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Role of Earthworms in Vermitechnology



2012) Role of Earthworms in Vermitechnology. Journal of Agricultural Technology 8(2): 405-415. Earthworms are essential detritus feeders that play a vital role in the process of decomposition of organic matter and soil metabolism. They are referred to as indicators of soil health. The complex process of partial breakdown of organic matter and mixing with mucous and gut microbial flora in the form of earthworm cast results in the enhancement of soil fertility status. They influence the soil by formation of drilosphere contributing towards soil porosity.The beneficial role of earthworm is very important for plant growth and productivity. The significance of earthworm has resulted in development of vermitechnology that involves the use of surface and subsurface local varieties of earthworms in composting and soil management. Thus the organic waste can be excellently recycled by vermicomposting process thereby resulting in the production of vermicompost and vermiwash that have been proved to be essential component in plant growth and productivity.
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012, Vol. 8(2): 403-415
Role of Earthworms in Vermitechnology
A.A. Ansari1* and S.A. Ismail2
1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kebbi State University of Science and
Technology, Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria, 2Managing Director, Ecoscience Research
Foundation, 98, Baaz Nagar, 3/621 East Coast Road, Chennai, India
A.A. Ansari and S.A. Ismail (2012) Role of Earthworms in Vermitechnology. Journal of
Agricultural Technology 8(2): 405-415.
Earthworms are essential detritus feeders that play a vital role in the process of decomposition
of organic matter and soil metabolism. They are referred to as indicators of soil health. The
complex process of partial breakdown of organic matter and mixing with mucous and gut
microbial flora in the form of earthworm cast results in the enhancement of soil fertility status.
They influence the soil by formation of drilosphere contributing towards soil porosity.The
beneficial role of earthworm is very important for plant growth and productivity. The
significance of earthworm has resulted in development of vermitechnology that involves the
use of surface and subsurface local varieties of earthworms in composting and soil
management. Thus the organic waste can be excellently recycled by vermicomposting process
thereby resulting in the production of vermicompost and vermiwash that have been proved to
be essential component in plant growth and productivity.
Key words: Earthworms, Soil fertility, Vermitechnology, Vermicomposting, Vermiwash,
Vermicast, Plant growth
Earthworms are terrestrial invertebrates belonging to the Order
Oligochaeta, Class Chaetopoda, Phylum Annelida, which have originated about
600 million years ago, during the pre-Cambrian era (Piearce et al., 1990).
Earthworms occur in diverse habitat, exhibiting effective activity, by bringing
about physical and chemical changes in the soil leading to improvement in soil
fertility. An approach towards good soil management, with an emphasis on the
role of soil dwellers like earthworms, in soil fertility, is very important in
maintaining balance in an ecosystem (Shuster et al., 2000). The role of
earthworms in soil formation and soil fertility is well documented and
recognised (Darwin, 1881; Edwards et al., 1995; Kale, 1998; Lalitha et al.,
* Corresponding author: A.A. Ansari; e-mail:
Journal of Agricultural Technology
2012 Vol. 8(2): 403-415
Available online
ISSN 1686-9141
2000). The main activity of earthworms involves the ingestion of soil, mixing
of different soil components and production of surface and sub surface castings
thereby converting organic matter into soil humus (Jairajpuri, 1993).
Earthworms play an important role in the decomposition of organic matter and
soil metabolism through feeding, fragmentation, aeration, turnover and
dispersion (Shuster et al., 2000).
Earthworms were referred by Aristotle as “the intestines of earth and the
restoring agents of soil fertility” (Shipley, 1970). They are biological indicators
of soil quality (Ismail, 2005), as a good population of earthworms indicates the
presence of a large population of bacteria, viruses, fungi, insects, spiders and
other organisms and thus a healthy soil (Lachnicht and Hendrix, 2001). The
role of earthworms in the recycling of nutrients, soil structure, soil productivity
and agriculture, and their application in environment and organic waste
management is well understood (Edwards et al., 1995; Tomlin et al., 1995;
Shuster et al., 2000; Ansari and Ismail, 2001a,b; Ismail, 2005; Ansari and
Ismail, 2008; Ansari and Sukhraj, 2010).
