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End of life vehicles recovery: Process description, its impact and direction of research

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End of life vehicles recovery: Process description, its impact and direction of research

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In recent years, environmental issues and sustainability have become one of the main items of debate in the automotive industries. In relation to that, most countries have set a new legislation because the situation is getting worse especially in the developed country. The legislation forces all the vehicle manufacturers to accept responsibility for the complete life cycle of vehicles. In another words, the vehicle manufacturers are forced by law to take back and recycle their products in order to support product stewardship and to enforce environmentally friendly product life cycles. This paper provides a snapshot of current practices in vehicle recovery in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia together with legislation, stakeholders and markets influencing in industry. The concepts of sustainable development and end-of-life vehicle recovery are discussed. The paper then outlines the factors that must instigate the longer-term changes required to more readily support the core themes of the end-of-life vehicle recovery.
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Jurnal Mekanikal
June 2006, No. 21, 40 - 52
40
END OF LIFE VEHICLES RECOVERY: PROCESS DESCRIPTION,
ITS IMPACT AND DIRECTION OF RESEARCH
Muhamad Zameri b. Mat Saman
Department of Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
81310 UTM, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia
Phone: +6-07-5534666, Fax: +6-07-5566159
E-mail: zameri@fkm.utm.my
Gordon N. Blount
Emeritus Professor of Engineering Design
School of Engineering and Computing
Coventry University, UK
ABSTRACT
In recent years, environmental issues and sustainability have become one of the main
items of debate in the automotive industries. In relation to that, most countries have set a
new legislation because the situation is getting worse especially in the developed country.
The legislation forces all the vehicle manufacturers to accept responsibility for the
complete life cycle of vehicles. In another words, the vehicle manufacturers are forced by
law to take back and recycle their products in order to support product stewardship and to
enforce environmentally friendly product life cycles. This paper provides a snapshot of
current practices in vehicle recovery in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia together with
legislation, stakeholders and markets influencing in industry. The concepts of sustainable
development and end-of-life vehicle recovery are discussed. The paper then outlines the
factors that must instigate the longer-term changes required to more readily support the
core themes of the end-of-life vehicle recovery.
Key Words: Vehicle Recovery, End-of-Life Vehicle Directive, Vehicle Design and
Development Process, Vehicle Industries, Recycling Aspects
1.0 INTRODUCTION
The concept of sustainable development is not easy to define and explain because
the definition depends on the context in which the concept is used. Jonsson (1996)
believes that the available knowledge at a certain time affects the way sustainable
development is defined. Generally its can be defined as a development that meets
the needs of the present generations to meet their own needs. There are several
issues that have to be considered in developing the sustainable concept. According
to the Brundtland Report, sustainable development should be focussed on minimal
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
41
use of non-renewable resources, minimal emission of pollutants and protection of
the fauna and the flora of the earth (Welford, 1995).
Based on that, with the rapid development of the sustainable concept,
recycling industries have become more popular. In relation to this, automotive
recyclers have been leaders since the early days of the development of the
vehicle. They have played a major role in the ecological disposal of end of life
vehicles (ELVs), primarily because of the financial benefits involved. Besides the
reclaiming of reusable components through the recycling of ELVs, the need for
landfill is reduced.
As an example, in the European Countries (EU), automotive recycling started
to become established when abandoned vehicles were beginning to cause major
problems. This happened in the 1960s (Sorge, 1994). This problem was solved
considerably when the crusher machine was developed. The function of this
machine is to crush the hulk of a vehicle to enable the metal content to be
recovered. The other components such as plastic and other non metallic parts
were burnt out.
Because of the increasing number of vehicles on the road, used spare parts
were becoming increasingly popular. According to Johnson (2002), every year in
the EU, some 15 million vehicles reach the end of their useful life. Some die
prematurely due to accidents but some expire from old age, when they fail to pass
inspection or require uneconomic repair. In 1960s, entrepreneurs began to set up
automotive recycling businesses because it was seen as value for money (Field,
1994). At the beginning, these were mainly small family businesses. In this
process, the first step was to remove the useful parts from the vehicle. Once these
were removed, the interior was burned out and the hulk was either crushed on site
or sold to a scrap metal merchant to be crushed. The crushed steel hulks were
sold to the steel industry to be recycled. The other materials such as copper, lead
and aluminium were removed from the vehicle and sold for recycling.
When the several legislative acts such as clean air, environment etc. were
introduced, these led to the development of shredding process. According to
Wright et al. (1998), the first shredder operated in the United Kingdom (UK) in
the 1970s. The material from the shredder travels through a series of magnetic
and air separators using a conveyor system. The shredder scrap is separated into
three fractions ferrous metals (steel and cast iron), nonferrous metals (aluminium,
copper, lead etc.) and non metallic (plastics, fluid, glass, dirt and other
contaminants known as Automotive Shredder Residue-ASR). Currently, with the
introduction of the Directive on ELVs, several recycling companies have grown
considerably.
