller (33) and were even found less guilty when committing a crime (34). Here, too, the beneficial outcome of lipstick wear and detrimental effect of eyeglasses on facial attractiveness is seen, but these influences seem modulated by age. ...
Article
Background: Facial aesthetics is a major motivating factor for undergoing orthodontic treatment. Objectives: To ascertain-by means of artificial intelligence (AI)-the influence of dental alignment on facial attractiveness and perceived age, compared to other modifications such as wearing glasses, earrings, or lipstick. Material and methods: Forty volunteering females (mean age: 24.5) with near perfectly aligned upper front teeth [Aesthetic Component scale of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN) = 1 and Peer Assessment Rating Index (PAR Index) = 0 or 1] were photographed with a standardized pose while smiling, in the following settings (number of photographs = 960): without modifications, wearing eyeglasses, earrings, or lipstick. These pictures were taken with natural aligned dentition and with an individually manufactured crooked teeth mock-up (AC-IOTN = 8) to create the illusion of misaligned teeth. Images were assessed for attractiveness and perceived age, using AI, consisting of a face detector and deep convolutional neural networks trained on dedicated datasets for attractiveness and age prediction. Each image received an attractiveness score from 0 to 100 and one value for an age prediction. The scores were descriptively reviewed for each setting, and the facial modifications were tested statistically whether they affected the attractiveness score. The relationship between predicted age and attractiveness scores was examined with linear regression models. Results: All modifications showed a significant effect (for all: P < 0.001) on facial attractiveness. In faces with misaligned teeth, wearing eyeglasses (-17.8%) and earrings (-3.2%) had an adverse effect on facial aesthetics. Tooth alignment (+6.9%) and wearing lipstick (+7.9%) increased attractiveness. There was no relevant effect of any assessed modifications or tooth alignment on perceived age (all: <1.5 years). Mean attractiveness score declined with predicted age, except when wearing glasses, in which case attractiveness was rated higher with increasing predicted age. Conclusions: Alignment of teeth improves facial attractiveness to a similar extent than wearing lipstick, but has no discernable effect on perceived age. Wearing glasses reduces attractiveness considerably, but this effect vanishes with age.
... The psychosocial impact of visual impairment corrective devices w ' ff pp r ' b h y by f b h medical and non-medical myopic groups. There were many studies conducted with regards to the psychology of wearing eyeglasses that found that individuals who are wearing glasses tend to be seen as more intelligent 15,16 , but less attractive 17,18 . ...
... For others, wearing spectacles could diminish their chances of getting a spouse whereas some also perceive it to be for only the old folks [9,12,14]. Contrary to the above perceptions, people wear spectacles because it improves their appearance and sight; augments their confidence and demeanour; and makes them look innocent and intelligent [12,15,16]. Most psychosocial perceptions to spectacle wear, however, usually results in non-use of spectacles. ...
... Several studies reported that eyeglasses made the wearer's appearance less attractive (e.g., Hasart & Hutchinson, 1993;Leder, Forster, & Gerger, 2011;Lundberg & Sheehan, 1994;Terry & Kroger, 1976). On the other hand, some researchers have found that eyeglasses have no effect on physical attractiveness (e.g., Brown, Henriquez, & Groscup, 2008;Lo et al., 2012). A possible explanation for this inconsistency in the various studies reporting on the effect of eyeglasses on our judgment of physical attractiveness might be that physical attractiveness consists of multiple factors. ...
... This literature asks whether some people stereotypically look more like offenders and whether this has legal repercussions. A series of studies has demonstrated the importance of facial trustworthiness (Korva, Porter, O'Connor, Shaw, & ten Brinke, 2013), attractiveness (Efran, 1974), and race (Brown, Henriquez, & Groscup, 2008;Mitchell, Haw, Pfeifer, & Meissner, 2005) for mock-juror sentencing À with suspects who are rated to look more like criminals receiving harsher sentences, needing fewer pieces of evidence to be convicted, and being less likely to receive an acquittal in light of exonerating evidence. To date, the research demonstrating such eyewitness and juror reliance on irrelevant physical person characteristics in identification and sentencing has focused almost exclusively on biases related to facial characteristics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Body type is often overlooked as a basis for discrimination and has rarely been examined in legal contexts. The present research examined the role of body type on eyewitness line-up misidentification. Participants watched a video of a violent crime or theft and were asked to select the defendant out of a suspect-absent line-up. The lineup included digitally altered photos displaying muscular, normal weight, and overweight defendants. Muscular defendants were most likely to be mistakenly selected out of the simultaneous line-up, and overweight defendants were least likely to be selected. These results indicate that body type may be a biasing factor in comparative eyewitness evaluations.