Ecological strategies of earthworms
Lee (1985) recognised three main ecological groups of earthworms,
based on the soil horizons in which the earthworms were commonly found i.e.,
litter, topsoil and sub soil. Bouché (1971, 1977), also recognised three major
groups based on ecological strategies: the epigeics (Épigés), anecics
(Anéciques) and endogeics (Éndogés). Epigeic earthworms live on the soil
surface and are litter feeders. Anecic earthworms are topsoil species, which
predominantly form vertical burrows in the soil, feeding on the leaf litter mixed
with the soil. Endogeic earthworms preferably make horizontal burrows and
consume more soil than epigeic or anecic species, deriving their nourishment
from humus.
Distribution of earthworms
Earthworms occur all over the world, but are rare in areas under constant
snow and ice, mountain ranges and areas almost entirely lacking in soil and
vegetation (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). Some species are widely distributed,
which are called peregrine, whereas others, that are not able to spread
successfully to other areas, are termed as endemic (Edwards and Lofty, 1972).
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012, Vol. 8(2): 403-415
Factors affecting earthworm distribution
The distribution of earthworms in soil is affected by physical and
chemical characters of the soil, such as temperature, pH, moisture, organic
matter and soil texture (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996).
The activity, metabolism, growth, respiration and reproduction of
earthworms are all influenced greatly by temperature (Edwards and Bohlen,
pH is a vital factor that determines the distribution of earthworms as they
are sensitive to the hydrogen ion concentration (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996;
Chalasani et al., 1998). pH and factors related to pH influence the distribution
and abundance of earthworms in soil (Staaf, 1987). Several workers have stated
that most species of earthworms prefer soils with a neutral pH (Jairajpuri, 1993;
Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). There is a significant positive correlation between
pH and the seasonal abundance of juveniles and young adults (Reddy and
Pasha, 1993).
Prevention of water loss is a major factor in earthworm survival as water
constitutes 75-90% of the body weight of earthworms (Grant, 1955). However,
they have considerable ability to survive adverse moisture conditions, either by
moving to a region with more moisture (Valle et al., 1997) or by means of
aestivation (Baker et al., 1992). Availability of soil moisture determines
earthworm activity as earthworm species have different moisture requirements
in different regions of the world (Zaller and Arnone, 1999). Soil moisture also
influences the number and biomass of earthworms (Olson, 1928; el–Duweini
and Ghabbour, 1965; Wood, 1974).
Organic matter
The distribution of earthworms is greatly influenced by the distribution of
organic matter. Soils that are poor in organic matter do not usually support
large numbers of earthworms (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). Several workers
have reported a strong positive correlation between earthworm number and
biomass and the organic matter content of the soil (Doube et al., 1997; Ismail,
Soil texture
Soil texture influences earthworm populations due to its effect on other
properties, such as soil moisture relationships, nutrient status and cation
exchange capacity, all of which have important influences on earthworm
populations (Lavelle, 1992).
Effect of earthworms on soil quality
Earthworms, which improve soil productivity and fertility (Edwards et
al., 1995), have a critical influence on soil structure. Earthworms bring about
physical, chemical and biological changes in the soil through their activities and
thus are recognised as soil managers (Ismail, 2005).
Effects on physical properties of soil
Soil structure is greatly influenced by two major activities of earthworms:
Ingestion of soil, partial breakdown of organic matter, intimate mixing of these
fractions and ejection of this material as surface or subsurface casts. Burrowing
through the soil and bringing subsoil to the surface. During these processes,
earthworms contribute to the formation of soil aggregates, improvement in soil
aeration and porosity (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). Earthworms contribute to
soil aggregation mainly through the production of casts, although earthworm
burrows can also contribute to aggregate stability since they are often lined with
oriented clays and humic materials (Lachnicht and Hendrix, 2001). Most
workers have agreed that earthworm casts contains more water-stable
aggregates than the surrounding soil and by their activity influence both the
drainage of water from soil and the moisture holding capacity of soil, both of
which are important factors for plant productivity (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996;
Lachnicht and Hendrix, 2001).
