ArticlePDF Available

The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens

Authors:

Abstract

Steinheimer, F.D. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79-3 (5), 30-ix-2005, 45-67.— ISSN 0024-0672. Frank D. Steinheimer, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & Bird Group, Dept. of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Tring, c/o Sylter Strasse 18, D-90425 Nürnberg, Ger-many (e-mail: franksteinheimer@yahoo.co.uk). Keywords: pre-nineteenth century bird specimens; whereabouts of collections; importance of old col-lections. The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden, Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from this period. The relevance of these collections for taxonomy and nomenclature is briefly discussed.
The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens
F.D. Steinheimer
Steinheimer, F.D. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens.
Zool. Med. Leiden 79-3 (5), 30-ix-2005, 45-67.— ISSN 0024-0672.
Frank D. Steinheimer, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & Bird Group,
Dept. of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, Tring, c/o Sylter Strasse 18, D-90425 Nürnberg, Ger-
many (e-mail: franksteinheimer@yahoo.co.uk).
Keywords: pre-nineteenth century bird specimens; whereabouts of collections; importance of old col-
lections.
The paper lists the whereabouts of surviving pre-nineteenth century bird collections containing altogether
about 1500-3000 specimens. They are found in more than 50 institutions world-wide, with Berlin, Leiden,
Paris, Stockholm, Tring and Vienna museums each holding more than 200 bird specimens from this
period. The relevance of these collections for taxonomy and nomenclature is briefly discussed.
Introduction
Ever since the famous publication on the ‘Development of Ornithology from Aris-
toteles to the Present’ (Stresemann, 1951, 1975) the history of avian science has been
popular, especially for museum’s exhibitions, (e.g. Voyages of Discovery, The Natural
History Museum, London, 1999; Theatrum naturae, Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 2001),
behind-the-scenes tours and specially dedicated publications (e.g. Haffer, 1997; Mearns
& Mearns, 1998; Walters, 2003). However, hardly any ornithological publication using
museum specimens goes into much detail on the history of the particular collection or
the nomenclature of the taxon. Many bird names used by 18th century authors are not
identified yet and type material of early collections are often believed lost due to decay
and neglect over time. The most common assumption is that, besides war, fire and
floods, these losses have mainly been caused by bad curation, unsuitable housing of
collections and improper taxidermical skills of early ornithologists. Richard Bowdler
Sharpe (1847-1909) reported very vividly on the conditions of some of the oldest sur-
viving bird skins, those of George Montagu‘s (1753-1815) collection: “Not one of his
specimens was properly prepared apparently no preservative worthy of the name
having been used – and I [i.e. R. Bowdler Sharpe] have felt the greatest anxiety as to the
preserving of the relics of this ancient British collection. The bones of the neck and
other bones of the body were left in the specimens [...]. Owing to the specimens having
no preservative, many of them, especially the fat and heavy ones, fell to pieces from
their own weight in course of time” (Sharpe, 1906: 79-80).
Stresemann only knew of three records of pre-1600 bird specimens (Stresemann,
1923a). Furthermore, most authors illustrated surviving specimens of any time before
1800 as the rare exception (e.g. Sharpe, 1906). However, new research has now proved
a much earlier origin of Middle European bird preparation (Schulze-Hagen et al., 2003).
Bird trappers and ornithologists alike already evolved sophisticated techniques in
making skins to last. From the Renaissance onwards, natural history cabinets were a
common sight, bird preservation techniques as well as proper housing were discussed
and collection management established.
46 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
The history of pre-nineteenth century collections
The invention of Jean-Baptiste Bécoeur ’s (1718-1777) arsenic soap has been seen as
the most important turning point for building up bird collections. Apparently Bécoeur’s
recipe of arsenic soap was unknown to ornithologists until it was posthumously pub-
lished and made known by Louis Dufresne (1752-1832) in 1803 (cf. Stresemann, 1923a,
1951; Farber, 1977; Piechocki, 1982; Mearns & Mearns, 1998). Some earlier ornithologists
though, already applied arsenic as an insecticide and recommended it for preservation
of bird skins (Hohberg, 1682; Forster, 1771; Schulze-Hagen et al., 2003). However, the
huge number of 1500-3000 surviving bird specimens of the 18th century shows clearly
that the invention and application of arsenic soap was only one aspect of several fur-
ther, equally important improvements of collection management in the late 18th century
leading to the long-term survival of bird specimens. These improvements ranged from
a better pest control using properly sealed glass cases (Piechocki, 1982) and enclosed
insect repellents, better preparation techniques leaving less organic substance in each
specimen, combined with increased efforts in housing collections in more suitable
buildings. Directorships alternated from aristocrats with no background in the subject
to professional scientists assisted by dedicated and responsible curators. Last but not
least, collections were also valued during unsteady times.
The biggest threats to these early collections were actually the curators of the early
and mid 19th century, when new material was available to replace ‘the old stuff’. Birds
suddenly had to look nice in the public galleries. In several museums a second clearance
took place after WWII. The main reasons at that time were that the old and data-less
specimens took up too much space, were believed irrelevant or too poisonous for
public display.
During the first two decades of the 19th century the keeper of the natural history
collections of the British Museum, John George Children (1777-1852) and especially
the zoologist William Elford Leach (1790-1836), would still hold bonfires of bird spec-
imens in their care. Leach’s successor William Swainson (1789-1855) was the first cu-
rator of the British Museum to address this common practise of dealing with insect
pest as wrong, when reporting to the Edinburgh Review (Jan. 1823) that, of originally
more than 2000 exotic birds at the turn of century, only 322 had survived until 1822
(Gunther, 1980: 55-56, 84). Also a ‘Report on the State of the Zoological Collections’
undertaken in 1829 jointly by Carl Dietrich Eberhard König (1774-1851) and Children
revealed that the bird collection of the British Museum would contain a complete set
of European birds, but only one-sixth of all birds known. While Swainson was rather
keen to prevent insect pest by a better collection management, housing and storing,
the new keeper of zoology, John Edward Gray (1800-1875), compensated any loses by
new acquisitions (Gunther, 1975). Martin Hinrich Carl Lichtenstein (1780-1857), Coen-
raad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858), John Gould (1804-1881) and Eduard Rüppell (1794-
1884), to name but a few, frequently sold type specimens to other museums (Lichten-
stein, 1823; Steinheimer, 2003c). Authentic material has not been appreciated until
towards the end of the 19th century.
Nevertheless, some of the specimens, which had been prepared in the manner of
Johann Reinhold Forster’s (1771) instructions, much criticized by Sharpe (1906), have in
fact survived until today.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
47
Whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens
Rather than listing each single individual, pre-nineteenth century bird specimens
are referred to under their collectors’ names. Most of the entries indicate the existence
of a single or a handful of pre-1800 specimens in a particular museum only. Just a few
collections contain more than a dozen pre-1800 specimens, such as the collections of
George Montagu, Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Gustaf von Paykull and Peter Simon
Pallas (see below). Far the highest number of 18th century birds is found at the Swedish
Museum of Natural History in Stockholm.
In the following listing, entries marked with a question mark (?) indicate that sur-
viving specimens of the collection in question have not been confirmed. Entries marked
with a question mark up-side-down (¿) are extant collections but the age of the specimen(s)
in question could not definitely be pinned down of being pre 1800 as many collectors
obviously continued collecting birds in the 19th century as well. An asterisk (*) indicates
obvious errors in literature. Numbers given for surviving pre-1800 specimens are esti-
mations of the care-taking curator, conclusions from literature or/and results of my
own studies. Institution marked with a dot () have been visited by me.
Bamberg, Naturkunde-Museum Bamberg (G. & D. Döllner, pers. com., Dec. 2002;
own data): ex parte coll. ? Benediktiner-Kloster Banz (cf. Mäuser, 1995 b) & coll. ¿ Diony-
sius Linder (1762-1838, leg. ante 1830, cf. Stephan, 1807 a-e; Jaeck, 1815; Kolb, 1983;
Mäuser, 1995 a,b; Steinheimer, 2003d). ¿ <2 specimens.
Basel, Naturhistorisches Museum: coll. ¿ Hieronymus Bernoulli (1745-1829, cf. Sar-
asin, 1940). ¿ 72 specimens.
Berlin, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (own data):
coll. Königliche Kunstkammer sensu lato incl. colls. Königliche Kunstkammer sensu
stricto der Preußischen Könige Friedrich Wilhelm II (1744-1797) & Friedrich Wilhelm
III (1770-1840, coll. ante 1810, cf. Jahn, 1985), Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765-1812, cf.
Damaschun et al., 2000) & Academie der Wissenschaften (acqu. 1800, cf. Damaschun et
al., 2000) incl. colls. ? Christoph Friedrich Nicolai (1733-1811, coll. ante 1800, cf. Jahn,
1985), ? Adriaan Vroeg (1733-1777, cf. Os, 1764; Linné, 1766; Pallas, 1769b: 3, 12, 33; Oort,
1911; Stresemann, 1923; Smit et al., 1986), ? Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein (1753-
1816, cf. Lichtenstein, 1793; Rüppell, 1837: 220: specimens of Neotis cafra, not found 2003)
& ex parte coll. [?Johann Christoph] Richter (? 1689-1751, acqu. ? 1784, cf. Seifert, 1935;
Wilson, 1990); coll. Johann Centurius Graf von Hoffmannsegg (1766-1849, Iberian coll.,
1798-1801; ? European coll. 1793-1798, 1801-1810, cf. Stresemann, 1950b); ex parte colls.
Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811, leg. 1768-1774 & 1793-1795, coll. ante 1810, ex parte via
C.L. Willdenow; cf. Rammelsberg (s.a.); Stresemann, 1922; Gebhardt, 1964; Stephan,
1985; Steinheimer, 2003b) incl. ex parte coll. ? Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746, leg. 1741-
46, cf. Pallas, 1769a; Gebhardt, 1964, 1970), Karl Krebs (?- post 1799, coll. 1786-1794, cf.
