Identification of antibiosis and tolerance in rice varieties carrying brown planthopper resistance genes

Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (Impact Factor: 1.62). 12/2011; 141(3). DOI: 10.1111/j.1570-7458.2011.01192.x


Brown planthopper (BPH) [Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)] is a major pest in rice [Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae)] production. Identification of resistance genes and development of BPH-resistant varieties is an economical and effective way to control this pest. In this study, BPH honeydew excretion, survival rate, and emergence rate were used as indicators to detect the antibiotic level, whereas the relative growth rates of plant height (R H) and fresh weight (R W), and the number of days until yellowing were used to identify the level of tolerance to BPH in rice varieties. Rice varie-ties Swarnalata and B5, which showed high levels of antibiosis and tolerance to BPH, thus were highly resistant in the seedling bulk test; Mudgo and T12, which showed moderate resistance to the insects, had a high level of tolerance and moderate antibiosis to BPH. Varieties Rathu Heenati, ARC 10550, and Chin Saba were identified to be susceptible to BPH, showing a moderate level of tolerance and no antibiosis. In comparison to the evaluation methods of BPH resistance, the honeydew excretion and survival rate could be used to detect the antibiotic level, and the R H , R W , or leaf yellowing days could be employed as indicators to evaluate the rice varieties' tolerance. Overall, a combined applica-tion of these indicators can effectively identify the levels of antibiosis and tolerance to BPH in rice varieties, and BPH-resistance levels of the varieties were mainly determined by the antibiosis level. The results should help in understanding BPH-resistance categories of rice varieties and for resistance breeding.

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    • "There has been no large-scale evaluation of the effectiveness of major resistance genes in South and South East Asia. Comparative studies of selected varieties or genes have been conducted by Myint et al. (2009) in Japan, Pe~ nalver Cruz et al. (2011) in the Philippines, and Qiu et al. (2011) in China; studies that use similar evaluation methods and share common host varieties have been conducted in South Asia (Bangladesh: Ali et al., 2012; India: Bhanu et al., 2014). However, these studies vary greatly in the details of the screening methods, i.e., using different groups of varieties in their tests, or using different accessions of the same varieties. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the utility of resistant varieties and their associated resistance genes against brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), populations from South and South East Asia. A collection of 39 rice accessions that included resistant, tolerant and susceptible varieties and breeding lines were examined for performance against populations of N. lugens from India (4), Bangladesh (1), Myanmar (1), Vietnam (1), Indonesia (1), China (1), Taiwan (1), and the Philippines (2). Planthopper virulence varied between regions; however only 6 varieties were generally less damaged than the susceptible check Taichung Native 1 (TN1) among ≥50% of the test populations. Each of these 6 varieties contained multiple resistance genes. One further variety, also with multiple resistance genes, and a modern cultivar (possibly with the Bph3 gene) were moderately effective against the South Asian populations, whereas a traditional variety with the Bph6 gene was effective against South East Asian populations. Bph1, bph2, bph5, bph7, bph8, Bph9, Bph10 and Bph18 were ineffective against most planthopper populations. Bph20, Bph21, and Bph17 have potential to be used in resistance breeding in both South and South East Asia, whereas BPH25 and BPH26 have potential for use in South Asia. The results indicate that only a few of the currently available resistance genes will be effective in monogenic rice lines; but that pyramiding of two or more genes with strong to weak resistance could improve resistance strength and durability as apparent with the most resistant, traditional varieties. Strategies to avoid planthopper adaptation to resistant rice varieties are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Crop Protection
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    • "Rice var. T12 has been reported to show resistance to BPH populations in Bangladesh (Kabis and Khush 1988) and Wuhan, China (Qiu et al. 2011). In our study, it showed moderate resistance to the BPH population used, with an average resistance score in the seedling bulk test of 4.9. "
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    ABSTRACT: The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Sta°l; BPH) is a severe constraint to rice (Oryza sativa) production. A particularly important approach to controlling this insect pest is the identification and characterization of BPH resistance genes and the subsequent incorporation of the most effective ones into cultivars. Rice var. T12 has been reported to carry resistance gene BPH7 (previously designated bph7) that has not yet been assigned to a chromosome location and whose resistance mechanism is still unknown. In the study reported here we identified and mapped this gene using F2 and backcrossing populations and characterized its resistance in the rice var. 93-11 genetic background using near isogenic lines (NILs). Our analysis of the 93-11/T12 F2 population revealed that the BPH7 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 12 between simple sequence repeat markers RM28295 and RM313. Subsequent fine mapping placed this gene more precisely in a region flanked by the markersRM3448 and RM313 which are 150 kb apart in the Nipponbare genome and 300 kb apart in the 93-11 genome. BPH7 explained 38.3 % of the phenotypic variance of BPH resistance in the F2 populations. Characterization of the BPH7-mediated resistance revealed that the settlement of the BPH on plants and the survival rate and population growth rate of the BPH were not different significantly between NIL-BPH7 and 93-11 plants. The NIL-BPH7 plants showed significant tolerance to the insects at the seedling and adult stages compared with the susceptible parent 93-11. Our results demonstrate that tolerance is the major component in the resistance conferred by BPH7. The gene mapping of BPH7 should be of great benefit for gene map-based cloning and in plant breeding programs for BPH-resistant rice lines.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Euphytica
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    • "Previous studies of IR64 have documented each of these mechanisms with regard to BPH–rice interactions (Cohen et al. 1997; Alam and Cohen 1998a, b). Recent research has identified the antibiotic and tolerant levels to the BPH in several rice lines carrying different BPH-resistance genes (Qiu et al. 2011). In the case of Bph14, resistance appears to be due to antibiosis (Du et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) is one of the most serious rice pests worldwide. Growing resistant varieties is the most effective way to manage this insect, and wild rice species are a valuable source of resistance genes for developing resistant cultivars. BPH27 derived from an accession of Guangxi wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff. (Accession no. 2183, hereafter named GX2183), was primarily mapped to a 17-cM region on the long arm of the chromosome four. In this study, fine mapping of BPH27 was conducted using two BC1F2 populations derived from introgression lines of GX2183. Insect resistance was evaluated in the BC1F2 populations with 6,010 individual offsprings, and 346 resistance extremes were obtained and employed for fine mapping of BPH27. High-resolution linkage analysis defined the BPH27 locus to an 86.3-kb region in Nipponbare. Regarding the sequence information of rice cultivars, Nipponbare and 93-11, all predicted open reading frames (ORFs) in the fine-mapping region have been annotated as 11 types of proteins, and three ORFs encode disease-related proteins. Moreover, the average BPH numbers showed significant differences in 96–120 h after release in comparisons between the preliminary near-isogenic lines (pre-NILs, lines harboring resistance genes) and BaiR54. BPH growth and development were inhibited and survival rates were lower in the pre-NIL plants compared with the recurrent parent BaiR54. The pre-NIL exhibited 50.7 % reductions in population growth rates (PGR) compared to BaiR54. The new development in fine mapping of BPH27 will facilitate the efforts to clone this important resistant gene and to use it in BPH-resistance rice breeding.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Theoretical and Applied Genetics
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