In the future, automotive Original Equipment Manufactures (OEMs) may
revolutionise the recycling industry to a new level by entering the recycling
business. This would be a sensible method of achieving environmental and
economic goals for vehicle manufacturers. They can control the supply of
recycled materials, reduce material costs, improve shareholder value and enable
their vehicles to be sold at a competitive price.
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
42
2.0 ELEMENTS OF DESIGN FOR RECYCLING FOR ELVs
As vehicle manufacturers are expected to recycle ELVs at their own costs, the
type of materials chosen is a key element in the vehicle development process. The
choice of materials is of great significance with a view to problem materials and
their direct reuse as materials for subsequent processes.
The composition of a typical vehicle has changed substantially in recent years.
For example, ferrous metal content has decreased significantly but more plastic
materials are incorporated because they are lighter and more fuel efficient.
Passenger vehicles are an outstanding example of complex multi component
consumer products. The average vehicle is assembled from about 10000 parts of
which there are a large number of different materials. An analysis of vehicle
manufacturer data for around seventy popular vehicle models shows the material
breakdown (by weight) of an average passenger vehicle as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Material breakdown of an average passenger vehicle
(ACCORD Annual Report, 2001)
Material Breakdown Average Weight (kg) % of Weight
Ferrous Metal 776.6 68.0
Plastic 102.8 9.0
Non-Ferrous Metals 91.4 8.0
Glass 34.3 3.0
Tyres 34.3 3.0
Fluids 22.8 2.0
Rubber 22.8 2.0
Electrical Parts 11.4 1.0
Process polymers 11.4 1.0
Carpets 11.4 1.0
Battery 11.4 1.0
Other 11.4 1.0
Total 1142 100
Generally, the majority of materials used are capable of being recycled but
some are better than the others for various reasons like quality, demand,
reprocessing cost and durability. Table 2 shows an example of parts being
recycled from ELVs.
In relation to this, over recent years the environment has become a core
strategic planning issue in the world. Design for Recycling (DFR) or Design for
Environment (DFE) plays a main role in the vehicle development process. It
considers all the recycling aspects and also environmental factors during the
design stage of a vehicle to increase its recyclability at its end of life. Wider
application of DFR or DFE would involve improving the logistics networks for
the recycling infrastructure and establishing stable markets for the recycled
materials.
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
43
Table 2: Parts recycled from ELVs (Toyota, 2005)
Part Recycled Part Recycled
1. Window
(glass) Tiles etc. 2. Seat
(foam and fiber) Soundproofing materials
for vehicles
3. Body, trunk,
hood and door
(steel)
Car parts and
general steel
products
4. Wire harness
(copper) Copper and engines
products (cast aluminium
reinforcement)
5. Bumper
(resin) Bumper, interior
parts, toolbox etc. 6. Radiators
(copper and
aluminium
Gun metal ingots
and aluminium
products
7. Coolant,
Engine and gear
oil (oil)
Alternative fuel
for boilers and
incinerators
8. Engine,
transmission,
suspension and
wheel (steel and
aluminium)
General steel and
aluminium products
9. Catalytic
converter (rare
metals)
Catalytic
converters 10. Tyre (rubber) Raw material and
alternative fuel for
cement manufacture
Basically, there are two main factors that influence the DFR or DFE concept in
automotive engineering; disassembly and recycling. In order to successfully
implement this concept, several parameters have to be considered in developing a
new passenger vehicle such as selection of material, method of joining and also
the characteristics of the components’ design. In the early 1990’s, the BMW
Group’s Recycling and Dismantling Centre developed a recycling manual as a
guide for the DFR and DFE concept (BMW Group, 2000). This manual provides a
guideline to design a vehicle to fulfil the environmental criteria and recycling
requirements. These guidelines are broken down into three main areas; methods of
joining and fixing, selection of materials and design of components.
3.0 RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY
According to Altschuller (1997), recycling implies that material is processed out
of one form and remade into a new product. Basically, the current recycling or
processing of ELVs can be divided into two processes; dismantling and shredding.
The dismantling process can have higher recycle value of the component and it
allows the product to be reused or reconditioned. Meanwhile, in the shredding
process, an ELV is compressed and fed into a drum, where it is ripped apart by a
set of rotating hammers until it is sufficiently small to drop out of an output grid
where light materials (such as plastics etc.) are separated from heavy materials
(such as steels etc.). However, the efficiency of both processes depends on the
characteristics of the design applied in the designing process. Therefore, to make
the recycling concept more successful, the hierarchies of the recycling process
must be considered in the early stage of the design process. This hierarchy can be
divided into four components; reuse, recycle, recovery and waste as shown in
Figure 1. It shows that reuse of a component is the first priority in the product
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
44
design processes. If it cannot be reused directly, it might need some additional
work on the same form/pattern or to make into another form/pattern. This is called
remanufacture or reconditioning. The second tier in this hierarchy is recycling.