Effect on chemical properties of soil
Earthworms bring about mineralisation of organic matter and thereby
release the nutrients in available forms that can be taken up by the plants
(Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). Organic matter that passes through the earthworm
gut is egested in their casts, which is broken down into much finer particles, so
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012, Vol. 8(2): 403-415
that a greater surface area of the organic matter is exposed to microbial
decomposition (Martin, 1991). Earthworms have major influences on the
nutrient cycling process in many ecosystems (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996).
These are usually based on four scales (Lavelle and Martin, 1992), during
transit through the earthworm gut, in freshly deposited earthworm casts, in
aging casts, and during the long-term genesis of the whole soil profile.
Earthworms contribute nutrients in the form of nitrogenous wastes
(Ismail, 2005). Their casts have higher base-exchangeable bases, phosphorus,
exchangeable potassium and manganese and total exchangeable calcium.
Earthworms favour nitrification since they increase bacterial population and
soil aeration. The most important effect of earthworms may be the stimulation
of microbial activity in casts that enhances the transformation of soluble
nitrogen into microbial protein thereby preventing their loss through leaching to
the lower horizons of the soil. C: N ratios of casts are lower than that of the
surrounding soil (Bouché, 1983). Lee (1983) summarised the influence of
earthworms on soil nitrogen and nitrogen cycling. According to him,
nitrogenous products of earthworm metabolism are returned to the soil through
casts, urine, mucoproteins and dead tissues of earthworms.
Earthworms and microorganisms
There is a complex inter-relationship between earthworms and
microorganisms. Most of the species of microorganisms that occur in the
alimentary canal of earthworms are the same as those in the soils in which the
earthworms live. The microbial population in earthworm casts is greatly
increased compared with the surrounding soil (Haynes et al., 1999). Earthworm
casts usually have a greater population of fungi, actinomycetes and bacteria and
higher enzyme activity than the surrounding soil (Lachnicht and Hendrix,
2001). Microbial activity in earthworm casts may have an important effect on
soil crumb structure by increasing the stability of the worm-cast-soil relative to
that of the surrounding soil (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996). Earthworms are very
important in inoculating soils with microorganisms. Many microorganisms in
the soil are in a dormant stage with low metabolic activity, awaiting suitable
conditions like the earthworm gut (Lachnicht and Hendrix, 2001) or mucus
(Lavelle et al., 1983) to become active. Earthworms have been shown to
increase the overall microbial respiration in soil, thereby enhancing microbial
degradation of organic matter.
Earthworms and plant growth
Earthworms prepare the ground in an excellent manner for the growth of
plants (Darwin, 1881). Darwin’s findings that earthworms play a beneficial role
in soil fertility that is important for plant growth have been acknowledged by
many workers (Lee and Foster, 1991; Alban and Berry, 1994; Nooren et al.,
1995; Decaens et al., 1999). Earthworms have beneficial effects on soil and
many workers have attempted to demonstrate that these effects increase plant
growth and yields of crops (Decaens et al., 1999; Lalitha et al., 2000).
Earthworms release substances beneficial to plant growth like auxins and
cytokinins (Krishnamoorthy and Vajranabhaiah, 1986). The beneficial effect of
earthworms on plant growth may be due to several reasons apart from the
presence of macronutrients and micronutrients in vermicast and in their
secretions in considerable quantities (Lalitha et al., 2000; Ismail, 2005).
Reports suggest that certain metabolites produced by earthworms may be
responsible for stimulating plant growth.
Earthworms and land reclamation
The success of land reclamation by conventional techniques is often
limited by poor soil structure and low inherent soil fertility, and even in
productive soils, a marked deterioration in the botanical composition of the
sward can occur within a number of years (Hoogerkamp et al., 1983). A
number of studies indicate that earthworms play an important part in improving
reclaimed soils (Boyle et al., 1997; Butt, 1991). Some experiments on
improving impoverished soils by stimulating earthworm populations have been
reported (Butt et al., 1997). A successful introduction of earthworms in
reclaimable soil could be achieved by overcoming factors like unfavorable
moisture conditions, excessive fluctuation of surface temperature and lack of
suitable food (Satchell, 1983).