Gebhardt, 1964) & Carl Heinrich Merck (1761-1799, cf. Ahrens, 1925; Stresemann, 1948;
Gebhardt, 1964); William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf. Bullock, 1819; Brauer, 1910; White-
head, 1969; Steinheimer, 2003b,c) incl. ex parte coll. James Cook (1728-1779) & Ashton
Lever (1729-1788, cf. Sharpe, 1906); Georges Cuvier (1769-1832), [?Jean-Baptiste] Bécoeur
(?1718-1777, cf. Illiger, 1812) incl ex parte coll. ? Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller (1725-
1776, cf. Stresemann, 1925); Louis Dufresne (1752-1832), Coenraad Jacob Temminck
48 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
(1778-1858, cf. Illiger, 1812; Anonymous, 1813-1816) incl ex parte coll. François Levaillant
(1753-1824, South African specimens leg. 1782-83, cf. Illiger, 1812; (i.a) Temminck, 1815:
640); Olof Peter Swartz (1760-1818, cf. Illiger, 1812; Lönnberg, 1926), ? Johann Gottlob
Nathusius (1760-1835, cf. Stresemann, 1958) incl. coll. ? Graf Johann von Mattuschka
(?-1804, leg. 1785-1804, acqu. 1821, cf. Stresemann, 1958: one certain specimen lost in
WWII); Gustaf Freiherr von Paykull (1759-1826, leg. pars major ante 1800, acqu. ante 1813,
cf. Anonymous, 1813-1816), Johann Christian Ludwig Hellwig (1743-1831, acqu. ante
1812, cf. Illiger, 1812; Lichtenstein, 1818), ¿ Baron Guillaume Michel Jerome Meiffren-
Laugier de Chartrouse (1772-1843), ¿ Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau (1769-1857,
Siberian coll. ante ? 1800, cf. Illiger, 1812), ¿ Peter Friedrich Röding (1767-1846 vel ?-1780,
acqu. ante 1813, cf. Horn et al., 1990; www.genealogienetz.de/), ¿ Carl Friedrich August
Meisner (1765-1825), ¿ Karl Siegmund Franz Freiherr von Altenstein (1770-1840, acqu.
ante 1813), ¿ [?Jakob Fidelis] Ackermann (c.1765-1815, acqu. c. 1810-20), ¿ Carl Asmund
Rudolphi (1771-1832, leg. ante 1810, cf. Illiger, 1812; Stresemann, 1923c) & ¿ Franz Joseph
Martin (1738-1821, cf. Gebhardt, 1964). >200 specimens.
Bern, Naturhistorisches Museum Bern (M. Güntert, in litt., July 2002): colls. Carl
Friedrich August Meisner (1765-1825, one specimen leg. 1797, cf. Meisner & Schinz,
1815: 278-279) & ? Daniel Sprüngli (1721-1801; one surviving nest for sure, perhaps also
some bird specimens). 1 certain, perhaps more specimens.
Bologna, Museo di Zoologia (M. Zanatello, in litt., Nov. 2002): colls. ? Ulisse Aldrov-
andi (1527-1605, cf. www. unibo.it/musei-universitari/zoologia/zoologia. html; no
confirmed specimen) & indet. ? < 10 specimens.
Braunschweig, Staatliches Naturhistorisches Museum (M. Forthuber, in litt., Aug.
2002): ex parte coll. Ludwig Philipp Duc d’Orléans (1725-1785, acqu. 1755 via Daniel de
Superville (1696-1773): one specimen of Corvus corax varius, cf. Boettger, 1954; www.
naturhistorisches-museum.de/geschi.html). 1 specimen.
Brno, Moravské Zemské Muzeum (Zoologický Depozitárˇ at Budišov u Trˇebícˇe)
(H. Sutorová, in litt., Nov. 2002; own data): colls. ? Franzens-Museum (founded post
1816, cf. Sutorová, 1999) & Adolf Schwab (1807-1891, obtained older specimens, cf. Ge-
bhardt, 1964; Sutorová & Hanák, 1997; preparation style suggests some specimens from
the 18th century). ¿ < 10 specimens.
Cambridge, University Museum of Zoology (R. Symonds, in litt., Nov. 2002): pars
major coll. ¿ William Swainson (1789-1855, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Roselaar 2003) incl. ex
parte coll. ¿ William Bullock (c.1773-1849, 31 specimens, 2 perhaps pre 1800, cf. Sharpe,
1906; Parkinson, 1988; Benson, 1999). ¿ 2 specimens.
Cambridge Mass., Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University (D. Cau-
sey, in litt., Jan./Feb. 2003, M. LeCroy, P. Sweet, Storrs Olson, in litt., July 2004): ex parte
colls. Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827, coll. pars minor ante 1800, via the Boston Society
of Natural History, cf. Wilson, 1810: 125; Wilson, 1813: 16; Wilson, 1814: 104; Faxon,
1915; Stresemann, 1951; Mearns & Mearns, 1998; ¿ 6-18 specimens) incl ex parte coll.
George Washington (1732-1799, cf. Faxon, 1915: 127: two specimens of Golden Pheas-
ants); Alexander Wilson (1766-1813, leg. ante 1800, cf. Wilson, 1810-1814; Bangs, 1930; c.
25 specimens) & ex. parte coll. American Museum of Natural History incl. ex. parte coll.
Naturhistorisches Museum Wien incl. ex parte coll. Ashton Lever (1729-1788) incl ex
parte coll. James Cook (1728-1779, cf. Bangs, 1930: 363; Medway, 1979; one Drepanis
pacifica). c. 30 specimens.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
49
Coimbra, Museu de História Natural – Museu Zoológico, Universidade de Coim-
bra (C. Hazevoet, in litt., Mar. 2003): coll. Domingos Vandelli (1730-1816, coll. ante 1779,
cf. Carreira et al., 2000). 8 specimens.
Cremona, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (C. Violani, pers. com., Oct. 2003): coll. ¿
Giuseppe Sigismondo Ala Ponzoni (1761-1842). < 30 specimens.
Darmstadt, Naturkundliche Abteilungen des Hessischen Landesmuseums Darm-
stadt (U. Joger, in litt., Oct. 2002): coll./acqu. Georg Bathasar Bekker (leg. 1796, illus-
trated by Johann Theodor Susemihl (1772-1848) in Borkhausen et al., 1800; one Sula
bassana). 1 specimen.
Edinburgh, National Museum of Scotland (B. McGowan, in litt., Nov. 2002; own
data): priv. coll. Louis Dufresne (1752-1832, leg. ante 1818/1820, cf. Sweet, 1970b; Fuller
2001) incl. colls. ? Impératrice Joséphine (1763-1814) / Julien Desjardins (coll. ante 1814,
cf. Greenway, 1958; Fuller 2001); ex parte coll. William Bullock (c.1773-1849, leg. ante
1819, cf. Sweet, 1970a). 50-100 specimens.
Firenze, Museo Zoologico de ‘La Specola‘ (M. Poggesi & A. Nistri, in litt.,. Nov.
2002): coll. Gran Duca Pietro Leopoldo di Lorena alias Lorraine (coll. ante 1775, data
from oldest catalogue (1792): surviving specimens are (half of the 20.000 present speci-
mens yet checked): 4 parrots, 16 quails, 1 duck, 1 hummingbird, 2 eggs of ostriches & 1
egg of cassowary). 22 specimens.
Frankfurt a. M., Naturmuseum und Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg (U. Wan-
nhoff, pers. com., Nov. 2002; K. Klemmer & G. Mayr, pers. com., June 2003; own data):
colls. ¿ Bernhard Meyer (1767-1836, leg. ante 1818 [? 1810], cf. Meyer & Wolf, 1810; Har-
tert, 1891) & ? Johann Christian Gerning (1745-1802; probably a Paradisaea apoda, two
Paradisaea minor, a Cicinnurus regius, two Rupicola rupicola & a Ramphastos tucanus, cf.
Anonymous [c. 1832]); ex parte colls. Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858) incl. ex parte
coll. ? François Levaillant (1753-1824, South African specimens leg. 1782-83); Friedrich
Heinrich Freiherr von Kittlitz (1799-1874, cf. Hartert, 1891: 178) & Johann Friedrich von
Brandt (1802-1879) incl. ex parte coll. Carl Heinrich Merck (1761-1799, cf. Kittlitz, 1858:
two Haliaeetus pelagicus). 2-9, perhaps up to 25 specimens.
Glasgow, University of Glasgow Hunterian Museum & Art Gallery• (M. Reilly, in
litt., Jan. 2003): coll. William Hunter (1718-1783, cf. Latham 1785: 18-20; http:// www.
hunterian.gla.ac.uk/; one mount of Anhima cornuta & anatomical series of Gallus gal-
lus); ex parte coll. ? William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf. Sharpe, 1906). 1, perhaps up to 10
specimens.
Göttingen, Institut für Zoologie der Universität Göttingen• (G. Tröster, in litt., Nov.
2002): coll. ? Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752-1840, coll. ex parte ante 1800, cf. Geb-
hardt, 1964; Roselaar 2003; no confirmed specimen yet known). ? < 10 specimens.
Göttingen, Institut für Ethnologie, Völkerkundliche Sammlung der Universität
Göttingen (G. Tröster & G. Krüger, in litt., Nov. 2002): ex parte, via George Humphrey
(1739-1826), coll. David Samwell (1751-1798, leg. 1779) i.e. Surgon’s Mate of James Cook
(1728-1779, acqu. 1782, cf. Humphrey 1782: No. 346 addition, Merrem, 1784; Stresemann,
1950a; Medway, 1979; Hauser-Schäublin & Krüger, 1998: 239, photo p. 130; Steinheimer,
2003c; one Vestiaria coccinea). 1 specimen.
