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Early Adolescents' Perceptions of the Classroom Social Environment, Motivational Beliefs, and Engagement

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This research examined whether 5th-grade students' (N = 602) perceptions of the classroom social environment (teacher support, promotion of mutual respect, promotion of task-related interaction, student support) were related to their engagement in the classroom (self-regulation and task-related interaction) and whether those relations were mediated by personal motivational beliefs (mastery goals, academic and social efficacy). Teacher support, promotion of interaction, and student support were related to both types of engagement, and those relations were fully or partially mediated by motivational beliefs. Relations with promoting mutual respect were not significant.

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... Besides, effective student interaction encourages students task questions, share ideas, and reflect their knowledge thereby, motivate them and improve their learning (Soller, 2001). Research on the relation between promoting interaction and achievement goals suggests that promoting interaction among classmates was significantly and positively related to mastery goals while unrelated to performance-approach goals (e.g., Iverch & Fisher, 2008;Kingir et al., 2013;Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007). ...
... Students' perceptions of their teacher as encouraging respect among classmates were significantly and positively associated with students' motivation, which was measured through academic efficacy. In another study conducted by Patrick et al. (2007), promoting mutual respect was positively associated with peer social efficacy. Although a link between promoting mutual respect and mastery goals was hypothesized, no association was found between the two variables. ...
... As mentioned before, there is limited research which investigated the associations between promoting mutual respect among classmates and achievement goals. Previous research showed that promoting respect was positively related to student motivation such as academic efficacy (Ryan & Patrick, 2001) and peer social efficacy (Patrick et al., 2007). Although Patrick et al. (2007) depicted a link from promoting mutual respect to mastery goals; they found a non-significant relationship between the two variables. ...
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This study examined the reciprocal relationship between students’ perceptions of science learning environment, measured through promoting choice, interaction and mutual respect, and teacher feedback, and students’ achievement goals of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. A total of 407 sixth and eighth grade students participated in the study. Canonical analysis showed that perceived learning environment variables and approach goal orientations were reciprocally and positively related. According to the results, all the dimensions of learning environment perceptions were related to students’ approach goals. For example, students who perceive right to share the control in tasks in science classroom, tend to adopt approach goals
... Finally, researchers have also conceptualized peer support from classmates generally. Peer support is manifest in a variety of positive peer interactions among classmates, including prosocial behavior (e.g., most students are kind and helpful; Danielsen et al., 2010), personal emotional support (e.g., classmates like me or care about my feelings; Patrick et al., 2007), personal academic support (e.g., classmates want me to do well in school, share my ideas; Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2010), and peers' expectations for helping or social behavior (Wentzel et al., 2010(Wentzel et al., , 2016. These supports have been linked to students' academic effort and engagement through motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and mastery goals (Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2017). ...
... Finally, researchers have also conceptualized peer support from classmates generally. Peer support is manifest in a variety of positive peer interactions among classmates, including prosocial behavior (e.g., most students are kind and helpful; Danielsen et al., 2010), personal emotional support (e.g., classmates like me or care about my feelings; Patrick et al., 2007), personal academic support (e.g., classmates want me to do well in school, share my ideas; Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2010), and peers' expectations for helping or social behavior (Wentzel et al., 2010(Wentzel et al., , 2016. These supports have been linked to students' academic effort and engagement through motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and mastery goals (Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2017). ...
... Peer support is manifest in a variety of positive peer interactions among classmates, including prosocial behavior (e.g., most students are kind and helpful; Danielsen et al., 2010), personal emotional support (e.g., classmates like me or care about my feelings; Patrick et al., 2007), personal academic support (e.g., classmates want me to do well in school, share my ideas; Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2010), and peers' expectations for helping or social behavior (Wentzel et al., 2010(Wentzel et al., , 2016. These supports have been linked to students' academic effort and engagement through motivational beliefs such as self-efficacy and mastery goals (Patrick et al., 2007;Wentzel et al., 2017). Additionally, when peers communicate positive academic expectations, students tend to display greater interest in class (Wentzel et al., 2010). ...
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The goal of our article is to consider the intersection of the peer ecology and teacher practices for students’ academic motivation. We begin by reviewing two perspectives that explain why and how peers matter for students’ motivation. First, the quality of peer relationships and interactions provide affordances for social support. Second, peers are socializing agents, so the content of peer interactions matters for the development of students’ achievement beliefs, values, and goals. Within each of these theoretical frameworks, we discuss three kinds of peer relationships: friendship, social status, as well as the culture of support and norms that characterize the classroom peer group. Throughout, we consider classroom contextual factors that explain why peer relationships matter for students’ motivation and school adjustment. This sets the stage for the key goal of our article, which is to review evidence from the last ten years linking teacher practices to aspects of the classroom peer ecology that are important for students’ motivation in school. We conclude with a discussion of implications for educators and important directions for future research.
... It includes behaviors such as trying hard and listening carefully. Social engagement, sometimes referred to as "task-related interaction," is defined as the quality of prosocial interactions during instruction, including whether students share their ideas with other students in class or help other students learn (Patrick et al., 2007;Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2015). This form of engagement includes behaviors such as answering questions, explaining content, and supporting their classmates. ...
... In recent decades, researchers have shifted away from focusing solely on student-level factors to explain engagement and have instead begun to focus on context (e.g., Patrick et al., 2007). The NAEd stated the importance of school context: "Students are motivated to learn in an environment where they feel emotionally safe and valued (by adults or by each other), and where they are supported to engage in authentic and meaningful ways" (Lee et al., 2021, p. 279). ...
... Social engagement in science. Students reported on their social engagement using a five-item measure asking questions such as "In science class I help other kids learn" and "I share my ideas and materials with other kids in science" which they rated on a four-point scale (1 = no, not at all true to 5 = yes, very true) (Patrick et al., 2007). These items were found to be highly reliable (α = .83). ...
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This study examined the effects of behavioral and social engagement and classroom supportiveness on the development of civic efficacy in fourth-grade science classrooms. We define civic efficacy as children's beliefs that they are not only capable of making a difference in their community, but they also feel a responsibility to do so. This study enrolled 815 students (48% female) across 39 classrooms, including 31 fourth-grade teachers at 25 schools in a large urban school district in the South Central U.S. Stepwise regression showed that behavioral engagement, social engagement, and classroom supportiveness in science class all positively predicted civic efficacy, and social engagement accounted for the greatest amount of variance in that civic efficacy. Findings suggests that social engagement is a stronger driver of civic efficacy than behavioral engagement and classroom supportiveness, pointing to the importance of collaboration and teamwork in science classrooms. We discuss implications for elementary classroom practices.
... School administration and educational policies usually concentrate on academic achievement and don't devote give attention to evaluative and emotive outcomes. It is relatively confirmed that student engagement is centrally crucial for increasing achievements (Fredricks et al., 2014;Johnson, 2008;Patrick et al., 2007;Shernoff & Schmidt, 2018;Shin et al., 2017) and in holding students within the school system (Shin et al., 2017). ...
... Behavioral engagement is observable and is conceived as attending class regularly, following rules, contributing in discussion, and completing homework. Emotional engagement tends to emphasis on attitudes towards school and relationship with teachers and other students, and student view of school climate including association, justice, respect, and courage from the teacher" (Patrick et al., 2007). Cognitive Engagement is defined as effort, construct meaning, self-regulation, and strategy use in learning. ...
... The findings are in line with the results reported by Patrick, Ryan and Kaplan (2007) in their study. They found significant positive effects between teachers' emotional support provided to students during class and the attainment of tasks. ...
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Believing specifically in terms of learning and its outcomes, this study extended the literature on student engagement as a factor of academic success. Taken together, the study also explored the cluster of factors mediating the relationship of student engagement to learning outcomes. A sample of 454 students aged 13-15 years from public elementary schools provided data on self reported measures of school engagement, individual, parent, and school-level factors. Students' final-term scores were used as learning outcomes. This study contributed several findings; (1) significant positive impact of student engagement was found on learning outcomes, (2) from individual-level factors; academic motivation, academic scholastic competence, and social self-esteem, (3) from parent factors; parent involvement (4) and from school-level factors; academic climate, social climate, teacher likeability, peer victimization, and school satisfaction were found significant mediating factors for the impact of student engagement on learning outcomes. Findings are useful for parents, teachers, and school policy makers to make students more engaged with the school activities for the positive learning outcomes.
... Perceived teacher support is regarded as students' perceptions of teachers' attitudes and behaviors toward their studies and daily lives (Babad, 1990). It includes several dimensions, including academic support and emotional support (Johnson et al., 1985;Patrick et al., 2007). More specifically, teacher academic support explains students' view of what the instructor cares and how much the students have learned, while teacher emotional support indicates students' sense of the teacher's care about the students as individuals (Johnson et al., 1985). ...
... Teacher support Perceived teacher support was measured using the Perceived Teacher Support Scale (Patrick et al., 2007). The scale is a condensed version of the scale created by Ryan and Patrick (2001) and modified by Patrick et al. (2007). ...
... Teacher support Perceived teacher support was measured using the Perceived Teacher Support Scale (Patrick et al., 2007). The scale is a condensed version of the scale created by Ryan and Patrick (2001) and modified by Patrick et al. (2007). The Scale includes the Teacher Academic Support Scale (four items, e.g., "My teacher cares about my learning.") ...
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This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement and exploring the mediation role played by technology acceptance and learning motivation. It adopted a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, with sampling 467 students from four middle schools in eastern China. The research findings showed that perceived teacher support is significantly associated with learning engagement. Learning motivation plays a mediating role in the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. There is the chain mediating effect of technology acceptance and learning motivation on the relationship between perceived teacher support and learning engagement. All of these are of great importance for the teachers in the middle schools, as they help to increase students’ engagement with learning activities considering the background of the deep integration of information technology and education teaching.
... Perceived teacher support refers to students' perception of teachers' attitudes and behaviors towards their learning and life (Babad, 1990). In the current research, perceived teacher support includes several dimensions, such as academic support and emotional support (Johnson et al., 1985;Patrick et al., 2007). To be specific, teacher academic support describes students' belief that the teacher cares about what and how much the students have learned, and teacher emotional support reflects students' perception that the teacher cares about the students as different individuals (Johnson et al., 1983). ...
... the Teacher Emotional Support Scale (four items, e.g., "My teacher understands how I feel about things."), which have been found to be reliable and valid in previous studies (Patrick et al., 2007).The participants were required to respond to the statements on a 5-point scale from 1 (completely disagree) to 5 (completely agree) based on their perceived support from teachers. Thus, as an indicator of perceived teacher support, higher scores indicate higher levels of perceived teacher support. ...
... Perceived teacher support was measured using the Perceived Teacher Support Scale (Patrick et al., 2007). The scale is a condensed version of the scale created by Ryan and Patrick (2001) and modified by Patrick et al. (2007).The Scale includes the Teacher Academic Support Scale (four items, e.g., "My teacher cares about my learning.") ...