Article
Few studies investigated the effects of facial characteristics on stereotyping in the business context. Using a 2 (beard/no beard) x 2 (acne/no acne) x 2 (tie/no tie) x 2 (eyeglasses/no eyeglasses) between subjects’ design, two representative samples of 364 and 711 participants rated different stimuli of male subjects on dimensions of competence, warmth and hireability. Based on 4,215 observations, results show acne has a negative and eyeglasses a positive effect on both competence and warmth. Wearing a necktie has a positive effect on competence and a negative effect on warmth. Finally, beardedness has a negative effect on warmth. We also observe that competence has a greater effect on hireability than warmth. We discuss the findings in the context of theoretical and managerial implications for male job applicants as well as HR practices.
Article
Many people believe the personal attributes of trial participants substantially impact the decisions of juries, and considerable research has examined the extent to which characteristics of jurors and defendants are associated with juror judgments of guilt. To assess this broad issue, we meta-analyzed empirical studies examining the relationship between 11 juror and defendant characteristics and individual-level judgments of guilt in criminal trial contexts. Three potential moderator variables were also investigated: participant type, outcome type, and case type. In total, 464 effects were obtained from 272 published and unpublished studies. The 11 focal characteristics yielded sample-weighted mean correlations ranging from zero to .22 in magnitude, with the strongest overall relationships emerging for defendant socioeconomic status (-.11), defendant criminal record (.12), juror authoritarianism (.17), and juror trust in the legal system (.22). There was, however, substantial evidence of moderation for 10 of the 11 characteristics, suggesting their overall relationships vary according to one or more other variables. Moderator analyses revealed little support for participant type, some support for outcome type, and good support for case type with regard to their ability to explain variation in the observed effects. Overall, several juror and defendant characteristics were associated strongly enough with guilt judgments to warrant the attention of scholars and legal practitioners, and the results of this work add to our understanding of extralegal bias and juror decision making.
Article
This study looked at whether White offenders are more likely to be socially accepted back into society as compared to their counterpart Black offenders, when both offenders commit the same crime. A sample of 120 Pace University undergraduate students were recruited. Acceptance of offenders was determined by using the Bogardus Social Distance Scale, which measures how much an individual would allow a criminal into their social circle. Participants received one of four fictional vignettes of either a White male or Black male committing one of two crimes: a white collar crime or a drug-related crime. It was found that, regardless of race, the participants socially distance themselves more from drug offenders than white collar offenders.
Article
Full-text available
Although the possible effect of race on sentencing decisions is a much-studied question, even recent studies suffer from methodological problems. This paper attempts to correct these problems by using a large number of cases and a large number of offenses, by dividing the sentencing decision into two separate decisions, by using an appropriate scale to measure sentence severity, by including controls for relevant legal and extra-legal factors, and by using multivariate analysis. Our major findings are that race does not have a direct effect on sentence severity, but that blacks are more likely than whites to be incarcerated.