Halle a.d. Saale, Kunst- und Naturalienkammer, Franckesche Stiftungen (Heike
Link, pers. com., Feb. 2003; own data): colls. Franckesche Stiftungen (acqu. 1698-1787,
cf. Müller-Bahlke, 1998: 55-56; Kinzelbach, 2002: 82-83; one mount of Remiz pendulinus &
50 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
three alcohol specimens, prep. c. 1741-1780s, entry in catalogue from 1780s). 1 speci-
men.
Halle a.d. Saale, Anatomische Sammlung der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-
Wittenberg (E. Steinicke, pers. com., Feb. 2003): colls. ? Johann Friedrich Meckel der
Ältere (1724-1774), ? Philipp Friedrich Theodor Meckel (1755-1803) & ¿ Johann Frie-
drich Meckel der Jüngere (1781-1833, cf. Göbbel et al., 2002; one Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Cor-
vus frugilegus & Phasianus colchicus inventarized as „Meckel-Coll.“). Probably 3 speci-
mens.
Hannover, Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum (Chr. Schilling, pers. com., Feb. 2003;
own data): ex parte, via George Humphrey (1739-1826) on behalf of King George III of
Britain & Elector of Hanover (1738-1820), Institut für Zoologie der Universität Göttin-
gen & coll. Heinrich Kirchhoff (1789-1871, ? accidentally associated with this collection;
cf. Gebhardt, 1970), coll. David Samwell (1751-1798, leg. 1779) i.e. Surgon’s Mate of
James Cook (1728-1779, cf. Humphrey, 1782: No. 346 addition; Merrem, 1784: 8 & pl. 2;
Stresemann 1950a: 80; Hauser-Schäublin & Krüger, 1998: 63, 239; Steinheimer, 2003c;
one Moho nobilis). 1 specimen.
Karlsruhe, Landessammlungen für Naturkunde Karlsruhe (H.-W. Mittmann, pers.
com., Mar. 2004; own data): colls. Markgräfin Luise von Baden (1723-1783) & Carl Chris-
tian Gmelin (1762-1837, cf. Angst, 1985; Trunko, 1985; nec Griffin, 1946; Titschack, 1952).
< 10 specimens.
Kassel, Ottoneum Naturkundemuseum der Stadt (P. Mansfeld, in litt., Oct. 2001):
coll. Barthold Lohmann (1749-1812) vel Heinrich Zimmermann (1741-1805) during the
third voyage of James Cook (leg. 1778-1779, cf. Stresemann, 1950a; Popp, 1980; speci-
mens not found; cf. Titschack, 1952; Steinheimer, 2003c). ? 4 specimens [probably lost in
the WWII].
Kazan, Zoologicheskii Muzeum, Kazanski’u’i Universitet (O. Askeyev & I. Askeyev,
in litt., Dec. 2002): coll. indet. (acqu. 1804; some specimens from end of 18th century). <
10 specimens.
Köthen, Naumann-Museum (G. Hildebrandt, pers. com., Sep. 2002 & W.-D. Busching,
in litt., Oct. 2002): coll. Herzog Friedrich Ferdinand von Anhalt-Cöthen (1769-1830,
acqu. 1821) incl. colls. Johann Andreas Naumann (1744-1826) & Johann Friedrich Nau-
mann (1780-1857, ex parte minor ante 1800, cf. Zimdahl, 1980; Piechocki 1982) incl. ex
parte colls. Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858) incl. ex parte coll. François Levaillant
(1753-1824, leg. ante 1785, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Busching, 2001); [the specimen of Frater-
cula corniculata, always connected with coll. * Christian Friedrich Schwägrichen (1775-
1853) incl. ex parte coll. * Christoph Heinrich Ploß (1757-1838, cf. Jacobi, 1928) incl., via *
Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) & * Christian Gottfried Heinrich Geißler (1770-1844), ex
parte coll. * Carl Heinrich Merck (1761-1799, cf. Thomsen & Stresemann, 1957; Gebhardt
1964; Busching, 2001), probably originates from coll. Morten Wormskiold (1783-1845)
made on the voyage of Otto von Kotzebue (1787-1846, leg. 1815-1818), cf. Hildebrandt,
2001]. 1-4, perhaps 12 specimens [18th century-styled specimen of Halcyon smyrnensis
shown in Busching 2002: 32 is younger].
København, Zoologisk Museum Københavns Universitet (J. Fjeldså, in litt., June
2004): ex parte coll. Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (acqu. 1861) incl. ex parte coll. Ash-
ton Lever (1729-1788, cf. Pelzeln, 1873: 30; one Buceros coronatus): 1 specimen.
Kremsmünster, Sternwarte des Benediktinerstifts Kremsmünster (G. Aubrecht &
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
51
A. Kraml, pers. com., Oct. 2002): colls. ? Patres Eugen Dobler (1714-1796, coll. post 1746, at
least one egg, Pfeiffer, 1887), ? Leopold Vogel (. late 18th century) & ? Abbot Erenbert
Meyer (1771-1800, cf. Doberschiz, 1764; Pfeiffer, 1887; Schifter, 1977). ? < 10 specimens.
Leiden, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis (R. Dekker, in litt., June 2004,
Aug. 2004; own data): colls. Jacob Temminck (1746-1822, leg. post 1770s, cf. Stresemann,
1951; Holthuis, 1995) & Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858, cf. Gijzen, 1938; Strese-
mann, 1953b) incl. ex parte coll., via Mr [nec Jean-Baptiste] Bécoeur, Jacques-Julien H. de
Labillardière (1755-1834, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Stresemann, 1953a & 1953b) & Antoine Riche
(1762-1797, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Stresemann, 1953a), William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf. Bul-
lock, 1819; Ghisin, 1969; Holthuis, 1995) incl. ex parte coll. Ashton Lever (1729-1788) incl. ex
parte coll. James Cook (1728-1779, cf. Medway, 1979; Dekker, 1999); & ex parte colls. François
Levaillant (1753-1824, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Stresemann, 1953b; Roselaar, 2003), Re
Maugé (?-1802, coll. Porto Rico leg. 1797-1798, cf. Stresemann, 1951, 1953b), Thomas
Thompson (. 1790-1814, cf. Stresemann, 1953b), Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811) & Prince
Willem V d’Orange (coll. 1756-1795, Holthuis, 1995, 2001b). >200 specimens.
Leipzig, Naturkundemuseum (M. Meyer, pers. com., Oct. 2002): ex parte coll. Chris-
tian Friedrich Schwägrichen (1775-1853) incl. ex parte coll. Christian Gottfried Heinrich
Geißler (1770-1844) incl. ex parte colls. Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811, coll. ante 1810, cf.
Gebhardt, 1964) & Carl Heinrich Merck (1761-1799, cf. Gebhardt, 1964; Joost, 2003). c.
12, (nach Jacobi, 1928) 21 specimens.
Le Mans, Musée Vert Véron de Forbonnais (N. Morel, pers com., June 2003): ex parte
coll. Cabinet des Stadhouders Den Haag / Prince Willem V d’Orange alias Oranje (coll.
1756-1795, acqu. 1799/1804, via Muséum National d‘Histoire Naturelle Paris, André
Pierre & Thomas Cauvin on behalf of the Ecole Centrale de la Sarthe; two mounted
birds, a toucan and an ibis). 2 specimens.
Lilienfeld, Tierkabinett Stift Lilienfeld: ex parte coll. Aegydius Kratky (1750-1818,
coll. Weinviertel 1774-1791 (? 1812) & aliae colls. ante c. 1816, cf. Hochebner & Bauern-
feind, 2002). 144 specimens (¿ some younger than 1800).
Liverpool, National Museums & Galleries on Merseyside• (M. Largen, in litt., Nov.
2002; own data): coll. Lord Edward Smith Stanley alias 13th Earl of Derby (1775-1851)
incl. ex parte colls. General Thomas Davies (1737-1812, coll. ante 1802, cf. Fuller, 2001 [p.
175: wrong living dates]; Fisher, 2002; Fisher & Jackson, 2002) incl coll. Dr. Lowe (leg.
1785); Ashton Lever (1729-1788, cf. Largen, 1987) incl ex parte coll. James Cook (1728-
1779, cf. Largen, 1987); ¿ George Montagu (1753-1815, fide museum’s database search
1998: one specimen), ¿ William Swainson (1789-1855) incl. [?] & separata ex parte coll.
William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf. Sharpe, 1906; Stresemann, 1951; Medway, 1976, 1979;
Whitehead, 1969, 1978; Wagstaffe, 1978; Fisher & Jackson, 2002; Roselaar, 2003); ex parte
coll. John Latham (1740-1837, fide museum’s database search, 1998). 26, perhaps up to 50
specimens.
London, Museum at Westminster Abbey: one specimen of The Duchess of Rich-
mond (prep. 1702, cf. Morris, 1981). 1 specimen.
London, Royal College of Surgeons of England (B. Davis, in litt., 2001): [wet/dry
anatomical specimens] coll. John Hunter (1728-1793, cf. Farber, 1982; Asma 2001) incl. ex
parte colls. ? James Cook (1728-1779) & ? Ashton Lever (1729-1788, most specimens of
Lever & Cook dontated to BMNH, now at Tring, in 1845 & 1909, cf. Steinheimer, 2003c).
118 (anatomical) bird specimens.
52 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Lyon, Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle (J. Clary & A. Maire, in litt., Dec. 2002): coll. Jean
André Ignace de Soubry (1705-1774, acqu. 1803: originally 500 specimens, actual number
unknown; cf. Soubry, 1736-1737). Up to >200 possible specimens.
