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Creating choices: rethinking aboriginal policy

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... According to Hatfield's [44] definition, a neighborhood with more than twice the national average percent of families below the LICO is considered in "high poverty. " Using this approach, in a study conducted in Winnipeg, neighborhoods were classified as in "low poverty" (0-16% below LICO), "moderate poverty" (16.1-32% below LICO), "high poverty" (32.1-50% below LICO), and "very high poverty" (over 50% below LICO [45]). In another study conducted about schools in Vancouver, a school was considered in a neighborhood with "high poverty, " if the neighborhood had more than 32.6% of families below the LICO (twice the 1996 Census national average of 16.3%) [46]. ...
... In measuring children's longitudinal incidence of exposure to disadvantaged and unfavorable neighborhoods, we defined disadvantaged Census Tracts as those where 32% or more of households had income below the LICO at the 2001 Census, which is consistent with previous work in Canada [43][44][45]. Using this definition, we found that 8% of children (Confidence Interval (CI) is 7% to 9%) had been living in a low-income Census tract on at least one of the three observed occasions, while 4% had lived in such an economically disadvantaged neighborhood at all three of the data collection cycles, as shown in Table 1. ...
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Neighborhood income and social capital are considered important for child development, but social capital has rarely been measured directly at an aggregate level. We used Canadian data to derive measures of social capital from aggregated parental judgments of neighborhood collective efficacy and neighborhood safety. Measures of neighborhood income came from Census data. Direct measures of preschoolers’ school readiness were predicted from neighborhood-level variables, with regional indicators and household/parental characteristics taken into account. Our findings show that (1) residing in Quebec, being Black, and having a parent who was born outside Canada are positively associated with children’s living in disadvantaged or low collective efficacy neighborhoods as well as with their living in low-income households. (2) Children’s odds of residential mobility were reduced when the origin neighborhood had higher collective efficacy but increased when the family rented rather than owned. (3) Both neighborhood collective efficacy and children’s ever having lived in a poor neighborhood were correlated with receptive vocabulary scores, but results were mixed for other cognitive dimensions. Children of younger mothers scored worse on receptive vocabulary. There were similar patterns for demographic predictors related to visible minority status, sibship size, and birth order. Neighborhood average income had no effect on cognitive outcomes when the region was controlled.
... The educational attainment gap between the Aboriginal peoples and the non-Aboriginal population is the subject of a growing body of literature, including historical studies (e.g., Kirkness 1999;Carr-Stewart 2001, 2006, attempts to explain underlying causes (Frenette 2011;Richards and Scott 2009;Wotherspoon and Schissel 1998), and policy analysis and recommendations (Richards 2006;Paquette and Fallon 2010;Richards and Scott 2009). Low educational attainments are determined to be partially responsible for the relatively poor labour force participation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (e.g., Walters et al. 2004) and the income gap between Aboriginal peoples and the rest of Canada (Wilson and Macdonald 2010). ...
... The educational attainment gap between the Aboriginal peoples and the non-Aboriginal population is the subject of a growing body of literature, including historical studies (e.g., Kirkness 1999;Carr-Stewart 2001, 2006, attempts to explain underlying causes (Frenette 2011;Richards and Scott 2009;Wotherspoon and Schissel 1998), and policy analysis and recommendations (Richards 2006;Paquette and Fallon 2010;Richards and Scott 2009). Low educational attainments are determined to be partially responsible for the relatively poor labour force participation of Aboriginal peoples in Canada (e.g., Walters et al. 2004) and the income gap between Aboriginal peoples and the rest of Canada (Wilson and Macdonald 2010). ...
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The relation between education and labour force participation of Aboriginal peoples: A simulation analysis using the Demosim population projection model
... While there are unquestionably significant challenges facing students from ethnic minority groups in general as they struggle to obtain academic qualifications, Aboriginal peoples, in particular, have faced major barriers to achievement at the post-secondary level (Astin, Tsui, & Aralos, 1996; Benjamin et al., 1993; Malatest, 2004; Pavel, Swisher, & Ward, 1994; Richards, 2006; White, 2009). Apparently, " despite evidence of academic ability " Aboriginal peoples are less likely to graduate from post-secondary programs or attend graduate school and, not surprisingly therefore, consistently attain lower levels of education overall even in comparison to other ethnic minority populations (A. ...