Article
Full-text available
56 undergraduates participated in a study of the effect of defendant race and type of crime on simulated juror decisions. Equal numbers of Black and White students were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 crime descriptions that varied in terms of defendant race and the type of crime (burglary or embezzlement) committed. Ss were subsequently asked to recommend jail sentences and bail amounts and to respond to items regarding the perceived severity of the crime and the likelihood that the defendant would repeat the crime. As predicted, the White embezzler received longer jail sentences than the Black embezzler, and the Black burglar received longer jail sentences than the White burglar. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Varied the physical attractiveness of a criminal defendant (attractive, unattractive, or no information) and the nature of the crime (attractiveness-related or attractiveness-unrelated) in a factorial design. After reading 1 of the case accounts, 120 undergraduates sentenced the defendant to a term of imprisonment. An interaction was predicted: When the crime was unrelated to attractiveness (burglary), Ss would assign more lenient sentences to the attractive defendant than to the unattractive defendant; when the offense was attractiveness-related (swindle), the attractive defendant would receive harsher treatment. Results confirm the predictions, thereby supporting a cognitive explanation for the relationship between the physical attractiveness of defendants and the nature of the judgments made against them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a meta-analytic review of simulation studies that examine the effect of defendant's race on jurors' sentencing decisions. Several narrative reviews have characterized the results of these studies as inconsistent or demonstrating only occasional effects. In contrast, the present meta-analysis indicated significant overall support for the hypothesis that racial bias influences sentencing decisions. In addition, our analysis failed to support several common generalizations that have been made about this literature. That is, we did not find that stronger results were associated with older studies, those taking place in the southern US, or those involving the crime of rape. Instead, several components of methodological rigor—the nature of the race manipulation, presence of controls for victim's race, and specification of the race of the subject sample—were most closely associated with stronger results in these studies.
Article
Full-text available
This study assessed whether sexual assault offenders were differently adjudicated from other violent felons and to what extent any differences in adjudication decisions were explained by the defendant's race. Five court decisions were analyzed using a weighted sample of 41,151 cases adjudicated between 1990 and 1996 that were representative of cases in the seventy-five most populous United States counties. The results did not support the hypothesis that sexual assault cases were given, on average, more leniency than less serious violent offenses, however, various adjudication decisions for the four violent offenses were moderated by the defendant's race. Interaction models showed minorities were treated more punitively compared to Whites when they were charged with an assault, robbery, or murder, but they were treated more leniently when they were charged with a sexual assault. Explanatory models that accounted for the differential processing of minorities that were disproportionately lenient or punitive, depending on the crime, are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Common wisdom seems to suggest that racial bias, defined as disparate treatment of minority defendants, exists in jury decision-making, with Black defendants being treated more harshly by jurors than White defendants. The empirical research, however, is inconsistent--some studies show racial bias while others do not. Two previous meta-analyses have found conflicting results regarding the existence of racial bias in juror decision-making (Mazzella & Feingold, 1994, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1315-1344; Sweeney & Haney, 1992, Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10, 179-195). This research takes a meta-analytic approach to further investigate the inconsistencies within the empirical literature on racial bias in juror decision-making by defining racial bias as disparate treatment of racial out-groups (rather than focusing upon the minority group alone). Our results suggest that a small, yet significant, effect of racial bias in decision-making is present across studies, but that the effect becomes more pronounced when certain moderators are considered. The state of the research will be discussed in light of these findings.
Article
Full-text available
Objective. This study examines Hispanic-black-white differences in sentences imposed on offenders appearing in state felony courts. Methods. The present study uses data collected by the State Court Processing Statistics (SCPS) program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for the years 1990, 1992, 1994, and 1996. Results. Hispanic defendants are sentenced more similarly to black defendants than white defendants. Both black and Hispanic defendants tend to receive harsher sentences than white defendants. Also, ethnicity effects are the largest in the sentencing of drug offenders, whereas race effects are largest in the sentencing of property offenders. Furthermore, the present study demonstrates that the failure to consider defendants' ethnicity in comparing black-white sentence outcomes is likely to result in findings that misrepresent black-white differences. Conclusions. The results clearly demonstrate the necessity of considering not only defendants' race (i.e., black-white differences) in sentencing but expanding our focus to also include defendants' ethnicity (i.e., Hispanic-white and Hispanic-black differences).
Article
-The present study examined the relationship between the defendants' physical attractiveness and assigned length of sentencing. Two independent samples of 96 subjccts each (24 white males, 24 white females, 24 black males, and 24 black females) were used, one for assigning sentences (in years and months) and one for rating physical attractiveness (on a 1-7 scale). The defendants were G white males, 6 white females, 6 black males, and 6 black females. An over-all significant negative correlation of -.42 (df = 22, p < .05) was found.
Article
The purpose of the study was to identify physical attractiveness as a causal antecedent to sociometric choice in kindergarten children. This required an assessment of attractiveness, unbiased by prior friendship among peers. Nominations of physical attractiveness were elicited from 48 kindergarten children and from their mothers in the family homes prior to the beginning of the school year and so prior to social interaction among peers. Social status was assessed after 5 wk. of social interaction in the kindergarten. Physical attractiveness nominations by girls were highly correlated with popularity for girls but not for boys. Attractiveness ratings by mothers of girls were highly correlated with popularity but there was no relationship for mothers of boys.