Recycling can be defined as the processing of component to produce a raw
material. This can be divided into two categories; high grade material and low
grade material. The next process that must be considered is a recovery. Recovery
is the use of waste for useful purposes such as energy recovery, road surfacing etc.
Then, the last consideration is a waste material that is sent for disposal in landfill.
ELVs can be categorised into 2 main groups; natural and premature. Premature
vehicles have come to the end of their useful life before their average lifespan,
either due to fire, theft, flood, vandalism or accident damage. These cases often
have a wealth of reusable part removed before further processing. Meanwhile,
natural ELVs are vehicles that reach the end of their useful life. It tends to be in a
bad state of repair and part resale value is at a minimum and often a number a
health and safety issues need to be addressed before de-pollution and further
processing.
Basically, de-pollution processes begin with removal of the battery, fluids,
tyres and any other hazardous substances. High value components are then
removed via manual disassembly which has also seen a number of smaller
facilities separate pure stream plastics to sell directly to the recyclers and re-
processors. Then, the rest of the body is crushed and transported to shredding
operations for post-fragmentation recovery. Once the ferrous content has been
recovered, the non-ferrous scrap can be separated using Dense Media separation
processes and the remaining waste is sent to landfill. The summary of the recovery
processes is shown in Figure 2.
Based on this, it can be concluded that there are several key elements in
managing the recovery of ELVs; dismantling facilities, shredding facilities,
automotive shredder residue (ASR) and landfill.
3.1 Dismantling
The dismantling industry has a big potential in the future especially when the EU
Directive on ELVs is fully implemented. Dismantling is very limited at present
because it is labour intensive and uneconomical. A few high value components are
stripped off the vehicle before it is sent to the shredding process. Dismantling
company can be categorised into two types of businesses, there are high value
parts business (a business that removes and inventories useful and high value parts
for resale) and scrap yards business (store the ELVs while the parts are gradually
removed and sold to local repair shops and do it yourself (DIY) owners).
3.2 Shredding
This is another process for disposal of ELVs. The shredding industries are capable
of processing a large quantity of ELVs with capital intensive sites. The main
output from this process is a ferrous metal, which is sent to steel industry for
recycling (Aboussouan et al., 1999). Currently, most of the ASR is sent to landfill
for disposal. Reduction of this waste stream through the recovery and recycling of
plastics is the focus of other current research (Ambrose, 2000).
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
45
Figure 1: The hierarchies of recycling (Simon, 1991)
Figure 2: Current vehicle recovery infrastructure (Edwards et al., 2005)
Reuse
Remanufacture or Reconditionin
g
Recycle to high grade material
Recycle to low grade material
Recovery such as incinerate for
ener
gy
content
,
road surfacin
g
etc.
Dump in landfill site
Reuse
Recycle
Recover
y
Waste
Premature
ELVs
Natural
ELVs
Dere
g
istration
Collection De-
ollution
Parts dismantlin
g
Crushin
g
/Bailin
g
De-
p
ollution waste
Part resale Materials rec
y
clin
g
Hulk fra
g
mentin
g
De-pollution
processes
Air classification
Magnetic separation
Trommel & Eddie
current separation
Shredding
processes
Non-ferrous
scrap market
Dense media se
p
aration
Landfill
Non-ferrous scra
p
market
Ferrous scra
p
market
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
46
4.0 LEGISLATION IMPLICATION
4.1 EU Proposal
Currently, most of the developed countries have set new legislation, which is
planned to force vehicle manufacturers to recover and recycle their products at the
end of their life. A new directive for EU countries which became effective in April
2002 compels governments to enforce the responsible disposal of vehicles that
have come to the end of their life. According to the UK Department for
Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA), 300 000 vehicles are already
simply abandoned by their owners every year in the UK and between 8 and 9
million tonnes of waste are generated from ELV’s within the EU (Chatterley,
2002). Of that, 75% is ferrous metal, which is recycled through traditional metal
dealers to produce new steel or other ferrous products and 25% goes to landfill
sites to become waste.
Although it is a few years away from being fully implemented, the EU
Directive on ELVs is already weighing heavily on the mind of most vehicle
manufacturers in Europe. The first stage was introduced on 18 September 2000 to
reduce the proportion of ELVs content going to landfill and then a second stage in
October 2002. There are up to 10 million vehicles a year in the EU reach the ends
of their first useful life.