Earthworms and organic solid waste management
In recent years, disposal of organic wastes from various sources like
domestic, agriculture and industrial has caused serious environmental hazards
and economic problems. Burning of organic wastes contributes tremendously to
environmental pollution thus, leading to polluted air, water and land. This
process also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a main
contributor to global warming together with dust particles. Burning also
destroys the soil organic matter content, kills the microbial population and
affects the physical properties of the soil (Livan and Thompson, 1997). It has
been demonstrated that earthworms can process household garbage, city refuse,
sewage sludge and waste from paper, wood and food industries (Kale et al.,
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012, Vol. 8(2): 403-415
1982; Senapati and Dash, 1982; Muyima et al., 1994; Edwards and Bohlen,
1996; Ismail, 2005). In tropical and subtropical conditions Eudrilus eugeniae
and Perionyx excavatus are the best vermicomposting earthworms for organic
solid waste management (Kale, 1998). The use of earthworms in composting
process decreases the time of stabilisation of the waste and produces an
efficient bio-product, i.e., vermicompost.
Organic farming system is gaining increased attention for its emphasis on
food quality and soil health. Vermicompost and vermiculture associated with
other biological inputs have been actually used to grow vegetables and other
crops successfully and have been found to be economical and productive
(Ismail, 2005; Ansari and Ismail, 2008; Ansari and Jaikishun, 2011). In this
regard, recycling of organic waste is feasible to produce useful organic manure
for agricultural application. Compost is becoming an important aspect in the
quest to increase productivity of food in an environmentally friendly way.
Compost is becoming an important aspect in the quest to increase productivity
of food in an environmentally friendly way. Vermicomposting offers a solution
to tonnes of organic agro-wastes that are being burned by farmers and to
recycle and reuse these refuse to promote our agricultural development in more
efficient, economical and environmentally friendly manner. Both the sugar and
rice industries burn their wastes thereby, contributing tremendously to
environmental pollution thus, leading to polluted air, water and land. This
process also releases large amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, a main
contributor to global warming together with dust particles. Burning also
destroys the soil organic matter content, kills the microbial population and
affects the physical properties of the soil (Livan and Thompson, 1997).
Therefore organic farming helps to provide many advantages such as; eliminate
the use of chemicals in the form of fertilizers/pesticides, recycle and regenerate
waste into wealth; improve soil, plant, animal and human health; and creating
an ecofriendly, sustainable and economical bio-system models (Ansari and
Ismail, 2001a, b).
Vermitechnology is the use of surface and subsurface local varieties of
earthworm in composting and management of soil (Ismail, 2005). Darwin
(1881) has made their activities the object of a careful study and concluded that
‘it may be doubted if there are any other animals which have played such an
important part in the history of the world as these lowly organized creatures’. It
has been recognized that the work of earthworms is of tremendous agricultural
importance. Earthworms along with other animals have played an important
role in regulating soil processes, maintaining soil fertility and in bringing about
nutrient cycling (Ismail, 1997). Earthworms have a critical influence on soil
structure, forming aggregates and improving the physical conditions for plant
growth and nutrient uptake. They also improve soil fertility by accelerating
decomposition of plant litter and organic matter and, consequently, releasing
nutrients in the form that are available for uptake by plants.