Article
Rosenthal and Jacobson found that a teacher's expectations about a child's behavior strongly influence his actual behavior. Generally, teachers form their first impressions of children, and thus develop their expectations for them, from two sources of information--the children's school record and their physical appearance. In this experiment, teachers were given objective information, presumably about a child's scholastic and social potential, accompanied by a photograph of an attractive or an unattractive boy or girl. It was found that the child's attractiveness was significantly associated with the teacher's expectations about how intelligent the child was, how interested in education his parents were, how far he was likely to progress in school, and how popular he would be with his peers.
Article
Using data from the National Survey of Black Americans (NSBA), this study develops and tests a theory of gendered colorism among African Americana The NSBA was collected by black interviewers and includes data on survey respondents' skin color and interviewers' subjective assessment of respondents' physical attractiveness. These data allow for a unique investigation of how skin color consciously or unconsciously influences assessment of physical attractiveness among African American adults. As predicted, results indicate that skin tone influences the attractiveness ratings assigned to black women in a compelling, monotonic manner. The association is significantly weaker for men. The gender-by-skin-tone interaction is consistent with the hypothesis that African Americans perceive fair skin tone as a particularly feminine characteristic Findings suggest the pervasiveness of Eurocentric standards of beauty among African Americans. Implications are discussed in the context of American race relations.
Article
In the present study, two samples of subjects differing in class and political orientation were tested in a simulated jury situation. The defendant, accused of negligent homicide, varied in the characteristics of race and attractiveness. Mean sentencing of the defendant was found to be a function of the characteristics of the jurors and of the attractiveness of the defendant. No main effect for race of the defendant was found. Further, a significant interaction between the subject sample—i.e. the jurors—and attractiveness of the defendant and between the subject sample and race of the defendant was found. The latter findings were discussed with reference to the child-rearing literature on class differences.
Article
The present study examined the effects of the race of the mock juror, defendant, and victim and the impact of the juror's personality on his verdict. Subjects, 191 black and white university students who were pretested for dogmatism and Machiavellianism, heard taped descriptions of a trial in which the race of the defendant and the race of the victim were varied. Subjects were requested to indicate the likelihood of guilt of the defendant. Mock juror's race and level of dogmatism and race of the defendant and the victim had an impact on perceptions of the defendants' guilt. There is a strong indication that dogmatism had differing dynamics for black and white subjects.
Article
Employing natural observations, female and male courtroom judges set the fines or bail amounts in misdemeanor and felony cases for 915 female and 1,320 male defendants. These persons varied widely in attractiveness and were unable to alter their appearance before presentation to their judges. Police officers, acting as confederates, rated the defendants' attractiveness levels. These levels were compared with bails and fines set by the judges. Defendant attractiveness levels were important only in bail and fine amounts for misdemeanor charges, not for felonies. Implications of the results for additional inquiry in ecologically justifiable litigation settings are presented.
Article
In an examination of the impacts on electoral success of candidate gender, candidate physical attractiveness, prestige and responsibility of office sought, and voter characteristics, 219 college students evaluated six challengers to an incumbent in either a mayoral or county clerk's race. Challengers represented men and women of high, moderate, and low physical attractiveness. Male, but not female, voters discriminated against female candidates. While physical attractiveness accentuated perceptions of masculinity in a man and femininity in a woman, the appeal of an attractive (i.e., more feminine) woman seeking a masculine-stereotyped position was not damaged by the so-called “beauty is beastly” effect. However, attractiveness was less consistently an asset for female candidates than it was for male candidates. Male, but not female, candidates directly benefitted from being physical attractive and were also more positively evaluated to the extent that they were perceived as highly masculine. These findings not only contribute to understanding of the joint impacts of sex-role and attractiveness stereotypes, but call into question survey findings pointing to the demise of sexism in electoral politics.