In response to this, the German and Dutch authorities introduced the concept of
‘Producer Responsibility’, which obliges the car manufacturers to take back
ELVs. This is to control the disposal of ELVs (King et al., 2005). The vehicle
manufacturers decide to reduce the environment burden from their products by
improving the recyclability of vehicles. However, when the EU Directive stated
that they must take back and treat ELVs at no cost to the last owner it generated
intense opposition from the manufacturers, as they would have to assume a great
financial cost.
Following the identification of ELVs as a priority waste stream by the EU in
1989, a directive was first drafted in 1997 which set quantitative targets for the
recovery, reuse and recycling and a free take back procedure for vehicle
manufacturers. A common position was reached in 1999 after several key points
of the original directive were adapted and the Directive finally came into force in
October 2000. The main provisions cover aspects such as promotion of awareness,
requirements related to depollution and dismantling of ELVs and the reuse,
recycling and recovery of materials from ELVs, setting up of collection network,
outlining quantitative targets for recovery and recycling until 2015 and demanding
member states to make laws, regulations and (enforceable) agreements by April
2002 (Glass and Pascoe, 2002).
The introduction of the directive will affect all players involved in the
management of ELVs in terms operational strategy, infrastructure and financial
investment. The whole structure of automotive recycling is expected to change.
The traditional dismantling techniques will become more advanced, as legislation
demands the removal of all hazardous liquids and components. Some form of
plastics, rubber and glass recovery is necessary, either during the dismantling
phase or during the separation process.
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
54
The directive has resulted in major investment in research and development,
especially in areas of recyclability and investigation into new techniques and
technology for disassembly and recycling.
4.2 United State of America (USA)
In the USA, there is no specific legislation regarding the management of ELVs.
All materials, either waste materials or recycled materials, are considered as a
solid waste. So the recycling industry has received much less interest. Currently,
there is no shortage in waste disposal sites because of abundant land. This
situation can make the costs of waste disposal low. Furthermore, there is no
standard waste legislation for the whole of the US. Every state has its own
legislation, so the target and implementation varies from state to state.
However, Ford, Daimler Chrysler and General Motors have provided a special
programme to study how to improve recyclability rate and methods to decrease the
current ASR burden. Most of the recycling industries in the US belong to the
automotive industry. Ford has purchased more than 25 vehicle recycling
operations in the US, with more expected and has an experimental dismantling
center in Germany (Staudinger and Keoleian, 2001). The USA Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) is trying to promote the recycling concept among the
vehicle manufacturers (EPA, 1997).
4.3 Japan
Most of the vehicle manufacturers in Japan are branching out into the recycling
business and developing easy to recycle vehicles in response to a new automotive
recycling law that is implemented in 2004 (Recycling Based Society Law, 2004).
The first legislation was introduced in 1990 that promoted the use of recycled
resources, applying particularly to automotive industries. Then in 1996 quantified
targets for recycling ELVs was set at 85% by 2002 and 95% by 2015 (Recycling
Initiative, 2005). As in Europe, Japan has considered the issue of recycling of
ELVs to be a priority area.
According to the Japan Automobile Manufacturing Association (JAMA), the
waste disposal law specifies that shredder residue is a waste that requires specially
controlled landfills. There are few of these landfills that meet the strict standards,
which have led to an increase in the cost of landfilling. Although this is the case,
about 50% of ELVs are still traded at a profit due to the value in metals offsetting
the cost of landfilling with the waste (JAMA Report, 2004).
4.4 Australia
In Australia, there is no legislation that requires the last owner of an ELV to enter
the recycling infrastructure. Also, the last owner of a vehicle does not need to
deregister it. Currently, new requirements for ELVs are being introduced in all
local councils. Those requirements will give full authority to local councils to take
action for the ELVs even though they are stored on private property if they are
causing a health or fire hazard or a loss of amenity to other residents.
In relation to that, some states such as Western Australia have highlighted
abandoned vehicles as being of broader concern. It will cost the local authorities to
store abandoned vehicles for some weeks before disposing of them. In order to
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
53
reduce the cost, some of the local councils have introduced collection points for
ELVs. It seems likely that the proportion of ELVs reaching recycling facilities is
over 90% (Environmental Australia, 2002).
5.0 RESEARCH DIRECTION
The proposed research framework for ELVs recovery concept is a conceptual
approach which is integrating recyclability concern at an early product design
phase as shown in Figure 3. This approach is intended to provide an organized
process that allows designers to identify and understand the recyclability needs
and how to measure recyclability during the design process.
