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Understanding and Addressing Contemporary Racism: From Aversive Racism to the Common Ingroup Identity Model

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Abstract

This article describes our collaborative research on aversive racism and a strategy we developed to combat it, the Common Ingroup Identity Model. In addition, we reveal some details about our personal and professional relationship in pursuit of our scientific agenda. We begin by discussing evidence for the existence of aversive racism, a subtle, unintentional form bias that can have pernicious effects. Then we review research concerning how a common ingroup identity can combat aversive racism by redirecting the forces of social categorization and social identity, such that "Us" and "Them" are regarded as "We." We conclude with a brief discussion of where we may look next for clues toward helping to achieve a fairer, more just society.

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... It is unambiguous, and some examples include racial slurs or blatant acts of racial brutality. • Symbolic-Modern Racism: People in this category embrace negative stereotypes about POC, and, for example, may believe that Blacks are morally inferior to Whites (e.g., prefer welfare to working, have criminal tendencies, are aggressive, etc.; Sears & Henry, 2003) • Aversive Racism: People in this category support racial equality but have conflicted negative feelings toward POC, which are often unconscious/implicit (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). These people may make affirmative social justice pronouncements but still end up acting like racists, especially when situations are ambiguous or no one is watching. ...
... The second step is complex but is the most critical because it requires an understanding of how USING PSYCHOLOGY FOR ANTI-RACIST JURY SELECTION more subtle incidences (acts or types) of racism affect American society, many of which most lawyers are not trained to identify or evaluate. In this step, potential jurors must be screened for "aversive racism" (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). In psychology, the concept of aversive racism is often coupled with the idea of implicit bias, as these racial biases may be unconscious and automatic in nature. ...
... Apart from offering arm's-length charity, aversive racists can behave just as racist as symbolicmodern racists, particularly when they think the action cannot be traced specifically back to them. They may choose to do the right thing when they know they are being watched, but when no one is around or when the norms are not clear, they often behave in racist ways (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). As trials involving racism likely include some ambiguous elements, whenever possible, these people should be eliminated from a jury. ...
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Evidence-based jury selection is a critical need because of historical and ongoing racial biases that impede a just process and outcome. As norms about bias, how to measure it, and mitigating its effects have progressed over time, new tools to help carry out this work have become available. This article synergizes the latest relevant psychological literature with the combined wisdom and experience of an interdisciplinary group of experts in racism, law, psychology, mental health, and biomedical science to provide a framework to advance the jury selection process. We describe and provide examples of how jurors should be asked direct questions about their behaviors rather than simply their attitudes. Further, we suggest that racial justice allies should be identified as potential jurors because such individuals will be best able to approach their jury duty in an impartial, antiracist manner.
... In the U.S. criminal court system, aversive racism has been a useful theory to clarify the disparate sentences between White American and Black American defendants (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). Many jury decision-making studies exploring the intersectionality of race and SES have found mock jurors consistently determined defendants of color and of low SES to be more culpable and gave them harsher punishments (e.g., more guilty verdicts and lengthier sentences) compared to defendants of color of high SES and White American defendants of any SES background (see Espinoza et al., 2015;Gleason & Harris, 1975;Willis-Esqueda et al., 2008). ...
... We hypothesized that mock jurors will demonstrate bias against a low SES, East Asian American defendant who committed a race-stereotypical crime by (1) Although results did not support hypothesis one, our findings did support hypotheses two, three, and four. Thus, our study is consistent with the theory of aversive racism (see Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005), which postulates when race is paired with a perceived negative variable (e.g., low SES), jurors will exhibit bias. Although the mock jurors in this study were not more likely to find a defendant guilty based on race, SES, and race-stereotypic crime, they were more likely to issue harsher sentences, assign greater culpability, and rate the defendant more negatively when the defendant was a low SES East Asian American who committed a race-stereotypic crime. ...
... Although this lack of awareness and investment may be due to active bigotry for some, research on prejudice reduction and ally development (e.g., Crisp & Turner, 2009;Feagin & O'Brien, 2004;Spanierman, Poteat, Whittaker, Schlosser, & Arévalo Avalos, 2017) indicates that many White people's lack of awareness and investment is a result of a lack of meaningful cross-race relationships or misunderstanding of the complexities of racism and White privilege that may be associated with lack of empathy for or emotional understanding of people of color. White people may engage in racially prejudiced behaviors even when they believe that they are not racist (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Neville, Awad, Brooks, Flores, & Bluemel, 2013). ...
... Based on contact theory (Allport, 1954;Pettigrew, 1998), prejudice reduction interventions create conditions where people engage in a positive and collaborative interaction with others who are perceived as different (outgroup members). Research on prejudice reduction has demonstrated that it is indeed possible to decrease people's feelings of anxiety toward an outgroup (Liebkind et al., 2014;Paolini et al., 2004;Stathi et al., 2012), improve their attitudes toward the outgroup (Cameron & Rutland, 2006;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Stathi, Cameron, Hartley, & Bradford, 2014;Turner et al., 2007;Vescio et al., 2003), or increase interest in interacting across difference in the future (Cameron & Rutland, 2006;Liebkind et al., 2014;Mallett & Wilson, 2010;Mazziotta, Mummendey, & Wright, 2011;Stathi et al., 2012Stathi et al., , 2014. Importantly, research indicates that contact with an outgroup member does not need to occur in vivo to be effective. ...
Article
In this study, we built upon prejudice reduction interventions research (primarily in social psychology) and ally development investigations (primarily in applied psychology). We aimed to develop an intervention to foster knowledge and attitude change identified in both areas as central to reducing prejudice and increasing intentions to promote racial justice. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether online imaginal and psychoeducational interventions could contribute to White people's needed understandings to engage in racial justice work. Additionally, if some interventions were successful, we aimed to determine which components were most effective. We used three intervention components, two of which were created for this study: imaginal contact with a person of color, learning and reflecting about racism and its impact on people of color, and increasing awareness of White privilege and positionality. We randomized participants to different combinations of the intervention components and control components to not only evaluate combined components but also dismantle the intervention, determining whether specific aspects of the intervention were more effective. Participants completed outcome measures about their attitudes and understandings prior to the intervention, immediately postintervention, and 3 weeks after completing the intervention. Findings demonstrated that the intervention and its components positively impacted outcomes of interest, with increasingly complicated learning requiring more comprehensive intervention to change. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... For example, Tawa and Kim (2011) found that a biologicalized view of race related to greater discomfort with people racially different than oneself, particularly among individuals with higher levels of intergroup anxiety. Such beliefs decrease the likelihood of racial integration and diversity by predicting an overall lack of inclination to interact with members of different racial groups, consequentially determining a racial uniformity within a group of friends (Tawa and Kim 2011); this may impede the creation of a common ingroup identity that could contribute to more positive interracial attitudes (Gaertner and Dovidio 2005). ...
... Past literature has examined how discussing race explicitly may encourage individuals to recognize their colorblind racial attitudes and the often hidden systems of privilege. Although necessary to addressing systemic racism, these recognitions may be uncomfortable, challenging the myth of meritocracy in the United States, eliciting uncomfortable feelings including fear, anxiety, and anger and evoking denial related to stances of egalitarianism based upon aversive racism, cultural biases, and stereotypes (Gaertner and Dovidio 2005;Omi and Winant 1994;Pinderhughes 1989;Smedley and Smedley 2005;Sue 2015). Prior research suggests that White people and People of Color have different awareness, understandings, and comfort level in considering processes of racialization and that race or ethnicity may have different salience related to racial, ethnocultural, or intersectional positionalities (e.g., immigration status or generation; American Psychological Association 2019; Suyemoto and Donovan 2015). ...
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Lack of clarity and questionable congruence between researcher and participant understandings of ethnicity and race challenge the validity and impact of research utilizing these concepts. We aimed to both elucidate the multiple meanings that research participants in the United States might bring to questions about ethnicity and race and examine their relation to formal conceptualizations of these variables. We used consensual qualitative research-modified analyses to conduct thematic content analysis of 151 responses to open-ended survey questions about meanings of ethnicity and race. Participants included a racially diverse sample of 53 males, 87 females, and 11 unidentified gender with a mean age of 28.71 years. Results indicated that the most frequent colloquial meanings of ethnicity included origin, culture, ancestry, related or similar to race, social similarity, religion, and identity. The most frequent colloquial meanings of race included physical characteristics, ethnicity, origin, social grouping, ancestry, and imposed categorization. Results also illustrated how participants approached defining ethnicity and race. Results support the acknowledged and critiqued colloquial confounding of ethnicity and race and indicate a lack of agreed upon meaning between lay representations/meanings and formal meanings used by social scientists. This incongruence threatens valid operationalizations for research and challenges our ability to use these concepts in interventions to promote social justice and psychological health.
... Nevertheless, a powerful route for changing implicit and explicit attitudes appears to be humans' ability to flexibly categorize and recategorize their in-groups. Rather than trying to short-circuit all tendencies toward group categorization, the common ingroup identity model argues we can utilize the positive consequences of ingroup membership to combat prejudice (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). This shifts emphasis from "decategorization" (e.g., achieving "color blindness") to "recategorization" of social identities by reclassifying formerly out-group members under a superordinate category that creates a new common ingroup. ...
... Social movements appear to be an important force for creating new ingroup identities (e.g., anti-racists, egalitarians) around mutually held values of participants and supporters. Extensive empirical validation of the common ingroup identity model suggests these new ingroup identities can reduce bias and may be especially effective when subgroup identities are retained within them (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). These salient dual identities maintain an associative link between superordinate and original group identities, which allows positive feelings toward individuals formerly considered part of an out-group to generalize to the out-group as a whole (Gaertner et al., 2016). ...
