Article

Toward a Life Span Theory of Close Relationships: The Affective Relationships Model

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Abstract

This article addresses how close relationships can be conceptualized so that they can be accurately understood over the life span. First, two typical clusters of theories of close relationships, the attachment theory and the social network theory, are compared and discussed with regard to their fundamental but con-troversial assumptions regarding the scope of lifelong development. Second, previous research into close relationships among mature adults is reviewed. Third, a new social network model, the affective relationships model, and its assessment instrument are proposed. This model describes the nature of indi-vidual close relationships consisting of multiple significant others, and con-denses the complexity of each social network by typological classifications. Fourth, new evidence based on the model is reviewed. Finally, fundamental as-sumptions about close relationships and emerging topics for future studies are discussed. Nowadays, most researchers will agree that, from the cradle to the grave, hu-mans need others not only for their survival but also for a flourishing life. To date, empirical studies have revealed that humans have close relationships with signifi-cant others, and most of these studies have focused on dyadic relationships, such as child-mother [e.g.

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... Finally, the outer circle represents more distant, rather vulnerable, and uniplex role-dependent ties, e.g., neighbors, acquaintances, or professionals. According to their theoretical assumptions, empirical studies find a declining number of different kinds of support from the inner to the outer circle, with the inner-circle alters providing multiple and crucial kinds of support, while many outer-circle alters provide only one type of support, such as respect (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). On average core family members are more likely to be placed in the first circle, friends are more likely to be in the second circle, and acquaintances are more likely to be in the third circle (Takahashi, 2005similar Antonucci et al., 2004. ...
... According to their theoretical assumptions, empirical studies find a declining number of different kinds of support from the inner to the outer circle, with the inner-circle alters providing multiple and crucial kinds of support, while many outer-circle alters provide only one type of support, such as respect (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). On average core family members are more likely to be placed in the first circle, friends are more likely to be in the second circle, and acquaintances are more likely to be in the third circle (Takahashi, 2005similar Antonucci et al., 2004. In an evaluation study, van Sonderen et al. (1990) found that compared with exchange and role-relation approaches the method of concentric circles especially elicits "the long-term, more ascribed, and highly valued ties". ...
... The personal network data generated by the data collection tool are generally in line with the theoretical assumptions by Kahn and Antonucci (1980) and empirical studies on network composition in personal networks, showing partner, close family, and close friends predominantly in the first segment ("very close" alters), friends predominantly in the second segment ("close" alters), and acquaintances or weak ties prevailing in the third segment ("less close" alters) (e.g., Antonucci et al., 2004;Takahashi, 2005). ...
Article
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The paper investigates how study participants handle the so-called “hierarchical mapping technique”, an affective name generator developed by Antonucci (1986), which is accompanied by a diagram enabling respondents to compare alters with regard to different degrees of closeness. By applying the thinking-aloud method, we identified three patterns in the order of recalling alters: closeness as overarching schema (with either role relationships or relationship properties as subordinate schema), roles and foci as overarching schema, and a fraying schema. In addition, we investigated how study participants understand and interpret “closeness”. The meanings of closeness can refer to various relationship properties, cultural framing, and relationship dynamics. Results show that specific meanings of closeness are related to different recall patterns. Furthermore, recall patterns vary according to the socio-economic status of the participants. Finally, implications for the construction of name generators and data collection are discussed.
... According to their theoretical assumptions, empirical studies find a declining number of different kinds of support from the inner to the outer circle, with the inner-circle alters providing multiple and crucial kinds of support, while many outer-circle alters provide only one type of support, such as respect (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). On average core family members are more likely to be placed in the first circle, friends are more likely to be in the second circle, and acquaintances are more likely to be in the third circle (Takahashi, 2005similar Antonucci et al., 2004. ...
... According to their theoretical assumptions, empirical studies find a declining number of different kinds of support from the inner to the outer circle, with the inner-circle alters providing multiple and crucial kinds of support, while many outer-circle alters provide only one type of support, such as respect (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). On average core family members are more likely to be placed in the first circle, friends are more likely to be in the second circle, and acquaintances are more likely to be in the third circle (Takahashi, 2005similar Antonucci et al., 2004. In an evaluation study, van Sonderen et al. (1990) found that compared with exchange and role-relation approaches the method of concentric circles especially elicits "the long-term, more ascribed, and highly valued ties". ...
... The personal network data generated by the data collection tool are generally in line with the theoretical assumptions by Kahn and Antonucci (1980) and empirical studies on network composition in personal networks, showing partner, close family, and close friends predominantly in the first segment ("very close" alters), friends predominantly in the second segment ("close" alters), and acquaintances or weak ties prevailing in the third segment ("less close" alters) (e.g., Antonucci et al., 2004;Takahashi, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper investigates how study participants handle the so-called “hierarchical mapping technique”, an affective name generator developed by Antonucci (1986), which is accompanied by a diagram enabling respondents to compare alters with regard to different degrees of closeness. By applying the thinking-aloud method, we identified three patterns in the order of recalling alters: closeness as overarching schema (with either role relationships or relationship properties as subordinate schema), roles and foci as overarching schema, and a fraying schema. In addition, we investigated how study participants understand and interpret “closeness”. The meanings of closeness can refer to various relationship properties, cultural framing, and relationship dynamics. Results show that specific meanings of closeness are related to different recall patterns. Furthermore, recall patterns vary according to the socio-economic status of the participants. Finally, implications for the construction of name generators and data collection are discussed.
... This model recognizes the influence of the primary caregiver figure on later development, but at the same time, it predicts a certain independence between child-parent relationships and subsequent child-sibling and child-peer relationships (Lewis, 2005). The epigenetic view and the social network model, therefore, differ from each other in the extent to which early childhood experiences of social relationships with the primary caregiver constrain subsequent development and consequently, in the extent to which other interactional systems are held to have an enduring impact on social development (Takahashi, 2005). ...
... Similar to the epigenetic view, the social network model hypothesizes a certain continuity in social development. However, it also admits that discontinuity can occur from the child's earliest social experiences (Takahashi, 2005). In this model, attachment is seen as a first network embedded in other networks, and these interactional systems are seen as interconnected (Lewis, 2005). ...
... As shown in the literature review through theoretical limits and equivocal empirical findings relating to the two theoretical frameworks, there is a continuing need for empirical research testing the interdependence of early social experiences (Lewis, 2005). Moreover, research focusing on the epigenetic view has been mainly conducted with infants and young children, while research focusing on the social network model has been mainly conducted with adolescents and adults (Takahashi, 2005). It is, therefore, valuable to test the set of hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view and the social network model in the same research. ...
Article
The objective of the current research was to test the hypotheses arising from the epigenetic view of social development and from the wider perspective offered by the social network model with three interactional systems, that is, child-parent, child-sibling, and child-peer. They were tested in two prospective longitudinal studies using a multi-informant and multimethod strategy. Study 1 was conducted among 83 children and their parents and Study 2 among 190 children. Attachment security with parents was assessed when the children were 4 years of age, relationships with siblings at 5 years of age, and relationships with peers at 6 years of age. Attachment to parent was found to explain a limited part of variations in later social relationships with siblings and peers. The sibling interactional system had a consistent and enduring effect on later peer relationships. With regard to the two theoretical backgrounds under consideration, neither was able to account for equivocal findings displayed in the two studies as well as in previous research. The wonderful story of social development seems to be a very complex process for which new models are needed.
... Given the range of provisions that are afforded by children's relationships, Takahashi (2005) argues that it is essential to pay close attention to the idiosyncratic ways in which functions are associated with particular relationships. Furman and Buhrmester (1985), for example, report that 11-to 13-year-old children recognised that the extent to which provisions were met varied according to the relationship under investigation. ...
... Our final aim is to determine whether children's age is a source of variation. It is possible that parents and teachers may attribute varying importance to one relationship context over another, depending on the age of the focus child (Takahashi 2005). Also, as children get older, adult expectations about children's behaviour and learning change, and therefore may lead to qualitative shifts in the functions that they wish to see promoted by children's relationship-based encounters with others (Lewis 2005). ...
... We found that most provisions were associated more highly with the childÁteacher relationship than the peer relationship, illustrating that the both teachers and parents value highly the many social, emotional and pedagogical functions that can be realised through the teacherÁchild relationship. Not only did these parents' and teachers' perceptions reflect Takahashi's (2005) claim that, at any one point in the lifespan, there is likely to be a focal relationship that affords many provisions, but they reaffirm the important and diverse roles that carers, including early childhood teachers, play in the lives of young children (Paptheodorou and Moyles 2009;Thompson 2005). A notable exception to this trend related to statements about friendship, where the childÁteacher relationship attracted lower ratings than the peer relationship. ...
Article
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This study investigated the perspectives of early childhood teachers and parents regarding the importance of provisions afforded by child–teacher and peer relationships in early childhood centres. Participants were 200 parents and 71 teachers of children aged 0–5 years who responded to an online survey containing a series of relationship function statements that were rated according to their perceived importance. Results demonstrate that most functions were rated as more important in the context of child–teacher relationships than peer relationships, although statements reflecting the provision of friendship were regarded as more important in the domain of peer relationships. Ratings for particular provisions of infant relationships were significantly lower than those for older children; a result generated largely by variation in the ratings of teachers in comparison to those of parents. Findings are discussed in relation to differences between parent and teacher perspectives and implications for the development of inclusive, relationship-based pedagogies.