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This study examines the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement and the mediating role played by positive emotions and learning engagement in a sample of 497 middle school students from three middle schools in eastern China. Participants’ ages ranged from 12 to 15 years old, with a mean of 13.19 (SD = 0.688). The results show that: (1) positive emotions mediate the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement; (2) learning engagement also mediates the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement; and (3) positive emotions and learning engagement show a chain-mediating effect in the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement. The findings not only reveal the mediating role of positive emotions and learning engagement between perceived teacher support and academic achievement but are also important for Chinese teachers to help students improve their academic achievement.
... Appraisal support refers to teachers' comments, criticism, and evaluative feedbacks as well as recommendations and suggestions on learners' performance (Malecki & Demaray, 2003). Emotional support is related to teachers' care, friendliness, respect, and personal support (Patrick et al., 2007). Finally, instrumental support concerns teachers' tangible support related to time, services, and skills (Tennant et al., 2015). ...
... Emotional support was assessed by four items (α = 0.84; sample item: My English teacher tries to help me when I am sad or upset.) adapted from Patrick et al. (2007). Additionally, appraisal support (4 items; α = 0.78; sample item: My English teacher tells me what I need to do to become better in English.) and instrumental support (5 items; α = 0.88; sample item: My English teacher continues teaching until the students understand.) ...
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Given the crucial importance of engagement in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and the increasing interest in its psychological dimensions, this study was an attempt to examine the effect of teacher support on engagement by considering the serial mediating roles of learning experience and motivated learning behaviour. Participants were 384 EFL learners chosen through multi-stage cluster sampling. The SEM results demonstrated that teacher support directly and positively predicted engagement. Additionally, teacher support affected engagement through the serial mediating roles of learning experience and motivated learning behaviour. Teachers can provide learners with substantial support and encouragement to enhance their learning experience, which could in turn considerably affect their motivated learning behaviour. Consequently, EFL learners who are motivated and willing to exert effort in learning and classroom activities would be more engaged in their learning process. Finally, important implications and suggestions for future research are presented.
... Teachers can offer students a wide range of support such as emotional, instrumental, and appraisal. Emotional support refers to teachers' respect and care as well as provision of personal support for students (Patrick, Ryan, and Kaplan 2007). Instrumental support includes teachers' tangible support relating to skills, time, and services to help students (Suldo et al. 2009). ...
... sample item: My English teacher try to help me when I am sad or upset.) adapted from Patrick, Ryan, and Kaplan (2007). The learners were asked to respond to questionnaire items based on the perceived types of support received from their English language teacher. ...
Article
Learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is a lengthy, demanding, and challenging process, which requires learners’ L2 grit relating to their perseverance of effort and consistency of interest. Motivated by the growing body of research on L2 grit over the past few years, this study examined the role of perceived teacher support and learning enjoyment as two important learner external and internal factors, respectively, in promoting EFL learners’ L2 grit. The participants were 339 EFL learners selected by multi-stage cluster sampling. The results of SEM indicated that perceived teacher support directly and positively predicted L2 grit, which clearly highlights the role of teachers as an essential element of any language learning situation in motivating and supporting students to exert considerable effort in their learning process and enhance their interest, enthusiasm, persistence, and effort. Additionally, learning enjoyment played a mediating role in the association between perceived teacher support and L2 grit, which indicates its potential for promoting learners’ cognitive resources and fostering their continued effort and sustained interest in the lengthy and demanding process of L2 learning. Finally, implications relating to the role of teachers in enhancing learners’ enjoyment and grit are presented.
... On the other hand, despite performanceoriented people being interested in obtaining gains, they tend to show maladaptative strategies and therefore do not always obtain good academic results (Ng, 2017;Ranelluci et al., 2015). Some empirical studies have found a positive, signifi-cant relation between mastery-orientation and academic achievement (e.g., Day et al., 2003;Patrick et al., 2007;Steinmayr et al., 2011Steinmayr et al., , 2019. However, other studies found no significant relation (e.g., Elliot & Church, 1997;Ng, 2017;Ranelluci et al., 2015). ...
... In contrast, the relation between goal orientation (mastery) and neuroscience grade was positive and significant (.20). Some studies that have employed selfreports have also found an absence of significant relations between mastery-orientation and academic achievement (e.g., Elliot & Church, 1997;Ng, 2017;Ranelluci et al., 2015), and the studies that have obtained significant relations have found values similar to the value reported in the present work (r = .11-.22; Patrick et al., 2007). Our findings support the assumption that mastery-orientation might not always result in the achievement of higher grades (Ng, 2017;Ranelluci et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Behaviors directed to achieving goals and managing tasks in a set period of time play important roles when people engage in learning ac-tivities. These behaviors, labeled goal orientation and time management, have been widely studied as part of self-regulated learning models. Previous works have traditionally employed self-reports to study these variables. However, these subjective methodologies suffer from limitations, and some researchers highlight the advantages of using objective measures. In the present work, we employ objective tests to study goal orientation, time management and their relation to learning outcomes. We propose a model and employ structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized re-lations. The results provided a good fit to the data. Goal orientation (mas-tery) has a direct effect on time management, and both variables have direct effects on scores in a learning task. Time management also has a direct effect on academic performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... When it comes to the dimensions of CSC, four elements have been proposed which include: (1) teacher academic/emotional support, (2) classroom mutual respect, (3) student task-related interaction, and (4) performance goals (Patrick and Ryan 2005;Patrick, Ryan, and Kaplan 2007). Teacher academic support concerns students' perceptions of the teacher with respect to his/her degree of help in learning the content rather than inspiring competitiveness. ...
... As student engagement can provide students with a personalised learning context (Reeve and Tseng 2011), exploring the significance of mindsets in affecting EFL students' engagement and learning process is a worthwhile research area (Eren and Rakıcıoğlu-Söylemez 2020). In the meantime, research evidence indicates that pleasant class climate can enhance students' engagement and their motivated behaviour (Lerdpornkulrat, Koul, and Poondej 2018;Patrick, Ryan, and Kaplan 2007;Reyes et al. 2012). However, no study has ever explored the role of CSC in affecting student engagement in EFL contexts. ...
Article
This study aimed to test a model of classroom social climate, growth language mindset, boredom, and student engagement among English as a foreign language (EFL) learners. In addition, the mediating role of boredom in this structural model was examined. To this end, 287 English major students from various universities in Iran participated in the study by completing valid measures of the four constructs under investigation. The construct validity of the measures was verified through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Moreover, structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted in order to demonstrate an adequate fit to the data in the study. SEM results demonstrated that classroom social climate and boredom significantly predicated EFL student engagement directly. However, the growth language mindset affected student engagement indirectly, through the mediating effect of boredom. The results might offer a point of departure for future studies and also have significant implications for both EFL learners and instructors.
... K. Malecki & Demaray, 2003). It includes respect from teachers, have been shown to improve students' school engagement, establish a sense of security, and help them focus on their study (Patrick et al., 2007;Ryan & Patrick, 2001). Informational support is giving students advice and information that will help them learn, whereas evaluation support entails giving feedback on their schooling (Malecki et al., 2000). ...
... Moreover, Weyns et al. (2018) found that both peer acceptance and teacher support impact school involvement, which is consistent with this result. According to prior research (Patrick et al., 2007;Ryan & Patrick, 2001), students who feel respected and cared for by their teachers are more likely to feel comfortable at school, concentrate on their academics, and have a greater desire to learn. As a result, teachers' support for adolescent students can boost students' motivation to go to school, reduce absenteeism, and increase school involvement. ...
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This study looked at family, teacher, and peer support as predictors of teenage students’ school participation among 278, Ethiopian adolescent students aged 15 to 20 years old. According to the findings, families, teachers, and peers provide support through modelling respectful behaviour, caring for them, providing materials essential for their learning, encouraging, offering feedback, reinforcing good behaviour, and punishing poor behaviour. The correlation finding reveals that a family’s socioeconomic status, family support, teacher support, and peer support are all strongly linked to school engagement and its four components (behavioural, emotional, cognitive and agentic engagement). SES (β = .333, p < 01), family support (β = .261, p < 01), teachers support (β = .095, p < 05), and peer support (β = .140, p < 01) all contributed substantially to total school engagement, according to data from multiple regression. Predictor factors also showed substantial variation (F = 40.435, p < 01, R2 = .499), accounting for 49.9% of the variance in total school engagement. According to the results of hierarchical regression teachers’ support moderated the link between family support and school engagement considerably (R2 = .017, p < 01), Recommendations have been sent to interested parties in order to encourage the required assistance offered to adolescent students from the environment and to improve their school participation.
... In addition, this finding can be elaborated by the assumption of SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000) that students perceiving more teacher support enjoy more intrinsic and higher autonomous self-motivation , which stimulates their interests in learning itself, thus dedicating more effort, persistence and enthusiasm to learning activities. Moreover, teacher support can help students develop their sense of school belonging and relatedness in classroom, reduce their undesirable and disruptive behaviors (Patrick et al., 2007), pay considerable attention to tasks, and correspondingly engage more in their learning process. Overall, teachers can involve EFL learners in engagement to the maximum extent by providing different forms of support. ...
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Given the extremely preeminent role of students’ learning engagement (LE) in their academic success, investigating the predictors of LE for EFL learners seems critical. Prior research has demonstrated that the external environmental factors (e.g., teacher support) and the internal motivational factors (e.g., self-efficacy, achievement goal orientation) were related to LE, yet the internal mechanism is still under-explored. Therefore, this study attempted to explore the associations between teacher support and LE and the possible underlying mechanism through which teacher support influences LE with individual motivational variables of self-efficacy and achievement goal orientation the mediators for EFL learners in China. A sample of 466 Chinese college EFL learners participated in the study. Results indicated that (1) both academic support and emotional support significantly predicted LE; (2) academic support predicted LE through the separate mediation of self-efficacy, mastery goals and performance-approach goals; whereas emotional support only predicted LE through mastery goals; (3) academic support, but not emotional support, predicted LE through the chain mediation of self-efficacy and mastery goals, self-efficacy and performance-approach goals. These results elucidated the mechanism of different teacher support on LE and provided some implications for promoting EFL learners’ engagement.
... However, some scholars equate the two meanings (Sun, 2021;Wei & Zhang, 2021;Zhang et al., 2018). Several studies that the more social support college students receive, the stronger their learning motivation will be (Patrick et al., 2007;Song et al., 2014;Yang, Zhang, & Jia, 2020;Zhong et al., 2016). Wentzel et al. (2010) confirmed that social support from teachers and peers stabilizes students' motivation. ...
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Aim: This study aimed to explore the mediating role of neutral death attitude between psychological support and demand for death education among college students during COVID-19. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1800 college students selected by convenience and snowball sampling from 20 provinces and municipalities. Methods: A questionnaire survey (The Psychological Support Scale, Demand for Death Education Scale and Neutral Death Attitude Scale) was distributed to 1800 college students. Results: Psychological support had a significant positive predictive effect on demand for death education and neutral death attitude, with neutral death attitude partially regulating the demand for death education of college students after receiving psychological support.
... Student motivation and student engagement are influenced by a student's experiences, self-perception, and support of teachers and peers. These factors relate to a student's academic objectives, motivation, values, and perceived self-efficacy, resulting in the student's engagement or disengagement (Patrick et al., 2007). Peer support, interactions with the teacher, and a positive learning environment promote student motivation through positive social experiences and classroom behaviors. ...