Article
Recently, interest in aggregate and population-level implicit and explicit attitudes has opened inquiry into how attitudes relate to sociopolitical phenomenon. This creates an opportunity to examine social movements as dynamic forces with the potential to generate widespread, lasting attitude change. Although collective action remains underexplored as a means of reducing bias, we advance historical and theoretical justifications for doing so. We review recent studies of aggregate attitudes through the lens of social movement theory, proposing movements as a parsimonious explanation for observed patterns. We outline a model for conceptualizing causal pathways between social movements and implicit and explicit attitudes among participants, supporters, bystanders, and opponents. We identify six categories of mechanisms through which movements may transform attitudes: changing society; media representations; intergroup contact and affiliation; empathy, perspective-taking, and reduced intergroup anxiety; social recategorization; and social identification and self-efficacy processes. Generative questions, testable hypotheses, and promising methods for future work are discussed.
... Also called 'right-wing racism'; people in this category embrace negative stereotypes about people of colour, and, for example, may believe that Black people are morally inferior and do not adhere to traditional mainstream values Aversive racism Also called 'left-wing racism'; people in this category support racial equality but have conflicted negative feelings toward people of colour, which are often unconscious/implicit (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005;Nail et al., 2003). These people may make affirmative social justice pronouncements, but still end up acting like racists, especially when situations are ambiguous, or no-one is watching. ...
... Kugelmass, 2016). Aversive racism is typically enacted by people who consider themselves egalitarian and even progressive (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005). It is human nature to favour in-groups, but aversive racism adds an extra layer of complexity because it is socially stigmatized to overtly show that one is favouring the racial in-group. ...
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Racism is a pervasive problem in Western society, leading to mental and physical unwellness in people from racialized groups. Psychology began as a racist discipline and still is. As such, most clinical training and curricula do not operate from an anti-racist framework. Although most therapists have seen clients with stress and trauma due to racialization, very few were taught how to assess or treat it. Furthermore, clinicians and researchers can cause harm when they rely on White-dominant cultural norms that do not serve people of colour well. This paper discusses how clinicians can recognize and embrace an anti-racism approach in practice, research, and life in general. Included is a discussion of recent research on racial microaggressions, the difference between being a racial justice ally and racial justice saviour, and new research on what racial allyship entails. Ultimately, the anti-racist clinician will achieve a level of competency that promotes safety and prevents harm coming to those they desire to help, and they will be an active force in bringing change to those systems that propagate emotional harm in the form of racism. Key learning aims (1) Knowledge of how racism manifests in therapy, psychology and society. (2) Understanding the difference between racial justice allyship versus saviourship. (3) Increased awareness of microaggressions in therapy. (4) Appreciation of the importance of combatting systemic racism.
... discriminatorias (Al Ramiah, et al., 2010). Por otro lado, se ha evidenciado que hay discriminación sin la existencia clara y evidente de un prejuicio (Gaertner y Dovidio, 2005). Puede ser el caso de conductas discriminatorias basadas en la ignorancia o en la invisibilización de las necesidades específicas de determinados grupos de inmigrantes. ...
... En general, en los ámbitos donde las personas no tienen que responder por sus actos, en los que existe una clara asimetría de poder, donde el trato desigual es ambiguo y puede evitarse que se considere discriminatorio, es más probable que aparezcan prácticas discriminatorias (Gaertner y Dovidio, 2005). Si una persona considera que un trato desigual y desfavorecedor hacia una persona o un grupo es legítimo, normal y moralmente justificado, es más probable que lo apoye, no lo condene o, directamente, lo lleve a cabo, aunque tenga consecuencias negativas para las víctimas. ...
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Resultados de la investigación sobre las experiencias de discriminación de personas inmigrantes residentes en Tenerife
... Although each version has distinctive features, they share one common view: A person who endorses egalitarian values and considers oneself to be nonprejudiced could hold unconscious negative feelings toward people of color. For example, Whites may show anxiety or discomfort during interactions with Blacks or other marginalized group members (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005). They may also demonstrate unconscious bias during intergroup interactions (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005), decision-making processes (Minero and Espinoza, 2016), or public policy endorsements (Sears and Henry, 2003). ...
... For example, Whites may show anxiety or discomfort during interactions with Blacks or other marginalized group members (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005). They may also demonstrate unconscious bias during intergroup interactions (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005), decision-making processes (Minero and Espinoza, 2016), or public policy endorsements (Sears and Henry, 2003). These studies illuminate the reality of the types of discrimination people of color face. ...
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This study explored the priming effects of discriminated experiences on emotion recognition accuracy of Asian Americans. We hypothesized that when Asian Americans were reminded of discriminated experiences due to their race, they would detect subtle negative emotional expressions on White faces more accurately than would Asian Americans who were primed with a neutral topic. This priming effect was not expected to emerge in detecting negative facial expressions on Asian faces. To test this hypothesis, 108 participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: write about their experiences with racial discrimination (experimental) or write about a neutral topic (control). Then, they were given an emotion recognition test consisting of White and Asian faces. The current study found a significant interaction effect of priming condition by target race. When Asian Americans were reminded of discriminated experiences, they displayed heightened sensitivity to negative emotional expressions on White faces, but not to the negative expressions on Asian faces. The implications of these findings were discussed.
... Whereas Allport focused more on the emotional aspects of prejudice, such as for instance societally-driven emotional commitment, Pettigrew made serious and extensive efforts to integrate also the relative weight of the emotional vs. cognitive components of prejudice into the broad picture (e.g., Tropp & Pettigrew, 2005; see also Stangor et al., 1991, for a similar though differentiated approach). Complementing these conceptual and research avenues, some scholars brought prejudiced affect and cognitions to bear on intergroup emotions (Mackie & Smith, 2003;Mackie et al., 2009;Smith & Mackie, 2008), whereas others concentrated on strategies of prejudice reduction both in its affective and cognitive components (e.g., Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Hewstone et al., 1992; see also Allport, 1954, andPettigrew, 1997). ...
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This article reports empirical findings on the strength and dissociation of experimentally induced cognitive vs. emotional responses to instigators of prejudice towards people affected by mental illness. Drawing on emotional intensity theory (EIT: Brehm, 1999), the experiment (N = 80) shows how growing and apparently reassuring reasons (i.e., the deterrents) for not being prejudiced towards ‘the mentally ill’ differentially affect the intensity of cognitive vs. emotional prejudiced responses. Such reassuring information was conveyed to participants as the increasing likelihood that ordinary people typically recover, if affected, from mental illness (likelihood not mentioned, low [5%], moderate [50%], high [70%]). Whereas the intensity of cognitive responses tended to diminish linearly with growing reasons for not being prejudiced (η2 = .06), the intensity of emotional responses followed closely EIT’s predictions, and varied as a cubic function of deterrence information (η2 = .61), that is, of information ironically intended to reassure participants. These findings substantiate EIT in two important respects. For one, they consistently reveal, and nicely conceptually replicate, EIT’s predicted cubic pattern of paradoxical results for emotional responses with respect to prejudiced affect. Most importantly, however, they also illustrate—theoretically and empirically—the expected dissociation between emotional and cognitive responses to deterrents. In our view, such a dynamic separation and convergence of cognitive and affective components of prejudice has the full potential to inspire new theoretical insight and understanding, theory-based research, and the development of evidence�based intervention practices. Keywords: deterrence; emotional intensity; cognitive vs. emotional prejudice; intensity of motivation; paradoxical affect; emotional and adaptation.
... Groups that enjoy fewer social and economic advantages will be pathologically stereotyped in a way that helps explain inequities, for example, "laziness" or "lack of intelligence" will be advanced to explain lower college graduation rates, rather than in-group favoritism or structural racism. Gaertner and Dovidio (2005) describe aversive racism, a type of racism seen in individuals who support racial equality but have conflicted, often unconscious, negative biases and feelings toward minorities. These attitudes result in biased (racist) behaviors in ambiguous situations, when expectations are unclear or when stigmatized minorities hold positions that violate social expectations based on the traditional racial hierarchy (e.g., an African American male provost). ...
Chapter
Racial conflict at universities across the nation has become the focus of academic concern and media attention, yet too often administrators and faculty do not understand the problems and have little insight as to how to approach solutions. Victims of racially hostile environments may experience diagnosable psychiatric symptoms including traumatization, anxiety, depression, extended periods of disability, and even suicidal ideation. Improving harmful race relations on campuses is not easy but necessary. Using the available evidence and real-life examples, we discuss actions that departments and universities can employ to improve the racial climate and thereby promote ethnic and racial diversity. Actions discussed include recruitment and retention of minority faculty and academic advisors, adequate academic diversity course offerings, better integration of diversity issues into existing courses, forums to facilitate conversations about inequity, diversity trainings for faculty, removal of environmental microaggressions, and the responsible use of student course evaluations. Additional actions include willingness to listen to the experiences of those suffering as a result of the adverse climate, responding to perpetrators as needed, and taking action.
... Our findings suggest that interventions should be multifaceted and foster emotional and relational connection to experiences of oppression that are not experienced by those engaging in the intervention. While there is robust evidence that prejudice reduction and implicit bias interventions are effective in changing short-term attitudes toward marginalized groups (e.g., Cameron & Rutland, 2006;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Stathi et al., 2014;Turner et al., 2007;Vescio et al., 2003), sustained change in attitudes requires more intense and continuous efforts (e.g., see Dovidio et al., 2017). Through such efforts, it seems possible to establish implicit egalitarian goals related to awareness and understanding, and to reduce or behaviorally correct for the impacts of bias (i.e., take action against identified bias; see Dovidio et al.'s, 2017 review). ...