... These relationships are defined as ''those interpersonal relationships that satisfy our needs for emotional interactions with significant others, among them the needs for emotional support, exchanging warm attention, and giving nurture'' ( Takahashi and Sakamoto 2000, p. 453). In other words, we assessed the subjective representation of close relationships that are assumed to be important for people's well-being (Takahashi 2005). According to social network researchers, human relationships, which support our survival and being, consist not only of attachment relationships, which are obviously important especially in the first period of life, but also of other close relationships (e.g., with romantic partners, with siblings, with friends). ...
... These consists of both reciprocal relationships (i.e., sharing emotions and experiences with others), and asymmetrical relationships (i.e., giving nurture toward others). Accordingly, significant relationships simultaneously involve multiple figures (for further discussion about affective relationships in human life and mental representation of close relationships, see Takahashi 2005). Considering the focus of the current study, that is the association between adolescents' victimization and their satisfaction with friends, our aim was to analyze whether their need for affective relationships with friends moderate such association. ...
... The ARS was originally designed to yield two kinds of scores: the total score for all 12 items for each figure, which reflects the strength of the individual's need for affective behavior from each figure, and a set of subscores for each of the six functions, which reflect the major functions of that figure (Takahashi 2005). However, in the current sample, a principal component analysis yielded only two factors. ...
Article
In this study, we analyzed the relationships among overt and relational victimization and adolescents’ satisfaction with friends. We also tested the influence of the need for affective relationships with friends. A total of 409 Italian adolescent boys and girls (age range=14–16, M=15.02years, SD=2.58) completed a self-report measure of overt and relational victimization, a measure of satisfaction with friends, and a scale to assess the individual need for affective relationships. A negative association between both forms of victimization and levels of satisfaction with friends was found. As hypothesized, the need for affective relationships with friends moderated the relation between relational, but not overt, victimization and satisfaction with friends: Adolescents who reported more need for affective relationships reported the lowest levels of satisfaction when relationally victimized.
... These relationships are defined as ''those interpersonal relationships that satisfy our needs for emotional interactions with significant others, among them the needs for emotional support, exchanging warm attention, and giving nurture'' (Takahashi and Sakamoto 2000, p. 453). In other words, we assessed the subjective representation of close relationships that are assumed to be important for people's well-being (Takahashi 2005). According to social network researchers, human relationships, which support our survival and being, consist not only of attachment relationships, which are obviously important especially in the first period of life, but also of other close relationships (e.g., with romantic partners, with siblings, with friends). ...
... These consists of both reciprocal relationships (i.e., sharing emotions and experiences with others), and asymmetrical relationships (i.e., giving nurture toward others). Accordingly, significant relationships simultaneously involve multiple figures (for further discussion about affective relationships in human life and mental representation of close relationships, see Takahashi 2005). Considering the focus of the current study, that is the association between adolescents' victimization and their satisfaction with friends, our aim was to analyze whether their need for affective relationships with friends moderate such association. ...
... The ARS was originally designed to yield two kinds of scores: the total score for all 12 items for each figure, which J Youth Adolescence (2008) 37:812-820 815 reflects the strength of the individual's need for affective behavior from each figure, and a set of subscores for each of the six functions, which reflect the major functions of that figure (Takahashi 2005). However, in the current sample, a principal component analysis yielded only two factors. ...
Article
In this study, we analyzed the relationships among overt and relational victimization and adolescents' satisfaction with friends. We also tested the influence of the need for affective relationships with friends. A total of 409 Italian adolescent boys and girls (age range = 14-16, M = 15.02 years, SD = 2.58) completed a self-report measure of overt and relational victimization, a measure of satisfaction with friends, and a scale to assess the individual need for affective relationships. A negative association between both forms of victimization and levels of satisfaction with friends was found. As hypothesized, the need for affective relationships with friends moderated the relation between relational, but not overt, victimization and satisfaction with friends: Adolescents who reported more need for affective relationships reported the lowest levels of satisfaction when relationally victimized.
... Moreover, individual aspects of social relations may have competing, compensatory, or synergistic effects on well-being (e.g., see Stocker, 1994). As such, some theories emphasize the importance of social relations as a whole or focus specifically on the interactive nature of multiple relationships (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). ...
... Parents and siblings remain the most common sources of conflict during adolescence (Furman & Buhrmester, 1992). By classifying participants according to their focal figure (the individual who provides the greatest amount of support across a variety of domains), Takahashi (2005) reports that junior high and high school adolescents most commonly report a same-sex friend as the focal figure. Teachers appear to play an interesting role during these years, with one study finding the best outcomes among those 6 th -12 th graders who felt wellsupported by a teacher and at least one other category of support providers (parents and/or friends), suggesting that a supportive teacher may be a necessary but not sufficient source of support for adolescents. ...
... College students also report more warmth and less conflict with their same-gender friends than with either their siblings or their crossgender friends (Sherman, Lansford, & Volling, 2006). Among adults, a romantic partner or spouse most commonly serves as an individual"s focal figure (Takahashi, 2005). Examining which network members American and Japanese adults report receiving the greatest amount of emotional support from, Takahashi and her colleagues (Takahashi, et al., 2002) found that most Americans were classified as dual-or multiple-types, indicating that they feel supported by a variety of sources, rather than relying primarily on one individual. ...
Article
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Social relations are important developmental contexts throughout the lifespan. Yet the nature and function of social relations changes substantially with development. Many theories propose that early social relations can impact later functioning (e.g., Bowlby, 1969; Whitbeck, Hoyt, & Huck, 1994; Kahn & Antonucci, 1980). The objective of this dissertation was to examine both the short- and long-term implications of children???s social relations, including the extent to which social relations exhibit continuity from middle childhood into early adulthood. Data from the Social Relations and Health Across the Life Course Study were used to address this objective. Patterns of social relations were identified and the long-term implications of social relations examined among 8-12 year-old children followed up 12 years later, when they were young adults. Results indicated four primary patterns of social relations exhibited by children. Patterns were distinguished primarily by the extent to which children???s social networks included immediate family, extended family, and friends. There was little apparent continuity in social relations from middle childhood to early adulthood. Social relations during middle childhood were minimally associated with concurrent educational orientation, and were more strongly associated with well-being, educational attainment and adoption of adult social roles 12 years later. Reporting proximal social networks that include immediate as well as extended family, and include many adults was beneficial for children???s long-term functioning. Reporting that one???s mother is the primary supporter was also beneficial. Results are discussed with respect to the relative influence of social network structure, network composition, and social support. Findings are also discussed in the context of the convoy model of social relations and of lifespan human development.
... As such, lower attachment security might be expected in groups that do not manifest this Western way of relating (Rothbaum et al. 2000). Other cross-cultural research indicates that dismissive avoidant attachmentwhich emphasizes self-relianceis also greater in Western cultures, whereas anxious, ambivalent, or preoccupied styles tend to be more prominent in more interdependent cultures such as those from the East and Middle East (Rothbaum et al. 2000;Takahashi 2005;van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg 1988). In short, parents raising children in different ethnic, cultural, and ecological contexts are socializing their children towards different norms, values, and beliefs about relating, suggesting differing patterns of attachment should result. ...
... However, we predicted that both groups would score relatively high on preoccupied attachment. Latin American cultures are known to value interdependence (Greenfield et al. 2003;Halgunseth et al. 2006), and crosscultural research indicates that anxious or preoccupied attachment is more prominent in interdependent cultures (Rothbaum et al. 2000;Takahashi 2005;van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg 1988). Furthermore, research on both children (Fracasso et al. 1994) and adults (Mickelson et al. 1997) has shown that preoccupied attachment is more prominent among Latinos. ...
... Latin American cultures are known to value interdependence (Greenfield et al. 2003;Halgunseth et al. 2006), such that obedience and interpersonal harmony are prioritized over personal choice and exploration. To this extent, our findings are consistent with cross-cultural research indicating that anxious or preoccupied attachment is more prominent in interdependent cultures (Rothbaum et al. 2000;Takahashi 2005;van IJzendoorn & Kroonenberg 1988), as well as with the child (Fracasso et al. 1994) and adult (Mickelson et al. 1997) attachment literature on Latinos. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to develop the later life attachment literature by providing data contrasting patterns of attachment among 616 older men and women (aged 50 to 70) from seven ethnic groups in the United States: African Americans, English-speaking Caribbeans, Haitians, Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, Eastern Europeans, and European Americans. A multivariate analysis of the variance with ethnicity, gender, and income as factors predicting four dimensional styles of attachment (secure, dismissive, preoccupied, and fearful avoidant) revealed numerous ethnic differences in attachment styles. Most notably, Haitians reported greater dismissiveness than all other groups, with Eastern Europeans reporting more than Dominicans, Puerto Ricans, European Americans and African Americans. Haitians also reported lower fearful avoidance than all other groups. Dominicans and Puerto Ricans reported greater preoccupation than Haitians, African Americans, and English-speaking Caribbeans. The most notable interactions with gender and income revealed that although preoccupation was lower among African American, English-speaking Caribbean, Haitian, and European American women versus men, it was greater among Dominican, Puerto Rican, and Eastern European women, and that whereas security was generally high among European Americans notwithstanding income, income strongly impacted attachment security in other groups. These differences are interpreted in light of ethnic differences in historical, familial, and religious contexts. This study provides a glimpse into the ethnic and cultural diversity in the ways in which older adults relate to significant others.