Figure 3: Research framework for ELVs recovery concept
Figure 3: Research framework for ELVs recovery concept
Referring to Figure 3 there are three major areas that have been identified
which influence the development of ELVs recovery concept. These are,
i. Design methodology
(if value is lower
than expected)
Vehicle Com
p
onents
Design Needs
Design
Methodology
Recycling Needs
Evaluation of the
Recyclability for
Potential
Improvement
Design
Improvement Stage
Framework for
Investment
Yes
Principle of
Strategic Guidance
Design Guidance
No
Proceed to Final
Design
Ok
Not Ok
Recycling
Technology
Economic
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
54
It clearly shows that there are needs for the methodology to be applied at the early
stage of design process. In fact, it is essential for the vehicle designers to
incorporate recycling from the development stage in producing a new vehicle. The
automotive industry has to give a full commitment to producing an
environmentally friendly vehicle even if it will mean an increase in manufacturing
costs. Based on this, the automotive industries have to change the traditional
paradigm into a new paradigm in the product development process as outlined in
Figure 4.
ii. Economic aspect
The long term economic benefits of products DFR can be assessed by total life
cycle cost. These benefits are represented by the higher post-purchase value,
which might have been hidden by a higher pre-purchase cost. Pre-purchase cost is
given by material, manufacture and assembly costs. Meanwhile, post-purchase
value can be obtained by subtracting all recycling costs.
Besides that, design changes are a major problem in this issue especially in
order to cope with the ELVs requirements. Basically, design is the key to ensure
that product will fulfil the fixed requirements such as customer needs,
specification, cost and quality in every stage of a product’s life cycle. In this case,
ELV requirements need to be properly considered at the early stage of vehicle
design to ensure that recycling is profitable. It would be a simple task to reach
85% to 95% recyclable or recovered material from the current design of vehicle
but the situation now is that it is not economical. To recycle plastics and fluids the
infrastructure must be in place to achieve the economies of scale needed to
compete with virgin materials on cost (environmental and monetary). The
environment will not benefit if more resources are used to recycle than when using
virgin materials.
Figure 4: New paradigm for product development process
Engineering and design
including environmental
and life cycle aspects
New technology for future
(environmental) products
Sustainable reduction of
- waste and disposal
- energy consumption
Added value in the life cycle
Industrial recycling
Energy Material
World Population
Emissions
Technologies
Global Business
Social Standards
Welfare
Regulations
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
53
(Westkamper et al., 2001)
iii.Recycling technology
Another fundamental problem involves the method with which the recovery target
will be met. This could either be through an increased efficiency in recovering
materials post-shredder or through the increased dismantling of part pre-shredder.
Besides that, vehicle disassembly and recycling were became to be of high
ecological and economic important. To comply with the increasingly tightening
vehicle recycling legislation and to make the vehicle recycling business
economically competitive, the process has to be automated to the highest possible
extent.
6.0 CONCLUSION
Based on the current situation, it will be possible to meet the Directive on ELVs
reuse, recycling and recovery targets by 2006 with the existing organisational
systems; however, the Directive sets more ambitious targets for 2015. The
technology is insufficient and uneconomical at present. Meeting this target is
likely to require significant costs and research and development in areas such as
design concept, technology, automotive shredder residue and restructuring of
infrastructure.
The basic problem with recycling ELVs is that the vehicles were not designed
to be recycled. This reflects back on the vehicle manufacturers and it seems
unreasonable that they will have to pay for disposal when the vehicles on the road
today were not fully designed for recycling.
Overcoming the challenges to improve the recyclability of end of life vehicles
will require a carefully planned strategy with full dedication from the key players
involved in ELVs management. A monitoring system must be developed to track
the Directive’s progress. The actors involved must come together to share the cost
of the development of new technology and to promote recycling infrastructure
development. Vehicle manufacturers must continue to incorporate reuse,
remanufacturing and recycling into the design of new vehicles. Uses for recovered
materials must be developed. Investment in infrastructure and building on existing
infrastructure is essential to achieve the recyclability goal.
Emphasis on research and development on ASR material identification, sorting
and product recovery will have a significant impact on raising the market value of
ASR and help avoid landfilling and incineration. It is therefore necessary to
develop technology to recover materials from ASR. Dismantling is labour
intensive so improving its efficiency will help make material and component
recovery more economical. Therefore, increased materials recovery such as
plastic, tyres and glass by better separation processes must be properly
investigated especially in terms of market for those particular materials because
every development process involves a lot of money.
It can be concluded that several elements in the vehicle development process
need to be further developed especially in the early stage of the process in order to
increase the efficiency of the recycling process.
Jurnal Mekanikal, June 2006
54
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... Inputs [56][57][58][60][61][62][202][203][204][205][206][207][208] Legislation and Standards [47,[50][51][52][53][54]56,132,133,203,204,[209][210][211][212][213] Processes [5,48,51,52,55,56,[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78]80,81,83,87,88,[93][94][95][97][98][99][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][113][114][115]122,[130][131][132][133][134][135]137,141,158,166,169,202,203,206, Resources/Mechanisms [51,81,102,118,120,[122][123][124][125][126]128,129,131,134,136,137,[142][143][144]202,204,206,210,211,237,[266][267][268][269][270][271] Outputs [8,48,[60][61][62]65,79,87,89,91,93,106,110,130,131,136,141,[145][146][147][148][149][150][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][171][172][173]206,207,209,210,214,216,217,219,221,231,241,244,251,265, Overall Review [112,[299][300][301][302][303] ...