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Allies are individuals who take action to end oppression in areas in which they have privilege. Although research on ally development is growing, prior research has often conceptualized allies in a binary fashion (privileged or oppressed), focused on only one specific area of privilege (e.g., race, as in White privilege), been limited to one specific context of development (e.g., college), or examined influences rather than developmental processes. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach to address the question “What is the process of being and becoming an ally?” Through a constant comparative analysis approach, we analyzed 28 semi-structured depth interviews with community participants age 26 to 73 from diverse racial, social status, and sexual identities. Results indicated that developing as allies was a lifelong process, with iterative cycles of understandings and action. Understandings of privilege and oppression were developed through education and relational learning and included understandings of concepts and systems, personal positionality, and cognitive and emotional empathy. These understandings contributed a sense of capability and multiple motivations (responsibility and integrity, relational connectedness, and personal healing and growth) that moved participants into action. Taking action also involved an iterative cycle, including active processes of deciding whether and how to intervene; action engagement with people who are privileged as well as those who are oppressed; and evaluating action. This second cycle catalyzed processes of seeking further understandings. Findings from this study have implications for future research examining ally development across the lifespan and developing interventions to foster ally development to advance social justice.
... 4. Κατά τους Gaertner & Dovidio (2005), τα άτομα που νιώθουν ρατσισμό αποστροφής εμφανίζονται να συμπαθούν τα θύματα που έχουν υποστεί αδικία στο παρελθόν και να πιστεύουν στη φυλετική ισότητα, ενώ, ταυτόχρονα, διακατέχονται από αρνητικά (ενδεχομένως ασυνείδητα) συναισθήματα και πεποιθήσεις για τους μαύρους. ...
... However, despite a growing body of evidence explicating racial trauma, clinicians face several barriers that make it difficult to properly identify racial trauma within their clients of color. For many clinicians, it is the general lack of awareness and knowledge of the deleterious physical and psychological impacts of discrimination on POC, leading them to incorrectly attribute observed traumatization to other causes (Carter, 2007;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Parham, 2002). For others, assessing discriminatory distress in patients from different ethnoracial groups may prove uncomfortable, resulting in awkward, potentially harmful clinician-client interactions or avoidance of the topic by the clinician altogether (Miller at al., 2015;Sue et al., 2010). ...
Article
Racism has been linked to the development or worsening of mental health disorders. When posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms occur due to experiences of racism, it may be referred to as race-based traumatic stress or racial trauma. More work is needed to quantify the distress experienced by those affected. The present study aimed to assess the validity of the Racial Trauma Scale (RTS), a new clinical tool for the measurement of trauma-related symptoms arising from race-based maltreatment of people of color (POC). Using CloudResearch (formerly Amazon Mechanical TurkPrime), 941 diverse participants across the United States were included in the study—POC (n = 665) and non-Hispanic White participants (n = 276). The results validated a three-factor structure, with 10 items on each component, for a total of 30 items. The three components can be described as Lack of Safety, Negative Cognitions, and Difficulty Coping. Reliability of the RTS and the three subscales were excellent, and the RTS scale was positively correlated with other measures of mental health and trauma. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in RTS scores between POC and non-Hispanic White participants. Based on these findings, the RTS appears to be a valid means of quantifying racial trauma symptoms in POC. The ultimate goal of the RTS is to identify racial trauma to improve the mental health of marginalized racial/ethnic groups. The RTS can be used in clinical or research settings to ascertain racial trauma in clients and inform treatment.
... Negative associations tied to "foreign" names-rather than nationalities-seems to signify an even more subtle, hidden form of bias. An increase in such subtle biases overtime ties in with the premises of what has been labeled "aversive" racism: Over the past decades, overtly expressed forms of racial prejudice have decreased, or-rather-evolved into more implicit, covert, and "aversive" forms of racism (Dovidio and Gaertner 2000;Gaertner and Dovidio 2005). With this, subtle and implicit forms of bias have become arguably more powerful and explanatory when studying mediated content (Mastro, Behm-Morawitz, and Kopacz 2008;Jackson 2019). ...
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The perceived sexual threat of ethnic outgroups has been argued to contribute to anti-immigrant attitudes within societies. The current study investigates to what extent news media might contribute to such negative outgroup perceptions by analyzing implicit sexual threat associations in Dutch news. The study draws on a sample of more than two million news articles published between 2008 and 2018 in five major Dutch newspapers. To identify implicit bias in this corpus, we use word embeddings—an advanced language modeling technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The results show that ethnic outgroups (i.e., nationalities that were most prominently represented among asylum applications in the Netherlands during the refugee crisis) are associated more strongly with sexual threat than ethnic ingroups. These findings proved robust across a diverse set of outgroups and ingroup nationalities and names, and point to the existence of considerable implicit bias in the coverage of ethnic minorities. Moreover, the sexual threat associated with Arabic names has grown stronger since the “refugee crisis”. Such implicit biases reflect and potentially reinforces individuals’ implicit associations between ethnic minorities and sexual threat, potentially explaining growing anti-immigration attitudes, especially since the refugee crisis.
... Social psychological literature (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005) has proposed that a way to reduce prejudice is to change the representation from "US" and "THEM" to a more inclusive "WE". Indeed, prejudice towards members of outgroups is reduced when these are included in a common identity ingroup (Gaunt, 2009;Riek, Mania, Gaertner, McDonald & Lamoreaux, 2010), but the distinctiveness of the two groups should also be maintained (Crisp, Stone & Hall, 2006;Dovidio, Gaertner, Riek, Johnson & Houlette, 2006;Dovidio, Gaertner & Saguy 2007;Gonzalez & Brown 2003). ...
Article
The present experimental study, with Greek participants, investigates whether some common ingroups that potentially can include immigrants, in interaction with intergroup competition present more threat for local populations. Results indicate that when the common ingroup is defined as maintaining different memberships (“inhabitants of the country”), redirecting competition towards other outgroups ( other countries) is beneficial to perceptions of migrants. On the contrary, when the common ingroup is presented as blending memberships and presenting commonalities between groups ( “workers”), redirecting competition towards an outgroup ( employers) could be detrimental and produce almost similar results with an intergroup situation where common membership is not salient. These findings have implications both in relation to social psychological theory of Common Ingroup Identity but also in relation to immigrants’ requests for identification and integration.
... Research on normative approaches for reducing biases is rather scarce. Clearly defined social norms prevented discrimination of Whites against Blacks (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005) and information about the peer group's beliefs influenced racial stereotyping (Stangor et al., 2001). Being exposed to feedback about more favorable stereotypes about African Americans held by other students led to more positive and less negative attitudes toward African Americans one week later (Stangor et al., 2001). ...
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In the hiring process, older job seekers are often at a disadvantage when compared to younger job seekers: They receive less callbacks to applications, less invitations to job interviews, and fewer job offers. This phenomenon has often been demonstrated by varying explicit cues such as the date of birth. Less studied, but also influential are implicit age cues (e.g., age‐stereotypic characteristics or activities in applicant profiles). Across a series of three studies, we addressed both forms of age cues in job applications. We explored the influence of explicit age information (20 years or 60 years) and implicit age profiles (age‐neutral, young, or old job‐relevant characteristics) on hiring decisions in hypothetical scenarios and tested the effect of a short anti‐discrimination prompt. Applicants’ age (i.e., the explicit age cue) reduced the hiring likelihood ratings irrespective of implicit age profiles. The implicit age profiles influenced the hypothetical hiring decisions by their age association and by the stereotypical relevance of individual characteristics (e.g., charismatic as an age‐neutral characteristic is stereotypically relevant for a leadership position). Applicants with an implicit old profile were less likely hired than applicants with an implicit young profile when the hiring goal was to increase profit and when no particular job status was specified. The anti‐discrimination prompt significantly reduced age discrimination. Ageism in the hiring process is not only a matter of explicit age cues, but also of implicit age cues. Raising awareness for ageism and prompting to disregard age could well diminish discriminatory behavior also in real hiring decisions.
... Later it was incorporated into CRT analysis (Davis, 1999(Davis, /2000Sol orzano, 1998) and studies of counseling-client relations. Described as race-tinged insults that are 'subtle, stunning, often automatic' (Sue et al., 2007, p. 272) micro-aggressions are a form of aversive racism (Dovidio, 2001;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005) in that they often occur at the unconscious level of the perpetrator. We were subjected to concentrated levels of Ivan's racially micro-aggressive 'inquisitiveness' due to our group travel arrangement. ...
Article
This paper details four encounters we experienced while traveling in Cuba as part of a multiethnic delegation of US social justice advocates. The encounters were linked by a common thread of race, which made them noteworthy and uncomfortably familiar to us as Black women. Since our return to the US, we have reflected on the four encounters and concluded that, as a collective, they reinforce a lesson and highlight a fundamental challenge that is at the core of the work of all critical multicultural and social justice educators.
... Reminding non-immigrants that they share the identity of humanity with immigrants may allow this outgroup to be seen as an ingroup, potentially reducing anti-immigrant prejudice (cf. Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). Indeed, people who endorse "Identification With All Humanity" report valuing the lives of outgroup members just as much as ingroup members (McFarland et al., 2012). ...
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The present research examined the degree to which symbolic and realistic threat perceptions of documented and undocumented Mexican immigrants predicted support for willingness to provide basic resources (e.g., food, water) in detention centers and agreement with policies that restrict Mexican immigration through detention and deportation. Our study recruited 191 participants online via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Results showed that undocumented immigrants were more realistically, but not symbolically threatening than their documented counterparts. Intergroup threat predicted lower willingness to provide basic resources in detention centers and greater support of punitive policies. This finding was not moderated by whether participants evaluated documented or undocumented immigrants. Once we accounted for social dominance orientation (SDO), political attitudes, and contact with Mexican immigrants, only SDO remained a significant predictor of attitudes toward resources in detention centers, while all variables predicted more support for punitive policies. These findings highlight the roles of symbolic and realistic threats, SDO, political attitudes, and intergroup contact in endorsing punitive immigration policies.
