Article

DSDV, DYMO, OLSR: Link duration and path stability

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

In this paper, we evaluate and compare the impact of link duration and path stability of routing protocols; Destination Sequence Distance vector (DSDV), Dynamic MANET On- Demand (DYMO) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) at different number of connections and node density. In order to improve the efficiency of selected protocols; we enhance DYMO and OLSR. Simulation and comparison of both default and enhanced routing protocols is carried out under the performance parameters; Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Average End-to End Delay (AE2ED) and Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO). From the results, we observe that DYMO performs better than DSDV, MOD-OLSR and OLSR in terms of PDR, AE2ED, link duration and path stability at the cost of high value of NRO.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... An efficient routing protocol is required to overcome this issue of recharging batteries. WSNs have many routing protocols [28], [29], [30], [31] which efficiently utilizes energy. However, WSNs and WBANs have different architectures, applications and operate in different conditions. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In current era of technology, applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are rising in various fields. The deployment of WSNs for real life applications is greater than before. Still, the energy constraints remain one of the key issues; it prevents the complete utilization of WSN technology. Sensors typically powered with battery, which have insufficient life span. Even though renewable energy sources like solar energy or piezoelectric means are used as supplementary energy in WSNs, it is still some degree of reserve to consume energy judiciously. Proficient energy routing is thus a key requirement for a trustworthy design of a wireless sensor network. In this article, we advise a new Gateway Based Energy-Efficient Clustering Routing Protocol (M-GEAR) for WSNs. We divide the sensor nodes into four logical regions based on their distance from the gateway node and Base Station (BS). We install BS faraway from sensing area and a gateway node at the centre of the sensing area. If the distance of a sensor node from BS or gateway is less than predefined distance threshold, the node uses direct communication to transmit its sensed data. We divide the rest of nodes into two equal regions whose distance is beyond the threshold distance. We then divide these two regions into clusters and each region elects its own Cluster Heads (CHs) independent of other region. We compare performance of our protocol with LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy). Performance analysis and compared statistic results show that our proposed protocol perform well in terms of energy consumption and network lifetime. We also propose a reliable, power efficient and high throughput routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). We use multi hop topology to minimize energy consumption and maximizing network lifetime. We use a cost function to select parent node or forwarder. Proposed cost function selects a parent node, which has high residual energy and less distance to sink. Residual energy parameter balances the energy consumption among the sensor nodes and distance parameter ensures successful packet delivery to sink. Simulation results shows that proposed protocol enhance the network stability period and nodes stay alive for longer period. Longer stability period contributes high packet delivery to sink which is major interest for continuous patient monitoring.
... The researchers considered the throughput, end to end delay (E2ED) and normalized routing load (NRL) [10]. Some researchers evaluated and compared the Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), Normalized Routing Overhead (NRO) and average E2ED for DSDV and OLSR [11]. ...
... For this purpose, we plan to extend our work to support dense networks more efficiently. Other works including [1], [8], [14], and [18] have proposed energy-efficient protocols without considering dense networks. Hence, the achievement of energy efficiency in dense network is a new challenge. ...
Article
Full-text available
As small-sized nodes are deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), efficient energy utilization becomes a fundamental challenge. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions resulting in unnecessary energy usage. To optimize energy consumption and improve network lifetime, error-control strategies are commonly required to manage channel impairments such as noise and fading. Cooperative commu nication is also considered a candidate solution to address the effects of channel fading. Therefore, the energy efficiency of cooperative schemes when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ), and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation, and Multi Relay Cooperation are derived. Our work focuses on achieving energy-optimal communication in WSNs. Through simulations, it is observed that error-control strategies with a cooperative scheme can significantly enhance system performance in terms of energy optimization.
... N. et al. give improvements in modeling two proactive (FSR and OLSR) and one reactive (DSR) routing protocol. Link duration and Path stability considering DSDV and OLSR is addressed by [31]. There are certain parameters on whome network performance is dependent. ...
Article
To ensure seamless communication in wireless multi-hop networks, certain classes of routing protocols are defined. This vary paper, is based upon proactive routing protocols for Wireless multihop networks. Initially, we discuss Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR), precisely followed by mathematical frame work of control overhead regarding proactive natured routing protocols. Finally, extensive simulations are done using NS 2 respecting above mentioned routing protocols covering mobility and scalability issues. Said protocols are compared under mobile and dense environments to conclude our performance analysis.
... coding was developed by CMU/MONARCH group while it was optimized by Samir Das and Mahesh Marina (University of Cincinnati). Coding of DYMOUM by MASIMUM[33] is used for DYMO. ...