Montreal, Blacker-Wood Library of Biology, McGill University (K. Schulze-Hagen,
pers. com., Oct. 2002): coll. Dionisio Minaggio (prep. 1618 [parts of birds only], cf. http://
digital.library.mcgill.ca/featherbook/, Violani 1988). 145 [parts of] specimens.
München, Zoologische Staatssammlung (own data): coll. Kurfürst Maximilian III.
Joseph von Wittelsbach (1727-1777, coll. post 1759) & Kurfürst Karl Theodor von Wit-
telsbach (1724-1799, coll. 1759-1799; no 18th century specimen yet identified, but the
oldest register lists data-less, but still existing birds, which might be pre 1800; cf. Hahn,
1818-1823; Hahn & Küster, 1834-1841; but cf. also Titschack, 1952). ? <10 specimens.
Neuchâtel, Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Neuchâtel: coll. ? Charles-Daniel de
Meuron (1748-1806, leg. ante 1795, cf. Roselaar, 2003). ? specimens.
Newcastle upon Tyne, The Hancock Museum (L. Jessop, in litt., Oct. 2002): coll.
George Allan (1736-1800, ex parte leg. 1776, cf. Jessop, 1999a; Jessop & Stobbart, 2002:
129) incl. coll. Marmaduke Tunstall (1743-1790, acqu. 1791, cf. Bewick, 1826; Jessop 1999b,
1999c; Jessop & Stobbart, 2002: 131, 132, 136 & 138; Jessop & Pryˆs-Jones, in prep.) incl. ex
parte colls. 4th Earl of Orford (1717-1797, don. 1775) & ? Joachim Friedrich Bolten (1718-
1796, acqu. c. 1775). 27 specimens.
Oxford, Oxford University Museum of Zoology (M. Nowak-Kemp, in litt., Jan.
2003): [several stuffed, avian parts] coll. Elias Ashmole (ante 1683, cf. Mearns & Mearns,
1998) incl. coll. John Tradescant (ante 1656, cf. Anonymous, 1836; Fuller, 2002) incl. ex
parte coll. ? Thomas Herbert (leg. ante 1627, cf. Stresemann, 1923). [several stuffed, avian
parts of formerly up to] 1-4 specimens.
Padova, Museo di Zoologia, Università degli Studi di Padova (P. Nicolosi, in litt.,
Sep. 2002): colls. ? Antonio Vallisneri (coll. ante 1734, cf. Roselaar, 2003) & ? indet. ? <10
specimens.
Paris, Muséum National d‘Histoire Naturelle (A. Péquignot, in litt., Nov. 2002;
own data): colls. ? René-Antoine Ferchauld de Réaumur (1683-1757, cf. Stresemann,
1951) incl. ex parte coll. ? Pierre Poivre (1719-1786, Stresemann, 1952); ? Mathurin-Jacques
Brisson (1723-1806, cf. Stresemann, 1951), Cabinet du Roi (leg. ante 1793, cf. Roselaar,
2003) & Philibert de Commerson (1727-1773, South America & Pacific Isl. leg. 1761-1768,
Mascarene Isl. & Madagascar leg. 1768-1773, cf. White & Bruce, 1986); ex parte colls. ?
Cabinet des Stadhouders Den Haag / Prince Willem V d’Orange alias Oranje (coll. 1756-
1795, cf. Prestwich, 1963; Mearns & Mearns, 1998; Holthuis, 2001a) / Aernout Vosmaer
(1720-1799, cf. Stresemann, 1951) incl. coll. ? Albertus Seba (ante 1752, cf. Stresemann,
1951); Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon (1707-1788), Pierre Sonnerat (1749-1814, ex
parte leg. 1771-1772, cf. Berlioz, 1950; White & Bruce, 1986; Fuller 2001) incl. ex altera parte
coll. Pierre Poivre (1719-1786, cf. Stresemann, 1951), Jacques-Julien H. de Labillardière
(1755-1834, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Stresemann, 1953a; White & Bruce, 1986) & Antoine Riche
(1762-1797, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Stresemann, 1953a); William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf.
Sharpe, 1906), François Levaillant (1753-1824, South African specimens ante 1785, excl.
coll. ante 1795, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Horn et al., 1990; Mearns & Mearns, 1998), ¿ Baron
Guillaume Michel Jerome Meiffren-Laugier de Chartrouse (1772-1843, cf. Roselaar,
2003), ? Jean-Baptiste Leschenault de la Tour (1773-1826, pars minor ante 1800, cf. Ber-
lioz, 1950; Mearns & Mearns, 1998), Georges Lépold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
53
(1769-1832), ¿ Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1772-1844, cf. Berlioz, 1950), ¿ Coenraad
Jacob Temminck (1778-1858) & Louis Dufresne (1752-1832, cf. Roselaar, 2003). >200
specimens.
Parma, Museo di Storia Naturale, Università di Parma (V. Parisi, in litt., Nov. 2002):
colls. Pater Jean Baptiste Fourcault (prep. 1764-1775, cf. Stresemann, 1923; Piechocki,
1982) & indet. Trochilidae (coll. c. 1700). > 34 specimens.
Pavia, Museo di Storia Naturale all Università di Pavia: ex parte coll. Lazzaro Spal-
lanzani (1729-1799, leg. & coll. 1771-1799) incl. colls. Giovanni Antonio Scopoli (1707-
1778, leg. ante 1777), ? Paolo Odescalco (leg ante 1778), ? Francesco Maynardi (leg ante
1778), ? Alessandro Brambilla (acqu. 1787-1793), ? Vincenzo Rosa (leg. Sardinia & Al-
geria 1793) & ? indet. from America (acqu. via Bruxelles in 1782, cf. Farber, 1982; Rovati
& Galeotti, 1999). c. 10, probably 10-50 specimens.
Philadelphia, The Academy of Natural Sciences (L. Joseph, in litt., Jan. 2003): ex
parte coll. ¿ Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827, coll. pars minor ante 1800, cf. Wilson, 1812:
92; Stone, 1899; Faxon, 1915; Stresemann, 1951; Mearns & Mearns, 1998; one specimen
of Buteo platypterus). ¿ 1 specimen.
Pisa, Museo di Storia Naturale e del Territorio, Università di Pisa (M. Zuffi, in litt.,
Jan. 2003): coll. indet. (ante 1626, one mounted head of Rhinoplax vigil; cf. Anonymous,
1626). 1 [part of a] specimen.
Reggio Emilia, Centro Museo Universitario di Storia Naturale e della Strumentazi-
one Scientifica (C. Violani, pers. com., Oct. 2003): ex parte coll. Lazzaro Spallanzani
(1729-1799, leg. & coll. 1771-1799). c. 50 specimens.
Rostock, Zoologische Sammlung der Universität Rostock•: colls. Georg Lembcke
(1753-1822, leg. ante 1804; cf. Kinzelbach et al., 1997) & Mecklenburgische Naturfor-
schende Gesellschaft / Adolf Christian Siemssen (1768-1833, leg. ante 1805; cf. Kinzel-
bach et al., 1997). 2-5 specimens.
Rudolstadt, Thüringer Landesmuseum Heidecksburg (E. Mey, pers. com., Mar.
2004): coll. Fürst Friedrich Carl von Schwarzenburg-Rudolstadt (1737-1790; Baege,
1963): c. 10 specimens [plus an egg collection from c. 1780].
St. Petersburg, Zoologicheskii Institut Rossiiskoi Akademii Nauk (R. Potapov, in
litt., Jul. 2002, Oct. 2002; U. Wannhoff, pers. com., Nov. 2002): colls. ? Tsar Pjotr I Alekse-
jewitsh Balšoj [Peter the Great] (1682-1725, cf. Whitehead, 1970) incl. colls. ? Frederik
Ruysch (1638-1731, coll. ante 1710, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Kistemaker, 2003; Marenk &
Prinzewa, 2003; Middelkoop, 2003), ex parte ? Albertus Seba (1665-1736, cf. Stresemann,
1951; Whitehead, 1970; Kistemaker, 2003) &, via Herzog Friedrich von Holstein-Gottorp
(in 1651), ? Bernardus Paludanus (1550-1633, cf. Stresemann, 1951); ? Johann Georg
Gmelin (1709-1755, acqu. 1741, cf. Stresemann, 1923), ? Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt
(1685-1735, cf. Stresemann, 1923; Gebhardt, 1964), Georg Wilhelm Steller (1709-1746,
leg. 1741-46, cf. Gebhardt, 1964, 1970; one likely specimen), ? Johann Anton Güldenstädt
(1745-1781, leg. ante 1775, cf. Stresemann, 1923; Gebhardt, 1964), ? Carl Ludwig Hablizl
(1752-1821, cf. Gebhardt, 1964), ? Ivan Ivanovich Lepekh’in alias Lepechin (?1737-1802,
cf. Stresemann, 1923), ? Falck (. 1768-1774, coll. 1768, cf. Stresemann, 1923) & ? Samuel
Gottlieb Gmelin (1744-1774, leg. 1767-1774, cf. Gebhardt, 1964); ex parte coll. ? Carl Hein-
rich Merck (1761-1799, cf. Gebhardt, 1964), ? Karl Krebs (coll. 1786-1794, cf. Gebhardt,
1964; Roselaar, 2003) & ? Peter Simon Pallas (1741-1811, cf. Roselaar, 2003). ? <10 speci-
mens (most early specimens vanished before 1831, cf. archival note of J.F. Brandt 1831).
54 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Schleusingen, Naturhistorisches Museum Schloss Bertholdsburg (R. Werneburg, in
litt., Jan. 2003): coll. ¿ Forstakademie Dreißigacker bei Meiningen (acqu. 1803 & 1807;
two half-birds arranged to pictures). ¿ 2 [parts of ] specimens.