... Experts and users are positive about the accessibility of this clinical interview for clinicians. For one, many mental health providers are currently unaware of the potential impacts of racial discrimination or may inappropriately attribute racial trauma symptoms with another cause, with this measure shedding light on this issue [40,41]. Further, the DSMrelated framework with which this measure employs may help to broaden the dominant understanding of PTSD and validate the psychological distress felt by POC as a result of racism. ...
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Purpose of Review Racial trauma is a severe psychological response to the cumulative traumatic effect of racism. This review synthesizes emerging theoretical and empirical evidence of racial trauma, outlines the mechanisms, and lists available assessment and treatment options for racial trauma. Recent Findings Emerging evidence illustrates that these cumulative experiences can result in the cognitive, behavioral, and affective presentations of PTSD in people of color. As a result, the evidence to inform the assessment, treatment, and implications of racial trauma has grown exponentially. There are several validated interview and self-report instruments for clinicians to better understand client’s experiences of racism, discrimination, and traumatic stress. There are several emerging treatment options for people of color experiencing racial trauma. However, given the scarcity of literature, we need more studies to establish the validity and efficacy of available assessment and treatment options. Summary Emerging and promising advancements can extend our knowledge on racial trauma, including incorporating the cumulative and lasting negative impacts of racism on people of color in how we define PTSD. Additionally, strengthening clinical training and continued education programs for professionals to hone their capacity to discuss the impact of racism effectively administer appropriate assessment tools and implement interventions specific to racial trauma.
... Aversive racism is a phenomenon in which individuals from more socially privileged groups experience anxiety and discomfort toward other racial groups and attempt to disengage from or avoid interracial interactions. This process of disengagement often harms individuals of color (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). ...
Article
The author reviews pervasive racial biases in psychoanalysis, spanning from overt instances of racial judgement to the normalized tendencies of internalized racist societal structures on individuals. A personalized account is given addressing how such issues have led to a hesitancy in the author— a Black and Hispanic psychiatry resident—to pursue psychoanalytic training. Institutes can more appropriately acknowledge how racism has affected their patients and the theories of the mind that are commonly promulgated. Academic institutions need to actively engage in creating awareness of racial bias, microaggressions, and uncovering unconscious negative attitudes. This will aid in the development of educational approaches that strive toward racial equality and inclusiveness.
... Despite the continued prevalence and pernicious effects of everyday racism in the US, many individuals, such as those belonging to racially majoritized and privileged groups, are less aware of the reality of racism, especially if its manifestation can be considered ambiguous (i.e., the discriminatory message or behavior can be interpreted to be due to other reasons; Carter & Murphy, 2015;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005;Nelson et al., 2012). On one hand, the scholarship has provided abundant evidence that racial and ethnic minoritized individuals report frequent experiences of everyday subtle behaviors that communicate negative and/ or hostile messages towards a group or individual (Nadal et al., 2015;Solorzano et al., 2000;Sue, 2010;Sue et al., 2007), also called microaggressions (Pierce et al., 1978;Sue, 2010;Sue et al., 2007). ...
... On distingue généralement deux types de formes d'expression des biais intergroupes : d'une part une expression flagrante et d'autre part une expression subtile. Selon les auteurs et le type de biais étudié, cette distinction prend différentes appellations : racisme dominant vs. aversif (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005), sexisme hostile vs. bienveillant (Glick & Fiske, 1996), préjugés flagrants vs. subtils (Pettigrew & Meertens, 1995) ou encore racisme et sexisme à l'ancienne vs. moderne (Swim, Aikin, Hall, & Hunter, 1995). Malgré la diversité des modèles et leurs spécificités, on retrouve un certain nombre d'éléments caractérisant chacune des formes d'expression. ...
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Ce chapitre questionne la notion de biais "subtils" versus "flagrants" dans les discours sur les groupes et l'expression verbale des préjugés. Il propose que les biais langagiers souvent décrits comme "subtils" ou "implicites" dans la littérature sont en fait clairement perçus et imputés à la personne qui les exprime (e.g., comme une intention de favoriser ou de dénigrer un groupe). En revanche, comparativement aux biais dits "flagrants", les biais dits "subtils" présenteraient la caractéristique d'être acceptable socialement et donc plus facilement proférables. Cette analyse est mise à l'épreuve dans une étude sur le Biais Linguistique Intergroupe (LIB). Les résultats soutiennent la pertinence du raisonnement théorique.
... Similarly, Gaertner and Dovidio (2005) argue that adults cannot express their discriminatory behaviors as explicitly as children due to the notion of "good people do not discriminate." Hooton (1937), therefore, says that people try to legitimize their prejudices and discriminatory behaviors. ...
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The present study examined the effect of eye movements during the recruitment process with eye-tracking technology as an indicator of negative implicit attitudes against disadvantaged groups. We composed eleven fictional resumes, and we asked the recruitment experts to hire the most suitable candidate for the position in the laboratory environment. The study used a mixed-methods approach. First of all, we evaluated the psychosocial characteristics of the participants. Then, we recorded the eye movements of the participants during the recruitment process. Lastly, we held interviews with the participants about their choices. We concluded that the recruitment experts had spent more time examining the social identities of the candidates than the candidate's work experiences and educational background. Furthermore, we also found that the disadvantageous social identities of these candidates were more influential in the recruitment process. As a result, we can say that our implicit attitudes affect our behaviors and preferences, and eye movements can be a useful tool in predicting intentions and implicit attitudes.
... In sum, the common ingroup identity model posits that social-group recategorization, to form a common group identity across separate subgroups, can reduce a relevant aspect of mental illness stigmatization, namely stereotyping [15]. Furthermore, common ingroup identities can be formed based on the perception of different characteristics such as gender, race, or age [14]. Especially vulnerable to ingroup bias and outgroup castigation are people with mental illness, who tend to be branded as dangerous, blameworthy, and untrusted [48]. ...
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Objective Both continuum beliefs (i.e., that mental disorder exists on a spectrum of normative behavior patterns) and the perception of similarities to a person with schizophrenia have shown mixed effects on reducing mental illness stigma. To our knowledge, this is the first study to address continuum beliefs and the perception of similarities to a person with depression in the context of depression-related stigma. Methods This work is based on an online intervention study in an ethnically diverse sample recruited on Amazon MTurk including previously unanalyzed qualitive responses. Within this cross-sectional, mixed-methods online investigation (N = 304), we examined the relation of perceived similarities to continuum beliefs, social distance, and negative stereotypes in relation to a vignette about depression. A randomly assigned continuum beliefs intervention attempted to induce continuum beliefs about depression. An open-writing task asked participants to describe similarities and/or differences between themselves and the person depicted in the vignette. Results The continuum beliefs intervention was associated to a greater number of perceived similarities to and fewer perceived differences from the target vignette. Moreover, perceived similarities were associated with increased continuum beliefs, less social distance, and less-negative stereotypes. Perceived differences from a person with depression were associated with increased social distance. Limitations Even though the continuum beliefs intervention did not significantly alter stigma measures directly, expressed continuum beliefs were associated to decreased mental illness stigma. Conclusions The findings emphasize that perceived similarities to an outgroup member (i.e., a person with depression) might augment the stigma-reducing mechanism of continuum beliefs.
... It refers to a super-ordinate identity through which members of different groups are induced to perceive themselves as a more inclusive and superordinate group instead of two different groups (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000). Extending the Common Ingroup Identity Model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005) and acknowledging the difference in power between groups, a Dual Identity Model has been proposed Gonzalez & Brown, 2003). It introduces the majority and minority perspectives, showing that minority groups re-categorize themselves as members of a more inclusive category without losing their distinctive social identity, thus developing a dual identity. ...
... It refers to a super-ordinate identity through which members of different groups are induced to perceive themselves as a more inclusive and superordinate group instead of two different groups (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2000). Extending the Common Ingroup Identity Model (Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005) and acknowledging the difference in power between groups, a Dual Identity Model has been proposed Gonzalez & Brown, 2003). It introduces the majority and minority perspectives, showing that minority groups re-categorize themselves as members of a more inclusive category without losing their distinctive social identity, thus developing a dual identity. ...
Article
Immigrant communities in Chile face barriers to their integration, in the form of discrimination and social exclusion. Psychology of liberation claims that, when minority groups experience oppressing conditions, community engagement can be a path toward integration. Nevertheless, community participation has been mainly studied in North America and Europe. Through a concurrent nested mixed-method design, this study explores the relation between community engagement and perception of integration of Peruvian immigrants in Santiago de Chile. One hundred and ten Peruvians (age range 19 to 52 years), engaged in migrant organizations (MOs), completed a self-report questionnaire that aims to identify the predictors of integration based on psychosocial perspective (education), acculturation (national identity and ethnic identity), and liberation psychology literature (perceived institutional sensitivity, knowledge of the Chilean culture and laws). Additionally, 18 Peruvian leaders (ages 31 to 56 years) were interviewed in order to explore intergroup relations and organizational strategies that their MOs use to enhance integration. An interesting and novel finding points to the role of a Latin-American identity that appears to have potential negative consequences in maintaining the status quo for the social exclusion that Peruvians currently face.