Article
Both an opinion survey and an experimental study were conducted. The survey revealed that substantial majorities of those polled believed (a) that a defendant's character and previous history should influence jurors' decision (79%) and (b) that the defendant's physical appearance should not bias these decisions (93%). The hypothesis, derived from a reinforcement model of interpersonal attraction and previous research on physical appearance, was that attractive defendants would be more positively evaluated than unattractive ones despite the seeming irrelevance of appearance to judicial decisions. The results of a simulated jury task were that physically attractive defendants were evaluated with less certainty of guilt (p < .05), less severe recommended punishment (p < .005), and greater attraction (p < .005), than were unattractive defendants. The importance of independent affective and cognitive components of the attraction process were emphasized.
Article
The present studies compare the judgments of White and Black mock jurors in interracial trials. In Study 1, the defendant's race did not influence White college students' decisions but Black stu- dents demonstrated ingroup/outgroup bias in their guilt ratings and attributions for the defendant's behavior. The aversive nature of modern racism suggests that Whites are motivated to appear nonprejudiced when racial issues are salient; therefore, the race salience of a trial summary was manipulated and given to noncollege students in Study 2. Once again, the defendant's race did not influence Whites when racial issues were salient. But in the non-race-salient version of the same interracial case, White mock jurors rated the Black defendant more guilty, aggres- sive, and violent than the White defendant. Black mock jurors demonstrated same-race leniency in both versions of the trial, suggesting that racial issues are generally salient in the minds of Black jurors in interracial cases with Black defendants. Jury decision making is a complex set of psychological processes in which jurors must attend to information, evaluate theories, resolve inconsistencies, and persuade one another in the pursuit of a verdict. Social psycholo- gists have long recognized the courtroom as a fruitful venue for the study of decision making and for years researchers have investigated the cognitive and motiva- tional processes underlying jurors' decisions and the procedural variables that influence them. One glaring void in the existing research, however, is an issue that seems to be on everyone's minds these days: race. In the 1990s, race captured the public's attention in a number of high-profile, controversial trials, but the prev-
Article
Examined whether physically attractive stimulus persons, both male and female, are (a) assumed to possess more socially desirable personality traits than physically unattractive stimulus persons, and (b) expected to lead better lives (e.g., be more competent husbands and wives and more successful occupationally) than unattractive stimulus persons. Sex of Subject * Sex of Stimulus Person interactions along these dimensions also were investigated. Results with 30 male and 30 female undergraduates indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge * Sex of Stimulus interaction. Implications of such a stereotype on self-concept development and the course of social interaction are discussed.
Article
An experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of the physical attractiveness of hypothetical defendants and mock jurors on judicial decisions. Seventy-eight college students rated their own physical attractiveness and then evaluated attractive, moderately attractive, and unattractive defendants as to the defendants' guilt or innocence, responsibility for the charges being brought, trustworthiness, happiness, honesty, intelligence, and likeability as well as recommended punishment for those convicted. As expected, more as opposed to less attractive defendants were convicted less, punished less severely, rated as less responsible for the charges being brought, happy, likeable, and trustworthy. Attractive subjects were more likely to convict than acquit unattractive defendants, while less attractive subjects did not differentially convict or acquit defendants across all levels of defendant physical attractiveness. Both attractive and less attractive subjects recommended the least severe punishment for attractive defendants; however, attractive subjects were harshest on unattractive defendants, while unattractive subjects were harshest on moderately attractive defendants. The results are discussed in terms of leniency effects when judging others with similar attributes.