Stockholm, Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (G. Frisk & E. Ahlander, in litt., Dec. 2002):
colls. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademien (ex parte pre 1800, founder collection
of museum), Konungen Adolf Fredrik III av Sverige (1710-1771, coll. Museum Drot-
tningholm ante/in 1754/1764), Anders Sparrman (1748-1820, South African coll. leg.
1772, 1775-1776, cf. Lönnberg, 1926; Gyldenstolpe, 1926a, b; Stresemann, 1951; Cook
voyage coll. leg. 1772-1775, cf. Whitehead, 1969, 1978; Medway, 1976, 1979; Senegal coll.
leg. 1787; 25 specimens), Carl von Linné (1707-1778; 2 specimens & c. 25 in alcohol),
Adolf Ulrik Grill (1752-1797, leg. 1792 & pars ante 1797, acqu. 1828; 7 & 45 specimens)
incl. colls. Per Gustaf Lindroth (1758-1809) & Anna Johanna Grill (fl. late 1800s); Johan
Gustaf von Carlsson (1743-1801, cf. Lönnberg, 1926; Gyldenstolpe, 1926), ? Clas Fredrik
Hornstedt (1758-1809, coll. East Indies leg. ante 1787, acqu. 1819/20, cf. Stresemann,
1923), (Baron) Gustaf Freiherr von Paykull (1759-1826, leg. pars major ante 1800, acqu.
1819/20, cf. Lönnberg, 1926; Horn et al., 1990; Fuller, 1999; 680 specimens), ? Erik Gustaf
Lönberg (1764-1808), ? Gustaf Johan Billberg (1772-1844, acqu. 1809), ? Samuel Fahl-
berg (1758-1834, coll. West Indies), ? Olof Peter Swartz (1760-1818, cf. Lönnberg, 1926) &
Conrad Quensel (1767-1806); ex parte coll. ? Charles Willson Peale (1741-1827, acqu.
1791, cf. Lönnberg, 1926). >600 specimens.
Strasbourg, Musée Zoologique de l’Université Louis Pasteur et de la Ville de Stras-
bourg (M.-D. Wandhammer, in litt., Febr. 2003): coll. Johann (alias Jean) Hermann
(1738-1800, coll. 1760-1800, cf. Gebhardt, 1974) incl. ex parte coll. Peter Simon Pallas
(1741-1811, leg. ante 1760, cf. Fuller, 1999: one specimen Pinguinus impennis). >100 speci-
mens.
Stuttgart, Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart: coll. ¿ Carl Christoph
Jaeger (1773-1828, leg. 1797-1817, cf. Schüz, 1967; Warth & Ziegler, 1991; 1 specimen in
museum’s database). ¿ 1 specimen.
Torino, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali (C. Pulcher, in litt., 2001): coll. Franco
Andrea Bonelli (1784-1830) incl. ex parte coll. William Bullock (c.1773-1849) incl. ex parte
coll. James Cook (1728-1779, cf. Bullock, 1819; Salvadori, 1914; Whitehead, 1978; Elter,
1986). 10-50, perhaps >50 specimens.
Tring, The Natural History Museum (own data): colls. Thomas Hardwicke (1755-
1835, Indian coll. leg. ante 1818, cf. Sharpe, 1906) & Thomas Pennant (1726-1798, cf.
Sharpe, 1906); pars major coll. George Montagu (1753-1815, cf. Leach, 1816; Sharpe, 1906)
incl. one specimen of John Latham (1740-1837); & Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820, cf. Knox
& Walters, 1992); ex parte colls. Hans Sloane (1660-1753, cf. Clutton-Brock, 1994; Steinhe-
imer, 2003e; Steinheimer & Cooper, 2003), James Cook (1728-1779, cf. Salvadori, 1891;
Stresemann, 1949, 1950; Lysaght, 1959; Burton, 1969; Whitehead, 1969, 1971, 1978; Sweet,
1970a; Steinheimer, 2003a, c), Ashton Lever (1729-1788, cf. Anonymous, 1790; Donovan,
1806; Mullens, 1917-1918; Stresemann, 1951; Chalmers-Hunt, 1976; Alexander, 1985;
Jackson, 1998; Mearns & Mearns, 1998; Steinheimer, 2003c; Walters, 2004), Archibald
Menzies (1754-1842, leg. 1792, cf. Eastwood, 1924; Stresemann, 1951; Warren, 1966;
Wilbur, 1978; Galloway & Groves, 1987; Mearns & Mearns, 1998), Edward Donovan
(1768-1837, leg. W. Hammond ante/in 1787, cf. Warren, 1966), Linnean Society of London
via George Shaw (1751-1813, ex parte minor leg. ante/in 1789, cf. Warren, 1966), William
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
55
Bullock (c.1773-1849; ? ex parte via Benjamin Leadbeater, Mr J. E. Warwick, Nicholas
Aylward Vigors & Coenraad Jacob Temminck in 1839-1846, cf. Bullock [i.a.], 1809, 1811,
1812, 1813; Alexander, 1985; Knox & Walters, 1994; Steinheimer, 2003c), [?Emmanuel]
Baillon (?-?1802, entries in ‘Leach Catalogue’ 1813-1832), ¿ [?Alexander/William Sharp]
Macleay (1767-1848/1792-1865, cf. entries in ‘Leach Catalogue’ 1813-1832; Stanbury &
Holland, 1988), ¿ Antoine Nicolas François Dubois Comte de Riocour (1761-c.1830s, cf.
Sharpe, 1906; Stresemann, 1951; http://www.culture.fr/documentation/; fide Fuller,
1999: 231 leg. post c.1820), ¿ Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778-1858), ¿ Alexander Huey
(acqu. ante 1832, cf. McCormick, 1987) & ¿ Baron Guillaume Michel Jerome Meiffren-
Laugier de Chartrouse (1772–1843, cf. Sharpe, 1906; Whitehead, 1978; Steinheimer,
2003c), ¿ William Swainson (1789-1855) &, via Mr [nec Jean-Baptiste] Bécoeur ad Tho-
mas Thompson (. 1790-1814) & Colonel Emperor John Alexander Woodford (. 1791),
ex parte coll. ? Jacques-Julien H. de Labillardière (1755-1834, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Strese-
mann, 1953a) & ? Antoine Riche (1762-1797, leg. 1791-1794, cf. Stresemann, 1953a). >200
specimens.
Uppsala, Evolutionsmuseet, Zoologi-sektionen, Uppsala Universitet: colls. Carl von
Linné (1707-1778) incl. ex parte coll. Jonas Alströmer (acqu. c. 1749, cf. Stresemann, 1923);
Magnus Lagerström (leg. ante 1750), Clas Fredrik Hornstedt (1758-1809, leg. ante 1789),
Adam Afzelius (1750-1837, leg. ante 1802), Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828, acqu. 1775,
cf. Stresemann, 1923) & ¿ Konungen Gustav IV Adolf Fredrik av Sverige (1778-1837,
leg. ante ?1809) (cf. Lönnberg, 1896; Horn et al., 1990; Wallin, 1992; Wallin & Wallin, 1994;
Wallin, 1996; Wallin 1997). 11, probably 15-50 specimens.
Waldenburg, Heimatmuseum und Naturalienkabinett der Stadt Waldenburg (E.
Mey, in litt., Sep. 2002): coll. Fürst Otto Victor I. von Schönburg-Waldenburg (1785-
1859) incl. colls. Johann Heinrich Linck d. J. (1734-1807, cf. Seifert, 1935) & ? Johann
Heinrich Linck d. Ä. (1674-1734) incl. ex parte coll. ? Johann Christoph Richter (1689-
1751, acqu. 1784, cf. Seifert, 1935; Wilson, 1990: mainly minerals, not birds). <10 speci-
mens.
Waltershausen-Schnepfenthal, Naturalienkabinett der Salzmannschule Schnep-
fenthal: colls. Christian Gotthilf Salzmann (coll. post 1784) & Friedrich Salzmann (1774-
1850, prep. 1791) incl. colls. forest man ‘HerrClauder (leg. 1791), ‘Schüler’ Ausfeld &
von Busche (leg. 1790, i.e. pupils of Schnepfenthal); & ex parte colls. Johann Christoph
Richter of Leipzig (1689-1751, cf. Seifert, 1935; Pfauch & Pfauch, 1984; Wilson, 1990) &,
via Henri Marc (1771-1841), Johann Matthaeus Bechstein (1757-1822, leg. 1789, cf. Pfauch
& Pfauch, 1984; Pfauch 1990). 13 specimens with data, but probably 20-30 pre 1800.
Warszawa, Polska Akademia Nauk, Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii (J. Szwedo, in litt.,
Feb. 2003): coll. Sylvius (Silvius) August von Minckwitz (1772-1818, coll. pars major
1792-1805, cf. Pax, 1923a; Pax, 1925, nec Gebhardt, 1964). ¿ 28 specimens.
Weimar, Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlung des Goethe-Nationalmuseums: coll. ¿
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832, cf. Klausewitz, 2000). < ¿ 10 specimens.
Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (E. Bauernfeind, in litt., July 2002, Aug.
2002, Oct. 2003, June 2004; own data): colls. ? Nicolaus Joseph Franz von Jacquin (1727-
1817, Caribian coll. 1755-1759, cf. Jacquin, 1784; Riedl-Dorn, 1998; Bauernfeind, 2003;
probably one or more surviving specimens), Franz Boos (1753-1832, South African coll.
1785-1788), Georg Scholl (coll. 1785-1799), René Maugé (?-1802) / Nicolas Baudin
(1754-1803, leg. Puerto Rico, Trinidad, Saint Thomas & Teneriffa, 1796-1797, cf. Ledru,
56 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
1810, Kaiser Franz I von Österreich (1708-1765, one specimen in vivo since 1752, prep. ?