... From a critical hiring perspective, the consequences of idiosyncratic preferences cannot be overstated. In larger society, aversive racism explains how white evaluators with self-reported egalitarian beliefs nevertheless exhibit negative appraisals of minoritized populations through mechanisms of rationalization, avoidance, and shifting preferences (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2004;Gaertner & Dovidio, 2005). Evidence of aversive racism has been demonstrated in numerous decision-making contexts, such as emergency interventions, policy support, and hiring (Dovidio & Gaertner, 2004). ...
Article
Various concerns regarding the vitality and racial/ethnic composition of the academic profession have prompted new study of faculty search committees and hiring paradigms, most notably examining the term “fit” in candidate appraisals. Yet no study utilizes a candidate evaluation framework to investigate whether or not faculty members truly assess for fit, or if these assessments stifle diversification processes, especially in light of pervasive institutional efforts to reform faculty hiring. This study uses a critical person-environment fit framework and multiple case study methods to investigate how faculty search committee members individually evaluate and collectively select prospective early-career faculty. Results indicate that fit, as system of assumptions, practices, and tactics designed to evaluate and select candidates based on organizational needs, was minimal in faculty searches. Instead, faculty relied heavily on idiosyncratic preferences to evaluate research, teaching, and service credentials, which also contained criterion that directly and indirectly averted diversity. Findings reveal how the review and selection of candidates is as much, if not more, about individual committee preferences than organizational demands or congruence.
... Systemic, interpersonal, and internalized racism are pervasive yet is often not explicitly named (Hardeman et al., 2018;Metzl and Hansen, 2018). Despite decades old calls to confront racism (Jones, 2000), the topic provokes discomfort and defensive reactions (Gaertner and Dovidio, 2005)). Research on bias within mental health professionals found that when confronted with their bias, mental health professionals experienced a range of emotions including denial and avoidance. ...
Article
The importance of advancing anti-racism within research has gained recent attention. Academic medical organizations have attempted to increase diversity while seeking structural reforms to advance equity. However, efforts remain constrained while persons from racialized groups continue to experience discrimination. Mental health research is not immune to the experience of inequity. There is ample evidence that mental health research is underfunded compared to other types of health research. In addition, many racialized researchers and research staff have experienced different forms of implicit, explicit, and structural racism and are finding the courage to share their stories. Such experiences of racial trauma have a disastrous impact on the well-being of mental health researchers and adversely influence our overall mission. In this commentary, we also provide tangible and practical suggestions for academic leaders in the field. First, leaders must name racism and resist fragility and defensive reactions when the topic of racism in research is broached. Second, leaders should seek to foster a culture of belonging on teams where feedback from all is welcomed and encouraged. Third, leaders should seek structural change to ensure that teams are diverse and the adverse influence of systemic forms of racial discrimination on research our mitigated. Fourth, leaders must center the voices and perspective of those impacted by racial discrimination when developing, implementing, and evaluating their anti-racism work.
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The death penalty is a controversial topic that has attracted attention broadly, from diverse groups including lawmakers, religious leaders, and the general public. Social scientists have also been intrigued by the phenomenon and have studied many aspects related to the penalty. Several of these bodies of research are the focus of this chapter. First, the chapter begins with a discussion of the social science-based explanations for the changes in practice and sentiment that the death penalty has experienced. Over time, the death penalty has become less frequently used, and by fewer and fewer jurisdictions. While many people object to the penalty, others defend its use. Scholars have explained these trends. Second, social science has suggested a number of human tendencies that are adaptive in general life, but inadvertently affect sentiment toward criminals and the death penalty. For instance, people have stereotypes, heuristics, and attributions that facilitate quick decision-making, but could also lead to biased decisions. Third, social scientists have studied the trial itself. The very process of selecting a jury can affect the trial outcome, as can jurors’ consideration of both legal and extralegal factors. Both the prosecutor and defense attorney can also affect the trial outcome in many ways. Fourth, the chapter discusses the roles and research related to offenders’ experiences on death row. Psychologists assess offenders’ competency to be executed, study their well-being, and provide them with mental health services. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the possible future of death penalty law and accompanying research.
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Der vorliegende Beitrag beschäftigt sich mit der aktuellen Forschung zu ethnischer Diskriminierung auf dem Arbeitsmarkt. Dabei liegt der Fokus auf sozialpsychologischen und sozialwissenschaftlichen Erklärungsansätzen und auf den Ergebnissen sogenannter Korrespondenztests, die sich zunehmender Beliebtheit erfreuen und robuste Hinweise auf ethnische Diskriminierung bei der Auswahl von BewerberInnen geben.
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Higher education institutions welcome international students because of their status as resources for fostering intercultural competencies among college students and because of financial benefits the institutions receive. The author in this ethnographic case study investigated the level of academic expectations undergraduate international students from Japan received from faculty members in a U.S. teacher education program. Findings reveal that the program's faculty members had low expectations of these international students. Their expectations were reflected in the participants' receiving good grades, praise, and advice which told them not to worry, but failed to address their academic weaknesses. It appears that the faculty members' niceness ironically contributed to a trajectory of academic inequity and produced negative educational outcomes.
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In this article, we describe how the black ceiling—upheld by the powerful institutional logics of patriarchy and white supremacy, inordinately challenging and interlocking systemic barriers to leadership advancement—leads to the dearth of Afro-Diasporic women in senior corporate leadership positions and pathologizes Afro-Diasporic women as multiple outsiders. As a result, Afro-Diasporic women’s well-being in the workplace is compromised and many adopt coping and survival strategies to navigate a myriad of relational and environmental phenomena, such as spirit murder, emotional taxation, social closure, white privilege, and white fragility. To navigate and ameliorate these dynamics, we advance several individual, relational, and organizational strategies that support Afro-Diasporic women thriving in the workplace.
Article
This entry introduces the common ingroup identity model. In intergroup interactions, it is possible for ingroup members to make biased judgments toward both ingroup and outgroup. That is, individuals tend to evaluate their ingroup members positively and outgroup members negatively. The common ingroup identity model proposes that intergroup bias can be reduced by transforming the group boundaries from “us” versus “them” into a more general “we” that includes all the former ingroup and outgroup members. By recategorizing the former outgroup members as part of the larger ingroup, individuals attribute positive evaluations to all members of the new ingroup which includes both former ingroup and outgroup. As a result, stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination against the former outgroup will be reduced. Current media psychology research in the domain of the common ingroup identity model was also discussed.
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There is limited work regarding multiple indicators of defendant social status in the legal system (e.g., power and SES). The present study investigated the influence of defendant social status on case judgments in a first-degree rape case. The experiment used a 2 (defendant power: high vs. low) x 2 (defendant SES: high vs. low) x 2 (participant gender) between-subjects design. A sample of 282 community members were recruited via Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. Participants were presented with a case summary, asked to make guilt and credibility judgments, complete the system justification gender scale (gender SJ: Jost & Kay, 2005), and answer standard demographic questions. Main effects were found such that female participants and defendants rated higher in power (i.e., legal authority), led to increases in pro-victim judgments (i.e., guilty verdicts). No main effect of defendant SES was found. Further, the effects of power and wealth were mediated by victim credibility, such that increases in defendant power led to increased victim credibility, raising the number of guilty verdicts. However, this mediation varied based on participants’ gender SJ scores. Overall findings indicate that when a defendant was rated as high in legal authority, participants viewed rape as an abuse of power, and/or the victim as braver (i.e., credible) for coming forward.
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ABSTRACT Building off of previous research, the study undertook to design a taxonomic classification: defining, codifying, and validating microaggressions experienced by sexual minorities. The resultant classification is intended to serve as a conceptual framework if utilized to effectuate an assessment tool assessing microaggressions against sexual minorities. Initial points of interest included an overview of complex historical shifts increasingly traversing the present zeitgeist, and additionally, theoretical justifications for the chosen methodological approach and subsequent suppositions. This served two purposes; the first availed the reader with a contextual narrative to help facilitate a conceptual overview of the target group(s), and additionally, orient readers to the theoretical underpinnings of this study, preserving the integrity and trustworthiness of the present research. Second, variegated extant research was reviewed and elucidated to explore and explain the covert and insidious phenomenon. Concurrently, research related to racial microaggressions was included due to the abundant and judicious literature, furthering one’s conceptualization of microaggressions as well as fortifying external validation among relevant sexual minority categories. Heterogeneous literature and the deconstruction of sexual minority microaggressions were examined, interpreted, and presented. Attention to operational definitions—consistent or otherwise, implicit forms of communication, and sociocultural relationships and interactions, including any purported causal and risk factors were investigated. This study identified categorical constructs related to sexual minority microaggressions, tools for design of an assessment measure, and a methodological approach, served to validate and substantiate a future proposed measurement using additional studies were discussed and recommended.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate how the race salience effect influences juror decision making when manipulated through defense attorney statements. The literature is unclear regarding the ability of attorney statements to manipulate race salience and the individual influence of opening statements and closing arguments in creating the effect. In the current study, 207 undergraduate White mock jurors participated in a simulated criminal assault case in which defendant race was made salient through defense attorney statements (through opening statements, closing arguments, or both). Results indicated a race salience effect for verdict choice when race was salient and suggested that closing arguments may be particularly important in creating this effect. Our results also suggest that race salience creates an outgroup favoritism effect rather than the equalizing effect identified in early research. Implications of these findings for the race salience and juror decision making literature are discussed along with implications for actual court cases.
Article
Black male students on college campuses report being frequently misperceived as student-athletes. Across three studies, we tested the role of perceivers’ racial and gendered biases in categorization of Black and White students and student-athletes and the subsequent evaluative consequences. Participants viewed faces of actual Black and White male and female undergraduates who were either non-athlete students or student- athletes and made binary judgments about whether the undergraduate was a student or an athlete. We found an overall bias to judge Black male undergraduates to be student-athletes, driven by Black male students being more likely to be misperceived as student-athletes than White male students. Furthermore, male targets perceived to be student-athletes were rated lower on academic ability (Studies 2 and 3). In contrast, we found an overall bias to judge female undergraduates as students. Implications for how perceiver bias plays a dual role in negatively affecting academic climates for underrepresented groups are discussed.
