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C onsumer perceptions of advertising creativity are investigated in a series of studies beginning with scale development and ending with comprehensive model testing. Results demonstrate that perceptions of ad cre-ativity are determined by the interaction between divergence and relevance, and that overall creativity mediates their effects on consumer processing and response. History: This paper was received August 3, 2005, and was with the authors 8 months for 3 revisions; processed by Gerard J. Tellis.
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... Researchers and practitioners concur that creative packaging is an essential element for attracting customer attention and resultant success in a cluttered marketplace (e.g., Smith, MacKenzie, Yang, Buchholz, & Darley, 2007;Yang & Smith, 2009;Cascini et al., 2020). Creative packaging can influence behavioral outcomes such as customer attention, better recognition, purchase likelihood, brand choice, and financial performance (Orth & Malkewitz, 2012;Hubert, Hubert, Florack, Linzmajer, & Kenning, 2013;Enax et al., 2015;Spence, Velasco, & Petit, 2019). ...
... Creative packaging evokes customer attention and could persuade and facilitate buying behavior. In this regard, Smith et al. (2007) suggest that retail researchers should look beyond the attention effect of creativity by investigating its role in the customer persuasion process. For example, creative packaging may encourage curiosity and foster motivation to process the stimuli among the shoppers. ...
... In a real-life retail environment, however, the levels of creativity employed in packaging design vary (Orquin et al., 2020). While the received wisdom suggests that increased creativity may lead to greater engagement (Smith et al., 2007), the effect might be opposite if customers have to employ significant affective and cognitive resources (Zimmerman & Shimoga, 2014) to process such creative cues. For instance, when Dove launched highly creative limited-edition bottles representing various body types, instead of engaging the customers it was perceived as insulting by many who felt offended by the packaging design (Luttner, 2017). ...
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Creativity is a growing area of retailing research. Drawing upon the optimal-arousal theory, this research examines how the dimensions of packaging design creativity, such as divergence and relevance, have varying levels of influence on customer process, persuasion, and response measures. The findings show that packaging design can evoke customer curiosity in certain conditions. Further, the results suggest that the effect of packaging design creativity differs significantly in the retail context, in contrast to earlier studies that have mostly focused on the context of advertising. The findings provide new insights and implications for retailers, brand managers, and packaging designers to understand how creativity impacts customer decision making.
... Most ad creativity researchers agree that originality is a key determinant of ad creativity (Ang et al., 2014;Feng & Xie, 2019;Sheinin et al., 2011;Smith et al., 2007). Other terms used in lieu of originality are novel, divergent, distinctive, unexpected, new, and fresh. ...
... Whereas some researchers focus exclusively on originality when assessing ad creativity (Krishen and Homer 2012; Pieters et al., 2002;Rosengren et al., 2020), many ad creativity researchers argue that for a message to be creative, it must be relevant, appropriate, and meaningful (Chen et al., 2016;Rosengren et al., 2020). Appropriateness or relevance complements originality by connecting with brand strategy and the consumer (Smith et al., 2007). Hence, we define advertising creativity as original, divergent, or novel and appropriate, meaningful, or relevant. ...
... In support of Rosengren et al. (2020), we argue that studies whose creative measure focuses on the originality dimension only (Jin et al., 2019;Pieters et al., 2002) are likely to produce different results from studies where creativity is measured as bipartite concept of originality and relevance (Modig & Dahlen, 2020;Smith et al., 2007) or where creativity is conceptualized as a holistic concept and measured with a single item "creative" (Rosengren et al., 2013). ...
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Given the media’s changing landscape for advertising, an examination of advertising creativity and its media interaction takes on increasing importance. Accordingly, we investigate within a meta-analytic framework the moderating role of media type (i.e., traditional/non-traditional) in the relationship between advertising creativity and its effects. The analysis covers 48 papers with 298 data points. First, the meta-analytic findings indicate that ad creativity is positively related to cognition, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Second, the type of media moderates the relationship between ad creativity and its effects. Specifically, the results show that for cognition, print media exhibits a larger impact than TV and non-traditional media. For affect, there is a significant difference in the influence of print versus non-traditional media and TV versus non-traditional media. Non-traditional media produces a smaller impact than print and TV media. For conation, a comparison of TV versus non-traditional media reveals a significant difference in impact. TV media shows a larger impact than non-traditional media. Given that the motivation, opportunity, and ability to process creative ads in traditional and non-traditional media may differ, we present several directions for future research.
... A recent meta-analysis of creative advertising found robust positive effects (Rosengren et al. 2020). Creative ads increase consumer attention and motivation to process the ad as well as the depth of processing (Pieters, Warlop, and Wedel 2002;Smith and Yang 2004;Smith et al. 2007). Creative ads are more positively associated with recall than less creative ads (Ang, Lee, and Leong 2007;Baack, Wilson, and Till 2008;Jin, Kerr, and Suh 2019;Pieters and Bijmolt 1997;Till and Baack 2005). ...
... regular ads) produces faster wear-in and longer wear-out (Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Lehnert, Brian, and Carlson 2013). Creative ads are more likable (Ang and Low 2000;Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Smith et al. 2007;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008) and creativity can drive the online viral viewing of TV ads (Southgate, Westoby, and Graham 2010). In financial terms, creative ads have a positive impact on sales (Reinartz and Saffert 2013). ...
... Prior research consistently demonstrates that creative ads are more positively perceived than regular ads (Ang and Low 2000;Chen, Yang, and Smith 2016;Smith et al. 2007;Smith, Chen, and Yang 2008). The literature to date has focused on the facilitative effects of creative ads. ...
... We next examined the face validity of each item and further eliminated those items that were judged to overlap between the focus group interviews and the face-to-face interviews. We retained statements that were closely related to the divergent thinking process as well (Smith et al. 2007). To further reduce conceptual redundancy and achieve parsimony, we refined the list of items with the help of an academic expert and a master of philosophy student. ...
... Divergence is associated with message elements that are unusual, novel, and distinctive. Relevance relates to the meaningfulness, appropriateness, and usefulness of the content (Smith and Yang, 2004;Smith et al., 2007). Creative marketing communication attracts consumers' attention, which drives positive attitudes towards the advertisement and establishes an intention to purchase the advertised product (Lee and Hong, 2016). ...
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