1801, fide Schifter, 1996), Kaiser Franz II von Österreich (1768-1835, coll. Menagerie „Ter-
rasse“ 1793-1806) & Joseph Natterer (?-1823, prep. ante 1793, cf. Schifter, 1993; Riedl-
Dorn, 1998); ex parte colls. Ashton Lever (1729-1788, cf. Pelzeln, & Lorenz, 1886, 1887a,
1887b, 1888; Bauernfeind, 2004; Walters, 2004) incl. ex parte coll. James Cook (1728-1779,
leg. 1772-1775 & 1776-1780, cf. Donovan, 1806; Pelzeln, 1873; Jackson, 1998), John White
(c. 1756-1832, leg. ante 1790, cf. White, 1790; Pelzeln & Lorenz, 1886: 252) & Capt. [?Rob-
ert G.] Middleton (coll. ?~1795); Baron S. Zois von Laibach (i.e. Ljubljana, 1747-1819,
coll. ante 1808-1815), ¿ [? Christoph (1753-1824) vel Achaz (1755-1855)] Freiherr [Baron]
von Stiebar alias Stieber (acqu. 1806), Louis Dufresne (1752-1832), ¿ Coenraad Jacob
Temminck (1778-1858, cf. Pelzeln & Lorenz, 1886, 1887a, 1887b, 1888) incl ex parte coll. ?
François Levaillant (1753-1824, South African specimens leg. 1782-83); [? Jean-Baptiste]
Bécoeur (coll. ante 1806-1815), Aegydius Kratky (1750-1818, coll. Weinviertel 1774-1791
(? 1812) & aliae colls. ante c. 1816, cf. Hochebner & Bauernfeind, 2002), Spalowski (coll.
ante ~1790, Schifter & Bauernfeind, in prep.), ? François Levaillant (1753-1824, coll. ante
1795) & ¿ William Swainson (1789-1855, cf. Stresemann, 1951; Roselaar, 2003) incl. ex
parte coll. ? William Bullock (c.1773-1849, cf. Sharpe, 1906). c. 300 specimens.
Wien, Zoologische Sammlung der Formal- und Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der Universität Wien (H.-L. Nemeschkal, in litt., Nov. 2002): coll. ? Graf Franz Anton
Hannibal von Thurn & Valsassina (?-1768, acqu. 1773, cf. Stresemann, 1923; no certain
specimen found). ? specimens.
Wroclaw, Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Wroclawskiego: [coll. *Marie
Friderici, acqu. 1779, cf. Peters, 1960: 30: one specimen of Neophema pulchella, but the only
possible but highly unlikely origin would have to be Byron’s or Cook’s voyages, cf.
Shaw, 1792; Pax, 1923b]. Probably 0 specimen.
Other collections, which are quoted in literature of having (uncertain) 18th century
bird specimens, are found in Coburg (Aumann, 1969), Erlangen (Gengler, 1912; Rose-
laar, 2003; for scope of coll. cf. Hahn, 1818-1823; Hahn & Küster, 1834-1841; Mr Weide-
mann, pers. com., Nov. 2002: no collection access possible), Görlitz (Heyder, 1926; H.
Ansorge, pers com., Feb. 2003: specimens not found), Gotha (Baege, 1964), Jena (Baege,
1963; D. v. Knorre, in litt., Oct. 2002: no 18th century bird specimen yet traced, but exist-
ence of such could be possible), Lund (Roselaar, 2003), Trondheim (Roselaar, 2003; O.
Hogstad, in litt., Mar. 2003: oldest known bird being from 1809), Wiesbaden (Groß,
1968; F. Geller-Grimm, in litt., Jan. 2003: specimens not found) and Wroclaw (school col-
lection, Pax, 1925).
This list has a preliminary character, though I tried to include most pre-nineteenth
century bird collections, which are mentioned in literature, enquired data of colleagues
world-wide and studied many collections myself. Institutions contacted, which replied
of having no or no certain record of 18th century bird specimens (yet found), are listed
in the acknowledgements only. I am also fully aware that there are many more ‘old’
collections in Europe, especially in Italy, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic and France.
Some of them are housed in private manors, others in schools, universities, castles and
monasteries. For example, Mey (1988) accounted for 20 and more natural history collec-
tions, which existed alone in the county of Thuringia, Germany, during the 18th century.
Another weak point of the work are specimens which have changed ownerships several
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
57
times or were sold via dealers such as Benjamin Leadbeater from London and Émile
Parzudaki of Paris, who both dealt with 18th century birds (cf. Sharpe, 1906; Stresemann,
1951; Farber, 1982). I would appreciate any addition or correction to this list made
known to me.
Importance of 18th century bird specimens
In general terms, the older the collection the higher is the number of types, speci-
mens of extinct species, first country records and rare specimens. Unfortunately, one
would find the reversed relations regarding data. For example, all birds used for Linné’s
Systema Naturae (1758) have type status. Still a big proportion of birds mentioned in
Gmelin (1788, 1789), who latinized Latham’s (1781-1785) and others’ bird descriptions,
are types. James Cook met birds in the Pacific region, which have subsequently never
been collected anymore, such as the White-winged Sandpiper Prosobonia leucoptera
(Gmelin, 1789). The only two examples of the White Gallinule Porphyrio albus (White,
1790), now at Vienna and Liverpool Museums, as well as the Mascarene Parrot Mascari-
nus mascarinus (Linné, 1771), housed at Paris and Vienna Museums, are from the 18th
century. One could continue to explore such examples. More important, though, is to
point out that some of these bird specimens are still awaiting to be discovered among
museum holdings. Rarely there is any evidence on the labels, but intensive research in
archives and secondary literature might help to trace the fate of missing types. This list
here is thought as a first step towards a better understanding of the whereabouts of 18th
century bird collections. The cited literature will guide researchers to additional data on
the specimens in question.
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank Karl Schulze-Hagen (Mönchengladbach), who has been the
biggest promoter of this historical study. Furthermore, I would not have been able to
compile the list of 18th century bird specimens without the help of following colleagues:
Mark Adams (Tring), Erik Ahlander (Stockholm), Miloš Andíra (Praha), Hermann An-
sorge (Görlitz), Igor Askeyev (Kazan), Oleg Askeyev (Kazan), Gerhard Aubrecht (Linz),
Josefina Barreiro (Madrid), Ernst Bauernfeind (Wien), Rüdiger Becker (Berlin), Wieslaw
Bogdanowicz (Warszawa), Bettina Bonnichon (Paris), Cordula Bracker (Hamburg),
Remý Bruckert (Paris), Tony Bürgin (St. Gallen), Wolf-Dieter Busching (Köthen), Fabrizio
Cancelli (Siena), Douglas Causey (Cambridge, Mass.), Giorgio Chiozzi (Milano), Joël
Clary (Lyon), Joanne Cooper (Tring), Paul Cooper (London), Ann Datta (London), Barry
Davis (London), René Dekker (Leiden), Dieter Döllner (Bamberg), Gertrud Döllner
(Bamberg), Kerstin Dudley (Göttingen), Alison Eichelberger (Lancaster, U.S.), Siegfried
Eck (Dresden), Mats Eriksson (Uppsala), Joseph Feldner (Villach), Jürgen Fiebig (Berlin),
Clem Fisher (Liverpool), Jon Fjeldså (Copenhagen), Michaela Forthuber (Braun-
schweig), Sylke Frahnert (Berlin), Göran Frisk (Stockholm), Alexander Gehler (Wolfs-
burg), Fritz Geller-Grimm (Wiesbaden), Eva Gilch (Burghausen), Jürgen Götze (Admont/
Berlin), Gary Graves (Washington), Herbert Grimm (Erfurt), Marcel Güntert (Bern),
Sabine Hackethal (Berlin), Alison Harding (Tring), Cornelis Hazevoet (Lisboa), Dietrich
Heidecke (Halle), Wolfgang Heimler (Erlangen), Gerhard Hildebrandt (Gnetsch),
58 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Christoph Hinkelmann (Bardowicke), Olav Hogstad (Trondheim), Tony Irwin (Nor-
wich), Pavel Janda (Praha), Mike Jessat (Altenburg), Les Jessop (Newcastle upon Tyne),
Ulrich Joger (Darmstadt), Leo Joseph (Philadelphia), Mikhail Kalyakin (Moskwá), Inge-
borg Kilias (Berlin), Ragnar Kinzelbach (Rostock), Konrad Klemmer (Frankfurt/M.),
Dietrich von Knorre (Jena), Pater Amand Kraml (Kremsmünster), Oliver Krone (Berlin),
Gundolf Krüger (Göttingen), Hannelore Landsberg (Berlin), Malcolm Largen (Liver-
pool), Mary LeCroy (New York), Klaus Liedel (Halle/S.), Heide Link (Halle/S.), Craig
Ludwig (Washington), Christian Marti (Sempach), Matthias Mäuser (Bamberg), Dieter
Mahsberg (Würzburg), André Maire (Lyon), Peter Mansfeld (Kassel), Gerald Mayr
(Frankfurt/M.), Eberhard Mey (Rudolstadt), Michael Meyer (Leipzig), Henry McGhie
(Manchester), Bob McGowan (Edinburgh), Hans-Walter Mittmann (Karlsruhe), Nicolas
Morel (Le Mans), Pat Morris (Bristol), Hans-Leo Nemeschkal (Wien), Bernd Nicolai
(Halberstadt), Paola Nicolosi (Padova), Peter Nisi (Hannover), Annamaria Nistri
(Firenze), Ruggero Noto la Diega (Palermo/Berlin), Malgosia Nowak-Kemp (Oxford),
Vittorio Parisi (Parma), Tony Parker (Liverpool), Eric Pasquet (Paris), Jana Pavlíšková
(Budišov u Trˇebícˇe), Amandine Péquignot (Paris), Hans-Ulrich Peter (Jena), Marta Pog-
gesi (Firenze), Roald Potapov (St. Petersburg), Robert Pryˆs-Jones (Tring), Claudio
Pulcher (Torino), Christiane Quaisser (Dresden/Berlin), Phil Rainbow (London), Josef
Reichholf (München), Maggie Reilly (Glasgow), Kees Roselaar (Amsterdam), Jörn
Scharlemann (Cambridge), Herbert Schifter (Wien), Christiane Schilling (Hannover),
Rolf Schlenker (Radolfzell), Dirk Schmidt (Schnepfenthal), Karl-Ludwig Schuchmann
(Bonn), Pieter Smit (Amsterdam), Siegfried Sparing (Heidelberg), Christel, Jörg, Karla,
Renate & Winfried Steinheimer (Nürnberg), Egeberth Steinicke (Halle/S.), Helena
Sutorová (Brno), Paul Sweet (New York), Jacek Szwedo (Katowice), Ray Symonds
(Cambridge), Walther Thiede (Köln), Gert Tröster (Göttingen), Jean-François Voisin
(Paris), Michael Walters (Tring), Marie-Dominique Wandhammer (Strasbourg), Ulrich
Wannhoff (Berlin), Effie Warr (Tring), Bernd Weidemann (Erlangen), Ralf Werneburg
(Schleusingen), Pater Wichmann (Seitenstetten), Andreas Wilts (Donaueschingen),
Friedericke Woog (Stuttgart), Marco Zanatello (Bologna), Erhard Zenker (Wiesbaden),
Rudolf Zilch (Erlangen), Edita Žlebková (Jeseník nad Odrou) and Marco Zuffi (Pisa).