Article
Politicians frequently use political speech to foster hostility toward immigrants, a strategy that shapes political preferences and behavior and feeds the success of the populist right. Whether political speech can be used to foster tolerance of immigrants, however, remains unexplored. We identify three mechanisms by which political speech could increase tolerance: (1) stressing in-group conceptions that highlight commonalities with immigrants; (2) emphasizing inclusiveness as an in-group norm; and (3) providing information that counters anti-immigrant stereotypes. Using quotes from US politicians in two survey experiments, we find that pro-immigrant speech that stresses inclusive norms or counters negative stereotypes about immigrants leads to more tolerant attitudes (but not behavior) toward immigrants. These effects are small and detectable only in large samples.
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This chapter is concerned with acknowledging the mental health issues that Black men face in higher education. Research is presented and blended with lived experiences of being a full-time employee and doctoral student on a primarily white campus. This chapter focuses on the emotional trauma of Black men, imposter phenomenon traits, and offers strategies for healing from critical race theorist. Strategies to keep higher education institutions accountable for the hiring and retaining of Black men are also discussed.
Article
People’s news diets are shaped by a diverse set of selection biases that may be unconscious in nature. This study investigates whether providing individuals with information about such unconscious biases attenuates selective exposure. More specifically, in two selective-exposure experiments among Dutch ingroup members focusing on ethnic (N = 286) and religious (N = 277) minorities, we expose individuals to their unconscious prejudices as measured by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) before documenting their news-selection patterns. Findings indicate that the effectiveness of this awareness-inducing strategy depends upon existing levels of implicit and explicit prejudice and overly expressed acceptance of the IAT scores. This implies that raising awareness of implicit prejudice works as an effective strategy for fighting biased news selection for some, but may backfire for others, and should therefore only be implemented with caution and attention for explicit considerations.
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This article explores linkages between sensory experiences of food and music in light of recent research from gastrophysics, 4E cognition (i.e. embodied, embedded, extended and enactive) and ecological perception theory. Drawing on these research disciplines, this article outlines a model for multisensory artistic practice, and a taxonomy of cross-domain creative strategies, based on the identification of sensory affordances between the domains of food and music. Food objects are shown to ‘afford’ cross-domain interrelationships with sound stimuli based on our capacity to sense their material characteristics, and to make sense of them through prior experience and contextual association. We propose that multisensory artistic works can themselves afford extended forms of sensory awareness by synthesizing and mediating stimuli across the selected domains, in order to form novel, or unexpected sensory linkages. These ideas are explored with reference to an ongoing artistic research project entitled ‘Unusual ingredients’, creating new music to complement and enhance the characteristics of selected food.
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Newcomers to a country can strongly benefit from having positive intergroup contact with host country residents. Often, however, such contact does not occur. Norms surrounding intergroup contact between newcomers and host country residents were explored over three studies. Correlational relationships among positive perceived contact norms, positive attitudes, and behavioural intentions supporting contact were demonstrated over multiple studies. Further, an experimental manipulation indicating higher (vs. lower and control) contact between host country residents and newcomers predicted behavioural intentions toward future intergroup contact through heightened intergroup contact norms and more positive attitudes toward newcomers. Implications of using norms as a means to impact intergroup relations are discussed.
Article
I bring an understanding of the concept and practice of “aversive racism” to scholarly thinking about community formation. I argue that the exclusionary contours of community are in part a product of racialized in- and outgrouping from which people’s capacities for place-making are judged and localized policing is instigated. In bringing these concepts, formations, and practices together, this paper contributes to how urbanists might continue to think about the role of race in displacement, particularly as it plays out in the context of neighborhood change and gentrification more broadly. In the penultimate section I provide a discussion of the popular Nextdoor app as a means of illustrating a contemporary example of community-instigated policing and platform for what Dána-Ain Davis calls “muted racism.”
Article
Background and purpose This paper describes the context and experiences of a workshop to raise knowledge and awareness of a college of pharmacy's faculty and staff about microaggressive behaviors and implicit biases. The workshop was intended to provide a non-threatening, interactive, and informative professional development program to demonstrate the cumulative marginalizing effects on students, faculty, and staff who may perceive themselves as targets. Educational activity and setting A half-day workshop was conducted during July 2018. Participants were initially provided with definitions and categories of microaggression and implicit bias. To bring the subject matter “alive” and foster receptivity, interactive videos were shown with scenarios depicting situations reflective of microaggressions and implicit biases. College faculty, staff, and students made these relatable. To foster objectivity, an outside consultant was hired to facilitate the ensuing roundtable and plenary discussions. Findings Sixty-eight participants responded to a pre-survey designed by the workshop team, and 78% indicated never having attended a training/seminar on microaggression and/or implicit bias. Sixty-two individuals responded to the post-survey with 92% indicating increased knowledge gained from workshop. Anecdotal reports suggested that the workshop had an ongoing impact, as faculty and staff continued the discussions in subsequent months and requested additional training sessions. Summary The workshop heightened awareness and increased faculty and staff knowledge on microaggressive behaviors, implicit biases, and the potential consequences thereof. It also demonstrated the importance of addressing conversations that are perceived as difficult, in order to create a diverse and inclusive workplace and learning environment for all.
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In this article, we describe how the black ceilingdupheld by the powerful institutional logics of patriarchy and white supremacy, inordinately challengingand interlocking systemic barriers to leadership advancementdleads to the dearthof Afro-Diasporic women in senior corporate leadership positions and pathologizesAfro-Diasporic women as multiple outsiders. As a result, Afro-Diasporic women’swell-being in the workplace is compromised and many adopt coping and survivalstrategies to navigate a myriad of relational and environmental phenomena, suchas spirit murder, emotional taxation, social closure, white privilege, and whitefragility. To navigate and ameliorate these dynamics, we advance several individual, relational, and organizational strategies that support Afro-Diasporic women thriving in the workplace.
Chapter
This chapter is concerned with acknowledging the mental health issues that Black men face in higher education. Research is presented and blended with lived experiences of being a full-time employee and doctoral student on a primarily white campus. This chapter focuses on the emotional trauma of Black men, imposter phenomenon traits, and offers strategies for healing from critical race theorist. Strategies to keep higher education institutions accountable for the hiring and retaining of Black men are also discussed.
Chapter
Video games can be a powerful art medium where players safely learn about racial out-groups—their stories, beliefs, values, and social norms without concerns about appearing as racist. In video games, players can interact with out-group characters and form parasocial connections, which then theoretically could reduce out-group bias and increase support for antiracist social movements. However, other research suggested that White people may experience negative emotions in interracial interactions, which could then lead to disengagement and less support for anti-racism. In the proposed study, I will examine whether White people who interact with Black characters report lower prejudice towards Black people and higher support for anti-racism movements (e.g., Black Lives Matter and Kick Out Zwarte Piet) compared with those who play a video game with White characters only. I will also measure participants’ heart rate variability as a correlate for emotion regulation while playing the video game. I expect that participants with higher (vs. lower) heart rate variability while interacting with a Black character will report lower prejudice and higher support for anti-racism.
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Two studies examined whether developing a common ingroup identity among Blacks and Whites can improve Whites’ interracial evaluations. In Study 1, White participants interacted with a Black or White confederate under conditions designed to produce cognitive representations as fellow group members or as separate individuals. Consistent with the Common Ingroup Identity Model, Whites evaluated Blacks more favorably when they interacted with them as members of the same group than as separate individuals. Study 2, conducted as fans entered a football stadium, revealed that Whites complied more frequently with a Black interviewer’s request to interview them when they shared common university affiliation, relative to when the Black interviewer was affiliated with the opposing team.
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The research examines an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes based on the evaluations that are automatically activated from memory on the presentation of Black versus White faces. Study 1, which concerned the technique's validity, obtained different attitude estimates for Black and White participants and also revealed that the variability among White participants was predictive of other race-related judgments and behavior. Study 2 concerned the lack of correspondence between the unobtrusive estimates and Modern Racism Scale (MRS) scores. The reactivity of the MRS was demonstrated in Study 3. Study 4 observed an interaction between the unobtrusive estimates and an individual difference in motivation to control prejudiced reactions when predicting MRS scores. The theoretical implications of the findings for consideration of automatic and controlled components of racial prejudice are discussed, as is the status of the MRS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter introduces the common ingroup identity model as a means of reducing intergroup bias. This model proposes that bias can be reduced by factors that transform members' perceptions of group boundaries from “us” and “them” to a more inclusive “we”. From this perspective, several features specified by the contact hypothesis (e.g. co-operative interaction) facilitate more harmonious intergroup interactions, at least in part, because they contribute to the development of a common ingroup identity. In this chapter, we describe laboratory and field studies that are supportive of the model; we also relate the model to earlier work on aversive racism.
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In this chapter, we discuss 5 different mechanisms of institutional discrimination and review empirical evidence illustrating each mechanism. We also discuss several different theoretical reasons for the higher levels of self-handicapping, criminal behavior on the part of members of subordinate groups. Using social dominance theory as a general framework, we argue that both institutional discrimination and self-handicapping criminality among members of subordinate groups are complementary mechanisms contributing to the establishment and maintenance of group-based systems of social hierarchy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper develops, measures, and tests two types of intergroup prejudice—blatant and subtle. Blatant prejudice is the traditional, often studied form; it is hot, close and direct. Subtle prejudice is the modern form; it is cool, distant and indirect. Using data from seven independent national samples from western Europe, we constructed 10-item scales in four languages to measure each of these varieties of prejudice. We report the properties, structure and correlates of both scales across the seven samples, and make initial checks on their validity. The cross-nationally consistent results support the value of the blatant-subtle distinction as two varieties of prejudice. While they share many correlates, their distinctive differences suggest better specification of these correlates of prejudice. And the blatant-subtle distinction also aids in more precise specification of the effects of prejudice on attitudes toward immigrants. The paper closes with a normative interpretation of Subtle Prejudice.