... Jackson et al., 2003, p. 548). The limited level of academic achievement found among Aboriginal populations, as compared to the larger non-aboriginal population, has been well established and there can be little doubt that this is cause for great concern (Ambler, 2006; Lin, LaCounte, & Eder, 1998; Minthorn-Biggs, 2005; Malatest, 2004; Preston, 2008; Reyhner, 1992; Richards, 2006; Statistics Canada, 2008). ...
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Using an anti-racist feminist framework, and revised concepts of resistance, this qualitative study utilizes traditional Aboriginal Sharing Circles and personal interviews for a culturally sensitive exploration of the experiences of successful Aboriginal women in mainstream post-secondary institutions. The research focuses on two questions. What barriers confront Aboriginal women in mainstream post-secondary institutions generally, and how were these particular Aboriginal women able to overcome the challenges they faced, i.e. what coping strategies and support mechanisms had, in their experience, facilitated academic achievement and persistence? Analysis revealed how experiences of discrimination, and an awareness of societal inequities, in combination with a belief in the possibility of social change, appeared to increase motivation and persistence. Coping strategies commonly included: ‘passing’ as non-aboriginal, becoming strategically invisible and/or deliberately silent, learning to “play the game,” and learning how to pick the battles worth fighting when avoidance was not possible. Aboriginal families generally, and mothers, grandmothers, and other female kin specifically were found to encourage and support academic achievement. Women-centered networks, positive relationships with both Aboriginal and non-aboriginal faculty and staff, a demonstrated institutional commitment to Aboriginal initiatives, and the creation of Aboriginal specific spaces provided important sources of support in mainstream institutions. This study reveals how, rather than being seen as assimilation, achievement in mainstream educational institutions can be interpreted as a form of covert internal resistance for Aboriginal women.
... The richness of BC's database also enables external research to contribute further insights on Aboriginal education practices(Cowley & Easton, 2006;Richards, 2006Richards, , 2008Mendelson, 2008). For example, an analysis of the performance and socioeconomic data byRichards et al. (2008) concluded that some school districts are more effective than others at raising Aboriginal achievement, leading to the hypothesis that district-level effects are a significant factor. ...
... A gender difference in educational attainment already exists. Richards (2005) shows that graduation rates for males are lower than graduation rates for females for the general population. Bradley and Taylor (2004) also find that males tend to do worse than females even when controlling for ethnicity. ...
... Therefore, issues of identity and identification play a significant role for such Aboriginal students. Although Richards (2006), in ...
... reserves. But this is a diminishing share of the population: indeed, in 2001 a quarter of all Aboriginals lived in the 10 largest cities (Richards 2006) and less than a third on reserves. Although incomes of the urban Aboriginal population are higher than those of their rural counterparts, they are nevertheless over-represented in the poorest of urban neighbourhoods (Richards 2001; Heisz 2005). ...
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We consider the place of cities, particularly large cities, in Canadian federalism from several perspectives. Although by most measures the current fiscal condition of Canadian cities seems fairly good, we argue that beneath this happy picture lies a less happy reality. Owing to the limited and relatively inelastic revenue base to which even the largest cities have access, the underlying basis of Canada’s urban prosperity is being eroded, with potentially damaging implications for national well-being over the long run. In an important sense, the roots of this problem lie in the fact that cities do not have any real role or voice in Canada’s federal structure. Since neither role nor voice is likely to be bestowed on them in the near future, however, we conclude by laying out a series of less fundamental actions that all levels of government have to undertake if they wish to maintain not only the present reputation of Canada’s big cities as ‘a nice place to live’ but also, more fundamentally, the urban dynamic that evidence around the world suggests increasingly underpins economic growth.
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Coon Come, Matthew. 2003. "Assembly of First Nations National Chief Expresses Disappointment with Federal Court of Appeal Ruling on Treaty 8 Tax Promise." Available online at http://www.afn.ca/Media/2003/june/june_11_03.htm
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How Are We Doing? Demographics and Performance of Aboriginal Students in BC Public Schools 2001-2002. Victoria: Ministry of Education
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What Census and The Aboriginal Peoples Survey Tell Us About Aboriginal Conditions in Canada
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An Analysis of Aboriginal Fishing Rights and the Pacific Salmon Fishery Unpublished manuscript
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Most in BC survey believe referendum harms treaty talks The Globe and Mail
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A Principled Analysis of the Nisga'a Treaty
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