Vermicomposting is the biological degradation and stabilization of
organic waste by earthworms and microorganisms to form vermicompost. This
is an essential part in organic farming today. It can be easily prepared, has
excellent properties, and is harmless to plants. The earthworms fragment the
organic waste substrates, stimulate microbial activity greatly and increase rates
of mineralization. These rapidly convert the waste into humus-like substances
with finer structure than thermophilic composts but possessing a greater and
more diverse microbial activity. Vermicompost being a stable fine granular
organic matter, when added to clay soil loosens the soil and improves the
passage for the entry of air. The mucus associated with the cast being
hydroscopic absorbs water and prevents water logging and improves water-
holding capacity. The organic carbon in vermicompost releases the nutrients
slowly and steadily into the system and enables the plant to absorb these
nutrients. The soil enriched with vermincompost provides additional substances
that are not found in chemical fertilizers (Kale, 1998). Vermicomposting offers
a solution to tonnes of organic agro-wastes that are being burned by farmers
and to recycle and reuse these refuse to promote our agricultural development
in more efficient, economical and environmentally friendly manner. The role of
earthworms in organic solid waste management has been well established since
first highlighted by Darwin (1881) and the technology has been improvised to
process the waste to produce an efficient bio-product vermicompost (Kale et
al., 1982; Ismail, 1993, Ismail, 2005). Epigeic earthworms like Perionyx
excavatus, Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Eudrilus eugeniae are used
for vermicomposting but the local species like Perionyx excavatus has proved
efficient composting earthworms in tropical or sub-tropical conditions (Ismail,
1993; Kale, 1998). The method of vermicomposting involving a combination of
local epigeic and anecic species of earthworms (Perionyx excavatus and
Lampito mauritii) is called Vermitech (Ismail, 1993; Ismail, 2005). The
compost prepared through the application of earthworms is called
vermicompost and the technology of using local species of earthworms for
culture or composting has been called Vermitech (Ismail, 1993). Vermicompost
is usually a finely divided peat-like material with excellent structure, porosity,
aeration, drainage and moisture holding capacity (Edwards, 1982, 1988). The
Journal of Agricultural Technology 2012, Vol. 8(2): 403-415
nutrient content of vermicompost greatly depends on the input material. It
usually contains higher levels of most of the mineral elements, which are in
available forms than the parent material (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996).
Vermicompost improves the physical, chemical and biological properties
of soil (Kale, 1998). There is a good evidence that vermicompost promotes
growth of plants (Lalitha et al., 2000) and it has been found to have a
favourable influence on all yield parameters of crops like wheat, paddy and
sugarcane (Ismail, 2005). Vermiculture is the culture of earthworms and
vermicast is the fecal matter released by the earthworms (Ismail, 2005). Many
agricultural industries use compost, cattle dung and other animal excreta to
grow plants. In today’s society, we are faced with the dilemma of getting rid of
waste from our industries, household etc. In order for us to practice effective
waste management we can utilize the technology of vermicomposting to
effectively manage our waste. This process allows us to compost the degradable
materials and at the same time utilize the products obtained after composting to
enhance crop production and eliminate the use of chemical fertilizers. As
indicated by Ansari and Ismail (2001), the application of chemical fertilizers
over a period has resulted in poor soil health, reduction in produce, and increase
in incidences of pest and disease and environmental pollution. In order to cope
with these trenchant problems, the vermin-technology has become the most
suitable remedial device (Edwards and Bohlen, 1996; Kumar, 2005).
Vermiwash is a liquid that is collected after the passage of water through
a column of worm action and is very useful as a foliar spray. It is a collection of
excretory products and mucus secretion of earthworms along with
micronutrients from the soil organic molecules. These are transported to the
leaf, shoots and other parts of the plants in the natural ecosystem. Vermiwash,
if collected properly, is a clear and transparent, pale yellow coloured fluid
(Ismail, 1997). Vermiwash, a foliar spray, is a liquid fertilizer collected after
the passage of water through a column of worm activation. It is a collection of
excretory and secretory products of earthworms, along with major
micronutrients of the soil and soil organic molecules that are useful for plants
(Ismail, 1997). Vermiwash seems to possess an inherent property of acting not
only as a fertilizer but also as a mild biocide (Pramoth, 1995).
Environmental Hazards are compounded by accumulation of organic
waste from different sources like domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes
that can be recycled by improvised and simple technologies. Vermicompost
could be effectively used for the cultivation of many crops and vegetables,
which could be a step towards sustainable organic farming. Such technologies
in organic waste management would lead to zero waste techno farms without
the organic waste being wasted and burned rather then would result in recycling
and reutilization of precious organic waste bringing about bioconservation and
biovitalization of natural resources.
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(Published in March 2012)
... Science has proven that vermicompost is a miracle plant growth booster Guerrero 2010). Ansari and Ismail (2012) determined that P2O5 is made up of 19.58% phosphorous and 7.37% nitrogen in worm's vermicast. The microbial population of N2-fxing bacteria and actinomycetes increases when vermicompost is used. ...