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Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotype group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the efforts of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The present research, involving three experiments, examined the existence of implicit attitudes of Whites toward Blacks, investigated the relationship between explicit measures of racial prejudice and implicit measures of racial attitudes, and explored the relationship of explicit and implicit attitudes to race-related responses and behavior. Experiment 1, which used a priming technique, demonstrated implicit negative racial attitudes (i.e., evaluative associations) among Whites that were largely disassociated from explicit, self-reported racial prejudice. Experiment 2 replicated the priming results of Experiment 1 and demonstrated, as hypothesized, that explicit measures predicted deliberative race-related responses (juridic decisions), whereas the implicit measure predicted spontaneous responses (racially primed word completions). Experiment 3 extended these findings to interracial interactions. Self-reported (explicit) racial attitudes primarily predicted the relative evaluations of Black and White interaction partners, whereas the response latency measure of implicit attitude primarily predicted differences in nonverbal behaviors (blinking and visual contact). The relation between these findings and general frameworks of contemporary racial attitudes is considered.
Book
Part I. From There to Here - Theoretical Background: 1. From visiousness to viciousness: theories of intergroup relations 2. Social dominance theory as a new synthesis Part II. Oppression and its Psycho-Ideological Elements: 3. The psychology of group dominance: social dominance orientation 4. Let's both agree that you're really stupid: the power of consensual ideology Part III. The Circle of Oppression - The Myriad Expressions of Institutional Discrimination: 5. You stay in your part of town and I'll stay in mine: discrimination in the housing and retail markets 6. They're just too lazy to work: discrimination in the labor market 7. They're just mentally and physically unfit: discrimination in education and health care 8. The more of 'them' in prison, the better: institutional terror, social control and the dynamics of the criminal justice system Part IV. Oppression as a Cooperative Game: 9. Social hierarchy and asymmetrical group behavior: social hierarchy and group difference in behavior 10. Sex and power: the intersecting political psychologies of patriarchy and empty-set hierarchy 11. Epilogue.
Article
Tested 2 hypotheses: (a) White bystanders are more likely to discriminate against Black victims in situations in which failure to intervene could be attributable to factors other than the victim's race. (b) There is a causal relationship between arousal induced by witnessing an emergency and bystander responsiveness, as proposed by I. M. Piliavin et al (see record 1970-03549-001). A total of 260 female undergraduates served as Ss. Results of Study 1 support the 1st hypothesis; however, Blacks and Whites were helped equally when the S was the only bystander. Study 2 failed to demonstrate a predicted interaction between the victim's race and the ambiguity of the emergency. Nevertheless, when arousal due to the unambiguous emergency could be misattributed to the effects of a placebo, Blacks were helped less than Whites. In Study 1, cardiac measures of arousal were correlated (.61) with latency to intervene in an emergency. The more arousal Ss experienced, the more quickly they helped. In addition, consistent with the proposed causal relationship, Study 2 demonstrated that bystanders given the opportunity to misattribute emergency-generated arousal to an "arousing" placebo helped the victim more slowly than did Ss administered a "nonarousing" placebo. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
Article
With the assumption that a stereotype is in part, a collection of associations that link a target group to a set of descriptive characteristics, the present research engaged high-and low-prejudice scoring white subjects (19 males, Experiment 1; 9 males and 12 females, Experiment 2) in a lexical decision task patterned after Meyer and Schvaneveldt (1971, 1976). The task yields a measure of associative strength between two words (e.g., BLACK:LAZY; WHITES:LAZY) based upon the amount of time subjects take to decide whether or not they are both words. Meyer and Schvaneveldt reported that high associates (NURSE:DOCTOR) yielded faster reaction times than low associates (DOCTOR:BUTTER). The results of the present research indicated that subjects, regardless of prejudice score, responded reliably faster when positive attitudes (e.g., SMART) were paired with WHITES than when they were paired with BLACKS (Experiment 1) or with NEGROES (Experiment 2). Nevertheless, negative attributes paired with BLACKS or NEGROES were responded to as quickly as when they were paired with WHITES. These results, together with Experiment 3, which involved the ascription of these characteristics more directly, suggest that white college students, no longer differentially associate or ascribe negative characteristics, but continue to differentially associate and ascribe positive attributes to black and to whites.
Article
In this paper, biological, symbolic, and aversive racism are conceptualized on the basis of their most characteristic components. In a survey of 1,760 Dutch secondary school students, the empirical basis for this conceptualization was examined. It is hypothesized that the forms of racism are steps in a single cumulative dimension of ethnic attitudes. This hypothesis is based on Myrdal's rank order of discrimination and Blumer's idea of the color line. The validity of the forms of racism is tested by relating the steps of the ethnic attitude to intentions regarding discriminatory behavior, stereotyping, and attitudes toward affirmative action. It was found that 1) the distinguished forms of racism, operationalized on the basis of literature research, were largely corroborated by our empirical data; 2) the forms of racism can be arrayed on one underlying Guttman-type dimension: and 3) egalitarians, aversive racists, ethnocentrists, symbolic racists, and biological racists scored significantly differently on the variables measuring various axpressions of prejudice.
Article
The present research explored how White college students may exhibit response patterns associated with a subtle and rationalizable contemporary bias, aversive racism. In the study, higher and lower prejudice-scoring participants evaluated applicants for admission to their university, for whom information about high school achievement and college board scores (aptitude and achievement test scores) was independently varied as strong or weak. As predicted, discrimination against Black applicants relative to White applicants did not occur when the credentials were consistently strong or weak; however, discrimination by relatively high prejudice-scoring participants did emerge when the credentials were mixed and hence ambiguous. Moreover, relatively high prejudice-scoring participants weighed the different, conflicting criteria in ways that could justify or rationalize discrimination against Black applicants. The implications of these data for understanding contemporary racism and their relation to the shifting standards model of bias are considered.
Article
An experiment was conducted to assess whether the effects of inadmissible information in a simulated criminal trial is moderated by race. The significant interaction between information admissibility and defendant's race indicated that the effect of inadmissible information was stronger when the defendant was Black. More specifically, perceptions of the appropriate verdict did not vary as a function of race in the admissible or control condition. On the other hand, in the inadmissible condition, perceptions of the appropriate verdict were higher for the Black defendant than for the White defendant. Interestingly, subjects in the Black-defendant-inadmissible condition felt that they were less affected by the inadmissible information than subjects in the White-defendant-inadmissible condition.
Article
This chapter begins with a re-presentation of Allport's classic hypothesis and shows—with reference to recent cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys— laboratory experiments, and meta-analysis, that many of his original propositions have capably withstood the test of time. It examines Brewer and Miller's, and Gaertner and Dovidio's attempts to extend the contact hypothesis, in both of which categorization processes play a key role. This approach sets the stage for the model, first published in 1986 by Hewstone and Brown. In that model, emphasis was given on identifying the conditions that would allow the generalization of attitudes and behavior change beyond the specific context in which the contact occurs. The chapter discusses the developments of contact theory that occurred in the 1980s and reviews the empirical research instigated by the Hewstone–Brown model. It also reviews the progress to date and attempts a theoretical integration of these models in the light of the large volume of research that they have stimulated.