... La teoría de Bowlby ha sido el pilar central en la búsqueda de explicar la dinámica de las relaciones entre las personas, sin embargo, actualmente existen otras propuestas. La denominada "teoría de red social" señala que las relaciones entre las personas no consisten solamente en relaciones de apego, mencionando por ejemplo relaciones asimétricas y recíprocas, y la existencia de otras figuras significativas para el proceso relacional, además de la materna (Takahashi, 2005). Con un enfoque diferente, la "teoría del intercambio" aplicada a las relaciones (Homans, 1958;Simmel, 2002) plantea que, tal como ocurre en el intercambio de bienes de consumo, en el proceso relacional también se produce una búsqueda de beneficios y equidad. ...
... Uno de los fenómenos más estudiados en el contexto de las relaciones interpersonales es amor, sin embargo las personas pueden experimentar otros sentimientos, como la amistad o el cariño, (Berscheid, 1994;Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) y estos sentimientos pueden variar a lo largo de la vida (Fingerman & Lang, 2004;Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), modificando a la vez el rol que las personas tienen en la vida de las otras. Con frecuencia amigos se convierten en parejas románticas, o compañeros de trabajo se vuelven amigos, implicando también una variación en los sentimientos mutuos. ...
Article
Full-text available
Frecuentemente las personas se refieren a los objetos en términos similares a los que utilizan con las personas; “yo amo este objeto”, “le tengo cariño a este producto” son frases recurrentes. Este tipo de declaraciones acusan la existencia de verdaderas relaciones con los objetos. Esta similitud entre el modo en que nos relacionamos con las personas y con los objetos permite plantear un modelo que aplicado a la relación que tenemos con los productos, contribuya a la comprensión de lo que las personas esperan de ellos, y determine el tipo de vínculo que pueden llegar a generar con los usuarios.
... La teoría de Bowlby ha sido el pilar central en la búsqueda de explicar la dinámica de las relaciones entre las personas, sin embargo, actualmente existen otras propuestas. La denominada "teoría de red social" señala que las relaciones entre las personas no consisten solamente en relaciones de apego, mencionando por ejemplo relaciones asimétricas y recíprocas, y la existencia de otras figuras significativas para el proceso relacional, además de la materna (Takahashi, 2005). Con un enfoque diferente, la "teoría del intercambio" aplicada a las relaciones (Homans, 1958;Simmel, 2002) plantea que, tal como ocurre en el intercambio de bienes de consumo, en el proceso relacional también se produce una búsqueda de beneficios y equidad. ...
... Uno de los fenómenos más estudiados en el contexto de las relaciones interpersonales es amor, sin embargo las personas pueden experimentar otros sentimientos, como la amistad o el cariño, (Berscheid, 1994;Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) y estos sentimientos pueden variar a lo largo de la vida (Fingerman & Lang, 2004;Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), modificando a la vez el rol que las personas tienen en la vida de las otras. Con frecuencia amigos se convierten en parejas románticas, o compañeros de trabajo se vuelven amigos, implicando también una variación en los sentimientos mutuos. ...
Article
Full-text available
Diferentes roles y niveles de cercanía en las relaciones persona-objeto. 1. Introducción. 7.00 am., Juan se despierta al sonido de la música en su radio despertador y sale de la cama. En la cocina, mira la hora en su reloj de pulsera, hace funcionar la cafetera y pone dos rebanadas de pan en la tostadora, luego va al cuarto de baño y se mete a la ducha. Cuando vuelve a la cocina, su café y sus tostadas ya están listos. Lleva su desayuno a la mesa, y recuerda que ese mueble está en la casa desde mucho antes de lo que él puede recordar, allí vivió cumpleaños, cenas de navidad, reuniones con parientes y amigos, ahora la madera se ha oscurecido pero la mesa se mantiene firme. Ya en camino por la empinada carretera que le lleva a la ciudad, al acercarse a la cima de la cuesta, el vehículo comienza a dar "tirones" y a sonar diferente…entonces Juan le habla: "¡vamos, vamos, tu puedes!", logra llegar a la cima y el motor recupera su sonido normal, Juan sonríe y dice "¡sabía que no me fallarías¡", este automóvil le acompaña desde aprendió a conducir, han viajado juntos, ha servido como transporte y refugio, limusina y camión de carga. Camino al trabajo, se detiene en el cajero automático que siempre usa, ya que está en su camino y no suele haber gente utilizándolo. Luego, frente a su escritorio, Juan enciende su computador, en él están todos los documentos de trabajo, e-mails, etc. y aunque pertenece a la empresa, también ha copiado allí algunas fotos de amigos y familiares. Convivimos a diario con los objetos 1 En la narración al comienzo de éste documento es posible notar la variedad de relaciones desarrolladas por Juan con los objetos con que interactúa. Existen por ejemplo, productos que son prácticamente una parte él (reloj de pulsera), otros que solo cumplen una función práctica dentro del hogar (tostadora), otros que han sido parte de su vida (mesa) y otros que son un verdadero amigo (automóvil) o simplemente un compañero de trabajo (computador). Con cada uno de estos productos Juan tiene una relación diferente, cercana con algunos, más distante con otros y debido a ello, tal como ocurre en las relaciones interpersonales, tiene diferentes expectativas de lo que cada objeto "puede o debe hacer" por él. Existen deberes implícitos en una relación de amistad, tales como la confianza y la lealtad (Annis, 1987; Aristóteles, 2004) que Juan, a raíz de la relación desarrollada con el automóvil, espera que sean cumplidos por éste. Si , interactuamos con ellos, somos parte de un mundo de objetos que provocan emociones positivas y negativas en nosotros (Desmet, 2002; Norman, 2005). De muchas maneras son los objetos los que definen quiénes somos y quiénes deseamos ser (Belk, 1988; Kleine & Menzel Baker, 2004; Sartre, 1954) y a la vez nosotros los definimos en términos humanos, otorgándoles carácter, intenciones y personalidades (permanente provoca que no solamente cohabitemos con los objetos, sino que además nos relacionemos con ellos en términos que trascienden la interacción física o utilitaria, es decir, de modo afectivo y emocional. 1 Si bien utiliza el término "objeto" o "producto" indistintamente, este artículo se enfoca en los productos de carácter tangible, y no fungible, es decir en objetos con cierta permanencia en el tiempo, y que no son consumidos durante su uso. Lo anterior no excluye la posibilidad de aplicar muchas de las ideas aquí planteadas a productos como alimentos, servicios, sistemas de software u otros (para una mayor profundización respecto a la diferencia entre los términos utilizados para referirse a "las cosas" véase por ejemplo Crilly (2010)).
... Normative age-graded events are influences on development that occur in similar ways and at similar life stages for people in a given culture, including beginning a career or committing to a serious relationship (Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980; also see Elder, 1995, Heckhausen, 2006, for similar paradigms). In younger adulthood, normative goals include the attainment of personal status and power, establishment of a social identity and career, and serious intimate relationships (Arnett, 2001;Baltes et al., 1980;Casey, Jones, & Somerville, 2011;Takahashi, 2005). By contrast, in middle adulthood, people's traits and roles are less likely to follow societal norms (Bedford & Turner, 2006;O'Neil & Egan, 1992) and their romantic relationships tend to be stable but less central to the self (Chopik, Edelstien, & Fraley, 2013). ...
... Indeed, endorsement of hostile sexism was less closely related to benevolent sexism as age increased; the ambivalence of attitudes exhibited a small but consistent decline across age, perhaps signaling the development of more idiosyncratic beliefs about gender. The sharp declines in men's hostile sexism across young adulthood were consistent with this expectation; men's hostile sexism is highly incompatible with attainment of relationship goals which are a priority in young adulthood (e.g., Baltes et al., 1980;Takahashi, 2005). ...
Article
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Ambivalent sexism theory states that prejudice toward women comprises two interrelated ideologies. Endorsement of hostile sexism—aggressive and competitive attitudes toward women—is linked with endorsement of benevolent sexism—paternalistic and patronizing attitudes toward women. We conduct the first systematic tests of how endorsement of sexism differs across age and across time, using six waves of a nationally representative panel sample of New Zealand adults (N = 10,398). Results indicated U-shaped trajectories for men’s endorsement of hostile sexism, women’s hostile sexism, and women’s benevolent sexism across the life span. However, over time, endorsement of these sexist attitudes tended to decrease for most ages. In contrast, men’s benevolent sexism followed a positive linear trajectory across age and tended not to change over time. These results provide novel evidence of how ambivalent sexism differs across age and highlight that benevolent sexism is particularly tenacious.
... Nonetheless, nowadays there are other proposals: The so-called "social network theory" says that relations between people are not only about attachment. There are also symmetric and reciprocal relationships, and notices other significant relational figures in addition to mother figure (Takahashi, 2005). With a different approach, the exchange theory applied to relationships (Homans, 1958;Simmel, 2002) states that, there is also a relational pursuit of profit and equity as in the exchange of consumer goods. ...
... Love is one of the most studied issues in the context of interpersonal relations. But people may experience other feelings, like friendship or caring (Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) and these feelings can vary throughout life (Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), as well as changing the role that people play in the lives of others. Friends often become romantic partners, or colleagues become friends, also involving a change in mutual feelings. ...