Article
Reactive routing protocols are gaining popularity due to their event driven nature day by day. In this vary paper, reactive routing is studied precisely. Route request, route reply and route maintenance phases are modeled with respect to control overhead. Control overhead varies with respect to change in various parameters. Our model calculates these variations as well. Besides modeling, we chose three most favored reactive routing protocols as Ad-Hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Dynamic MANET on Demand (DYMO) for our experiments. We simulated these protocols using ns-2 for a detailed comparison and performance analysis with respect to mobility and scalability issues keeping metrics of throughput, route delay and control over head. Their performances and comparisons are extensively presented in last part of our work.
Chapter
Nowadays an increasing number of portable devices with wireless communication capabilities start to play an important role in our daily lives. People rely on being connected to computer networks where they can access services that empower both their professional and personal life experience, inter-connecting computers, cell-phones, sensors and other common objects that start to offer these type of services. However, existing network infrastructures have not been designed for supporting such a large number of heterogeneous devices and seamless mobility is considered a great challenge. An existing alternative that departs from traditional network infrastructures focuses on the devices’ ability to inter-connect themselves, creating wireless multi-hop networks. In fact, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET) working group, has defined two different routing protocols that explore the capabilities of wireless multi-hop networks by creating an ad-hoc network. In particular, the working group has defined a proactive routing protocol for dense and less dynamic networks with high load of traffic, as well as a reactive routing protocol aiming at tackling sparser networks with higher mobility. However, many other routing protocols and approaches have been proposed in the literature and, bearing in mind the main guidelines from the IETF working group and the challenges posed by mobility and the increasing number of devices, a thorough analysis of important routing protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks will be presented. This analysis will consider the study of works relevant to the development of scalable routing approaches, capable of providing a solution for the current dissemination of wireless-capable devices and need to interconnect them. A complexity comparison of these protocols will also be presented, as well as performance evaluation of the main existing solutions for large-scale MANETs.
Conference Paper
Due to small size of sensor nodes deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), energy utilization is a key issue. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions and hence, result in energy wastage. Error control strategies are usually utilized to accommodate channel impairments like noise and fading in order to optimize energy consumption for network lifetime enhancement. Meanwhile, cooperative communication also emerges to be an appropriate candidate to combat the effects of channel fading. Energy efficiency of cooperative scheme when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, the expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation and Multi Relay Cooperation are also derived. In all, our work is focused towards energy optimal communication in WSNs. Our results show that error control strategies along with the cooperative scheme significantly enhances system performance in the form of energy optimization.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The past few years have seen an increasing interest in the development of vehicular ad hoc networks resulting in many routing protocols proposals. This paper presents the results of a detailed performance evaluation of three of these protocols selected from different categories: geographic routing (i.e., GPSR), geographic opportunistic routing (i.e., GOSR), and trajectory based routing (i.e., SIFT). We used VanetMobiSim/NS-2 simulation environment to compare the protocols performance under different node densities, speed and distance between source and destination nodes in urban traffic scenarios. We further extend SIFT to enable vehicle to infrastructure communications and show that it outperforms the other studied routing protocols for most of the performance metrics used in this paper.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we propose and discuss an optimized link state routing protocol, named OLSR, for mobile wireless networks. The protocol is based on the link state algorithm and it is proactive (or table-driven) in nature. It employs periodic exchange of messages to maintain topology information of the network at each node. OLSR is an optimization over a pure link state protocol as it compacts the size of information sent in the messages, and furthermore, reduces the number of retransmissions to flood these messages in an entire network. For this purpose, the protocol uses the multipoint relaying technique to efficiently and economically flood its control messages. It provides optimal routes in terms of number of hops, which are immediately available when needed. The proposed protocol is best suitable for large and dense ad hoc networks.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, a semi-deterministic propagation model for the prediction of short-term fading statistics in urban mobile cellular systems is presented. The model is based on digital map information and is also used to predict coverage areas. The short-term fading is modelled by the Nakagami distribution, where the two parameters defining the distribution for a local area around the mobile position can be obtained from the available digital map information of the urban area. Computer simulation results and measurement campaigns are compared, showing that the best approximation to the probability density function of the short-term fading in mobile urban channels is a Nakagami distribution
Article
Full-text available
An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of Mobile Hosts without the required intervention of any centralized Access Point. In this paper we present an innovative design for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. The basic idea of the design is to operate each Mobile Host as a specialized router, which periodically advertises its view of the interconnection topology with other Mobile Hosts within the network. This amounts to a new sort of routing protocol. We have investigated modifications to the basic BellmanFord routing mechanisms, as specified by the Routing Information Protocol, making it suitable for a dynamic and self-starting network mechanism as is required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. Our modifications address some of the previous objections to the use of Bellman-Ford, related to the poor looping properties of such algorithms in the face of broken links and the resulting time dependent nature of the interconnection topology describing th...