Article
Subjects were rated in person and from photographic slides for several personality traits. In viewing the slides, judges tended to evaluate subjects wearing glasses as "more intelligent, more industrious, more honest, and more dependable." The same general results were obtained when subjects appeared in person, except that they were not judged more honest. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relationship of managerial experience to gender and attractiveness biases was examined in decisions involving suitability for hire and probable organizational progression within a typical financial institution. Each of 112 managers evaluated 4 equivalent résumé-data sheets, to which different candidate photographs were attached. The photographs were varied using a 2 X 2 (Gender X Attractiveness) design wherein each photograph depicted a woman or a man who was either highly attractive or slightly below average in attractiveness. For both ratings and rankings of candidates, clear evidence of attractiveness and gender biases were present. The extent of the bias was generally smaller for the most experienced managers, although less attractive female applicants were routinely at a disadvantage regardless of managerial experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
20 male and 20 female undergraduates rated photographs of people wearing glasses as more intelligent and less attractive than those not wearing glasses. Men were more critical in their judgments and were rated as more attractive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Determined if the negative effect of eyeglasses on adults' social judgments would be replicated with primary school children. Three boys and 3 girls (aged 4–10 yrs) were the stimulus persons, and 1st and 3rd graders were the Ss. Ss indicated which member of pairs of slides of similar aged children photographed with and without eyeglasses they deemed either more positive or more negative. Eyeglasses increased negative judgments and decreased positive judgments, especially when they were worn by girls, and regardless of whether the child making the judgment was in 1st or 3rd grade. The negative stereotypes that adults attribute to those who wear glasses have their origins in early childhood. Ss had assimilated eyeglasses into their person schemata, and the associated inferences regarding social desirability were disparaging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An audiovisual slide-show presentation of a murder trial was used to examine the effects of group deliberations on juror's responses. Sex of defense attorney and race of defendant were systematically varied in the mock trial. Verdicts were assessed immediately following the trial presentation (before group deliberations) and immediately following group deliberations. Neither sex nor race significantly affected distributions of individual juror's predeliberation verdicts. Following group deliberations, however, an effect of attorney's sex emerged in both jury (group) verdicts and in individual, postdeliberation verdicts. Jurors in the male defense attorney conditions were more likely to vote not guilty following deliberations than were jurors in the female defense attorney conditions. This effect is discussed in terms of group shift.
Article
Majority group perceptions regarding the relative frequency of crimes committed by various races and ethnic groups were examined. White-collar crimes such as embezzlement and fraud were ranked as more common for White criminals, and blue-collar crimes such as aggravated assault and motor vehicle theft were ranked as more common for Black criminals. Perceptions were subsequently compared with data from the Uniform Crime Reports for the U.S. (U.S. Department of Justice, 1992). As a function of overestimating the number of white-collar crimes and underestimating the number of blue-collar and violent crimes committed by Whites, majority group subjects held somewhat more accurate perceptions of minority groups than of their own group.
Article
A meta-analysis of experimental research on mock juror judgments was conducted to assess the effects of physical attractiveness, race, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender of both defendants and victims to test the theory that jurors use characteristics that are correlated with criminal behavior as cues to infer guilt and to recommend punishment. In general, it was advantageous for defendants to be physically attractive, female, and of high SES, although these advantages were nil for some crimes. There were no overall effects of race on mock jurors' judgments, but the effect of defendant race on punishment was strongly moderated by type of crime. Effects of victim characteristics on jurors' judgments were generally inconsequential, although defendants were at a disadvantage when the victim was female.
Article
Two studies examined the effects of the appearance of specific facial features on attributions of personality. In Study 1, photographs of men and women were computer-manipulated to have larger than average or smaller than average eye size, and wider than average or narrower than average eye spacing. In Study 2, eye size and mouth fullness were similarly altered. Although it was found that neither eye spacing nor mouth fullness had any effect on perceptions of the targets' personality or physical characteristics, eye size had strong effects in both studies. Analyses of covariance revealed that the personality trait ratings that varied with eye size were mediated primarily by perceived differences in the targets’ masculinity-femininity and babyfacedness, and to a lesser extent by attractiveness.
Article
This research investigated the effects of men's eyeglasses and facial hair and women's eyeglasses and hair length on the traits associated with facial schemata. One hundred and thirty-five introductory psychology students rated Photo-IdentTM composites of stimulus persons on 20 adjectival continua. A factor analysis of the scores extracted three factors: Social Value, Social Forcefulness, and Mental Competence. Eyeglasses on both the men and women were associated with attributions of diminished forcefulness and heightened competence. Men's beards were associated with lessened competence. Women's long hair was associated with decreased forcefulness. The results were interpreted in terms of the effects of the independent variables on apparent facial maturity.
Article
The possibility that the so-called physical attractiveness stereotype may contain a “kernel of truth” was investigated in a study where college students interacted with opposite sex partners whom they could not see. Each student engaged in three telephone conversations and rated their telephone partners for social skill, anxiety, liking, and desirability for future interaction, and were themselves subsequently rated for physical attractiveness by three independent observers. As hypothesized, the more physically attractive students were rated by their telephone partners as more socially skillful and more likable than their less attractive counterparts.