Article
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Often people refer to objects in similar terms as an interaction with people. We give names to some objects and sometimes we even talk to them. We also expect similar behavior from products as we expect from people with an "equivalent" degree of relationship. We expect fidelity and support that "don't let us down." This similarity between the way that we interact with people and objects suggests the possibility of raising a framework, outlined in this paper, which allows the development of simple and understandable language for the different stakeholders in the process of product creation, design and development. The application of this to the relationship that we have with the products allows us to classify them, in order to reach a proper understanding of what people expect from them, and determine the types of relationships that they can generate with users.
... Nonetheless, nowadays there are other proposals: The so-called "social network theory" says that relations between people are not only about attachment. There are also symmetric and reciprocal relationships, and notices other significant relational figures in addition to mother figure ( Takahashi, 2005). With a different approach, the exchange theory applied to relationships ( Homans, 1958;Simmel, 2002) states that, there is also a relational pursuit of profit and equity as in the exchange of consumer goods. ...
... Love is one of the most studied issues in the context of interpersonal relations. But people may experience other feelings, like friendship or caring ( Berscheid, 1994;Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) and these feelings can vary throughout life ( Fingerman & Lang, 2004;Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), as well as changing the role that people play in the lives of others. Friends often become romantic partners, or colleagues become friends, also involving a change in mutual feelings. ...
Article
Often people refer to objects in similar terms as an interaction with people: "I love this object," and "I have great affection for this product because we spend so much time together" are recurring phrases, as if one is referring to a friend or family member. We give names to some objects and sometimes we even talk to them. We also expect similar behavior from products as we expect from people with an "equivalent" degree of relationship; for example, a car that is kept for a long time can feel almost like a friend. We expect fidelity and support that "don't let us down." Such statements assume the existence of real relationships with objects, similar to relationships established with people, validating and even exceeding the concept of "product attachment" encountered in the design field research. This evident similarity between the way that we interact with people and objects suggests the possibility of raising a framework, defined in this paper, which allows the development of simple and understandable language for the different stakeholders in the process of product creation, design and development. This approach relates theories of design and psychology, with focus on relationships, expectations and behaviors that we develop with the people with whom we interact. The application of this to the relationship that we have with the products allows us to classify them, in order to reach a proper understanding of what people expect from them, and determine the types of relationships that they can generate with users. © Common Ground, Ruben H. Jacob Dazarola, Manuel Martínez Torán.
... Nonetheless, nowadays there are other proposals: The so-called "social network theory" says that relations between people are not only about attachment. There are also symmetric and reciprocal relationships, and notices other significant relational figures in addition to mother figure (Takahashi, 2005). ...
... Love is one of the most studied issues in the context of interpersonal relations. But people may experience other feelings, like friendship or caring (Berscheid, 1994;Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) and these feelings can vary throughout life (Fingerman & Lang, 2004;Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), as well as changing the role that people play in the lives of others. Friends often become romantic partners, or colleagues become friends, also involving a change in mutual feelings. ...
Article
Often people refer to objects in similar terms as an interaction with people: “I love this object,” and “I have great affection for this product because we spend so much time together" are recurring phrases, as if one is referring to a friend or family member. We give names to some objects and sometimes we even talk to them. We also expect similar behavior from products as we expect from people with an "equivalent" degree of relationship; for example, a car that is kept for a long time can feel almost like a friend. We expect fidelity and support that "don’t let us down.” Such statements assume the existence of real relationships with objects, similar to relationships established with people, validating and even exceeding the concept of “product attachment” encountered in the design field research. This evident similarity between the way that we interact with people and objects suggests the possibility of raising a framework, defined in this paper, which allows the development of simple and understandable language for the different stakeholders in the process of product creation, design and development. This approach relates theories of design and psychology, with focus on relationships, expectations and behaviors that we develop with the people with whom we interact. The application of this to the relationship that we have with the products allows us to classify them, in order to reach a proper understanding of what people expect from them, and determine the types of relationships that they can generate with users.
... Nonetheless, nowadays there are other proposals: The so-called "social network theory" says that relations between people are not only about attachment. There are also symmetric and reciprocal relationships, and notices other significant relational figures in addition to mother figure (Takahashi, 2005). With a different approach, the exchange theory applied to relationships (Homans, 1958;Simmel, 2002) states that, there is also a relational pursuit of profit and equity as in the exchange of consumer goods. ...
... Love is one of the most studied issues in the context of interpersonal relations. But people may experience other feelings, like friendship or caring (Berscheid, 1994;Bowlby, 1982;Sternberg, 1987) and these feelings can vary throughout life (Fingerman & Lang, 2004;Levitt, 2000;Takahashi, 2005), as well as changing the role that people play in the lives of others. Friends often become romantic partners, or colleagues become friends, also involving a change in mutual feelings. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Often people refer to objects in similar terms as an interaction with people. We give names to some objects and sometimes we even talk to them. We also expect similar behavior from products as we expect from people with an "equivalent" degree of relationship. We expect fidelity and support that " don't let us down. " This similarity between the way that we interact with people and objects suggests the possibility of raising a framework, outlined in this paper, that allows the development of simple and understandable language for the different stakeholders in the process of product creation, design and development. The application of this to the relationship that we have with the products allows us to classify them, in order to reach a proper understanding of what people expect from them, and determine the types of relationships that they can generate with users.
... The profound insight into the extent of intergenerational congruence of attachment proposed here may be of special importance for better understanding the nature of emotional security and its development in and outside the family. Also it should be noted here that although distinction between the process of transmission (IGT) and its outcome intergenerational attachment congruence (IGC) is to a great extent artificial and inseparable in nature, and most of issues described in this chapter can be applied to both, this distinction is not novel (Belsky, 2005;Takahashi, 2005;Trommsdorff, 2009) and is useful for the sake of inferences drawn exclusively about the attachment IGC being the scope of this chapter. ...
... The attachment relationship and its mental representation constructed by a child throughout the relationship with a particular attachment figure may vary qualitatively across dyads, hence, the concept of attachment networks gained attention in many studies (e.g., Takahashi, 2005). Although most individuals maintain few parallel attachment relations even in infancy, Georgas et al (2006) revealed in a comparison across 30 cultures, that the motherchild emotional bond was reported by adult children as relatively the strongest, with bonds with the father and siblings following behind. ...
Chapter
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Global processes currently taking place in Western cultures involve major changes in the family domain, including progressing individualization and loosening of family ties. Nevertheless, according to forecasting scenarios of changes in European families till 2035, emotional security for individual family members will become the key dimension of the family wellbeing (Kapella et al., 2011). Attachment offers probably the best framework to describe how this emotional security develops and is transmitted across generations with regard to romantic love (Shaver and Mikulincer, 2007) and parenting bonds (Bowlby, 1969). In a broader sense, attachment also plays an important role as the developmental precondition for cultural learning or transmission of culture (Trommsdorff, 2009). Up to date attachment has been extensively proved to be intergenerationally transmitted in terms of the process' mechanisms and its outcome, namely intergenerational attachment continuity. However, this chapter advocates the notion that the careful analysis of attachment indicators involved in those studies through the lenses of developmental processes, ecological context, and especially the specificity stemming from measurement
... Wenger (1991 Wenger ( , 1997) and Wenger and Tucker (2002) identified five network types among elderly people, based on the proximity of kin, the proportion of family, friends, and neighbors, and the le Personality and Individual Differences j o u r n a l h o m e p a g e : w w w . e l s e v i e r . c o m / l o c a t e / p a i d vel of interaction. Takahashi (2005) based his typology on focal figures. These focal figures were categorized into two groups: family and non-family. A third group consisted of individuals not much interested in others: the 'lone wolf type'. These and other studies (Fiori et al., 2006; Litwin & Landau, 2000; McLanahan, Wedemeyer, & Adelberg, 1981) illustrate that the role ...
... On the other hand, the types of network we found are largely consistent with other network types found in previous studies. For instance, both Wenger (1997) and Takahashi (2005) found the amount of family versus non-family to be reflected in their network types. A second limitation is that we did not distinguish resident from non-resident students. ...
Article
a b s t r a c t The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relation-ships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups of students with similar role relationships with three focal figures. We per-formed Latent Class Logistic Regression to explore the relationships of the latent classes with the Big Five personality factors. Personality was assessed with the Five Factor Personality Inventory. We found three personal network types: a primarily family oriented network, a primarily peer oriented network, and a mixed family/peer oriented network. We found significant associations between personality and personal network type. Extraverted students were more likely to have a primarily peer oriented network relative to a primarily family oriented network. Autonomous students were more likely to have a primarily family oriented network relative to a primarily peer oriented network. Autonomous students were also more likely to have a mixed family/peer oriented network relative to a primarily peer oriented network. Con-scientious students were more likely to have a primarily family oriented network relative to a mixed fam-ily/peer oriented network.
... However, love often exists outside of romantic relationships, as evidenced by phrases like "brotherly love" and the Greek word "agape," which refers to one's love for friends and family (Mohacsy, 1992). Over the years, an expanded view of attachment developed to include all of a person's closest relationships (Takahashi, 2005), a group which typically includes parents, siblings, and at times, a best friend who is a "uniquely valued person, not interchangeable with others" (Ainsworth, 1989, p. 714). Researchers interested in this area have adopted the expanded attachment group theory when defining relationship types that may be uniquely and positively associated with well-being, suggesting that more than romantic love is necessary to achieve optimum levels of happiness (Birditt & Antonucci, 2007;Ratelle et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The quality of individuals’ social relationships consistently predicts greater well-being. But little is known about the relative importance of different relationship types for life satisfaction, including the relative importance of friendships compared to other types of relationships. Some have theorized that one intimate relationship is all you need. However, romantic partners, family, and friends may contribute uniquely or interactively to well-being. The current study assessed life satisfaction and relationship satisfaction in survey data collected from a large, diverse sample of respondents. Satisfaction with each type of relationship was significantly and independently associated with life satisfaction, over and above other variables in the model. Friendship (not family) interacted with intimate relationships: when respondents were highly satisfied with their intimate relationships, they were happy with their lives regardless of friendship quality. But when they were unhappy with their intimate relationships, they were only happy with their lives if they had good friends.