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This study explores the relationship between student motivation and student engagement. The study, which is rooted in the self-determination (SDT) and engagement (JD-R) theories, responds to the contemporary call for studying this relationship. A bipartite construct of motivation measures both positive and negative components of motivation and structural equation modeling (SEM) by using data from 693 undergraduate and graduate students. In doing so, the study finds that student motivation is an antecedent of engagement. Adaptive cognition and behavior are positively related to engagement (β = 0.30, β = 0.60); maladaptive cognitions and behavior are negatively related to engagement (β = -0.54). The study advances SDT and JD-R. Implications for educationists and possible interventions to enhance motivation and, consequently, engagement are discussed. The study brings clarity to the student motivation-engagement relationship.
... Previous research revealed a direct association between social support and interactions (with instructors or friends) and student engagement in the learning process (Garcia-Reid, 2007;Ruzek et al., 2016). Students who feel that they get social support from their instructors tend to show behavior per instructors' expectations, tend to be involved from an affective, behavioral, or cognitive perspective (Patrick et al., 2007). Other findings indicate a close relationship between learner engagement and institutional environmental support (Amoozegar et al., 2017;J. ...
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The study was intended to model online learning engagement of international students studying in Indonesia to determine which factors affect learner engagement. A survey was conducted online, and 102 international students filled the questionnaire. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) technique was used for data analysis. The results show that the variables: university support (T = 2.881, P< 0.01), motivation (T = 3.411, P< 0.01), and personal innovativeness (T = 2.426, P< 0.05) were the significant predictors of international students' engagement in online learning. Other variables like instructor interactivity, student-material interaction, student-student interactions, and self-regulated learning didn't significantly affect learner engagement. The findings of this exploration can be used as empirical data for higher education institutions' managers when developing support programs for international students during their studies in a destination country. Other findings' implications and recommendations are discussed.
... Interaction between lecturersstudents is often defined (in studies) as a teacher-student (teacher-student or teacherstudent relationship), also teacher or teacher support (Lam et al., 2012). Previous studies propose the quality of a good relationship between teacher-student with several characteristics such as increasing levels of emotional (Fraser & Fisher, 1982;Patrick et al., 2007), academic support and autonomy (E. Skinner et al., 1993), and provisions of structure (Jang et al., 2010). ...
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This study aimed to examine the fitness of a model that proposes the relationship between the quality of student-teacher interaction as predictors of academic achievement and perceived learning with emotional engagement as a mediator. Lecture-student interactions as the exogenous variable were measured with the Lecturer-student Interaction (LSI) questionnaire that contains four aspects: autonomy support, emotional support, academic support, and the framework used to measure the quality of lecturer-student interaction. The emotional involvements of students during lectures as the endogenous variable are the emotions (pleasure, boredom, despair, anger, hope, anxiety) that are often expressed in the lecture process. Emotional engagement is considered as the mediator variable. Perceived learning as the dependent variable is related to the ability of lecturers to arouse students' curiosity about the lecture material. The second dependent variable is academic achievement which is determined by the cumulative index report (GPA) from the previous semester. 270 students from many universities in Indonesia filled out the questionnaire. The conceptual model proposed in this study is incompatible with empirical data in the field. In the first model, lecturer-student interaction influences perceived learning mediated by emotional engagement because lecturer-student interaction will only significantly influence perceived learning through emotional engagement (full mediation). Directly and through mediation of emotional involvement, the influence of lecturer-student interaction variables is not significant on academic achievement. In the modified model, lecturer-student interaction influences perceived learning with emotional engagement and also significantly influences perceived learning without emotional involvement variables (partial mediation). The dynamics of the lecturer-student interaction relationship, emotional engagement, and academic achievement in this modified model remain the same as the first model. Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kesesuaian model yang mengusulkan hubungan antara kualitas interaksi siswa-guru sebagai prediktor prestasi akademik dan pembelajaran yang dirasakan dengan keterlibatan emosional sebagai mediator. Interaksi dosen-mahasiswa sebagai variabel eksogen diukur dengan kuesioner Interaksi Dosen-Mahasiswa (LSI) yang memuat empat aspek: dukungan otonomi, dukungan emosional, dukungan akademik, dan kerangka yang digunakan untuk mengukur kualitas interaksi dosen-mahasiswa. Keterlibatan emosional mahasiswa selama perkuliahan sebagai variabel endogen adalah emosi (senang, bosan, putus asa, marah, harap, cemas) yang sering diungkapkan dalam proses perkuliahan. Keterlibatan emosional dianggap sebagai variabel mediator. Persepsi pembelajaran sebagai variabel terikat berkaitan dengan kemampuan dosen membangkitkan rasa ingin tahu
... Secondly, personal support, that is, emotive support and a sense of regard and compassion by a person in societal life, is similar to a person's emotions (Haber et al., 2007). Emotional support from teachers and academic support are critical to learners' success (Patrick et al., 2007) and it includes the perception of the instructor's care and love for the learners, while academic support is in charge of the learners' learning strategies and study skills. Studies show that to be effective in the classroom, instructor support must be fully aligned with learners' efforts, classroom discipline, and the application of self-determination strategies (Dearnley and Matthew, 2007;Wentzel et al., 2010). ...
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Since motivation determines progress in the class, it has a significant role in the field of learning English as a foreign language (EFL), contributing to a successful learning process. Therefore, teachers need to motivate learners to achieve their learning goals and provide them with a meaningful learning process in stressful situations. Two factors are required to successfully overcome challenges in scholastic circumstances, such as academic buoyancy and social support. The former can be a significant element in a psycho-educational setting that helps learners with academic difficulties and the latter is another term that is deemed as an important predictor of academic motivation even when considering perceived support from teachers and peers. The functions of academic buoyancy and social support factors in the process of learning and their association with students’ motivation have not been taken into account so far. As a result, this review has implications for scholars, theorists, and practitioners in quest of better investigating and addressing the roles of buoyancy and social support on students’ motivation.
... Teacher emotional support indirectly predicted increases in mastery orientation through autonomy and peer relatedness (Ruzek et al., 2016). Similarly, Patrick et al. (2007) found that teacher emotional support predicted engagement in the form of self-regulation strategies and task-related interactions among 602 fifth graders. Mastery goals mediated the relationship between teacher emotional support and both engagement variables, and task-related interactions, in turn, predicted student math achievement. ...
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Research supports the role of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) in supporting adaptive behavioral and emotional outcomes for students. The present study considered achievement goals (mastery and performance) as mediators between the TSR and behavioral/emotional risk (BER) to further understand the process by which this relationship exists. Based on self-reports from a sample of 1206 predominantly Latina/o/e middle school students, a mediational relationship was identified. More specifically, teacher caring was a positive predictor of both mastery and performance goals. Mastery goals were negatively linked to BER, whereas performance goals were positively linked to BER. A partial mediation model was supported, with a direct, negative link between teacher caring and BER remaining even after accounting for the mediational effects of achievement goals. Implications are discussed in the context of prevention efforts to support student mental health in schools.
... Teacher support includes both academic and emotional support (Patrick et al., 2007;Liu et al., 2018). Teacher academic support refers to students' perception that teachers care about what and how much they learn, while teacher emotional support reflects students' awareness that teachers care about students as individuals (Johnson et al., 1985). ...
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The burgeoning of new technologies is increasingly affecting people’s lives. One new technology that is heatedly discussed is artificial intelligence (AI) in education. To allow students to understand the impact of emerging technologies on people’s future lives from a young age, some popular science activities are being progressively introduced into elementary school curricula. Popular science activities are informal education programs and practices of universal education. However, two issues need to be discussed in the implementation of these activities. First, because these informal curricula are usually short in duration, the question of whether they only serve to generate motivation or actually enhance learning outcomes requires examination. Second, the role of teacher support in popular science activities and its impact on students’ learning results need to be further investigated. To this end, this study aims to explore the effectiveness of popular AI science activities in informal curricula on students’ AI achievement and the interrelationship between students’ learning outcomes in popular AI science activities with and without teacher support. A 6-h-long AI popular science activity was conducted with 22 fifth- and sixth-grade students in elementary school. This study was conducted using a one-group pretest and posttest design, and the data collection tools included AI achievement pre- and posttests and an artifact scoring rubric. The results showed that with regard to learning outcomes, popular science activities were helpful for cognitive enhancement of AI concepts, but more time was needed for skills to improve. Additionally, this study found that students’ learning performance was different with and without teacher support. Activities with teacher support can enhance students’ learning outcomes, but students become accustomed to relying on their teachers. In contrast, activities without teacher support seem to be more effective in fostering students’ independent computational thinking and problem-solving abilities.
... Studies have suggested that mental health problems are significant barriers to learning and academic achievement (Atkins et al., 2003;Catalano et al., 2004). The role of goal orientation on students' achievement has been emphasized in various subject areas (Fuchs et al., 2003;Glaser & Brunstein, 2007;Howse et al., 2003;Patrick, Ryan & Kaplan, 2007;Pintrich, 2000;Torrance et al., 2007). Achievement motivation is an essential skill for students' academic success and to set their goals. ...
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Mental health among youth is one of a major concern in India. This includes increased risk in poor academic achievement, goal orientation, problem solving and interpersonal skills. Goal orientation helps an individual to fix a target and taking efforts to achieve the same which requires a need and desire for achievement on various facets. Hence, we could assure that goal orientation and achievement motivation could contribute to the success of individuals which in turn help to protect their wellbeing. This study is conducted to explore the relationship among achievement motivation, goal orientation and mental health among youth. 309 students from different schools in Salem city were selected through stratified random sampling, and the data was collected through a survey. Results revealed that mental health of youth had a significant positive correlation with all the dimensions of achievement motivation. Performance approach and performance avoidance of goal orientation had a significant association with the mental health of youth. Structural Equation Modeling ascertained that achievement motivation and goal orientation had a significant influence on the mental health of youth. The major findings and implications are discussed in the article.
... Flipping the Classroom. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 9(1), [43][44][45][46]. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.teln.2013.11.002 (Access Date: . ...
Conference Paper
The process of career development has been shown to be different for young people living in rural areas, as compared to those living in urban areas [1] [2]. This paper fills an important gap in the research literature by demonstrating the current need for tailored career education programs for students in rural and urban areas of Nova Scotia, Canada, especially as pertaining to ocean sciences and the marine industry. Here, we investigate data from a large study performed in Nova Scotia wherein students in grades 6-9 were asked about their career intentions and perceptions. Significant differences were noted between students living in urban and rural areas, especially regarding their readiness to begin thinking about a range of career paths. These differences can be leveraged with career education initiatives to improve career opportunities for rural students, and by extension, the local economy.
... Hamre, 2009). Une distinction semblable peut être retrouvée au sein d'autres approches, qui distinguent également le soutien émotionnel et le soutien instrumental en classe (Patrick et al., 2007). Ce dernier se manifeste à travers l'aide pédagogique tangible ou les informations fournies par l'enseignant, telles que des clarifications, des corrections, des questionnements, etc., qui contribuent à la compréhension, à la résolution des problèmes ou au développement des compétences des élèves (Federici & Skaalvik, 2014). ...