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A field study entitled "Effect of vermicompost on physico-chemical properties of soil and performance on okra [Abelmoschus esculentus]" was carried out in the summer of 2022 at the Horticulture Farm of the ITM University in Gwalior. In a randomized block design, the trial included 7 treatment combinations (@control, RDF@100%, V.C@100%, RDF@50%+V.C@50%, RDF@25%+V.C@75%, RDF@50%+V.C@100%, and RDF@100%+V.C@50%) that were replicated three times. Okra variety 1236HY was selected as the test crop. According to the observations, application T6 (RDF@50%+V.C@100%) significantly (P 0.05) enhanced the levels of soil organic carbon, N, P, and K in comparison to control plots. Vermicompost-treated soils exhibited a significantly lower pH than untreated plots. The EC of the soil decreased as a result of the addition of vermicompost. T6 (RDF@50%+V.C@100%) soil achieved better physical characteristics as bulk density, porosity, and moisture (%). Furthermore, the application of T6 (RDF@50%+V.C@100%) increased plant height, leaf count, fruit count, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit yield per plot, fruit yield per plant, and fruit yield per hectare. The T6 (RDF@50%+V.C@100%) application of vermicompost and inorganic fertilisers showed to be the most effective treatment combination in terms of fruit yield. Significantly, the application of T6 (RDF@50%+V.C@100%) produced the highest net returns, whereas the application of T4 (RDF@50%+V.C@50%) produced the highest BC ratio
... This repeated for the remaining two weeks. Vermiwash was then collected through the tap after two weeks (Ansari, 2012 and Ismail). ...
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Non-circulating hydroponic systems are a type of soilless production system that has been found to be extremely productive, low-cost, water, land efficient, and well-suited to avoid fertilizer leaching and groundwater contamination. The experiment was conducted to study the effect of liquid organic nutrient solutions on Green Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivation in non-circulating hydroponic system. The experiment was laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with seven treatments having fifteen replicates. The treatments were recommended inorganic fertilizer application (T1), ½ doses of Albert’s solution with 0.5% vermiwash (T2), 1% vermiwash (T3), 1.5% vermiwash (T4), 0.5% vegetable waste solution (T5), 1% vegetable waste solution (T6), 1.5% vegetable waste solution (T7) was used as media. The results revealed that plant height, number of leaves and branches per plant, leaf area, dry weight of leaves and length of pods were significantly (P<0.05) varied at 6th week after planting and it was high in T5. However, number of pods per plant, girth of pods, fresh and dry weight of pods and yield were high in T2 at 3rd picking while yield at 1st and 2nd picking were high in T5. This result suggests that ½ doses of Albert’s solution with 0.5% vegetable waste solution (T5) and ½ doses of Albert’s solution with 0.5% vermiwash (T2) would be the potential source of plant nutrients for sustainable crop production of bean in Non-circulating Hydroponic system.
... In vermitechnology, surface and subsurface earthworm varieties are used (Ansari and Ismail 2012). Waste materials can be broken down into vermicompost by earthworms. ...
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A pot experiment was conducted in Soil, Water and Environment department, University of Dhaka, during the late rabi season for 60 days with mung bean plants. The study was cnducted to evaluate the interactive effects of vermicompost and NPK fertilizers on mung bean plants' growth, yield, nutrient and protein content. The trial was laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD) followed by three replications, having ten treatments, including control. The first four treatments contained vermicompost mixed with soil at the rate of 2, 4, 6, and 8 ton ha-1. The other four treatments contained 50% of N 12 P 22 K 10 kg ha-1 , while a single treatment possesses N 25 P 45 K 20 kg ha-1. The growth and yield contributing parameters, viz. plant height (30 cm), leaf number (18 plant-1), leaf area (152 cm 2), branch number (4 plant-1), weight of seed (4.45 g), yield of fresh (17.81 g) and dry (10.32 g) mung bean plant was found maximum with T 10 (vermicompost 8 ton ha-1 + N 12 P 22 K 10 kg ha-1). The mineral nutrient content N (4.69%), P (0.08%) and K (0.65%) attained the highest in the harvested seed in the same T 10. The protein content (29.32%) was also found highest in T 10. On the basis of the findings, it may be recommended to use VC 8 ton ha-1 plus N 12 P 22 K 10 kg ha-1 to cultivate the mung bean in the context of Bangladesh.