The Department of Zoology of The Natural History Museum kindly funded my stud-
ies at Norwich, Liverpool, Paris and Leiden. The main literature work has been com-
piled in the libraries of The Natural History Museum London/Tring, Museum für
Naturkunde Berlin and Bibliothek der Deutschen Ornithologen-Gesellschaft. Last but
not least I would like to thank René Dekker and Kees Roselaar for comments on an
earlier draft.
Archival records
Anonymous, 1626. Inventario della Galleria e del Giardino de’ Semplici di Sua Altezza Serenissima in
Pisa (cf. Garbari et al., 1991).
Anonymous, [1813-1816]. Catalogus Avium Musei regii Berolinensis (II. Aves), Kataloge der Ornitholo-
gischen Abteilung, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
Anonymous, [c. 1832]. Catalogus Avium. Ornithologische Abteilung, Senckenberg-Museum, Frank-
furt/M.
Humphrey, G., 1782. Catalogue of Manufactures, Mechanical Performances and other Inventions of the
Natives of the new-discovered, or but seldom visited Countries in the pacific Ocean, &c. Archiv des
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
59
Instituts für Ethnologie, Völkerkundliche Sammlung der Universität Göttingen (cf. Hauser-
Schäublin & Krüger, 1998: 63).
Illiger, J.C.W., 1812. Verzeichnis der Vögel. Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,
Historische Bild- und Schriftgutsammlungen, Bestand Zool. Mus. SI, Verz. Vögel 1812.
Rammelsberg, [sine annu]. [Abschrift der Aufzeichnungen des Inspektors Rammelsberg über die Entwick-
lung des Museums von 1811-1856]. Stresemann-Sonderdrucksammlung der Ornithologischen
Abteilung S.106.e.69, Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin.
Soubry, J.A.I., 1736-1737. Archives Municipales de Lyon: inventaire d‘archives - BB 374 élection de
1736-37 – ex libris.
References
Ahrens, T.G., 1925. The ornithological collection of the Berlin Museum.— Auk 42: 241-245.
Alexander, E.P., 1985. William Bullock: Little-Remembered Museologist and Showman.— Curator 28(2):
117-147.
Angst, R., 1985. Kurze Geschichte der Zoologischen Abteilung: 49-63.— In: S. Rietschel, (ed.). Vom
Naturalienkabinett zum Naturkundemuseum 1785-1985 – Gesch. Landessamml. Naturk. Karls-
ruhe: 1-84. Karlsruhe.
Anonymous, 1790. A companion to the Museum, (Late Sir Ashton Lever’s) Removed to Albion Street,
the Surry End of Black Friars Bridge. Pt. 1 & 2: 1-122.— London.
Anonymous, 1836. A Catalogue of the Ashmolean Museum, descriptive of the zoological specimens,
&c.: 1-188.— Oxford.
Asma, S.T., 2001. Stuffed Animals & Pickled Heads - The culture and evolution of Natural History Mu-
seums: 1-302.— New York.
Aumann, G., 1969. Die ornithologische Sammlung des Natur-Museums in Coburg.— Jahrb. Coburger
Landesstift. 1969: 351-374.
Baege, L., 1963. Friedrich Christian Günther - Ein Thüringer Ornithologe des 18. Jahrhunderts.— Ab-
handl. Ber. Naturk. Mus. „Mauritianum“ Altenburg 3: 5-38.
Baege, L., 1964. Über ehemalige private Vogelsammlungen in Thüringen – Ihre Entstehung, ihr Schicksal
und Verbleib.— Beitr. Vogelk. 10(3): 129-147.
Bangs, O., 1930. Types of Birds now in the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy.— Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.
Harvard Coll. 70(4): 146-426.
Bauernfeind, E., 2003. The Vienna Bird Collection: History and Main Research Focus.— Bonner Zool.
Beitr. 51(2-3): 147-149.
Bauernfeind, E., 2004. Bird specimens from the Leverian Museum: documentation and present holdings
at the NMW.— Festschrift für Univ. Prof. Dr. Horst Aspöck, Denisia 13 [in press].
Benson, C.W., 1999. Type specimens of bird skins in the University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge,
United Kingdom.— Brit. Orn. Cl. Occ. Publ. 4: 1-221.
Berlioz, J., 1950. L‘Histoire des Collections de Mammifères et d’Oiseaux du Muséum.— Bull. Mus., 2
série 22(2): 166-180.
Bewick, T., 1826. A history of British birds. 159 & 146 vignettes.— Newcastle.
Boettger, C.R., 1954. Entstehung und Werdegang des 200 jährigen Staatl. Naturhistorischen Museums
zu Braunschweig.— Schr. Staatl. Naturh. Mus. Braunschweig: 1-28.
Borkhausen, [M.B.], [J.W.] Lichthammer, C.W. Bekker, [G.] Lembke & Bekker der Jüngere, 1800. Teutsche
Ornithologie oder Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Teutschlands in naturgetreuen Abbildungen und
Beschreibungen. 2. Heft: 1-12. 1-6 pls.— Darmstadt.
Brauer, [A.], 1910. Das zoologische Museum: 373-389.— In M. Lenz, (ed.). Geschichte der königlichen
Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin, Bd. III. Halle a.d. S.
Bullock, W., 1809. A companion to the Liverpool Museum [...]. 7th ed. Richard Cruttwell. 1-78, I-VII.—
Bath.
Bullock, W., 1811. A companion to Mr. Bullock’s Museum [...]. 10th ed. Henry Reynell. 1-150, I-VI.—
London.
60 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Bullock, W., 1812. A companion to Mr. Bullock’s London Museum [...]. 12th ed. Bullock. 1-57, 1-136,
I-XII.— London.
Bullock, W., 1813. A companion to London Museum [...]. 15th ed. Whittingham & Rowland. 1-151, I-
XII.— London.
Bullock, W., 1819. Catalogue of the Roman Gallery of Works of Art, and the London Museum of Natural
History, which will commence selling by Auction […]. Printed for W. Bullock. 1-146.— London.
Burton, P.J.K., 1969. Two Bird Specimens probably from Cook’s Voyages.— Ibis 111: 388-390.
Busching, W.-D., 2001. Zur Geschichte der Sammlung des Altmeisters der mitteleuropäischen Vogel-
kunde Johann-Friedrich Naumann, im Naumann-Museum Köthen.— Blätter Naumann-Museum
20: 27-74.
Busching, W.-D., 2002. Ein Führer durch das Naumann-Museum in Köthen (Anhalt): 1-48.— Köthen.
Carreira, I., J.A Reis, M.T. Baptista & R. Ribeiro, 2000. Gabinete de História Natural - Revivências. Mus.
Zool. Univers. Coimbra, Sersilito: 1-88.— Maia.
Chalmers-Hunt, J.M., 1976. Natural History Auctions 1700-1972. Sotheby Parke Bernet. 1-189, I-XII.—
London.
Clutton-Brock, J., 1994. Vertebrate Collections: 77-92.— In: A. MacGregor, (ed.). Sir Hans Sloane - Collector,
Scientist, Antiquary - Founding Father of the British Museum: 1-308. London.
Damaschun, F., Böhme, G. & H. Landsberg, 2000. Naturkundliche Museen der Berliner Universität –
Museum für Naturkunde: 190 Jahre Sammeln und Forschen. 86-106.— In: H. Bredekamp, J. Brün-
ing & C. Weber (eds.). Theater der Natur und Kunst – Theatrum Naturae et Artis. Essays
Wunderkammern des Wissens, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin & Henschel Verlag. 1-280.— Berlin.
Dekker, R., 1999. [bird chapters].— In R. Purcell, Extinct and Endangered Animals - Swift as a Shadow:
1-159, 1-65 pls. New York.
Doberschiz, L., 1764. Specula Cremifanensis - I. Band Beschreibung der in dem Mathematischen Thurme
zu Cremsmünster befindlichen Naturalien, Instrumenten, und Seltenheiten.— In Amand Kraml,
(ed.), 1999, Berichte des Anselm Desing Vereins Naturwissenschaftliche Sammlungen Kremsmün-
ster No. 40 [G. Aubrecht, pers. com., Oct. 2002].