... Inputs [56][57][58][60][61][62][202][203][204][205][206][207][208] Legislation and Standards [47,[50][51][52][53][54]56,132,133,203,204,[209][210][211][212][213] Processes [5,48,51,52,55,56,[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78]80,81,83,87,88,[93][94][95][97][98][99][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][113][114][115]122,[130][131][132][133][134][135]137,141,158,166,169,202,203,206, Resources/Mechanisms [51,81,102,118,120,[122][123][124][125][126]128,129,131,134,136,137,[142][143][144]202,204,206,210,211,237,[266][267][268][269][270][271] Outputs [8,48,[60][61][62]65,79,87,89,91,93,106,110,130,131,136,141,[145][146][147][148][149][150][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][171][172][173]206,207,209,210,214,216,217,219,221,231,241,244,251,265, Overall Review [112,[299][300][301][302][303] ...
... Inputs [56][57][58][60][61][62][202][203][204][205][206][207][208] Legislation and Standards [47,[50][51][52][53][54]56,132,133,203,204,[209][210][211][212][213] Processes [5,48,51,52,55,56,[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77][78]80,81,83,87,88,[93][94][95][97][98][99][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][113][114][115]122,[130][131][132][133][134][135]137,141,158,166,169,202,203,206, Resources/Mechanisms [51,81,102,118,120,[122][123][124][125][126]128,129,131,134,136,137,[142][143][144]202,204,206,210,211,237,[266][267][268][269][270][271] Outputs [8,48,[60][61][62]65,79,87,89,91,93,106,110,130,131,136,141,[145][146][147][148][149][150][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][162][163][164][165][166][167][168][169][171][172][173]206,207,209,210,214,216,217,219,221,231,241,244,251,265, Overall Review [112,[299][300][301][302][303] ...
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The holistic shift from traditional supply chain to sustainable supply chain has been practiced in different industries for many years. The automotive industry, as one of the largest and most influential industries in the world, could have a substantial effect on the movement toward a sustainable society. Despite the growing body of literature in the field of sustainable supply chain management, there is no review article that comprehensively synthesizes the state-of-the-art research in the automotive industry. To cover this gap, this paper reviews the sustainable supply chain management literature in the automotive industry published between 1995 and 2017. A systematic review and content analysis were conducted to collect the studies and analyze their content. The content analysis was structured based upon a set of key business processes following the Integration Definition Function (IDEF0) method, which is a structured approach of analyzing business processes. The study provides a practical guideline for designing a sustainable automotive supply chain and culminates with the outlined research gaps and recommendations for future research.
... But currently, there is no process to recover glass except in the pre-shredding stage (Cossu et al., 2014). However, mostly metallic content and other components are recycled car seats consisting of foams and fibers, and fabrics are recycled as acoustic or soundproofing materials for the vehicles (Saman and Blount, 2006). ...
Chapter
Motor vehicles after reaching their end of life are disposed of in the scrapyards which result in automotive waste as well as environmental pollution. Automotive waste is minimized using shredding, recovery, and recycling processes. End-of-life vehicles (ELV) are shredded into waste known as car fluffs. Car fluffs are discarded in the landfill due to their complexity and existence of toxic materials. They are composed of plastics, polymers, fibers, wood, glass, and rubber. Treated auto fluffs are used in the recycling of new raw materials and for energy recovery applications. ELVs are treated in a regulated scheme categorized into pre-treatment, dismantling, shredding, and sorting to retrieve metals. However, none of the above stages have reached the target of 95% ELV total weight set by the European Directive 2000/53/EC. Composites reinforced using carbon and glass fibers from automobile waste are /also recycled and utilized in lower value applications. This chapter discusses different methods used in the automotive shredding and recovery process to achieve the minimum target required as well as different materials recycled and recovered from auto shredder residue and their applications.
... Edwards et al. [229] presented a basis for future research by evaluating the potential direction of the recovery industry. Saman and Blount [230] provided a review of current practices in vehicle recycling in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia together with an overview of legislation, stakeholders and corresponding markets. ...