Article
Lors du confinement du printemps 2020, la France a mis en place la continuité pédagogique par le numérique. Les recherches sur l’enseignement à distance indiquent que la création et le maintien d’une relation affective enseignant-élève, en plus du soutien instrumental, est un facteur de motivation et de réussite. A partir du recueil de 66 récits spontanés des pratiques pendant le confinement d’enseignants du secondaire et du supérieur, la présente étude examine comment les enseignants perçoivent les enjeux relatifs à la dimension affective de la relation enseignant-élève. Les résultats indiquent que cette dimension constitue une catégorie relativement peu représentée dans ces récits (11 % du contenu total des récits). Les préoccupations des enseignants relatives à cette catégorie concernent les difficultés et opportunités créées par le passage à distance, l’adaptation au moral de ses élèves ou étudiants et l’adaptation de la communication. De façon plus marginale, des propos relatifs à la disponibilité des enseignants ou au climat de classe positif sont également apparus. Si les situations d’enseignement à distance se pérennisent, il semble pertinent de tenir davantage compte des pratiques qui permettent la création et le maintien du lien affectif à distance.
... Miller et al. (2017) also characterized this concept as the extent to which the thoughts and ideas of learners are valued by their teachers. As put forward by Patrick et al. (2007), a respectful learning atmosphere stimulates learners to engage in purposeful interactions with their peers and instructors. In this regard, Hallinan (2008) also declared that the acknowledgment of the worth of learners and their personal ideas encourages them to keep up learning. ...
Article
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Owing to the pivotal role of grit in scholastic success, factors that help learners become gritty are worth to be studied. Accordingly, this research sought to inspect the impact of teacher respect and teacher support on Chinese EFL learners’ grit. In doing so, three reliable measures of the variables were sent to 613 Chinese EFL learners. Using Spearman correlation tests, strong connections were discovered between teacher respect, teacher support, and Chinese EFL learners’ grit. Multiple regression analysis was then performed to inspect the role of teacher respect and teacher support in increasing Chinese EFL learners’ grit. As a result, both teacher respect and teacher support were found to be highly influential in increased learner grit. The limitations and implications are discussed.
... Lizzio et al., (2002) reported that the perception of good teaching was positively associated with academic grades, whereas the perception of a heavy workload and inappropriate assessment were negatively associated. Teacher support was also found to be positively correlated with achievement (Patrick et al., 2007). ...
Article
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The current study explored the relationship between Acculturative stress and Academic achievement. Acculturative stress can be psychological, social or physical and can lead to a reduction in health status for ethnic minorities. Acculturation is the process of adaptation to another culture that involves learning development and competence in adjusting to the new culture and facing new challenges. A sample of about 300 students were considered for the study with 3×2 factorial design structure involving six potential categories was used to select equal number of students who differed in terms of their three levels of migration status and two types of courses. A survey method was used to collect the data using a questionnaire and the scales were adapted from existing studies. The ANOVA results indicated that students who have migrated from Kashmir to Bhopal reported significantly more acculturative stress as compared to their counter parts. Furthermore, the students who have migrated from Kashmir to Bhopal reported significantly low academic achievement as compared to their counter parts, who have not migrated from Kashmir and Non-Kashmiri students who have migrated to Bhopal. Implications of the study was discussed.
... The teacher support scale assessed emotional support from teachers toward students (4 items; e.g., Teachers respect students' opinions.; α = 0.85) (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007). The peer relationship scale assessed positive interactions among school peers (3 items; e.g., Students in this school get along with each other.; ...
Article
Racially disparate school disciplinary practices create inequitable circumstances for minority and immigrant youth around the world. In the U.S., Black youth are more likely than their White peers to be suspended for minor, non-violent infractions. This study explores (a) whether school cultural socialization practices reported by Black students (N = 544; Mage (SD) = 12.45 (1.57); 49% boys) and teachers (N = 38; 84% female) were linked to a reduced likelihood of receiving suspensions for minor infractions and (b) the extent to which Black students' perceptions of school climate mediated this relation. Results indicated that school cultural socialization was linked to a decreased likelihood of being suspended for a minor infraction and improved school climate perceptions for Black students. Black students’ perception of school climate mediated the link between school cultural socialization and suspensions for minor infractions. These results highlight school cultural socialization as a promising approach for increasing cultural responsivity and equity within schools, reducing racial bias, and expunging unjust disciplinary responses.
... Finally, learning in nature facilitates cooperation and comfort between students and teachers, perhaps by providing a more level playing-field wherein the teacher is seen as a partner in learning (Scott & Colquhoun, 2013). More cooperative learning environments promote student engagement and academic performance (McCormick et al., 2015;Patrick et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
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In a Danish context regular (weekly or biweekly) education outside the classroom (EOtC), school-based outdoor learning or learning outside the classroom (LOtC) is called udeskole and aims to enhance both health and education. The purpose of this chapter is to present two Danish research projects; the Søndermark School and TEACHOUT studies. It highlights the impact and potentials of physical activity (PA) in primary school based on results from pupils (grade 3–6 grade—year 9–12), taught weekly outside the classroom and school buildings. The chapter summarises how teaching in nature, green areas or using cultural institutions like museums, factories, cemeteries etc. has an impact on PA levels. The Søndermark School study in Copenhagen investigated whether udeskole in urban nature or cultural institutions helps to increase children’s PA in four classes. 44 girls and 40 boys (grade 4–6) participated in this study, where the PA was measured for seven consecutive days. For all 84 pupils, the average PA was significantly higher on udeskole days compared to traditional school days without PE lessons. The average PA levels among boys were significantly higher than among girls in all mentioned settings, except on days with PE lessons, where both sexes’ PA levels were equal. As part of the TEACHOUT research project, PA of 663 children was measured 24 h a day for 9–10 consecutive days. Udeskole classes were compared with control classes, i.e. their parallel classes, from 12 schools located in different parts of Denmark, in a quasi-experimental design. A gender comparison was made on a weekly basis, i.e. days with more than 150 min of udeskole were compared with traditional school days and days with physical education (PE) classes. Measured over a whole week, boys having udeskole were more physically active than boys in control classes and girls in both settings. No difference was found between girls in udeskole and the comparison classes during a week, but girls on udeskole days were associated with a greater proportion of PA at light intensity than on traditional school days and days with PE lessons. In general, the children were far less sedentary during udeskole compared to traditional classroom teaching.
... However, no study has yet examined the mechanism behind this association. Prior research has found positive effects of supportive TSRQ on working memory ( De Wilde, Koot & van Lier, 2016 ), inhibitory control , general executive func-tioning ( Cadima, Verschueren, Leal & Guedes, 2016 ), and some academic motivational constructs ( Maulana, Opdenakker & Bosker, 2014 ;Patrick, Ryan & Kaplan, 2007 ). Another line of research has documented positive effects of working memory ( Carretti, Borella, Cornoldi & De Beni, 2009 ), planning ( Follmer, 2018 ), cognitive flexibility and inhibitory control ( Kieffer, Vukovic & Berry, 2013 ), and reading motivation ( Authors, 2019 ;Schaffner, Schiefele & Ulferts, 2013 ) on reading achievement. ...
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This study examines the roles of cognitive flexibility and reading motivation in explaining the longitudinal link between teacher-student closeness and reading achievement. The investigation is motivated by the fact that cognitive flexibility and reading motivation have been shown to be correlates of teacher-student relationship and reading achievement, yet their mediating roles are less well understood. The current study uses a sample of 17,342 students (8463 females; mean age = 73.42 months) from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study with different ethnic backgrounds. A declining trend of teacher-student closeness from kindergarten to Grade 2 was found. Teacher-student closeness at kindergarten was positively associated with reading achievement at Grade 4 and the effect was mediated by cognitive flexibility and reading motivation at Grade 3. Declining closeness from kindergarten to Grade 2 was not related to the other associations. Consistent with the extended attachment view, these findings highlight the importance of an early supportive teacher-student relationship in promoting flexibility in thinking and interest in reading. This enhances subsequent reading performance in the middle elementary school years.
... These findings are of great concern, given the large impact that social emotions can have on student engagement (Pekrun and Linnenbrink-Garcia, 2014b) and cognition (Li et al., 2020). Student engagement, as well as student motivation, have been attributed to the social environment of the classroom (Patrick et al., 2007). Therefore, it is essential that teachers conduct lessons that engage students emotionally and minimize negative peer interactions whenever possible. ...
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In the present research, three phases were conducted to develop a real-time emotional measure (S2* emotion application) to examine the emotional experiences and causes for those emotions in disadvantaged Australian adolescents. In the first phase, data were collected from 412 Year 10 students (aged 14–15 years) to understand their emotional experiences in the classroom. Second, the S2* emotion application was developed and trialed based on the initial findings from the first phase and relevant literature. In the third phase, the S2* was utilized with participants (N = 81) from Year 10 Math and English classes over three time points during an academic term. Results revealed that the most frequent reports of emotions and cause for that emotion were: boredom caused by schoolwork; happiness caused by peers; happiness caused by self; and boredom caused by teacher. When emotions and causes were examined separately, the most frequent reported emotion was boredom and the most frequent reported cause for emotion was peers. This tool may be used in future studies to further investigate these real-time emotional experiences allowing researchers to build on theoretical frameworks and provide skills and resources to best support educators.
... Positive classroom environments help provide students with the confidence needed to achieve the given task, engage with school responsibilities, and enhance motivation concerning skill mastery (Fast et al., 2010;Patrick et al., 2007). Moreover, students who think that they have teacher support feel belonging in the mathematics fields and show more interest and motivation in learning mathematics (Strayhorn, 2015). ...
... Selon ces auteurs, la gestion de classe inclut les actions de l'enseignant·e afin de créer un environnement qui soutient et facilite autant les apprentissages socio-émotionnels que scolaires. (Patrick et al., 2007;van Tartwijk et al., 2009;Woolfolk Hoy et Weinstein, 2006). En contrepartie, les comportements coercitifs incluent notamment le recours au sarcasme, les excès de colère, Didactique https: //doi.org/10.37571/2022.0305 ...
Article
Cette étude examine l’hypothèse selon laquelle les pratiques des enseignant·es perçues par les élèves relatives à la gestion de classe (comportements positifs et coercitifs) et au climat de classe (soutien académique et émotionnel, respect mutuel, interactions liées aux tâches) influencent indirectement le rendement des élèves, à travers leur motivation scolaire. Ainsi, des élèves de première année du secondaire ont rapporté les pratiques de leur enseignant·e et leur motivation scolaire (attentes de succès et valeur) en français (n = 1417) ou en mathématiques (n = 1420) et les milieux scolaires ont fourni le rendement des élèves. Des analyses de pistes ont révélé qu’une fois le rendement antérieur pris en compte, les pratiques ciblées modulent généralement au moins un indicateur motivationnel, mais que seule la valeur attribuée aux apprentissages prédit le rendement ultérieur. Ces constats se généralisent aux garçons comme aux filles, et dans la grande majorité des cas, aux élèves de niveau scolaire faible et élevé. De tels résultats suggèrent que les enseignant·es, à travers une combinaison de pratiques mobilisées pour établir leur gestion de classe et leur climat de classe, peuvent faciliter l’arrivée au secondaire de leurs élèves, notamment en influençant leur motivation.