... To summarize the aforementioned findings on the nature of close relationships, Takahashi proposed the "affective relationships model" (AR model; Takahashi, 1990Takahashi, , 2004Takahashi, , 2005Takahashi, Ohara, Antonucci, & Akiyama, 2002). In this model, "affective relationships" were defined as those interpersonal relationships that satisfy human needs for positive emotional interactions with significant others, that is, emotional support, exchanging warm attention, and giving nurture. ...
Article
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This article proposed an affective relationships model with its assessment instrument and examined how Chinese and Japanese adolescents and young adults construct mental representations of their close relationships, and the influence of Confucian cultural beliefs on these representations. The participants were 1,565 students aged 14 to 24 years living in China or Japan. The students were asked about their relationships with four figures: mother, father, closest friend, and romantic partner. We found that: (a) adolescents and young adults in both cultures constructed constellations of relationships containing multiple figures, and they articulated reasons for each figure's significance; and (b) there were between‐group differences in the relationships with the father and the romantic partner for Chinese versus Japanese adolescents and young adults. These differences were partly explained by the influence of Confucianism on the Chinese participants’ cultural beliefs that retained the patriarchal values.
... Deciding what one wants, needs, and expects from a romantic relationship is an important part of defining one's identity (Grotevant, Thorbecke, & Meyer, 1982). Issues concerning romantic relationships are salient in young adulthood (around the early 30s-40s; Arnett, 2012) when many settle into their adult roles and establish long-term relationships (Arnett, 2014;Shulman & Connolly, 2014), and continue to be important over the life course (Takahashi, 2005). Based on Erikson's (1950) writings on identity, Marcia (1966) defined commitment and exploration as two core processes underlying identity development. ...
Article
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This longitudinal study examines identity development in the domain of romantic relationships during young adulthood and what the process of establishing commitments without exploration in this domain involves. Identity status in the romantic relationships domain was assessed for 118 Swedish individuals at the ages of 29 and 33, using the Identity Status Interview. Identity diffusion was less common at age 33 than at age 29, whereas foreclosure, moratorium, and identity achievement were equally common at both ages. The majority of those assigned to identity diffusion at age 29 had transitioned to identity foreclosure by age 33. These nine participants were selected as a subsample for further analysis of the process of commitment-making, and changes in their identity narratives between age 29 (before establishing commitments) and age 33 (after establishing commitments) were examined using case-based thematic analysis. The results suggest that the commitment-making process involves changes in identity content, such as having more elaborate and positive views on romantic relationships, as well as changes related to identity processes, including narrating one’s experiences and views concerning romantic relationships in a more temporally integrated way.
... One of the most important developmental tasks in young adulthood is to form a positive and stable romantic relationship (Arnett 2000;Havighurst 1972;Nikitin and Freund 2008;Roisman et al. 2004). Not surprisingly, then, young adults are highly motivated to initiate romantic relationships (Buss 1994;Wrosch and Heckhausen 1999) and romantic relationships are among the most significant relationships in young adulthood (Antonucci et al. 2010;Takahashi 2005). ...
Article
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Two studies investigated the role of dispositional social approach and avoidance motives (i.e., what people generally desire and fear in social relationships) for the decision to participate in a speed-dating event. In a sample of N = 205 college students (Study 1), approach motives were positively and avoidance motives negatively associated with the decision to participate in a speed-dating event. Focusing on the underlying processes, Study 2 (N = 153) showed that approach and avoidance motives were differentially associated with attributions of acceptance and rejection experienced in a previous speed-dating scenario. The higher participants’ approach motives were, the more they attributed acceptance to internal, stable, and global causes. Conversely, the higher participants’ avoidance motives were, the more they attributed rejection to internal, stable, and global causes. Attributions, in turn, predicted expectations for an upcoming speed-dating event, and positive expectations positively predicted decision for participating in the speed-dating event. Thus, what people generally desire and fear in social relationships influence relationship initiation through differential attributions of previous social success and failure and thereby expectations for the upcoming social events.
... Child psychology: Early childhood relationships, Sibling relationships Attachment theory: Close relationships include attachment relationships, i.e. asymmetrical relationships in which humans ask to be protected by a mother figure (Takahashi, 2005). ...
Article
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As relationship marketing research evolved, a number of key constructs emerged. Some scholars have argued that these constructs are not conceptually or empirically distinct. We investigate this phenomenon based on the premise that sustained research effort towards studying conceptually overlapping/ redundant constructs, while treating them as independent, can hamper the development of the field. We use prototyping, a method adopted from psychology, to examine consumers’ views of these constructs; and then identify relationship contexts where constructs are distinct or redundant.
... This result is consistent with what would be expected according to attachment theory. Bowlby and others have proposed that the person highest in the network is expected to be available to meet all needs, especially affective and psychological needs (e.g., Bowlby, 1969Bowlby, /1997Takahashi, 2005;Trinke & Bartholomew, 1997). Our findings suggest that the first person in the hierarchy holds an important position when support is needed. ...
Article
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An important cornerstone of Bowlby’s attachment theory (1969/1997) is the proposal that moving away from parents and toward peers is an indication of healthy development. In this study, we explored the benefit of the shift, not the shift itself, in a sample of emerging adults experiencing a stressful life event (i.e., the transition from university). Although the shift from parents to peers is an important cornerstone of Bowlby’s theory, this study is one of the first to test the differential effects of parent and peer networks on adjustment. In this longitudinal study, 73 participants completed surveys to assess attachment, social networks, and distress one month before completing their undergraduate degree and 6 months later. We found that participants experiencing the transition from university, who chose a peer as the first person in their network, tended to report stable scores over time whereas participants who chose a family member reported more variable scores. Interestingly, the direction of change was not different for the groups, just the magnitude of change. Furthermore, the difference in adjustment was not found when we compared the groups using the percent hierarchy method highlighting that there is a benefit of exploring primary attachment relationships when examining the influence of networks on adjustment.
... In sum, from the theoretical point of view, a child develops attachment to more than one person (Lewis, 2005;Newcombe & Reese, 2004;Takahashi, 2005;Thompson, 2005;Weisner, 2005), and the quality of those attachment relations affect different areas of psychological functioning in later life (Howees, 1999;van Ijzendoorn & Sagi, 2008). A number of researches have shown that attachment relations are significant for various psychosocial outcomes in adolescence and later life (Burke & Weir, 1978;Hoffman et al., 1988;Main et al., 1985;Suess et al., 1992). ...
Article
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The aim of the research is to study developmental relations between attachment to mother, father and friends and dimensions of adolescents’ self-concept. More specifically, we examine if this relation is direct or mediated by some personality construct. A sample of 878 students (13 and 16 years old) from Belgrade urban lower secondary and upper secondary schools participated in this research. Participants completed ECR for mother, father and friend; Selfperception profile for adolescents and NEOFFI. The results have indicated that dimensions of attachment are correlated with dimensions of self-concept, and that they can explain 13% of variance in dimensions of self-concept. When the personality traits are introduced as mediators, attachment dimensions explain only 4.5% of variance in self-concept. The quality of attachment relations with parents is not related to adolescents’ self-concept, while attachment to friends is correlated with social dimensions of self-concept. Hence, this study suggests that adolescents with particular parental attachment styles differ according to their self-concept profiles, but that peer attachment is important for adolescents’ social self. Beside that, this study reveals significant gender differences: relation between parental and peer attachment and adolescents’ self-concepts is not the same for boys and girls. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018: Identification, measurement and development of cognitive and emotional competences important for a society oriented toward European integrations]
... The co-construction and development of positive close emotional relationships with parents and friends is fundamental for individuals' psychological and physical health across the life span (e.g., Takahashi, 2005;Walen & Lachman, 2000). Research shows that support from parents and friends is associated with greater social adjustment and well-being (e.g., Gottlieb, 1985;Lee & Goldstein, 2015) and that greater quality of romantic relationships also plays an important role in these processes (e.g., Loving & Slatcher, 2013). ...
Article
Positive close relationships with immediate close network members are associated with healthy adjustment among emerging adults (EA). These influence the initiation and maintenance of romantic relationships. A cross-sectional study (N = 630) explored the role of perceived parental and friend support for the current romantic relationship in relationship quality among early EA (EEA; 18–21 years) and middle EA (MEA; 22–25 years) heterosexuals. Structural equation modeling results showed that in EEA, greater friend support was associated with greater commitment, satisfaction, and investments, and less quality of alternatives. Greater parental support was associated with greater commitment, satisfaction, and investments in MEA. This research advances literature by showing different associations between sources of social support and relationship quality in two EA age groups.