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Waste management is gaining very high importance in recent years. As automotive is one of the most critical sectors worldwide, which is rapidly increasing, the management of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) gains importance day by day. Due to legislation and new regulations, actors like users, producers, and treatment facilities are being conferred new responsibilities in the ELV management process. Besides, the ELV management is of vital importance for environment conservation, circular economy and sustainable development. All of these reasons are making the ELV management such a crucial issue to study. Today, the ELV management is a well-positioned and emergent research area. However, the available review papers are focused only on a small area of the ELV management, such as reverse logistics, recovery infrastructure, disassemblability, etc. Besides, a review of state-of-the-art mathematical models for the ELV management is still missing. This paper aims to provide an extensive content analysis overview of studies on the ELV management. A total of 232 studies published in the period 2000–2019 are collected, categorized, reviewed and analyzed. A critical review of the published literature is provided. Gaps in the literature are identified to clarify and suggest future research directions. This review can provide a source of references, valuable insights, and opportunities for researchers interested in the ELV management and inspire their additional attention.
... [29]-for China, Cheng et al [30]-for Taiwan, Altay et al. [31]-for Turkey, and Hiratsuka et al [32]for Japan, and Lin et al, for small island of Kinmen [33] Comparative analyzes were conducted by Zameri and Blount [34], between EU, US, Japan, and Australia. The problems faced by the EU in the automotive sector i.e. abandonment of cars, pollution, and waste have led to the adoption and application of appropriate legislation: Directive 2000/53/EC. ...
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In a global market characterized by the trend of saving non-renewable resources, recycling has become one of the key factors that alleviates the rarity of resources and preserves existing ones. One of the largest industries that consumes natural resources is the automotive industry. This includes not only resource consumption but also the environmental effects of each new unit produced in this industry. As a result, recycling end-of-life vehicles has become an increasingly obvious and widespread concern. This paper proposes a preliminary analysis of the dismantling/recycling activities in Romania compared to other economies (e.g., USA). It aims to determine the impact that dismantling end-of-life vehicles has, according to the legislation in the field, on the economy and the environment. In order to obtain a complete picture, it is obvious that further research is needed.
... Zameri and Saman conclude that elements throughout the vehicle development process can be improved in order to increase efficiency in the recycling, refurbishment, and repurpose process. To do this, they recommend improved logistics networks, specifically for the infrastructure built around recycling and the establishment of stable markets for recycle materials (Zameri & Saman, 2006). ...
Thesis
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Evaluating the existing practices of sustainability within the outdoor apparel industry, this research questions the relationship that certain sustainability aspects have with the price of goods in this specific market. Through a hedonic pricing model, this research provides an estimate of the value placed on certain aspects surrounding environmental and social sustainability. In a growing industry, the application of sustainable practices throughout the supply chain has the potential to influence customer purchasing patterns and pricing models for outdoor apparel brands. This research found the type of material used to have a statistically significant impact on the price of an item; no statistical significance was found in the level of brand sustainability.
... These targets are introduced in the Directives, either in the Directives that regulate the operations, as with Landfill Directive; in the WFD, which contains the objectives for household waste and construction and demolition waste or in Directives that regulate different waste streams, Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive Although the analysis of the fixed targets and their evolution does not fall under the scope of this research, it is important to mention that research has begun important analysis and evaluations of processes in the search for improvement and technology development, such as for end-of -life-vehicles (Edwards et al., 2006;Ene and Öztürk, 2015;Gerrard and Kandlikar, 2006;Johnson and Wang, 2002;Tasala Gradin et al., 2013;Zameri et al., 2006), WEEE (Bigum et al., 2013;Jha et al., 2013;Ylä-Mella et al., 2014b, 2014aZotos et al., 2009), batteries and accumulators Espinosa et al., 2004) or packaging waste Guerrini et al., 2017;Luijsterburg and Goossens, 2014). ...
Article
The study of efficiency in hazardous waste management has been proved to be a driving factor for sustainable development (SD). This study focuses on a performance assessment of European countries, most of them European Union (EU) member states and candidate countries that share a common legislative framework through European regulations, in order to provide a general understanding of hazardous waste performance. In this paper, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of 32 countries in Europe by using novel input/output environmental parameters to study the efficiency of the different waste management operations from an environmental point of view. This analysis contrasts the efficiency in the management of total waste versus hazardous waste and studies three operations with hazardous wastes: incineration and incineration with energy recovery, disposal and recovery. Results show that there are differences in the achievement of efficiency, not only among countries, but also among the different waste management operations analysed.
... Mat Saman & Blount (2006) classified the ELVs which are supplied to the dismantlers into two categories: Natural ELV and Premature ELV [14]. Natural ELV refers to those vehicles which have reached to the end stage of their service period whereas vehicles which are unable to provide service because of being damaged by external factors, such as an accident, can be referred to as premature ELV. ...
Article
Full-text available
At present, Lean manufacturing techniques are widely used in industries to improve the productivity by reducing different types of wastes. A case study has been conducted to investigate how Lean techniques can contribute in car dismantling companies in Sweden. This study gained insight of how car dismantling companies can be benefitted by adopting Lean philosophy. Some eccentric characteristics of this business which act as boundary condition for implementing Lean in Production Planning and control system were also identified.