... However, when teachers were emotionally supportive, students low in math self-efficacy were just as engaged as those students who were high in math self-efficacy (Martin & Rimm-Kaufman, 2015). Yet another study linked emotionally supportive classrooms (e.g., students' perception of emotional support from teachers, academic support from peers, encouragement from teachers to discuss their work) to student achievement with academic self-efficacy and engagement with peers in academic work as important explanatory factors contributing to student achievement (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007). ...
Article
Even after spending five to six years sitting in a classroom almost every day for anywhere between four to seven hours, a significant share of students in low- and middle-income countries are still not able to read, write, or do basic arithmetic. What explains this “learning crisis?” A growing body of evidence suggests that poor teaching practices and little to no learning inside the classroom are the main culprits. As such, the learning crisis reflects a teaching crisis. So what can teachers do inside the classroom to tackle these joint crises? This paper systematizes the evidence regarding effective teaching practices in primary school classrooms, with special focus on evidence from low- and middle-income countries. By doing so, the paper provides the theoretical and empirical foundations for the content of the newly developed Teach classroom observation tool. Implications for teacher education and evaluation are also discussed.
... The recognition of learner differences and the importance of divergent responses in learning have been refl ected in materials developments over the decades. Educators and materials writers alike demonstrated a tendency to resist activities in which discussions invite right and wrong answers because that would reduce learning complexity (see, for example, Turner and Patrick, 2004 ;Meyer and Turner, 2006 ;Patrick et al., 2007 ;Graff, 2009 ). Learning complexity has also been demonstrated in today's English language teaching materials when they are no longer represented in a single textbook but come as a multidimensional package (Littlejohn, 1998 ;McKay and Tom, 1999 ;Lyons, 2003 ) and this expanded view is a response to the evolving of pedagogical beliefs (Murray, 2003 ) as well as a reaction to the implementation of all the technological advances in the industry to the extent that it seems like a standalone textbook could become a thing of the past. ...
Chapter
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There is a framework in this chapter for developing speaking materials and speaking materials evaluation. The chapter first highlights some prevalent methodological trends that have influenced and shaped many essential components in the development of material design for spoken language. Second, a practical framework is proposed for designing materials for speaking skills. Then, the chapter presents a rational for effective instructional materials for the discussed skills, proposes a set of criteria for evaluating materials for speaking, and finally throws light on some methodological aspects that deserve further scholarly attention.
... Following Dörnyei's (2010) steps for questionnaire development, an initial item pool was prepared by borrowing questions and using qualitative, exploratory data. More specifically, we first constructed an item pool by borrowing and adapting items from the existing teacher support scales (e.g., Patrick et al., 2007;Wong et al., 2018). All items were translated to Persian and back-translated to English by translation experts for guaranteeing the translation quality. ...
Article
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Teacher support, as an essential type of social support and an important antecedent of many key outcomes in L2 learning, can significantly contribute to foreign language achievement. Although teacher support has received considerable attention in education and educational psychology, it has drawn scanty attention in foreign language and applied linguistics research. Therefore, the present study aimed to fill in this research gap by developing and validating a domain-specific scale to measure the types of teacher support perceived by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. An initial item pool was constructed based on some generic measures of teacher support and semi-structured interviews with EFL learners. Then, the items were submitted to a panel of experts and their content validity was checked using the content validity index. After a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, the final version of the Foreign Language Teacher Support Scale (FLTSS) measuring four types of perceived teacher support, namely, emotional, instrumental, appraisal, and informational, was prepared. The results of examining different types of validity and reliability indicated that the scale is suitable for measuring different types of perceived teacher support. Some suggestions for further research are presented.
... By promoting a learning environment that responds to students' both school and environmental needs, peers can affect adolescents' academic motivation, classroom participation and school belonging, and achievement orientation (Wentzel, 2012;Wentzel & Wigfield, 2007;Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier & Ryan, 1991;National Middle School Association [NMSA], 2010). The concept of peer emotional support (Wentzel et al., 2010) is associated with positive academic achievement and outcomes of social achievements (Patrick et al., 2007). It can include higher learning participation, positive influence among peers, and life satisfaction. ...
Article
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In this study, it is aimed to examine the variables that affect the achievement orientation of university students with logistic regression analysis. Gender, age, education program of university students, academic grade point average, order of preference for university entrance, mother's education level and father's education level constitute the independent variables with demographic content. Enjoying learning new information and working in a job in daily life, the desire to prove their current abilities, the desire to be better than their peers in education and business life, academic ideal and physical disability are other independent variables in the research. The “2x2 Achievement Orientations Scale Revised Form” developed by Elliot and Murayama (2008) and adapted into Turkish by Arslan and Akın (2014) was used to determine students' achievement orientations. The population of the research consists of undergraduate students of Recep Tayyip Erdogan University. The sample of the study consists of 155 students determined by the purposive sampling method. In the study, logistic regression analysis was used to determine the variables that predict the success orientation of university students. As a result of the analysis, it was seen that university students' mother’s education level and the desire to prove their current skills were the predictors. It has been determined that the desire to be better than their peers in educational life and the high academic achievement averages are other predictive variables that affect success orientation. It was concluded that other variables (age, gender, preference, father education, enjoying learning new information, having an academic ideal, working in a job in daily life, physical disability) did not make a significant difference on the predicted variable. Article visualizations: </p
... Attempts to unearth the dimensions of CSC have yielded four complementary constructs: teacher academic support, i.e., learners' perception of the teacher's personal support showing his concern about how much the students learn; teacher emotional support, i.e., learners' perception that the teacher likes them as an individual and supports their wellbeing; classroom mutual respect, i.e., learners' perception that the teacher encourages them to value each other's feelings; and task-related interaction, i.e., learners' perception that the teacher encourages them to interact with each other during the class (see Patrick et al., 2007Patrick et al., , 2011. Underlying these dimensions and as demonstrated by research in this area (e.g., Fraser et al., 2010;Lerdpornkulrat et al., 2018) is the assumption that the larger the extent of these perceptions, the more expected the learners' outcomes, namely, engagement, achievement, and motivation. ...
Article
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With the advent of positive psychology in second language (L2) learning, some researchers have undertaken empirical studies to explore emotional variables affecting L2 learning and how positive emotions can enhance the engagement of L2 learners. As an attempt to contribute to this research domain, this project sought to test a model of student engagement based on classroom social climate (CSC) and foreign language enjoyment (FLE) among English language learners in Iran. A sample of 386 intermediate English as a foreign language (EFL) learners took part in this survey by completing the online battery of questionnaires. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed for the analysis of the gathered data. The results showed that both CSC and FLE were significant predictors of student engagement, with FLE acting as a stronger predictor. Furthermore, CSC exerted a slight influence on FLE. The findings of the present study verify the contributions of positive psychology to L2 pedagogy, implying that pleasant perceptions of learning context and positive emotions can lead to further student engagement.
... They believe that the process of creation is the highest in the thinking abilities of learners. There is a strong relationship between the professional components of teachers such as educational qualifications, designation, teaching experience, research experience, training and exposure workshops with teaching strategies for higher-order thinking skills has been found that 'appointment', 'teaching experience' and 'educational qualifications' significantly contribute to the strategy of teaching higher thinking skills (Kusuma, Rosidin & Suyatna, 2017;Dungsungnoen, 2016;Vijayaratnam, 2012;Patrick & Ryan, 2007). The implication in this research is that the school prepares good learning facilities, the teacher conducts learning conductively, for parents to encourage, guide students at home and improve self-concept in developing thinking skills. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Opportunities for collaboration are related to the quality of learning (Hijzen et al., 2007). For example, when students discuss disciplinary content, it can contribute to their learning of that content (Patrick et al., 2007). In MOUNTAIN RESCUE, there are ample opportunities for collaboration, thus students felt it had potential value as a collaborative learning activity. ...
Article
Background According to the Committee on STEM Education, K-12 science students need access to learning experiences that promote collaboration and engagement. To fill that void, we need to develop activities that stimulate engaged learning and scaffold effective collaboration. K-12 teacher candidates see value in utilizing games for this purpose. Specifically, tabletop science games can help teachers engage students in science learning and scaffold collaboration. Aim For this study, we designed a collaborative, STEM-themed card game called MOUNTAIN RESCUE and explored its capacity to promote engaged learning and collaboration. Method Four groups of STEM campers (n = 14) in a suburban Mid-Atlantic region played MOUNTAIN RESCUE. All groups had a mix of boys and girls. Play-testers ranged from 10–13 years old. The tabletop game took approximately 30-minutes. During gameplay, players embodied unique STEM roles: physicist, chemist, structural engineer, and electrical engineer. They collaborated to solve challenges related to electricity, physics, chemistry, and engineering design. Discourse was audio-recorded throughout gameplay. Immediately after gameplay, self-report survey data were collected to assess flow and perceptions of collaborative learning. Results Findings demonstrated that the game promoted engagement and collaboration. Specifically, students had a flow-like experience and felt positively about the game's value for collaborative learning. Utterances demonstrating active engagement and constructive thinking became more group-focused over time. Conclusion This study contributes to science education by demonstrating potential benefits of a well-designed, low-tech, science learning environment or—in other words—a tabletop game.
Article
The support and engagement teachers foster in their classrooms likely impact student success in reading achievement. Therefore, we used a multilevel approach to examine if students’ perception of support and engagement at both the individual and classroom levels were associated with students’ overall reading achievement. Perception data collected from 37 third- and fourth-grade classrooms (N = 578 students) indicated that student perceptions of individual and classroom engagement contributed significantly to students’ reading achievement; however, both support assessed at the individual and classroom levels were non-significant factors. We also found that girls and those with higher perceptions of engagement were associated with higher reading scores; however, higher classroom engagement was associated with lower reading scores. We discuss both theoretical and practical implications.
Article
This is the second in a series of two studies examining the impact of the True Goals (TG) school counseling curriculum on important constructs related to school success for students in elementary, middle, and high school. In this study, TG was implemented as a small-group intervention with 47 students in grades 9–12 across two schools and two school districts in the Southwest region of the United States. We used a waitlist control design with randomized assignment to intervention and control groups to assess the impact of the TG small-group intervention on students’ (a) academic self-efficacy and (b) social self-efficacy. Results showed a significant difference between the intervention and control groups on post-intervention scores regarding social self-efficacy, with moderate effect size. We offer implications for high school counselors' use of the TG curriculum to increase social self-efficacy of students. Please refer to the first study for information on the impact of TG within a sample of elementary and middle school students.