Article
Two experiments were conducted, one with a black population and the other with a white population, to assess the behavior of subject jurors in the judicial decision-making process. The simulated case was a trial for aggravated and forcible rape. The victim's race (black or white), the defendant's race (black or white), and the amount of evidence pointing toward guilt (near-zero, marginal, or strong) were systematically varied. After reading the case transcripts subjects made quasijudicial ratings on four dependent variables. The four variables were significantly correlated, and were summed to yield a culpability score for each subject. A 2×2×2×3 ANOVA performed on these scores indicated that the amount of evidence, the sex of the subject, the race of the victim, and the race of the defendant influenced the level of culpability either white or black jurors ascribed to a defendant. The results further showed that with only marginal evidence a defendant, either white or black, was considered more culpable if he was racially different from the jurors.
Article
In two experiments, we investigated the influence of eye size on adults' ratings of faces' attractiveness and 5-month-olds' looking times. Subjects viewed four pairs of female faces that were identical except for the size of the eyes. Whether they saw black-and-white drawings (experiment 1) or coloured photographs (experiment 2), adults rated the faces with larger eyes as more attractive than the faces with smaller eyes. Babies looked equally long at the drawn faces with larger and smaller eyes (experiment 1), but with the more realistic photographed faces, they looked slightly but significantly longer at the versions with larger eyes (experiment 2). Overall, our results suggest that a modest preference for larger eyes that has emerged by 5 months of age may contribute to the development of adult aesthetic preferences.
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of California, Santa Cruz, 1997. Includes bibliographical references.
Article
Pictures of physically attractive or unattractive women, who were either young or old, were attached to case reports of either a swindle or a burglary. “Juries” of three female college students each were then asked to sentence the “defendants” to between 1 and 10 yr. in jail. It was hypothesized that the young, attractive defendant would be sentenced less harshly than the old, unattractive defendant and that this effect would be more evident in a crime of burglary than a crime of swindle, as the attractiveness of the con artist might be viewed as an integral component of the crime of swindle. Older defendants were judged more harshly than young defendants and, for the burglary condition, attractive people were judged less harshly than unattractive people. However, in the swindle condition, attractiveness had no influence on the sentencing by the jury.
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine the degree to which individuals focus upon the eye region of others while visually inspecting their faces. Using an eye-tracking camera, 16 male subjects spent approximately 40% of their looking time focused upon the eye region of facial photographs, with each of the remaining parts of the face being looked at less.
Article
Video-tapes were made of men and women students with and without spectacles. Judges rated 7 of the 8 Ss as being more intelligent when wearing spectacles.
Article
Studied the effects of frequency of eye engagement and positiveness of verbal content in a 2 * 2 factorial design with 43 female undergraduates. Results indicate that with positive verbal content, frequent eye contact produces more positive evaluations; with negative verbal content, it produces negative evaluation. The pattern of obtained means was unexpected, and tentative hypotheses are offered as possible explanations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
The real dirt on spectacles: new survey reveals Americans' eyeglasses perceptions and pet peeves
  • America Essilor Of
Essilor of America (2004, February 26) The real dirt on spectacles: new survey reveals Americans' eyeglasses perceptions and pet peeves. [Press Release]. Retrieved December 22, 2005 from http://www.essilorusa. com/press/details.asp?editID:31 7
The psychology of visual correctives: social and psychological effects of eyeglasses and contact lenses
  • R L Terry
Terry RL: The psychology of visual correctives: social and psychological effects of eyeglasses and contact lenses. Optometric Monthly 1982; 73:137 -142
The effects of eyeglasses on perceptions of interpersonal attraction
  • J K Hasart
  • K L Hutchinson
Hasart JK, Hutchinson KL: The effects of eyeglasses on perceptions of interpersonal attraction. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 1993;8:521-528
The influence of race on sentencing: a metaanalytic review of experimental studies
  • L T Sweeney
  • C Haney
Sweeney LT, Haney C: The influence of race on sentencing: a metaanalytic review of experimental studies. Behavioral Sciences and the Law 1992; l0:179-195
Brown is an Instructor in the Department of Psychology at
  • J Michael
Michael J. Brown is an Instructor in the Department of Psychology at