... Affective relationships are defined as "interpersonal relationships that satisfy our needs for emotional interactions with significant others, among them the needs for emotional support, exchanging warm attention, and giving nurturance" (Takahashi & Sakamoto, 2000, p. 453). During emerging adulthood, romantic partners become increasingly important to satisfy one's affective needs (Takahashi, 2005), and individuals must select a partner who adequately fulfills their affective needs to promote positive adjustment. For this reason, Arnett (2004) suggested that romantic relationships during emerging adulthood might be characterized as self-focused, as individuals seek to understand their own affective needs within a relationship. ...
Article
Evidence indicates that dispositional gratitude may improve romantic relationships by reinforcing positive emotions between partners and by increasing awareness of affective needs, such as receiving emotional support, nurturance, and reassurance. However, little research has investigated the influence of gratitude on relationships characterized by violence. In the present study, participants (N = 421) completed a cross-sectional survey of experiences with dating violence, dispositional gratitude, and affective need. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Among individuals with lower rates of dispositional gratitude, higher levels of affective need were associated with lower frequency of dating violence victimization. However, among individuals with higher rates of dispositional gratitude, there was no evidence to suggest an association between affective need and frequency of victimization. These preliminary findings compel further investigation of how positive processes impact the perceived qualities of negative romantic relationships.
... Friendship is a unique social relationship (Hall, 2012) that facilitates healthy aging (Adams & Blieszner, 1995) and contributes to healthy socioemotional functioning across the lifespan (Takahashi, 2005). Recent studies have demonstrated the continued importance of friendship and positive relationship networks for nursing home residents without cognitive impairment (Bergland & Kirkevold, 2008) and for residents with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia (Clare, Rowlands, Bruce, Surr, & Downs, 2008; de Medeiros, Saunders, Doyle, Mosby, & Van Haitsma, 2011; Leedahl, Chapin, & Little, 2015). ...
Article
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Purpose of the study: (i) To describe nursing home residents' perceptions of their friendship networks using social network analysis (SNA) and (ii) to contribute to theory regarding resident friendship schema, network structure, and connections between network ties and social support. Design and methods: Cross-sectional interviews, standardized assessments, and observational data were collected in three care units, including a Dementia Specific Unit (DSU), of a 94-bed Sydney nursing home. Full participation consent was obtained for 36 residents aged 63-94 years. Able residents answered open-ended questions about friendship, identified friendship ties, and completed measures of nonfamily social support. Results: Residents retained clear concepts of friendship and reported small, sparse networks. Nonparametric pairwise comparisons indicated that DSU residents reported less perceived social support (median = 7) than residents from the other units (median = 17; U = 10.0, p = .034, r = -.51), (median = 14; U = 0.0, p = .003, r = -.82). Greater perceived social support was moderately associated with higher number of reciprocated ties [ρ(25) = .49, p = .013]. Implications: Though some residents had friendships, many reported that nursing home social opportunities did not align with their expectations of friendship. Relationships with coresidents were associated with perceptions of social support. SNA's relational perspective elucidated network size, tie direction, and density, advancing understanding of the structure of residents' networks and flow of subjective social support through that structure. Understanding resident expectations and perceptions of their social networks is important for care providers wishing to improve quality of life in nursing homes.
... John Bowlby was the first psychologist to explore the different kinds of bonds which exist between parents/caregivers and infants. He established the attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969) whereby close relationships center primarily on the role of the mother figure (Takahashi, 2005). This theory has generated an overabundance of theoretical empirical work (Lewis, Feiring, & Rosenthal, 2000). ...
Thesis
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Research is limited regarding closeness in parent-adolescent relationships (PAR), particularly in marginalised communities. The research objective was to explore closeness in PAR in one semi-rural, low-income Coloured community in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This study was exploratory in nature, making use of a cross-sectional survey research design and semi-structured interviews. Fifty families (67 parents and 50 adolescents) were eligible and willing to participate in the quantitative part of this study, while 12 families (19 parents and 12 adolescents) took part in the qualitative part of the study. For the empirical investigation into close PAR, the following questionnaires were administered to parents: Mother and Father Versions of the Inventory of Parent Attachment (IPA), Revised Inventory of Parent Attachment (RIPA), and the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI). The questionnaires are currently not standardized for South African populations, therefore they were adapted to suit the specific context and translated into Afrikaans. For statistical analysis of the surveys, summary statistics was performed using measures like means, standard deviations, frequency tables, and histograms. Reliability analysis was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha. For comparison of the different instruments, correlations were calculated. Comparisons between different groupings were done using two-way ANOVA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data and to explore the participants’ constructions of close PAR. General findings were that most female participants reported close mother-daughter relationships while most male participants reported relatively close father-son relationships. Overall, mothers generally spent more time with their adolescent children. Fathers and daughters generally reported less close relationships with one another. Although fathers were relatively more involved in their children’s lives compared to fathers in prior research studies, mothers and adolescents reported to have a closer bond.
... Looking at mentoring as a developmental relationship, mentoring researchers could argue that mentoring may be able to buffer the negative impact of attachment insecurity that occurs due to early life social experiences. Social network theorists claim that changes to internal working models can occur when individuals encounter new, more appropriate figures, lose significant others, or reevaluate the old figures according to their development (Kahn & Antonucci, 1980;Lewis, 1997).Though internal working models are predicted to persist unless the conditions change (Bowlby, 1988), there are people who are successful in getting an earned secure attachment (Takahashi, 2005). Blustein et. ...
Article
This nonexperimental, correlational study examined the relationships between the attachment styles of mentors (N = 52) and protégés (N = 50), mentoring as measured by psychosocial support and career support, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to turnover. An Internet-based self-report survey instrument consisting of six scales were administered to the participants of a formal faculty mentoring program. Hypotheses were tested through correlational and hierarchical regression analytic procedures. Results of this study supported the hypotheses proposed in this study. For mentors and protégés, the variables attachment and mentoring were significantly associated with each of the outcome variables job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to turnover. Furthermore, in the case of mentors after controlling for gender and ethnicity, attachment and mentoring specifically psychosocial mentoring predicted unique variance in job satisfaction (R2 = .43), organizational commitment (R2 = .47), and intent to turnover (R2 = -.28). For protégés, while secure attachment and mentoring predicted unique variance in job satisfaction (R2 = .65), only secure attachment predicted unique variance in organizational commitment (R2 = .55), and intent to turnover (R2 = -.58). Zero-order correlations as well as the regression models indicated medium to large effect sizes, supporting the empirical and practical relevance of understanding the relationships between attachment, mentoring, and organizational outcomes. Responses to open-ended survey questions by mentors converged with the quantitative results and additionally indicated that mentors experienced learning from their protégés. They experienced job satisfaction by providing both career support and psychosocial support. Responses to open-ended questions by protégés indicated that they experienced satisfaction as they received psychosocial support from their mentors in the form of trust, friendship, advice, and help. The study specifically informs the field of faculty mentoring research by linking faculty job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intentions to attachment styles and mentoring. Practitioners in higher education developing faculty mentoring programs can use this information in the selection of mentors and protégés.
... In addition, individuals can have multiple significant others as sources of socioemotional support including affirmation, although spouse or partner is likely to be the most preferred support provider in adulthood (e.g., Antonucci, 2001;Takahashi, 2005). Gerontological research has indicated that acquiring and maintaining various sources of socioemotional support is a key for aging well (Adams & Blieszner, 1995). ...
Article
Guided by symbolic interactionism, we examined (a) whether the psychological well-being of older adults might be threatened if they feel bothered by an intimate partner's sexual unresponsiveness and (b) whether such sexual unresponsiveness of a partner might be compensated by perceived supportiveness of significant others. We explored these questions separately by gender, anticipating that sexual unresponsiveness might affect men and women differently and that support from a partner might be more important for men and support from others more important for women. Using data from 1,346 participants in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, we conducted multiple group regression analysis and estimated models separately but simultaneously for women and men. Although feeling bothered by the sexual unresponsiveness of an intimate partner was significantly associated with both women's and men's depressive symptoms, the moderating effect of the partner's supportiveness was significant only for women. The results suggest that gender is a key dimension for understanding the relations among negative feelings about sexual relationships, socioemotional support from significant others, and psychological well-being in older age.
Article
As most early adults in long-term romantic relationships rely on their partner to fulfill their relational needs, relationships with romantic partners are very important to many people at this time of life. However, there is a group of individuals for whom their long-term partner is not the most important person when they need love and support. This study explored experiences of romantic relationships among early adults who do not turn to their long-term partner to meet these needs. Twelve individuals in early adulthood (Mage = 33.3 years; SD = 0.54) were selected from a larger community sample (N = 124) based on their answers on a questionnaire about who they turn to when in need of love and support. A thematic analysis of their answers in interviews about romantic relationships resulted in three main themes: Distancing attitudes toward romantic relationships, Desirable aspects of romantic relationships, and Not thinking about romantic relationships. The results show that these early adults' reflections on romantic relationships were characterized by ambivalence, striving toward independence, and relating to their partner as a person to have fun with rather than someone to share a deep connection with. Participants also expressed disagreement with what they perceived as norms concerning romantic relationships. Taken together, this study illustrates that the experiences of early adults who do not turn to their long-term partner to meet needs of love and support are characterized by a complex interaction between contradictory feelings, values, and behaviors.
Article
This study identified social network profiles among children, determined whether profiles vary across sociodemographic characteristics, and investigated links between childhood profiles and depressive symptomology using three waves of data spanning 23 years (Wave 1, 1992 Metro‐Detroit representative sample: n = 193, ages 8–12). Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles: Close Family (22%), Varied Family (57%), Friend and Family (21%). White children were more likely than Black children to be in the Friend and Family profile. Children in the Close Family profile reported the lowest levels of depressive symptomology in childhood, but exhibited the steepest increase over time. Findings suggest that close, family centric networks are protective in childhood, but less so as children develop into adulthood, highlighting the importance of considering developmental perspectives.