Thesis
Cette thèse évalue dans quelle mesure apprendre en classe puzzle (Aronson & Patnoe, 2011) impacte les trajectoires de motivation et d'autorégulation ainsi que les performances en mathématiques des élèves de lycée professionnel. Comme la motivation et l'autorégulation sont au cœur de la réussite scolaire (Dent & Koenka, 2016), il est crucial de construire des environnements en classe propices à leur développement. Selon Slavin (2014), le travail coopératif qui structure fortement l'interdépendance positive et les responsabilités individuelles dans les groupes est profitable aux apprentissages des élèves. A ce titre, la méthode en classe puzzle initialement conçue pour structurer la coopération via les ressources d’apprentissage peut également être bénéfique. Pourtant, les preuves de l’efficacité de cette méthode sur les apprentissages, la motivation et l’autorégulation sont inconsistantes. Certains auteurs ont suggéré que la classe puzzle est plus efficace quand les élèves apprennent ainsi pendant plusieurs mois (Roseth et al., 2019). Dans cette thèse, nous avons suivi sur deux années scolaires 5226 lycéens professionnels répartis dans trois conditions d’apprentissage : en coopération structurée (classe puzzle), en coopération peu structurée et en condition habituelle. Les résultats de cette thèse ne montrent aucune différence de trajectoires de motivation et d'autorégulation entre les trois conditions. Cependant, alors que les élèves n’ont pas mieux performé dans les premiers mois qui ont suivi l’expérimentation, un an plus tard, les élèves ayant appris en classe puzzle avaient de meilleures performances que ceux de la condition habituelle. Les résultats de cette thèse révèlent aussi qu’une bonne fidélité d’implémentation de la classe puzzle a peu modéré son impact. De plus, contrairement aux résultats de Roseth et al. (2019), quel que soit le niveau d’attitudes coopératives des élèves, la classe puzzle n’a pas eu d’effets sur l eur motivation, leur autorégulation et leurs performances. Nous observons toutefois que les trajectoires de motivation et d’autorégulation différaient selon les conditions et le niveau initial en mathématiques des élèves. Alors que chez les élèves faibles ayant appris en classe puzzle et en coopération peu structurée ces trajectoires diminuaient au fil du temps, celles des élèves faibles qui ont travaillé de manière habituelle étaient stables, voire augmentaient. En conclusion, le travail coopératif ne semble pas être bénéfique à la motivation et à l’autorégulation des élèves les plus faibles.
Chapter
In this chapter, the possible causes of SUDs are discussed. The evidence from different socio-cultural contexts confirms that multiple factors contribute to their development. None of the elements nor set of factors affect all individuals in the same way or explain substance use comprehensively because of the multifactorial nature of SUDs. At the end of the chapter, machine-generated summaries of five relevant scientific papers are included.
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In the last few years academic engagement is known as the academic quality indicator and thus it has been considered as one of the goals of higher education. This study is conducted on the causal modeling of academic engagement based on personal and social resources. The study population consisted of all undergraduate students at Amir Kabir University in Tehran.. The sample group consisted of 375 samples (263 male and 113 female) that were selected randomly from the population. To collect data the academic engagement question, the subscales of optimism, self-esteem, supported academic performance, supportive relationships with peers and family health- support of Trauma Resilience Scale by Madsen and academic Self-Efficacy Scale of Breso et al were used. Data analysis showed that supported academic performance, self-esteem and academic self-efficacy directly affect academic engagement. Also social resources (supported academic performance, Supportive relationships with peers and family support) were indirectly associated with academic engagement through personal resources (self-efficacy, optimism and self-esteem). In general the present study predicts about 33% of the variance in academic engagement. The analysis of model validation indicators indicated the suitability and sufficiency of the final model.
Article
Background: Students' academic performance and learning experiences are crucial in school education, yet their relationships with instructional characteristics remain an open question. Aims: The present study examined how cognitive activation and teacher support were associated with students' academic emotions and achievement in math classrooms via domain- and task-specific self-efficacy. Sample: In total, 5388 eighth graders from central China participated in this study. Methods: Cognitive activation, teacher support, math-related enjoyment and anxiety, and domain- and task-specific self-efficacy were measured with self-reported student questionnaires. The math achievement was measured with a standardized test. Results: Our findings showed that the two instructional characteristics were positively related to math achievement and enjoyment but negatively related to math anxiety, with the mediation effects of task- and domain-specific self-efficacy. In detail, cognitive activation had a stronger relationship with math anxiety through task-specific self-efficacy than domain-specific self-efficacy. Whereas, cognitive activation had a greater linkage with math enjoyment through domain-specific self-efficacy than task-specific self-efficacy. In addition, teacher support had a greater association with learning outcomes through domain-specific self-efficacy than task-specific self-efficacy. Conclusions: The relational mechanism of cognitive activation and teacher support on math achievement and academic emotions were differentially mediated by task- and domain-specific self-efficacy in Chinese math classrooms.
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Introduction: Researchers note a consistent decline in adolescents' motivation and participation in science. It is important to examine factors vital to students' motivation in science, such as teacher-student relationships (TSRs). Limited research in science has examined TSRs from a multidimensional or person-centered perspective. The present investigation adopts Ang's tripartite relational framework to examine three dimensions of TSRs: socio-emotional support, instrumental help, and conflict. Such research is needed to better understand the diversity of relationships that exist within a science classroom and their impact on science motivation. Methods: This study examined N = 2669 Australian high school students (66% girls; Mage = 15.11 years; SD = 0.69). Data were collected via online sampling in the final quarter of 2020. The data are cross-sectional. Latent profile analysis was used to (1) determine if distinct student profiles based on the three dimensions of TSRs existed and (2) the extent to which these profiles were associated with varying levels of science motivation: self-efficacy, intrinsic value, utility value, and cost. Results: Four distinct profiles were identified: Positive, Complicated, Distant, and Negative. Students in the Negative TSR profile reported the lowest adaptive motivation and highest cost. The associations between profile membership and motivation were more varied for the Positive, Complicated, and Distant TSR profiles. Conclusions: Findings indicate that dichotomous perspectives (positive vs. negative) may be insufficient to describe the diversity of relationships within science classrooms. Results also suggest that concurrent attendance to all dimensions of TSRs is needed to improve relationships.
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Educational researchers have provided evidence that students who see themselves as valued members of their university (institutional belongingness) tend to have higher academic performance than students with a weaker sense of institutional belongingness. The current research draws on social cognitive theory to inspect two mechanisms that might explain this correlation: social self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies. We tested a double-mediation model with a large sample of students (n = 1,480) from one higher education institution in New Zealand. Using structural equation modeling, social self-efficacy and metacognitive strategies were meaningful contributors to the relation between institutional belongingness and Grade Point Average (GPA). Our discussion focuses on how universities can design strategies that promote belongingness and, in turn, improve how students interact, learn, and perform.
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Do experiences with nature—from wilderness backpacking, to plants in a preschool, to a wetland lesson on frogs, promote learning? Until recently, claims outstripped evidence on this question. But the field has matured, not only substantiating previously unwarranted claims but also deepening our understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between nature and learning. Hundreds of studies now bear on this question, and converging evidence strongly suggests that experiences of nature boost academic learning, personal development, and environmental stewardship. This brief integrative review summarizes recent advances and the current state of our understanding. The research on personal development and environmental stewardship is compelling although not quantitative. Report after report—from independent observers as well as participants themselves—indicate shifts in perseverance, problem solving, critical thinking, leadership, teamwork, and resilience after time in nature. Similarly, over fifty studies point to nature playing a key role in the development of pro-environmental behavior, particularly by fostering an emotional connection to nature. In academic contexts, nature-based instruction outperforms traditional instruction. The evidence here is particularly strong, including experimental evidence; evidence across a wide range of samples and instructional approaches; outcomes such as standardized test scores and graduation rates; and evidence for specific explanatory mechanisms and ‘active ingredients’. Nature may promote learning by improving learners’ attention, levels of stress, self-discipline, interest and enjoyment in learning, and physical activity and fitness. Nature also appears to provide a calmer, quieter, safer context for learning; a warmer, more cooperative context for learning; and a combination of “loose parts” and autonomy that fosters developmentally beneficial forms of play. It is time to take nature seriously as a resource for learning—particularly for students not effectively reached by traditional instruction.
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has affected all sectors, especially the education sector. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the implementation of learning in schools which was initially carried out face-to-face must be abolished and replaced with online learning (in the network). The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of online learning on students' motivation and economic learning achievement. Researchers obtained data from questionnaires distributed to 47 students of SMA class XI IPS at SMA Negeri 1 Palangka Raya as online respondents. Research subjects were selected by random sampling method. Questionnaires were used to determine the effect of online learning on motivation and economic achievement in class XI students. Based on the results of the study, online learning does not provide too significant obstacles for students in understanding the subject matter and does not make students' learning achievement in economics decrease. In some students, the motivation to study economics decreases because they cannot understand the subject matter delivered by the teacher which is not optimal and does not vary so that it has an impact on student learning achievement. Students want online learning that is interesting, fun, varied, and creative. motivation to learn economics decreases because they cannot understand the subject matter delivered by the teacher which is not optimal and does not vary so that it has an impact on student learning achievement. Students want online learning that is interesting, fun, varied, and creative. motivation to learn economics decreases because they cannot understand the subject matter delivered by the teacher which is not optimal and does not vary so that it has an impact on student learning achievement. Students want online learning that is interesting, fun, varied, and creative.
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Beside research evidence on the importance of teachers’ emotion socialization behaviors and students’ social-emotional outcomes, there is less evidence on teachers’ discrete emotion socialization behaviors and students’ social and emotional outcomes. The current study investigated early childhood teachers’ self-reported expression of emotions and coping strategies with students’ negative emotions as potential predictors of young students’ social-emotional competence and school adjustment. Administration of the Self-Expressiveness in the Classroom Questionnaire (SEQ), the Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale (CCNES), the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation (SCBE) and the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment measures resulted in data from 832 kindergarten and first grade primary teachers and 662 of their students. Research Findings: Teachers’ positive expressions of emotions were significant predictors of students’ social and emotional competences and school adjustment, teachers’ responses to students’ negative emotions were not significant predictors of students’ social and emotional competence and school adjustment, whereas the interaction between teachers’ expression of emotions and teachers’ responses to students’ negative emotions predicted students’ social and emotional competences and school adjustment. Practice or Policy: Findings contribute to our understanding of the intersection of teachers’ self-reported expressiveness and coping reactions with students’ negative emotions for students’ social and emotional behavior at schools.
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Goodness-of-fit (GOF) indexes provide "rules of thumb"—recommended cutoff values for assessing fit in structural equation modeling. Hu and Bentler (1999) proposed a more rigorous approach to evaluating decision rules based on GOF indexes and, on this basis, proposed new and more stringent cutoff values for many indexes. This article discusses potential problems underlying the hypothesis-testing rationale of their research, which is more appropriate to testing statistical significance than evaluating GOF. Many of their misspecified models resulted in a fit that should have been deemed acceptable according to even their new, more demanding criteria. Hence, rejection of these acceptable-misspecified models should have constituted a Type 1 error (incorrect rejection of an "acceptable" model), leading to the seemingly paradoxical results whereby the probability of correctly rejecting misspecified models decreased substantially with increasing N. In contrast to the application of cutoff values to evaluate each solution in isolation, all the GOF indexes were more effective at identifying differences in misspecification based on nested models. Whereas Hu and Bentler (1999) offered cautions about the use of GOF indexes, current practice seems to have incorporated their new guidelines without sufficient attention to the limitations noted by Hu and Bentler (1999).