... iii Recycling: The concept of recycling indicates that usable materials from waste are collected, sorted, processed out of one form and used to remake new products. Recycling is a process used to convert ELV waste into new products when other options for recovery cannot be achieved (Addis, 2012;Ahmed et al., 2014;Blount, 2006;EUR-Lex, 2017). As stated in the EU Directive, recycling is defined as the reprocessing of ELV waste materials for the original purpose or other purposes in a production process, but the processing for use as fuel or energy recovery is excluded (EUR-Lex, 2017; Rasshofer and Weigand, 2001). ...
Article
End-of-life vehicle (ELV) waste management and its immeasurable environmental impacts are the subjects of global concern. This study proposes a new concept of a processing framework to utilise ELV waste from automotive to construction industries by starting a new trend of circular economy applications to improve ELV recyclability. The research focuses on building a strong collaboration between automotive and construction industries to manage ELV waste in Malaysia. A systematic review approach based on classification and comparison methods was utilised to synthesise the findings through critical analysis. The concept was developed on the basis of existing ELV policies and legislation, processing framework, waste management and recycling possibilities for converting ELVs into building products. The findings corroborate that ELV waste in the dismantling and shredding operations can be utilised by the construction industry. The analysis and proposed framework established a source of information that provides a new paradigm for prioritising building product development and related policies in Malaysia. This research will provide a viable option for reducing the disposal problems and curbing the dependence on raw materials in Malaysia.
... Japan uses stringent vehicle inspection (Shaken in Japanese) to control in-use vehicle tailpipe and noise emissions under the periodically updated regulation governed by Exhaust Gas Regulation of Motor Vehicles (Hirota and Minato 2001;Ministry of Land Infrastructure Transportation and Tourism 2016) and National Automotive NOx and PM Law (Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Incorporated 2015). However, a sudden change of policy may generate too much premature end-of-life vehicle (ELV), which refers to vehicles being scraped earlier than their natural age (Saman and Blount 2006). Absence of proper ELV regulation in Malaysia leads to high number of unaccounted vehicles. ...
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This paper aims to estimate the number of electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) as well as end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) generated until 2040. A system dynamics modelling method was used with integrated population expandable income and vehicle price reduction, simulated through alternative policy application scenarios. It is estimated that passenger vehicle market will be nearing saturation point in 2030 at 12 million active vehicles, while half a million ELVs are also projected to be generated in that year. In 2040, HEV is estimated to be 1.43 million units, while EV is estimated to be 43,000 units. This research also concludes that by reducing vehicle ownership tax, adapting mandatory inspection and improving emission regulation, HEV and EV can be increased by an additional 70%. The result from this study is expected to assist future research in future transportation-related pollution estimation.
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The objective of this work is to penetrate very briefly for the previous works that has been done on the material recycling in automobiles. By doing so the various ideas that have been generated worldwide and their case study related to this task will came to know. The brief search on this work gives information about the methodologies /tools they used in their work. All these steps will provide the gap in the literature review to find out the new model for recycling, improving performance of shredding facilities and new modes of recycling etc.,
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Tens of millions of used vehicles are destroyed per year in Europe by hammer shredding. However, the quality of the fragments in terms of composition (presence of copper essentially) is not sufficient for their efficient recycling. This difficulty is presented in the first part of the paper in which attempts to improve the scrap quality by a simple separation based on size are described. In the second part, lab-scale experiments, designed to have a better understanding of the phenomena taking place in the shredder, have been performed on model steel products such as cans. The fragments have been analyzed from the point of view of their size, morphology and metallographic distributions. A deformation scheme can be proposed for the cans.
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Thinking in terms of product life cycles is one of the challenges facing manufacturers today: efforts to increase efficiency throughout the life cycle do not only mean extended responsibility of the parties concerned. Economically successful business areas can also be explored. Whether new service concepts are required, new regulations have been passed or consumer values are changing, the differences between business areas are disappearing. Life cycle management (LCM) considers the product life cycle as a whole and optimizes the interaction of product design, manufacturing and life cycle activities. The goal of this approach is to protect resources and maximize effectiveness by means of life cycle assessment, product data management, technical support and, last but not least, life cycle costing. This paper shows the existing approaches of LCM and discusses their prospects and further development.
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This paper deals with European strategy at the beginning Targeted at Cardiff "Partnership for Integration - A strategy for integrating environmental policies of the European Union, where the European Commission considered the second mandatory commitments to the EU : Agenda 2000 and the Kyoto Protocol. LIFE program with three "LIFE - Nature", "LIFE - Environment" and "LIFE - third countries" is another part of this work the previous chapter that refers to the way the European Commission has implemented Protocol Kyoto with "the European Climate Change." Supporting sustainable development worldwide, global chapter is closing this brief overview of the strategy for sustainable development
End-of-Life Vehicle Directive -Implication for Everyone…
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