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The devolepment of internet made the brand community move to online activities by using a social media chat group platform. This study aims to examine the relationship between social networking and brand trust on brand loyalty in online brand community. Data were collected through a questionnaire of 150 respondents. Through SEM analysis (PLS), the results show that social networking has a positive effect on brand trust and trust mediates the relationship between social networking and brand. This finding implies that brand community must pay attention to social networking activities that can increase brand trust and brand loyalty. Companies and communities need to think about how to develop strong relationships and bonds between members so that members feel the value of the brand and build strong commitment with the brand Key words: Online-based brand community, social networking, brand trust, brand loyalty, partial least square
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WeChat business is an emerging way of doing business in China, which can be considered as a marriage between traditional e-business and social networking communications. In WeChat business, firms have developed customer relationships along two distinct ways: business relationships and friendships. However, research on the combination of business relationships and friendships is relatively nascent, and there are contradictory findings. In this study, we examine the effectiveness of the two relationship strategies using data from a field experiment through the WeChat platform by an apparel firm. Results from the field experiment suggest that development of friendships with new customers can help the strategy of developing business relationships; but developing friendships and business relationships with experienced customers negates each other. The study contributes to the literature on relationship marketing and role theory, and helps WeChat managers clarify how new social networking relationships with customers can be effectively leveraged.
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Social networks are a key contributor to the economic and social fabric of life. There is evidence that the social cohesion that social networks provide is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. These social networks and the functions they perform co-exist with, influence and are influenced by the business networks of connected firms and other economic organisations that surround them. This is increasingly so in our ever-more-complex, internationalized and connected world. This paper explores the potential consequences of this influence via a case study that considers the changes to a community's social network and the associated norms emerging from the growing influence of a microfinance providers' network. A case study reports the impact of microfinance on a particular Bangladesh rural community. We show there is a breakdown in traditional social networks in this and other poor rural villages brought about by the taking of micro loans when the families have no means of paying them back. This increased indebtedness to NGOs is perpetuating their poverty and diminishing the community's quality of life including their traditions of bounded solidarity, where families support each other as best they can through common adversities. The case concludes by considering the mechanisms underpinning these processes. This includes competitive structure, i.e. the highly saturated and interconnected structure of the micro finance industry, the dominance of this business network in the economic structure of rural Bangladesh and changing norms, in particular the changes to traditional forms of financial exchange and associated support and risk management. We conclude that public policy and a different business model that is more accountable and altruistic are needed to guide this and other networks whose goals are economic development of the poor.
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Child development and culture are inseparable. In assessing the behaviors of parents and children from diverse backgrounds, mental health professionals must be aware of these intercultural and intracultural dynamics. This chapter deals with infant socialization, parent-child relations and cultural values as socializing agents and their implications for infant and early childhood mental health. Family and cultural influences are presented as a primary focus through which to understand the complex ways in which infants develop. Particular caregiving techniques must be understood through the lens of a specific culture. Successful socialization involves learning a broad set of rules which govern accepted cultural normative behavior and provides the foundation for interaction with other children, caregivers, adults, neighbors and others in their social group. The chapter discusses the challenges of conducting research into social competence and development, including the culturally specific nature of social competence, and a variety of research paradigms in this field.
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This paper explores the concept that in the mediation of a sonic artwork, the individual becomes a completing component of the work: a kinetic activation of the dormant syncretic potential of the artistic materials. From this basis, it considers further issues of temporality and semiotics referencing the work of Kramer, Nattiez, Peirce and Delueze. In viewing a sonic artwork as comprising of a tri-polar dynamic between sonic elements, physical elements and the perceiving individual, the paper continues to contextualise the creative processes and relationships of the sonic artist within this framework informed by my own creative practice as a sonic installation artist.
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In the midst of growing national interest in strengthening children’s “soft” or social-emotional skills as critical for learning, work, and life, this study of 1,085 parenting adults of 3 to 13 year olds from across the United States highlights the power of family relationships as a critical, but often neglected, factor in the development of character strengths in children. The study introduces Search Institute’s framework of developmental relationships, which are defined as are close connections through which young people develop the character strengths they need to grow up successfully. Among the key findings is that the quality of parent-child relationships is 10 times more powerful than demographics (race, ethnicity, family composition, and family income) in predicting whether children are developing critical character strengths they need for success in school and life. These strengths include being motivated to learn, being responsible, and caring for others.
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The goal of the present study was to identify members of elementary school children's attachment networks that were composed of multiple attachment figures. For this purpose, an attachment function scale for children was developed that measured the degree that various individuals fulfilled an attachment function for the child completing the instrument. In this cross-sectional survey, 555 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders from 2 elementary schools participated. First,the scale was developed, its validity confirmed,and its internal consistency checked. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the factor structure that was predicted on the basis of Hazan & Zeifman (1994). The relation between this scale, a social support scale, and a self-esteem scale verified its construct validity. Second, members of the children's attachment networks were identified by use of this scale. In a previous study, mothers were shown to be attachment figures; in the present results, fathers, grandparents, siblings, friends, and others were also found to be attachment figures. These results suggest that elementary school children's attachment networks include more members of their immediate family than just their mothers, and also include non-family members. Future research should be conducted from the perspective of attachment networks.
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This ethnographic study examines a community of practice re- engaging one marginalized group of out of school minority males (16-25 years old) in learning. Social Context The high school dropout rate in America appears on the rise especially in our urban areas and among minority males. It is being called epidemic ( Bridgeland J.M., 2006). “Nationally, only about two-thirds of all students – and only half of all Black, Latinos and Native Americans – who enter ninth grade graduate with regular diplomas four years later.” (Orfield, 2004, p. 1) In some urban high schools dropout rates are as high as 60 and 70 percent (Orfield, 2004). In one large urban area, Chicago, for every 100 Black male high school freshman only 2.5% obtain a bachelor’s degree by the time they are twenty-five years old (Jackson, 2006). For far too many young adults, particularly urban minority youth, there is a disengagement from formal schooling. This large dropout rate is occurring at the same time as a second phenomena,– the postponement,of adulthood for 18 – 25 year olds. This phenomenon,is identified as emergent adulthood (Benson, 2003). Whereas previous generations reached full adulthood with its inherent responsibilitiesaround 20 or 21 years of age, today’s youth do not enter full adulthood until their late twenties and sometimes,thirties. This is primarily due to economics. High school dropouts are particularly vulnerable to the economics,causing the delays of adulthood; this creates a marginalized population who are undereducated, often unemployed. This is a group of young people often trapped in poverty (Benson 2003). Within this marginalized group is a subgroup that is young, black and male These young black males are at risk and most affected by dropping out and the socioeconomic,issues of emergent adults. For example, Black males are unemployed and incarcerated at a higher rate than any other group of individuals in this country (Miney, 2006). At comparable educational levels, Black men earn 67% of what white men make. During the economic boom of the 1990’s, while all other groups made advances economically, young black males and other less educated young males did not (Miney 2006). The reasons for leaving school for most young drop outs is not low ability or inability to perform but rather “a lack of connection to the school environment, boredom, being unmotivated
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This chapter provides an overview of the convoy model of social relations. The components of social relations (structure, function, and quality) and their antecedents and consequences are delineated. Empirical studies of the convoy model are presented that detail how relationships vary by developmental period (e.g., in childhood and adulthood) and in different contexts (e.g., in families, at work). This chapter emphasizes the life-span and life-course perspectives as critical to understanding the processes and mechanisms through which social relations develop and how they influence or are associated with health. We highlight the convoy model's four basic tenets: (1) social relationships are multifaceted involving objective and subjective characteristics, (2) social relationships and networks change over time because of developmental and contextual processes, (3) social relationships vary by personal and situational factors, and (4) social relationships and networks influence well-being. A comprehensive overview of recent findings regarding social relationships and well-being using a pattern-centered approach to relationships is provided. Finally, we summarize the most recent findings regarding the convoy model and outline suggestions. Keywords: social relations; convoys of social support; life-course perspectives; pattern-centered approaches
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Bumper stickers reading "Friends can be good medicine!" were distributed by the California Department of Mental Health in 1981 as part of a statewide health promotion initiative (California Department of Mental Health, 1981). The objectives of the initiative were to increase awareness of the health-promoting influence of supportive relationships and to encourage personal involvement providing support to others. Although the ultimate success of this project is unknown, its implementation reflects the degree to which a link between social support and health has become part of our belief system. Correlations between social support and health outcomes have been found in a range of contexts and using a variety of methods (for recent reviews, see Broadhead et al. Although links between social support and health are consistently found, our understanding of the nature of this relation remains limited. A problem in past research was that social support was conceptualized unidimensionally, although it was operationalized in many different ways (e.g., marital status, community involvement, availability of confidants). More recent efforts have analyzed social support into component functions. Theorists differ somewhat with respect to the specific functions served by social support, but most conceptualizations include emotional sustenance, self-esteem building, provision of information and feedback, and tangible assistance (e.g.. Once support is defined in terms of its functions, it is possible to generate hypotheses concerning the psychological processes through which social support has its effects. Although clear theoretical formulations of the helping functions served by relationships arc crucial in the generation of hypotheses, these predictions cannot be empirically tested without appropriate assessment instruments. As described in House and Kahn's (1985) recent review, a number of social support measures have been developed. The measures differ widely in their implicit models of social support, some assessing number of supporters, others tapping frequency of supportive acts, and still others measuring degree of satisfaction with support. A number of problems have plagued these measurement efforts. At the theoretical level, the authors of social support measures have rarely articulated the assumptions underlying their instruments. For example, if a measure assesses the number of supportive individuals, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the quantity of support sources. If a measure taps satisfaction with support, the assumption is that better outcomes are associated with the perception that support is adequate for one's needs, regardless of tile number of supporters. Although these differences are rarely articulated, different research questions are posed and answered as a function of the manner in which social support is assessed. Inconsistencies in the literature nay be related to differences in the aspects of social support that are assessed in different studies (see Cohen & Wills, 1985).