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this study we discuss convergence between instructional practices suggested by research on achievement motivation and practices promoted in the mathematics instruction reform literature, and we assess associations among instructional practices, motivation, and learning of fractions. Participants included 624 fourth- through sixth-grade students and their 24 teachers. Results indicated that the instructional practices suggested in literature in both research areas positively affected students' motivation (e.g., focus on learning and understanding; positive emotions, such as pride in accomplishments; enjoyment) and conceptual learning related to fractions. Positive student motivation was associated with increased skills related to fractions.
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The authors investigated how students’ (N = 233) perceptions of the social environment of their eighth-grade classroom related to changes in motivation and engagement when they moved from seventh to eighth grade. In general, prior motivation and engagement were strong predictors of subsequent motivation and engagement, whereas gender, race, and prior achievement were not related to changes in motivation or engagement. A higher-order classroom social environment factor accounted for significant changes in all motivation and engagement outcomes. Four distinct dimensions of the social environment were differentially important in explaining changes in various indices of motivation and engagement. In general, however, students’ perceptions of teacher support, and the teacher as promoting interaction and mutual respect were related to positive changes in their motivation and engagement. Students’ perceptions of the teacher as promoting performance goals were related to negative changes in student motivation and engagement. Implications for recent educational reform initiatives were also discussed.
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This study examined the relation between the nature of teacher discourse and 34 sixth-grade students' reports of affect and behavior in 2 mathematics classrooms students perceived as emphasizing both mastery and performance goals. Classrooms were observed and teacher discourse was audiorecorded and transcribed for the first 2 days of the school year to assess classroom motivational context. Later, in the fall and in the spring, each classroom was observed and discourse transcribed for 5 days during a unit on factoring and for 5 days during a unit on geometry. Students filled out surveys. Findings suggested that supportive instructional discourse that focused on student understanding characterized both classrooms and was associated with student reports of self-regulation and positive coping (approach behaviors). However, the 2 classrooms differed in teacher discourse that supported student autonomy and motivation. These differences appeared to be reflected in student reports of self-handicapping (avoidance behavior) and negative affect following failure. Students in the classroom in which there was constant and explicit support for autonomy and intrinsic motivation, positive affect, and collaboration reported less negative affect and self-handicapping. Students in the classroom in which there was less supportive motivational discourse reported more negative affect and self-handicapping. Implications include how features of the classroom context, such as the motivational support provided through instructional practices, might be related to student outcomes in highmastery/high-performance classrooms.
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We investigated the explicit and implicit ways in which 4 fifth-grade teachers communicated an emphasis on mastery and performance goal orientations to their students. We used survey data about perceptions of the classroom mastery and performance goal structures from 223 students in 10 classes to identify 4 classrooms with significantly different motivational profiles. We then used observational data to describe teachers' talk and practices regarding tasks, authority, recognition, grouping, evaluation, time, social interactions, and help-seeking in those classes. We found that teachers perceived as having a high mastery focus spoke about learning as an active process, and this was reflected in their practices. They required involvement from all students, emphasized effort, and encouraged student interaction. Those teachers also exhibited social and affective support for, and concern about, students' learning and progress. These practices were not observed in low mastery-focused classes. The teachers perceived as having a high performance focus emphasized formal assessments, grades, and students' relative performance to a substantially greater extent than the low performance-focused teachers.
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Observations of the first days of school in eight sixth-grade classrooms identified three different classroom environments. In supportive environments teachers expressed enthusiasm for learning, were respectful, used humor, and voiced expectations that all students would learn. In ambiguous environments teachers were inconsistent in their support and focus on learning and exercised contradictory forms of management. In nonsupportive environments teachers emphasized extrinsic reasons for learning, forewarned that learning would be difficult and that students might cheat or misbehave, and exercised authoritarian control. Teachers' patterns of motivational and organizational discourse during math classes near the end of the year were consistent with the messages they expressed at the beginning of the year. When student reports of avoidance behaviors in math from fall and spring were compared with the qualitative analyses of these environments, students in supportive classrooms reported engaging in significantly less avoidance behavior than students in ambiguous or nonsupportive environments.
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Early adolescents'sense of classroom belonging and support-of being liked, respected, and valued by fellow students and by the teacher-was investigated among 353 sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade middle school students. Focusing on one academic class, students completed scales of classroom belonging and support, expectancies for success, and intrinsic interest and value; course grades and effort ratings were obtained from English teachers. Each of three belonging/support factors identified by principal components analysis contributed significantly to explaining variance in expectancies and value, with teacher support having the most consistently substantial influence across student subgroups. The strength of association between support and motivation dropped significantly from sixth to eighth grade. Teacher support was more closely related to motivation for girls than for boys. Expectancy was the primary predictor of class effort and grades. These findings underscore the importance of belonging and interpersonal support in fostering academic motivation and achievement.
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Student motivation is a cause of great concern for educators at all levels, but perhaps never more so than during the middle school years. Teachers' observations about declines in student interest and confidence in academic tasks are borne out by a number of large-scale empirical studies. In this article, the author examines how teachers create adaptive motivational environments through the messages they communicate to their students at the beginning of the year. In order to assess the effectiveness of this adaptive motivational environments to students, a team of observers spent more than 15 hours with each of 10 different teachers during the first three weeks of school. They recorded all aspects of the teachers' classroom instruction and their interactions with students. Three features of these teachers' practice emerged as particularly important: viewing learning as an active, student-centered process; demonstrating genuine enthusiasm for learning across the curriculum; and maintaining relationships with students that were simultaneously convivial and demanding. Both of the teachers who created adaptive motivational environments for their students emphasized active, student-centered learning through their constant focus on students' improvement and understanding, their promotion of student interaction in class, and the ways in which they evaluated and provided feedback to their students.
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The relation between the learning environment (e.g., students' perceptions of the classroom goal structure and teachers' instructional discourse) and students' reported use of avoidance strategies (self-handicapping, avoidance of help seeking) and preference to avoid novelty in mathematics was examined. Quantitative analyses indicated that students' reports of avoidance behaviors varied significantly among classrooms. A perceived emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom was positively related to lower reports of avoidance. Qualitative analyses revealed that teachers in high-mastery/low-avoidance and low-mastery/high-avoidance classrooms used distinctively different patterns of instructional and motivational discourse. High incidence of motivational support was uniquely characteristic of high-mastery/ low-avoidance classrooms, suggesting that mastery goals may include an affective component. Implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Moving beyond the general question of effectiveness of small group learning, this conceptual review proposes conditions under which the use of small groups in classrooms can be productive. Included in the review is recent research that manipulates various features of cooperative learning as well as studies of the relationship of interaction in small groups to outcomes. The analysis develops propositions concerning the kinds of discourse that are productive of different types of learning as well as propositions concerning how desirable kinds of interaction may be fostered. Whereas limited exchange of information and explanation are adequate for routine learning in collaborative seatwork, more open exchange and elaborated discussion are necessary for conceptual learning with group tasks and ill-structured problems. Moreover, task instructions, student preparation, and the nature of the teacher role that are eminently suitable for supporting interaction in more routine learning tasks may result in unduly constraining the discussion in less structured tasks where the objective is conceptual learning. The research reviewed also suggests that it is necessary to treat problems of status within small groups engaged in group tasks with ill-structured problems. With a focus on task and interaction, the analysis attempts to move away from the debates about intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and goal and resource interdependence that have characterized research in cooperative learning.
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This review examines recent developments in research on social-cognitive theories of motivation during adolescence and the ways in which such research can be applied to the reform of middle grade schools. While there is ample evidence that the environments in many middle grade schools are antithetical to the needs of early adolescents, few reform efforts have emerged which consider the motivational and developmental needs of youth. This article suggests that effective reform must consider the multiple contexts in which students interact. Recent examples of reform at the classroom and school level using a goal theory perspective are presented.
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Two studies examined the relationship between undergraduates' perceptions of their classroom environment, their adoption of achievement goals for the course, and their graded performance and intrinsic motivation. Results revealed a distinct antecedent profile for each goal in the trichotomous framework: Mastery goals were linked to the presence of lecture engagement and the absence of an evaluation focus and harsh evaluation, performance-approach goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus, and performance-avoidance goals were linked to the presence of evaluation focus and harsh evaluation. When the perceived classroom environment and achievement goal variables were tested together as predictors of graded performance and intrinsic motivation, the results clearly demonstrated that the influence of the perceived classroom environment on these outcomes measures was indirect; the perceived classroom environment influenced achievement goal adoption, and achievement goal adoption, in turn, directly influenced graded performance and intrinsic motivation.
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The relation between the learning environment (e.g., students' perceptions of the classroom goal structure and teachers' instructional discourse) and students' reported use of avoidance strategies (self-handicapping, avoidance of help seeking) and preference to avoid novelty in mathematics was examined. Quantitative analyses indicated that students' reports of avoidance behaviors varied significantly among classrooms. A perceived emphasis on mastery goals in the classroom was positively related to lower reports of avoidance. Qualitative analyses revealed that teachers in high-mastery/low-avoidance and low-mastery/high-avoidance classrooms used distinctively different patterns of instructional and motivational discourse. High incidence of motivational support was uniquely characteristic of high-mastery/low-avoidance classrooms, suggesting that mastery goals may include an affective component. Implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed.
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How are children's social lives at school related to their motivation to achieve and how do motivational and social processes interact to explain children's adjustment at school? This volume, first published in 1990, features work by leading researchers in educational and developmental psychology and provides perspectives on how and why children tend to thrive or fail at school. The individual chapters examine the unique roles of peers and teachers in communicating and reinforcing school-related attitudes, expectations, and definitions of self. Relations of children's school adjustment to school motivation, interpersonal functioning, and social skillfulness are also explored. The developmental and social perspectives on motivation and achievement presented in this volume provide new insights into the complex processes contributing to school success.
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Relations of social goal pursuit to (a) social acceptance by teachers and peers, (b) prosocial and irresponsible classroom behavior, and (c) perceived support from teachers and peers were examined. Ss were 475 6th and 7th graders. Students' pursuit of academic prosocial goals (to help classmates with academic problems) was related positively to peer acceptance. Pursuit of academic responsibility goals (adhering to classroom rules) was related negatively to peer acceptance but positively to teacher acceptance. These findings reflected in part, significant relations between social goal pursuit and displays of social behavior. Perceived support from teachers and peers was also related positively to social goal pursuit, although findings differed as a function of type and source of support.
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A correlational study examined relationships between motivational orientation, self-regulated learning, and classroom academic performance for 173 seventh graders from eight science and seven English classes. A self-report measure of student self-efficacy, intrinsic value, test anxiety, self-regulation, and use of learning strategies was administered, and performance data were obtained from work on classroom assignments. Self-efficacy and intrinsic value were positively related to cognitive engagement and performance. Regression analyses revealed that, depending on the outcome measure, self-regulation, self-efficacy, and test anxiety emerged as the best predictors of performance. Intrinsic value did not have a direct influence on performance but was strongly related to self-regulation and cognitive strategy use, regardless of prior achievement level. The implications of individual differences in motivational orientation for cognitive engagement and self-regulation in the classroom are discussed.