... Phân trùn quế (PTQ) là một loại phân hữu cơ 100% được tạo thành từ phân trùn nguyên chất, giàu chất dinh dưỡng (Ramnarain et al., 2019). Phân trùn quế kích thích ảnh hưởng đến hoạt động của vi sinh vật trong đất, làm tăng lượng oxy sẵn có, duy trì nhiệt độ bình thường của đất, tăng độ xốp của đất và khả năng thẩm thấu của nước, cải thiện hàm lượng dinh dưỡng và tăng sinh trưởng, năng suất và chất lượng của cây trồng (Chaoui et al., 2003;Arora et al., 2011;Ansari & Ismail, 2012). Tao et al. (2010) cho rằng có thể được sử dụng để cải tạo đất mặn. ...
Nghiên cứu được tiến hành nhằm xác định ảnh hưởng của các mức độ mặn (0, 1, 2 và 3‰) đến khả năng sinh trưởng, sinh lý của cây đậu cove giai đoạn cây con và ảnh hưởng của liều lượng phân trùn quế (0, 10, 20 và 30 tấn/ha) đến sự sinh trưởng, năng suất và chất lượng đậu cove lùn trong điều kiện tưới mặn nhân tạo giai đoạn ra hoa. Kết quả thí nghiệm ghi nhận cây đậu cove giai đoạn cây con sinh trưởng tốt ở mức độ mặn 2‰ và độ mặn 3‰ làm ảnh hưởng đến sự phát triển chiều cao cây, chiều dài rễ, sinh khối cây và sinh khối rễ. Tưới mặn 3‰ giai đoạn ra hoa làm giảm chất lượng trái, giảm 18,2% năng suất so với không tưới mặn. Bón 30 tấn/ha phân trùn quế làm tăng năng suất 14,6% so với nghiệm thức chỉ bón phân NPK. Kết quả ghi nhận năng suất đậu cove lùn bón 20 tấn và 30 tấn/ha phân trùn quế khác biệt không có ý nghĩa thống kê (p>0,05). Vì vậy, sử dụng liều lượng 20 tấn/ha phân trùn quế cho cây đậu cove giúp tiết kiệm chi phí trong sản xuất.
... and Saini, 2015;Kloas, et al., 2015). Vermiponics is a technique in which the earthworms are used as a substrate to improve microbial activity along with the decomposition process, the process not only improves agricultural productivity but results in reducing the chemical footprints (Dominguez & Edwards, 1997;Katheem, Mahamad, Shlrene, et al., 2015;Ansari and Ismail, 2012). Finally, bioponics is a systematic method of hydroponic growing in which the vegetables and plants are grown in an organic manner that utilises organic fertilizer, microbes, bacteria, and fungus instead of any chemical composition. ...
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The world we live in is evolving day to day. The economy within the developing and the developed nations are chaotic in nature. Agricultural practices, innovations, and procedures that were used in the past are now being phased out. Agricultural evolution, whether directly or indirectly, aids in the alleviation of poverty on a larger scale. Poverty alleviation, as a sustainable development goal, is a burning issue in most developing countries. Upon considering the developing nations, the setbacks in the evolution of technological innovation in agriculture and the rapid progress in poverty are caused by many chaotic forms such as war, natural disasters, political volatility, etc. The main aim of this research is to assess the literature reviews on Agricultural Innovation and Poverty in a global context. To succeed in this goal, the author conducts a systematic literature review in this paper, addressing all important keywords associated with agricultural innovation and poverty from a macro perspective. In conclusion, technological schemes within agricultural innovation are limited across developing countries, despite the fact that it is a critical subject. Overall, there is a deficiency in the availability of a comprehensive analysis of literature with sufficient recognition to assist researchers in gaining an overview of technological innovation in agriculture and poverty alleviation. The paper expressly recognizes the established flaws and emphasizes the importance of new discovery channels for future study.