Article
Problem statement: Route maintenance and re-discovery are expensive i n signaling and computation for routing in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). Hence it was desirable to choose the optimal route during the route selection phase. Approach: In this study, the threshold-based routing protocol β-wt uses the notion of threshold from variable prec ision rough sets. This protocol was used to evaluate routing performance on freeway scenarios in VANETs. A Traffic Generator tool IMPORTANT was used to obtain vehicular movement traces, that are then given as input to the Network Simulator NS2. Results: Results of four performance metrics were got for d ifferent values of the thresholds. The performance of the new protocol was compared with that of the original Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Conclusion: The new protocol performs better than DSR in Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL). The study showed that variations in thresholds do not affect PDR and NRL, while for End to End Delay (EED) and Average Hop Count (AHC), certain values of these thresholds perform much better than other values in this particular VANET application.
Conference Paper
Vehicular traffic congestion in metropolitan cities during disaster is a challenge which presents dire consequences for transporting VIPs, life saving drugs, patients, accident victims in need of immediate medical assistance etc. With better navigation system and real-time traffic congestion updates, the vehicles can overcome delays. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANETs), transmits the real time congestion information to the vehicles from a centralized database to avoid unexpected congestion and follow the shortest path to the destination. In this paper a proposed prototype which can be modified to work for the requirement with different models, such as general traffic prediction and re-routing during emergencies in case of fire, accidents etc. along the route is worked out. IEEE 802.11p which has been introduced exclusively for vehicular environments has been implemented at the Physical and Medium Access Control(MAC) layers of the WAVE protocol stack which was considered for a metropolitan city over an unpredictable high density of vehicles. Evaluation of the performance of IEEE 802.11p, Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment (WAVE) communication standard against IEEE802.11a for the vehicular environment for multiple scenarios has been simulated and the results are encouraging.
Conference Paper
One critical issue for routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) is how to select a stable path that can last longer since mobility may cause radio links to break frequently. In this paper, a link stability prediction model is proposed firstly, it uses the relative motion and the distance between two neighbor nodes to evaluate the mean link duration, which is used to predict link stability. Then a link stability prediction-based routing (LSPR) algorithm is proposed. In LSPR algorithm, the mid-nodes forward RREQs after delay which is decided by the mean link duration predicted. Furthermore a forwarding rule which can reduce the number of RREQs forwarded by receding neighbor nodes is designed. Taking advantage of simulation, LSPR algorithm is compared with AODV routing algorithm and other two stability-based routing algorithms. The simulation results show that LSPR algorithm is better than other three routing algorithms, and can improve route stability and network performance effectively.
Conference Paper
Link stability issues are significant for the route selection process in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A link can be instable due to the random characteristics of the wireless channel, and/or the mobility of nodes. This paper considers instability due to mobility, and proposes a scheme to predict the link stability in mobile scenarios of MANETs. The prediction scheme is based on link connectivity changes and can be performed on the network layer, without the need of low layer data. We assume that the link connectivity follows the continuous-time Markov chain model, and consider the case of non-stationary movements. We propose a method to estimate the transition rates of the link connectivity model. The stability of the link is evaluated based on the transition rates. The prediction scheme is derived analytically and requires no prior information about parameters of the mobility model. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can provide correct prediction in both stationary and non-stationary scenarios.
Article
Problem statement: Route maintenance and re-discovery are expensive in signaling and computation for routing in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs). Hence it was desirable to choose the optimal route during the route selection phase. Approach: In this study, the threshold-based routing protocol β-wt uses the notion of threshold from variable precision rough sets. This protocol was used to evaluate routing performance on freeway scenarios in VANETs. A Traffic Generator tool IMPORTANT was used to obtain vehicular movement traces, that are then given as input to the Network Simulator NS2. Results: Results of four performance metrics were got for different values of the thresholds. The performance of the new protocol was compared with that of the original Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Conclusion: The new protocol performs better than DSR in Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL). The study showed that variations in thresholds do not affect PDR and NRL, while for End to End Delay (EED) and Average Hop Count (AHC), certain values of these thresholds perform much better than other values in this particular VANET application.
Dynamic MANET On-demand (DYMO) Routing draft-ietf-manet-dymo-05
  • I Chakeres
  • C Perkins