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Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
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Publisher Summary There is considerable agreement about the importance of self-regulation to human survival. There is disagreement about how it can be analyzed and defined in a scientifically useful way. A social cognitive perspective differs markedly from theoretical traditions that seek to define self-regulation as a singular internal state, trait, or stage that is genetically endowed or personally discovered. Instead, it is defined in terms of context-specific processes that are used cyclically to achieve personal goals. These processes entail more than metacognitive knowledge and skill; they also include affective and behavioral processes, and a resilient sense of self-efficacy to control them. The cyclical interdependence of these processes, reactions, and beliefs is described in terms of three sequential phases: forethought, performance or volitional control, and self-reflection. An important feature of this cyclical model is that it can explain dysfunctions in self-regulation, as well as exemplary achievements. Dysfunctions occur because of the unfortunate reliance on reactive methods of self-regulation instead of proactive methods, which can profoundly change the course of cyclical learning and performance. An essential issue confronting all theories of self-regulation is how this capability or capacity can be developed or optimized. Social cognitive views place particular emphasis on the role of socializing agents in the development of self-regulation, such as parents, teachers, coaches, and peers. At an early age, children become aware of the value of social modeling experiences, and they rely heavily on them when acquiring needed skills.
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Education is an essentially social process, and the understanding of social contexts and reciprocal interpersonal and group processes as they are likely to occur in schools and classes is an important part of educational psychology. Focusing on selected topics originating in social psychology and sociology, this article advocates greater research attention to such factors as the social dimensions of self or identity, social support and belonging in educational settings, and group dynamics as influences on individual learning and motivation.
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Evidence shows that class discussion is important in students' development of mathematical conceptions. Theoretically, the process of contradiction and resolution is central to the transformation of thought. This article is a report of an 18-month investigation of a teacher's actions during class discussions in a 2nd-grade classroom in which students' disagreement was resolved by argumentation. Although the teacher valued children's reports of their reasoning, the context of argument in discussion was characterized by the high priority she afforded their roles as critical listeners. Her sensitivity in communicating her expectations for students' participation was evident during both discussion and disagreement. Moreover, the teacher participated with the students to create patterns of interaction and discourse that enabled children to shift their cognitive attention from making social sense to making sense of their mathematical experiences.
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Associations between perceived psychosocial climate and student outcomes among a sample of 1,512 students in Grade 5 mathematics classes in Singapore were investigated. Two methods of analysis were used: multiple linear regression and hierarchical linear modeling. A comparison of findings from the two approaches suggests (a) the existence of associations between outcomes and environment and (b) the usefulness of incorporating both data analysis methods in learning-environment research.
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Responses to a classroom climate instrument were made by 859 students in grades 5 through 9 in three urban and suburban midwestern school districts and were submitted to correlational analyses of relationships between scales measuring attitudes toward social interdependence and attitudes towards relationships with peers and teachers. Students who participated frequently in cooperative learning experiences were compared with students who had only infrequently experienced cooperative learning. Cooperativeness and frequently participating in cooperative learning situations were positively related to perceptions of support, help, and friendship from teachers and peers.
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The purpose of this study was to examine high-achieving students' interactions and performances on complex mathematics tasks as a function of homogeneous versus heterogeneous pairings. Participants were third and fourth graders who had been trained in, and had routinely practiced, constructive peer-tutoring interactions and had experience working individually on performance assessments. We videotaped 10 high achievers working with a high-achieving and with a low-achieving classmate on performance assessments. Results indicated that homogeneous dyads operated more collaboratively, generated greater cognitive conflict and resolution, and produced better quality work. Implications are discussed in terms of optimizing grouping arrangements during collaborative learning activities and preparing students to work productively together on complex tasks.
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The concept of school engagement has attracted increasing attention as representing a possible antidote to declining academic motivation and achievement. Engagement is presumed to be malleable, responsive to contextual features, and amenable to environmental change. Researchers describe behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement and recommend studying engagement as a multifaceted construct. This article reviews definitions, measures, precursors, and outcomes of engagement; discusses limitations in the existing research; and suggests improvements. The authors conclude that, although much has been learned, the potential contribution of the concept of school engagement to research on student experience has yet to be realized. They call for richer characterizations of how students behave, feel, and think—research that could aid in the development of finely tuned interventions
Article
Relations between sociometric status and school adjustment (classroom grades, prosocial behavior, and irresponsible behavior) were examined over time with a sample of 204 students. Perceived support, efforts to learn, and goals to be prosocial and to be responsible also were examined as mediators of these relations. Sixth-grade sociometric status predicted eighth-grade school adjustment when controlling for sixth-grade school adjustment. Compared to students of average sociometric status, controversial status students had lower classroom grades, rejected status students were rated as less prosocial, and members of rejected and popular status groups were rated as more irresponsible. In addition, neglected status group members perceived less peer support, controversial status group members reported less frequent efforts to learn, and rejected status group members reported less frequent pursuit of prosocial goals than did average status peers. Models, whereby perceived support and motivation explained significant links between sociometric status and school adjustment, were not supported.
Article
A framework for hypothesis testing and power analysis in the assessment of fit of covariance structure models is presented. We emphasize the value of confidence intervals for fit indices, and we stress the relationship of confidence intervals to a framework for hypothesis testing. The approach allows for testing null hypotheses of not-good fit, reversing the role of the null hypothesis in conventional tests of model fit, so that a significant result provides strong support for good fit. The approach also allows for direct estimation of power, where effect size is defined in terms of a null and alternative value of the root-mean-square error of approximation fit index proposed by J. H. Steiger and J. M. Lind (1980). It is also feasible to determine minimum sample size required to achieve a given level of power for any test of fit in this framework. Computer programs and examples are provided for power analyses and calculation of minimum sample sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Current research on goal orientation and self-regulated learning suggests a general framework for examining learning and motivation in academic contexts. Moreover, there are some important generalizations that are emerging from this research. It seems clear that an approach-mastery goal orientation is generally adaptive for cognition, motivation, learning, and performance. The roles of the other goal orientations need to be explored more carefully in empirical research, but the general framework of mastery and performance goals seems to provide a useful way to conceptualize the academic achievement goals that students may adopt in classroom settings and their role in facilitating or constraining self-regulated learning. There is much theoretical and empirical work to be done, but the current models and frameworks are productive and should lead to research on classroom learning that is both theoretically grounded and pedagogically useful.
Article
The results of four recent studies of student interaction and learning are summarized and integrated to demonstrate (a) the power of specific student interaction variables and sequences of behavior in predicting achievement in small group settings, and (b) the uninterpretability of results based on general measures or isolated behaviors. Conflicting results from other studies are re‐interpreted in light of the importance of specific variables and sequences of behavior. The implications of these results for the measurement of student interaction are discussed.
Article
This paper offers a synthesis of research on cooperative learning in small groups. The main challenge for teachers who utilize cooperative learning is to stimulate the type of interaction desired according to their teaching objective. A generalization regarding student interactions is that if students are not taught differently, they will tend to operate at the most concrete level. Student participation in a task group that is structured to foster resource- or goal-interdependence appears to increase student motivation and performance. The effectiveness of the group structure depends on the task's complexity and uncertainty and on the extent to which the instructions attempt to micromanage the interaction process. Information is also offered on ensuring equity in interaction, managing the interaction, and unsettled issues, such as special curricula and assessment. Successful implementation of cooperative learning also requires staff development and principals who demonstrate effective managerial skills and instructional leadership. (LMI)
Article
This study investigated students' perceptions of their teachers and classmates in relation to reported academic help seeking. 177 students at grades 3, 5, and 7 were interviewed individually using a structured questionnaire to assess who, why, and in what situations they asked for help when they had problems in math class. Results indicated that students generally preferred the teacher to classmates as helpers and saw the teacher, in comparison to classmates, as more likely to facilitate learning and less likely to think they were ''dumb'' for asking questions. Several grade-related differences emerged. Fifth and seventh graders' help-seeking intentions reflected more concern about social comparison than did third graders'. At seventh grade only, a concern that the teacher might think students were ''dumb'' for asking questions was negatively related to the self-reported likelihood of seeking help. Perceptions of teacher support varied with grade level. Although perception of a strong personal relationship with the teacher was associated with students' intentions to seek help at all grades, perception of teacher encouragement of questioning was related only at fifth and seventh grades.
Article
Relationships between students' affective and cognitive outcomes and their perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment as measured by the Individualized Classroom Environment Questionnaire (ICEQ) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES) were investigated for a sample of 1,083 junior high school students in 116 classrooms. Six different statistical analyses (simple correlation, multiple correlation, and canonical correlation analysis conducted separately for raw post-test scores and residual posttest scores adjusted for corresponding pretest and general ability) revealed sizable environment-outcome associations. Further analyses showed that the ICEQ and CES made appreciable, unique contributions to explaining outcome variance, and that the magnitudes of environment-outcome relationships were larger when the class was employed as the unit of analysis than when the student was used.
Article
Academic motivation is discussed in terms of self-efficacy, an individual's judgments of his or her capabilities to perform given actions. After presenting an overview of self-efficacy theory, I contrast self-efficacy with related constructs (perceived control, outcome expectations, perceived value of outcomes, attributions, and self-concept) and discuss some efficacy research relevant to academic motivation. Studies of the effects of person variables (goal setting and information processing) and situation variables (models, attributional feedback, and rewards) on self-efficacy and motivation are reviewed. In conjunction with this discussion, I mention substantive issues that need to be addressed in the self-efficacy research and summarize evidence on the utility of self-efficacy for predicting motivational outcomes. Areas for future research are suggested.
Article
This review examines recent developments in research on social-cognitive theories of motivation during adolescence and the ways in which such research can be applied to the reform of middle grade schools. While there is ample evidence that the environments in many middle grade schools are antithetical to the needs of early adolescents, few reform efforts have emerged which consider the motivational and developmental needs of youth. This article suggests that effective reform must consider the multiple contexts in which students interact. Recent examples of reform at the classroom and school level using a goal theory perspective are presented.
Article
To estimate the sign and size of correlations between student perceptions of social‐psychological environments of their classes and learning outcomes, 734 correlations from 12 studies on 823 classes in eight subject areas were analyzed. These represented a total of 17,805 students in four nations. A total of 31 of 36 hypotheses, theoretically‐derived in 1969 were supported. Learning outcomes and gains are positively associated with Cohesiveness, Satisfaction, Task Difficulty, Formality, Goal Direction, Democracy, and the Material Environment and negatively associated with Friction, Cliqueness, Apathy, and Disorganization. Jack‐knifed regression equations show that the magnitudes of the correlations depend on specific scales, level of aggregation, and nation but not on sample size, subject matter, domain of learning outcome (cognitive, affective, or behavioral), or statistical adjustments for ability and pretests.