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this chapter draws heavily upon a programmatic set of studies done in our laboratory / these studies, based almost entirely on observational methods, provide descriptions of friendship interaction from preschool age to adolescence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Presents a hierarchical mapping technique using a diagram of concentric circles to represent the degree of closeness of members of the social support network. This method does not assume that particular family or social relationships automatically ensure network membership. The method provides a relatively unbiased account of social support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the association between social relations and mental health, specifically the relative contribution of social networks and social support to depressive symptomatology. The culturally unique representative sample consisted of 3,777 noninstitutionalized older persons living in southwestern France. The findings indicated that French older adults generally had more than 8 people in their networks, their networks consisted mostly of family members, and they felt understood by most of their network members. These older adults reported being satisfied with their social relations. Sociodemographic variables contribute (R2 = .143) to depressive symptomatology, as did social network (incremented R2 = .033) and social support (incremented R2 = .09) variables. Sociodemographic, social network, and social support variables together increased the variance explained still further (incremented R2 = .108). Results were consistent with similar analyses in the U.S. and indicated that social support variables account for more variance in depressive symptomatology than social network variables.
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Developmental changes in objects and modes of dependent behavior were examined in 766 female adolescents and young adults. A quenstionnaire consisting of 24 statements each describing a desire for concrete dependent behavior and a 16-item Dependency SCT were presented. The findings indicate that adolescents and young adults have a strong dependency motive and that this remains constant. Changes of dependency objects with an increase in age were clearly observed. Adolescents and young adults continued to have strong emotional ties with their mother. The closest friend of the same sex, less important for junior-high school girls, became the most important object in high schoolers, but among college students it was not so important again and the importance of love object increased as Ss grew. © 1974, The Japanese Psychological Association. All rights reserved.
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Developmental and child psychology remains a vital area in modern psychology. This comprehensive set covers a broad spectrum of developmenal issues, from the psychology of the infant, the family, abilities and disabilities, children's art, imagination, play, speech, mental development, perception, intelligence, mental health and education. In looking at areas which continue to be very important today, these volumes provide a fascinating look at how approaches and attitudes to children have changed over the years. The set includes nine volumes by key development psychologist Jean Piaget, as well as titles by Charlotte Buhler and Susan Isaacs.
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Ethological attachment theory is a landmark of 20th century social and behavioral sciences theory and research. This new paradigm for understanding primary relationships across the lifespan evolved from John Bowlby's critique of psychoanalytic drive theory and his own clinical observations, supplemented by his knowledge of fields as diverse as primate ethology, control systems theory, and cognitive psychology. By the time he had written the first volume of his classic Attachment and Loss trilogy, Mary D. Salter Ainsworth's naturalistic observations in Uganda and Baltimore, and her theoretical and descriptive insights about maternal care and the secure base phenomenon had become integral to attachment theory. Patterns of Attachment reports the methods and key results of Ainsworth's landmark Baltimore Longitudinal Study. Following upon her naturalistic home observations in Uganda, the Baltimore project yielded a wealth of enduring, benchmark results on the nature of the child's tie to its primary caregiver and the importance of early experience. It also addressed a wide range of conceptual and methodological issues common to many developmental and longitudinal projects, especially issues of age appropriate assessment, quantifying behavior, and comprehending individual differences. In addition, Ainsworth and her students broke new ground, clarifying and defining new concepts, demonstrating the value of the ethological methods and insights about behavior. Today, as we enter the fourth generation of attachment study, we have a rich and growing catalogue of behavioral and narrative approaches to measuring attachment from infancy to adulthood. Each of them has roots in the Strange Situation and the secure base concept presented in Patterns of Attachment. It inclusion in the Psychology Press Classic Editions series reflects Patterns of Attachment's continuing significance and insures its availability to new generations of students, researchers, and clinicians.
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the aim of this chapter is to present our recent discovery of a new, insecure-disorganized/disoriented category of infant-parent attachment / our discovery of this attachment category is based upon our study of infant response to the Ainsworth strange situation procedure, a brief, structured observation of the infant's response to separation from and reunion with the parent in the laboratory setting individual differences in infant response to this situation presently permit placement of infants in one of three major "attachment classifications," that is, as secure (group B), insecure-avoidant (group A), or insecure-ambivalent (group C) with respect to the parent with whom the infant is observed our chapter begins with a review of previous studies reporting difficulties in "forcing" each infant in a given sample into one of the three major categories (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This volume begins by examining how the construct of disorganization corresponds to central elements of J. Bowlby's classic theory of attachment. In particular, disorganization is discussed as the consequence of the extreme insecurity that results from feared or actual separation from the attachment figure. The chapters investigate psychological and biological dimensions of the phenomenon. The contributions of frightening and frightened caregiving to disorganization are explored, and views on the impact of unresolved trauma in a parent's own attachment history are delineated. Also addressed are child temperament and other individual factors, as well as disorganization in such populations as children from divorced families, children with disabilities, and undernourished children. Presenting significant findings on longitudinal developmental outcomes, it demonstrates how infant and early childhood disorganization affects relationships, behavior, and coping skills in middle childhood and beyond. A measure of attachment in adults is also presented. This book's audience includes researchers and teachers of developmental psychology, child psychology and psychiatry, social work, pediatrics, and nursing; practitioners working with children; and graduate-level students in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Several advantages and disadvantages of a life-span concept are reviewed. The particular life-span concept of attachment is examined with respect to theory and methodology. Suggestions are offered which would: (a) redefine the concept of attachment focusing on the ontogenetic development of an individual throughout their lifetime, and (b) foster the use of a more sensitive methodology. This paper also introduces the symposium by providing brief prefacing comments on each of the papers to follow.
Article
Synopsis Interpersonal relationships pose problems additional to those arising from social behaviour. If there is to be a science of interpersonal relationships, it must rest on a firm descriptive base. It is suggested that the following categories of dimensions are likely to prove useful: the content of the interactions within the relationship; their diversity; their qualities; their relative frequency and patterning; the nature of their reciprocity v. complementarity; and the intimacy, interpersonal congruency and commitment between the participants. A science of relationships will also require principles concerned with their dynamics. Three likely categories are those concerned with social constraints, with learning, and with positive and negative feedback. Principles concerned with learning will require an adequate categorization of the resources used in interpersonal interactions. The specification of these principles depends on the adequacy of the descriptive base.
Maternal care and mental health. WHO Monograph Series No. 2
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Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal care and mental health. WHO Monograph Series No. 2. Geneva: World Health Organization
The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and sociology of gender
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Chodrow, N. (1978). The reproduction of mothering: Psychoanalysis and sociology of gender. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Takahashi, K. (1973). Development of attachment relationships among female young adults. Annual review of Japanese developmental psychology Vol. 12 (pp. 255–275) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Ka- neko-Shobo.
The measurement of affective relationships among young children. Unpublished manuscript
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Takahashi, K. (1978–2000). The measurement of affective relationships among young children. Unpublished manuscript. University of the Sacred Heart. 66
Stabilities and changes of social relationship among cancer patients
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Changes and stability of social relationships among middle aged persons: A two years longitudinal study in Yakushima island
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A move to the level of representation in the study of attachment organization: Implication for psychoanalysis. Annual lecture to the British Psycho Analytical Society
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Attachment theory: Eighteen points with suggestions for future studies
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Changes and stabilities in affective relationships of the late adolescence: A short term longitudinal study
  • K Takahashi
Structural nature of affective relationships types among college students
  • K Takahashi
Changes in family systems
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Six year attachment doll play classification system
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  • J Solomon
Affective relationships types and adjustment to college life
  • M Inoue
  • K Takahashi
Adult attachment scoring and classification systems. Unpublished scoring manual
  • M Main
  • R Goldwyn
Mother nature: A history of mothers, infants, and natural selection
  • S B Hrdy
Coping with future life events among college students: The role of pre established personal framework in the planning future
  • K Kobayashi
The social network model
  • M Lewis
Children of the 1960s at midlife: Generational identity and the family adaptive project
  • T S Weisner
  • L P Bernheimer
Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and direction for future research
  • M Main
Loneliness in childhood and adolescence
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Making sense of life: Personal stories among Japanese elderly adults. Paper presented at the 6th Asia/Oceania Congress of Gerontology
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Type of affective relationships and psychological well being among Japanese elderly adults. Paper presented at the 50th Annual Scientific Meetings of the Gerontological Society of America
  • K Takahashi
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Love as attachment: The integration of three behavioral systems
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Personal history differences between family pattern and age mate pattern affective relationships among female college students. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development
  • K Takahashi