... Vermicomposting involves the biological degradation of organic waste by earthworms to form vermicast by Edwards and Burrows [7]. Studies by Ansari and Ismail [8] have shown that vermicast produced by worms contains 7.37% nitrogen and 19.58% P 2 O 5 . ...
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A field experiment was conducted during summer season of 2022 to study the influence of various organic amendments on various attributes of growth and yield of mung bean. The experiment was laid out in four replications with 11 treatments in Randomized Block design (RBD). The results revealed that the highest plant height (52.8 cm), number of leaves per plant (35.3), number of branches per plant(11.1), chlorophyll content using SPAD (58.4), leaf area index (1.85) was recorded from the combined application of T11= Recommended dose of fertilizers(RDF) + Vermicompost + Jeevamrutam + Rhizobium. Similarly for yield attributes the highest number of pods per plant (31.35), pod's length (11.05 cm), number of grains per pods (12.2), test weight (45.7 g) , grain yield (1242.5 kg ha-1), straw yield (2181.1 kg ha-1), biological yield (3405.3 kg ha-1) and harvest index (36%) was recorded in combined application of same treatment T11. The result showed that combined application of organic manures had positive effects on growth and yield parameters of mung bean.
... The growth of gram-negative bacteria was significantly improved after vermicompost treatment [114]. Vermicompost (VC) stimulates microbes to fix nitrogen into mucoprotein, which prevents nitrogen leaching into the soil and reduces the C/N ratio [115]. A study investigating the combined effect of vermicompost and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on tomato and spinach quality was conducted by Song et al. [116]. ...
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Extensive application of agrochemicals for crop production and protection has negatively affected soil health, crop productivity, and the environment. Organic amendments have been proposed as an efficient alternative for enhancing soil and plant health. Vermicompost amendment offers a sustainable approach to plant nutrition, improving soil health and fertility. This review aims to provide key insights into the potential of vermicompost to boost crop production and protect crops from biotic and abiotic stresses without harming the environment. The role played by earthworms in improving organic matter decomposition, soil fertility, and soil microorganisms' activity is also discussed here. The value of vermicompost is its promotion of plant growth based on its enrichment with all essential nutrients, beneficial microbes, and plant growth hormones. This review analyzes how vermicompost regulates plant growth and its role in mitigating abiotic stresses such as soil salinity and drought, as well as biotic stresses such as diseases and insect pests attack. The beneficial effects of hormones and humic substances present in vermicompost are also discussed in this review. In fact, due to its properties, vermicompost can be a good substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides and its usage could contribute to producing healthy, contaminant-free food for the growing population without negatively affecting the environment.
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Unbalanced use of fertilizers has deteriorated soil health and caused pollution at large scale. The different doses of household waste based vermicompost and fertilizer combination and its effect on soil fertility with microbial diversity analysis as well as its quanti-fication was primary focus of this research with using Completely Randomized Design with two factors. Rice crop in pot culture was taken at experimental station, department of soil science, Dr RPCAU, Pusa in kharif, 2018. The higher dose of vermicompost and RDF fertilizer i.e., vermicompost (3.75t ha-1) + 100% Recommended Dose of Fertilizer elevated the higher nutrient content in soil of pot culture with rice crop in pots. The nutrients content increased from tillering to grain filling stage and decreased from that particular stage to post harvest condition in pot culture soil and it might be due to the exhaustion of nutrients by crop plants and higher amount of organic matter present in soil provided the suitable habitat for growth and proliferation of functional indicator microbes i.e., Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, starch and cellulose hydrolyzing microbes from initial crop growth to post harvest condition soil in pot culture.
Remediation of metal and metal(oid) contaminated surfaces are very critical for the environment. Extensive use of chemicals, mining, and industrial operations including developmental activities deplete soil quality over time. Several workers developed a number of remedial techniques. However, bio-based remediation was regarded as the safest option so far. Among all available bio-remediation techniques, vermi-remediation was found to be the best suitable, not only in terms of time and cost-effectiveness, but also long-term impact on the soil ecosystem. Here, in this review, we have summarized works done over the years on vermi-remediation. We tried to find out the knowledge gap in the existing works in order to establish a full-proof system in the near future.