Article
Three hundred sixty undergraduates participated in small groups in an experiment that tested 2 strategies, based on the social categorization approach, for reducing intergroup bias. Both strategies involved recategorizing members' conceptual representations of the aggregate compared with a control condition designed to maintain initial group boundaries. The recategorization treatments induced members of 2 3-person groups to conceive of both memberships as 1 6-person group or as 6 separate individuals. The findings revealed that the one-group and separate-individuals conditions, as compared with the control condition, reduced intergroup bias. Furthermore, these recategorized conditions reduced bias in different ways consistent with M. B. Brewer's (see record 1979-25967-001) analysis and J. C. Turner's (1985) self-categorization theory. Specifically, the 1-group representation reduced bias primarily by increasing the attractiveness of former out-group members, whereas the separate-individuals representation primarily decreased the attractiveness of former in-group members. Implications for the utility of these strategies are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter builds on the authors' concept of aversive racism as being typical of many people. Aversive racists are people who sincerely believe themselves to be unprejudiced, but who still harbor some negative feelings (often unconscious ones) toward ethnic minority groups. The authors report on a series of studies aimed at reducing people's automatic negative stereotypes about outgroups. In individual-level experiments using extensive cognitive retraining, and others creating awareness of discrepancies between one's actions and values, they demonstrated methods by which both explicit and implicit stereotypes could be reduced. They also investigated conditions for optimal intergroup contact in which 2 groups were encouraged to recategorize their boundaries in the direction of sharing a common group identity (e.g., "we're different groups, but all on the same team.") As predicted, they found this intervention led to reduced intergroup bias and prejudice. The authors emphasize that a strong advantage of this kind of dual-identity procedure is that it does not require minority groups to forsake their own unique group identity when they adopt a broader, superordinate identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted 2 field studies examining the likelihood of black and of white victims eliciting altruistic behavior from New York Liberal and Conservative Party members. When it was reasonable to assume Ss could recognize that their help was needed, black victims elicited relatively less help than white victims from conservatives than from liberals. Liberals terminated the encounter prior to the request for help more frequently for the black than the white victims. The actual levels of help and discrimination could not have been predicted from verbal reports from similar Ss regarding help expected from themselves and others. Results suggest that liberals and conservatives both harbor antiblack attitudes, but liberals are more egalitarian when normative directives are salient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment examined the hypothesis derived from the social categorization perspective that intergroup cooperation reduces bias by transforming members' cognitive representations of the aggregate from 2 groups to 1 group. Two 3-person groups experienced intergroup contact under conditions that varied (a) member's representations of the aggregate as 1 group or 2 groups (without involving cooperation) and (b) the presence or absence of intergroup cooperation. As expected, in the absence of cooperation, bias was lower among Ss induced to conceive of the 6 participants as 1 group rather than as 2 groups. Also as predicted, among Ss in the 2-groups condition, intergroup cooperation increased the strength of the 1-group representation and decreased bias. Multiple regression mediation analysis revealed, as expected, that members' representations mediated bias and that the 1-group representation primarily increased the attractiveness of former outgroup members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the utility of an intergroup-relations perspective in studying stepfamily harmony. University students who identified themselves as stepfamily members completed a survey revealing that the relationship between favorable intergroup contact conditions (e.g., cooperation, equal status) and stepfamily harmony was mediated by the perception of the stepfamily as 1 group rather than 2. Additionally, a 1-group representation of the stepfamily partially mediated the relation between a positive stepparent–stepchild relationship and increased harmony. The more the stepfamily was perceived as 1 group, the greater was the stepfamily harmony. These results offer an explanatory model of stepfamily harmony, involving members' perception of social categorization within the stepfamily unit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Experimental research on intergroup discrimination in favor of one's own group is reviewed in terms of the basis of differentiation between in-group and out-group and in terms of the response measure on which in-group bias is assessed. Results of the research reviewed suggest that (a) factors such as intergroup competition, similarity, and status differentials affect in-group bias indirectly by influencing the salience of distinctions between in-group and out-group, (b) the degree of intergroup differentiation on a particular response dimension is a joint function of the relevance of intergroup distinctions and the favorableness of the in-group's position on that dimension, and (c) the enhancement of in-group bias is more related to increased favoritism toward in-group members than to increased hostility toward out-group members. Implications of these results for positive applications of group identification (e.g., a shift of in-group bias research from inter- to intragroup contexts) are discussed. (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested 2 hypotheses: (a) White bystanders are more likely to discriminate against Black victims in situations in which failure to intervene could be attributable to factors other than the victim's race. (b) There is a causal relationship between arousal induced by witnessing an emergency and bystander responsiveness, as proposed by I. M. Piliavin et al (see record 1970-03549-001). A total of 260 female undergraduates served as Ss. Results of Study 1 support the 1st hypothesis; however, Blacks and Whites were helped equally when the S was the only bystander. Study 2 failed to demonstrate a predicted interaction between the victim's race and the ambiguity of the emergency. Nevertheless, when arousal due to the unambiguous emergency could be misattributed to the effects of a placebo, Blacks were helped less than Whites. In Study 1, cardiac measures of arousal were correlated (.61) with latency to intervene in an emergency. The more arousal Ss experienced, the more quickly they helped. In addition, consistent with the proposed causal relationship, Study 2 demonstrated that bystanders given the opportunity to misattribute emergency-generated arousal to an "arousing" placebo helped the victim more slowly than did Ss administered a "nonarousing" placebo. (35 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the view that racial prejudice among White Americans today is often expressed in subtle, indirect, and rationalizable ways. Whites may therefore regard themselves as unprejudiced and nondiscriminatory as they continue to disadvantage minorities. It was hypothesized that Whites would be less helpful to Blacks only when normative guidelines within the situation suggest that the failure to help would be justifiable and not necessarily inappropriate. However, Whites would not discriminate against Blacks when the failure to help would be clearly inappropriate. In the present experiment, the normative guidelines regarding the appropriateness of helping was varied by manipulating the causal locus of the recipient's need (internal or external) and the source of the helping request (the recipient or a 3rd-party observer). Supportive of the hypotheses, Ss' (130 White female university students) helping behavior discriminated against Black recipients only in the condition in which the recipients' needs were caused by their failure to work hard and the requests were issued by the recipients themselves (i.e., when the failure to help would not be regarded as particularly inappropriate). (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter examines one factor that contributes to the current frustrations of black Americans: the operation of a subtle form of racism among individuals that is less overt but just as insidious as old-fashioned racism. Despite encouraging trends in the intergroup attitudes of white Americans, there are still reasons for concern. One reason is that, across a variety of surveys and polls, 10%–15% of the white population still expresses the old-fashioned, overt form of bigotry. These respondents consistently describe blacks as innately less intelligent than whites, say that they will not vote for a well-qualified presidential candidate simply because of that person's race, and oppose programs designed to ensure full integration and equal opportunity. Another reason for concern is that a substantial portion of the white population expresses merely racial tolerance but not true openness to or enthusiasm for full racial equality. A third reason for concern, which is this chapter's current focus, is that there is also evidence that many of the people who are part of the 85%–90% of the white population who say and probably believe that they are not prejudiced may nonetheless be practicing modern, subtle form of bias. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The aversive racism framework (S. L. Gaertner & J. F. Dovidio, 1986) suggests that bias against Blacks is most likely to be expressed by Whites when it can be explained or justified along non-racial grounds. The present experiment adopted a 2 (Evidence: admissible vs. inadmissible) × 2 (Defendant Race: White vs. Black) between subjects design, asking White participants, whose self-reported prejudice was assessed, to judge a legal case. As predicted, increased guilt ratings and longer sentencing recommendations were forwarded for the Black (vs. White) defendant only when DNA evidence linking the defendant to the crime had previously been ruled inadmissible. This result was not qualified by self-report racial attitudes. The implications for evidence inadmissibility in interracial contexts are considered, along with the repercussions of finding experimental evidence of aversive racism outside of North America. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chapter
Implicit and Explicit AttitudesComplex AttitudesThe Case of Racial AttitudesConclusions References
Article
Protests against affirmative action articulate the concern that qualified white males will be subordinated to less qualified women and minorities. To examine the possibility that the reversal of traditional status relationships rather than competence inequity underlies resistance to affiimative action, a study was conducted in which subjects interacted with a male or female who was introduced as their supervisor or subordinate and as either higher or lower in ability than themselves. The results indicate that status, not ability, influences the frequency of helping women, whereas ability, not status, primarily influences helping behavior toward men. Specifically. female subordinates were helped more than females supervisors, regardless of ability, while high-ability males elicited more help than low-ability males, independent of status. Subsequent ratings revealed that although subjects acknowledged the greater competence of high-ability males, they did not evaluate high-ability females as more competent than themselves.
Article
School integration, stimulated by the 1954 Brown v. Board of Educationdecision, has influenced students' social and educational experiences. Drawing on practice and theory, we focus on strategies for improving intergroup relations. In a series of sessions over four-weeks, 830 first and second grade children participated in Green Circle program activities designed to widen their circles of inclusion to include people who are different from themselves. Although the intervention did not influence children's biases in sharing or how happy they would be playing with others who were different from themselves based on race, sex, and weight, it did lead them to be more inclusive in selecting their most preferred playmate. Implications for friendship development and improvement in intergroup attitudes are considered. He drew a circle that shut me out- Heretic, rebel, a thing to flout. But love and I had the wit to win- We drew a circle that took him in. —Edwin Markham (1936, p. 67)
Article
Heretofore, no research has shown that meaningful variability on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) relates to intergroup discrimination or to explicit measures of prejudice. In the current study, White undergraduates interacted separately with White and Black experimenters, and their behavior during these social interactions was assessed by trained judges and by the experimenters themselves. The participants also completed explicit measures of racial prejudice and a race IAT. As predicted, those who revealed stronger negative attitudes toward Blacks (vs Whites) on the IAT had more negative social interactions with a Black (vs a White) experimenter and reported relatively more negative Black prejudices on explicit measures. The implications of these results for the IAT and its relations to intergroup discrimination and to explicit measures of attitudes are discussed.
Article
The term social interaction conjures up images that involve at least two people. These two people are likely to have beliefs about one another, beliefs about how the other person views them, and beliefs about the interaction. Moreover, these beliefs are likely to influence both individuals' experiences during the interaction. Although interconnectedness of this type has been pursued in examinations of interpersonal interactions (e.g., Baldwin, 1992; Darley & Fazio, 1980), research on interracial interactions has tended to adopt a more individualistic approach. Similar to interpersonal interactions, individuals' experiences in interracial interactions are often shaped by the beliefs individuals have about one another and their beliefs about how they will be perceived by their interaction partners. In this chapter we examine interracial interactions from a perspective that highlights the interconnectedness that is often at the core of interpersonal interactions between members of different racial groups. This perspective highlights that there are two people involved in dyadic interracial interactions and these two people influence each other's outcomes and experiences.
Article
This research investigated the nature of contemporary racial stereotypes and their role in social cognition. A priming experiment was conducted in which racial categories (black, white) were presented as primes, and positive and negative black and white stereotypic words were presented as test stimuli. Subjects were asked to indicate (by pressing a response key) whether the test word characteristic could “ever be true” of the prime category or was “always false,” and reaction time was recorded. As predicted, primes of black and white most facilitated response to traits stereotypically attributed to these social groups. Thus, there appear to be important similarities between the information processing of object categories and the representation and use of stereotypes in social categorization. In addition, responses to the positive and negative evaluative words suggest that positive traits are more strongly associated with whites than with blacks, and negative characteristics are more strongly associated with blacks than with whites. Implications of these findings for social cognition, racial attitudes, and nonreactive measurement are discussed.