44Gbit/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions
A high speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator is proposed based on interleaved PN junctions. This doping profile enabled both high modulation efficiency of V(π)L(π) = 1.5~2.0 V·cm and low doping-induced loss of ~10 dB/cm by applying a relatively low doping concentration of 2 × 10(17) cm(-3). High speed operation up to 40 Gbit/s with 7.01 dB extinction ratio was experimentally demonstrated with a short phase shifter of only 750 μm.
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[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the performance of Si lattice-shifted photonic crystal waveguide (LSPCW) Mach-Zehnder modulators theoretically and experimentally. The LSPCW increases the phase shift in modulator to 2.3 - 2.5 times higher, which allows for size reduction and high performance. On-chip passive loss was reduced to less than 5 dB by optimizing each component. We obtained 25 Gbps clear open eye and 3 dB extinction ratio at a drive voltage of 1.5 – 1.75 V for 200 μm phase shifter with linear p/n junction when we added a modulation loss of 7 dB. This modulation loss was reduced to 0.8 dB, maintaining other performance, by employing interleaved p/n junction and optimizing doping concentrations.
- "Therefore, we fix these parameters in this paper. Other methods considered for larger φ are employing interleaved p/n junction [7, 10, 18, 19, 25] and increasing doping concentration. The former increases the overlap between the depletion layer and waveguide mode. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of the most successful optical modulators in silicon demonstrated in recent years operate via the plasma dispersion effect and are more specifically based upon free carrier depletion in a silicon rib waveguide. In this work we overview the different types of free carrier depletion type optical modulators in silicon. A summary of some recent example devices for each configuration is then presented together with the performance that they have achieved. Finally an insight into some current research trends involving silicon based optical modulators is provided including integration, operation in the mid-infrared wavelength range and application in short and long haul data transmission links.
- "It can be seen that the performance of phase modulators has improved dramatically in recent years. Devices with operation in excess of 40 Gbit/s [25, 33, 41, 45, 48], phase efficiencies below 1 V.cm  , power consumption down to 2 fJ/bit  and loss at 1 dB/mm and below [35, 43, 45] have been demonstrated although not with all these parameters together. Continual improvements in the device performance are still regularly being reported. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Silicon photonic devices and integrated circuits have undergone rapid and significant progresses during the last decade, transitioning from research topics in universities to product development in corporations. Silicon photonics is anticipated to be a disruptive optical technology for data communications, with applications such as intra-chip interconnects, short-reach communications in datacenters and supercomputers, and long-haul optical transmissions. Bell Labs, as the research organization of Alcatel-Lucent, a network system vendor, has an optimal position to identify the full potential of silicon photonics both in the applications and in its technical merits. Additionally it has demonstrated novel and improved high-performance optical devices, and implemented multi-function photonic integrated circuits to fulfill various communication applications. In this paper, we review our silicon photonic programs and main achievements during recent years. For devices, we review highperformance single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators, hybrid silicon/III-V lasers and silicon nitrideassisted polarization rotators. For photonic circuits, we review silicon/silicon nitride integration platforms to implement wavelength-division multiplexing receivers and transmitters. In addition, we show silicon photonic circuits are well suited for dual-polarization optical coherent transmitters and receivers, geared for advanced modulation formats. We also discuss various applications in the field of communication which may benefit from implementation in silicon photonics.
- "However, most of the reported high-bandwidth silicon carrier-depletion MZMs were demonstrated by using devices with rather short phase shifters with an extremely high or impractical V π . A typical V π for > 25 Gb/s operation is larger than 7 V353637383940 . Compared with LiNbO 3 or InP modulators where a V π of 2–3 V can be achieved, the V π of silicon MZMs is much higher. "