Donovan, E., 1806. Catalogue of the Leverian Museum Part I-VI – The Sale of the entire collection: 1-296,
17.— London [author fide Largen, 1987].
Dufresne, L., 1803. Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle appliqué aux arts XXI: 1-515.— Paris
[cited in Piechocki, 1982].
Eastwood, A., (ed.), 1924. Menzies’ California Journal (Journal of the Vancouver Expedition - With an
introduction and notes by A. Eastwood).— Quart. California Hist. Soc. 2(4): 265-340.
Elter, O., 1986. La Collezione Ornitologica del Museo di Zoologia dell’Università di Torino.— Cataloghi
8, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino: 1-513.
Farber, P.L., 1977. The Development of Taxidermy and the History of Ornithology.— Isis 68 (No. 244):
550-566.
Farber, P.L., 1982. The emergence of ornithology as a scientific discipline: 1760-1850. Studies in the His-
tory of Modern Science 12, D: 1-191.— Dordrecht, Boston, London.
Faxon, W., 1915. Relics of Peale’s Museum.— Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, Mass. 49(3): 119-148.
Fisher, C., (ed.), 2002. A Passion for Natural History - The Life and Legacy of the 13th Earl of Derby:
1-240.— Liverpool.
Fisher, C. & C.E. Jackson, 2002. The 13th Earl of Derby as a Scientist: 45-51.— In C. Fisher, (ed.). A Pas-
sion for Natural History - The Life and Legacy of the 13th Earl of Derby: 1-240. Liverpool.
Forster, J.R., 1771. A catalogue of the animals of North America, […] to which are added, short directions
for collecting, preserving and transporting all kinds of natural history curiosities: 1-43.— London.
Fuller, E., 1999. The Great Auk: 1-448.— Southborough.
Fuller, E., 2001. Extinct Birds. Revised edition: 1-398.— Ithaca.
Fuller, E., 2002. Dodo: from extinction to icon:1-180.— London.
Galloway, D.J. & E.W. Groves, 1987. Archibald Menzies MD, FLS (1754-1842, aspects of his life, travel
and collections.— Arch. Nat. Hist. 14(1): 3-43.
Garbari, F., L. Tongiorgi Tomasi & A. Tosi, 1991. Giardino dei semplici - L’ orto botanico di Pisa dal XVI
al XX secolo: 1-397.— Pisa.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
61
Gebhardt, L., 1964. Die Ornithologen Mitteleuropas: 1-404.— Giessen.
Gebhardt, L., 1970. Die Ornithologen Mitteleuropas. Band 2.— J. Orn., Sonderheft 111:1-233.
Gebhardt, L., 1974. Die Ornithologen Mitteleuropas. Band 3.— J. Orn., Sonderheft 115:1-126.
Gengler, J., 1912. Die Klein’schen Vogelbilder.— J. Orn. 60(4): 570-591.
Gijzen, A., 1938. ‚s Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie 1820-1915: 1-335.— Rotterdam.
Gmelin, J.F., 1788. Caroli a Linné […] Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, or-
dines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tom 1 (Pars I): 1-500.—
Lipsia [Leipzig].
Gmelin, J.F., 1789. Caroli a Linné […] Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, or-
dines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tom 1 (Pars II): 501-1032.—
Lipsia [Leipzig].
Göbbel, L., E. Steinicke & R. Schultka, 2002. Die Anatomischen Sammlungen. Die Naturkundlichen
Sammlungen der Martin-Luther Universität Halle-Wittenberg: 96-103.— In: E. Görgner, D. Hei-
decke, D. Klaus, B. Nicolai & K. Schneider, (eds.). Kulturerbe Natur - Naturkundliche Museen und
Sammlungen in Sachsen-Anhalt: 1-175. Halle/S.
Greenway, J.C., 1958. Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the World. Special Publication No. 13: 1-518.— New
York.
Groß, F.J., 1968. Zur Geschichte der Naturwissenschaftl. Sammlung in Wiesbaden und zu den neuen
Aufgaben des Naturkundemuseums.— Das Leben 5(4): 87-90.
Griffin, F.J., 1946. Present state of some German museums.— Nature 157(3993): 631-633.
Gunther, A.E., 1975. A Century of Zoology at the British Museum Through the Lives of Two Keepers
1815-1914: 1-533.— Bristol, Folkestone.
Gunther, A.E., 1980. The founders of science at the British Museum 1753-1900: 1-219.— Halesworth,
Suffolk.
Gyldenstolpe, N., 1926a. Några ord om utvecklingen av Naturhistoriska Riksmuseets samlingar av ryg-
gradsdjur.— Svenska Jägarförb. Tidskr. 63(6): 324-342.
Gyldenstolpe, N., 1926b. Types of Birds in the Royal Natural History Museum in Stockholm.— Ark.
Zool. 19A(1): 1-116.
Haffer, J., 1997. Ornithologen-Briefe des 20. Jahrhunderts.— Ökol. Vögel Bd. 19: 1-980.
Hahn, C.W., 1818-1823. Voegeln aus Asien, Africa, America und Neuholland &c.: 1-68, 1-101 pls.—
Nürnberg.
Hahn, C.W. & H.C. Küster, 1834-41. Ornithologischer Atlas oder naturgetreue Abbildung und Be-
schreibung der aussereuropäischen Vögel - Erste Abtheilung Papageien (Psittacus, Linn.): 1-100, 1-
79 pls.— Nürnberg.
Hartert, E., 1891. Katalog der Vogelsammlung im Museum der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden
Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main: 1-259.— Frankfurt a.M.
Hauser-Schäublin, B. & G. Krüger, 1998. James Cook - Gifts and Treasures from the South Seas, The
Cook/Forster Collection, Göttingen: 1-351.— Munich, New York.
Heyder, R., 1926. Aus der Frühgeschichte der Vogelkunde in der Oberlausitz.— Mitt. Ver. Sächs. Orn.
1(8): 185-207.
Hildebrandt, G., 2001. Die Veröffentlichungen der Ornithologenfamilie Naumann in Zeitschriften. Aus
dem Ornithologischen Verein „Johann Friedrich Naumann“: 1-335.— Köthen.
Hochebner, T. & E. Bauernfeind, 2002. Eine frühe ornithologische Sammlung im Stift Lilienfeld: 83-
88.— In: H. Schmid, (ed.). Zisterzienserstift Lilienfeld: 1-124.— Lilienfeld.
Hohberg, W.H. von, 1682. Georgica curiosa, das ist: Umständlicher Bericht und klarer Unterricht vom
dem adelichen Land- und Feld-Leben […]. 2 parts: 1-702, 1-726.— Nürnberg.
Holthuis, L.B., 1995. 1820-1958 Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie: 1-172.— Leiden.
Holthuis, L.B., 2001a. Leiden and early natural history: 13-18.— In: J. van der Land, (ed.). The history of
natural history in Leiden: 1-78. Leiden.
Holthuis, L.B., 2001b. National Museum of Natural History/Naturalis: 19-26.— In J. van der Land, (ed.).
The history of natural history in Leiden: 1-78.— Leiden.
Horn, W., I. Kahle, G. Friese & R. Gaedike, 1990. Collectiones entomologicae: Ein Kompendium über
den Verbleib entomologischer Sammlungen der Welt bis 1960: 1-573.— Berlin.
62 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Jackson, C.E., 1998. Sarah Stone - Natural Curiosities from the New Worlds: 1-159.— London.
Jacobi, A., 1928. Eduard Pöppig als Ornithologe.— J. Orn. 76(2): 436-440.
Jacquin, J.F. von, 1784. Beyträge zur Geschichte der Vögel: 1-45, 1-19 pls.— Wien.
Jaeck, J.H., 1815. Taschenbuch auf 1815, enthaltend Beschreibungen von Naturalien- und Kunst-
Sammlungen/allen Wasser- und Strassenbauen Bambergs etc.: I-VIII, 1-152.— Erlangen.
Jahn, I., 1985. Zur Vertretung der Zoologie und zur Entwicklung ihrer institutionellen Grundlagen an
der Berliner Universität von ihrer Gründung bis 1920.— Wissensch. Zeitschr. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin,
Math.-Naturwissensch. Reihe 34(3/4): 260-280.
Jessop, L., 1999a. George Allan’s grey-headed duck: two centuries of confusion partly resolved.— Trans.
Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumbria 59(3): 83-92.
Jessop, L., 1999b. The fate of Marmaduke Tunstall’s collections.— Arch. Nat. Hist. 26: 33-49.
Jessop, L., 1999c. Bird specimens figured by Thomas Bewick surviving in the Hancock Museum, New-
castle upon Tyne.— Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumbria 59(3): 65-82.
Jessop, L. & R.H. Stobbart, 2002. Specimens of bird species now threatened, or made extinct in recent
times, in the collections of the Hancock Museum, Newcastle upon Tyne.— Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc.
Northumbria 62: 123-152.
Jessop, L. & R.P. Pryˆs-Jones, in prep. The Green-headed Bunting: rediscovery of an 18th century holo-
type.— Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl.
Joost, W., 2003. Über einige im Naturkundemuseum Leipzig vorhandene Vögel, die Carl Heinrich Mer-
ck (1761-1799) als Teilnehmer der Expedition von Joseph Billings (1758 oder 1761 - 1806) auf Kamt-
schatka sammelte.— Veröff. Naturkundemus. Leipzig 22: 60-65.
Kinzelbach, R., 2002. Areal und Ausbreitung der Beutelmeise Remiz pendulinus (L., 1758) vor dem 19.
Jahrhundert.— Ökol. Vögel 24(1): 65-95.
Kinzelbach, R., N. Schmitz & A. Bick, 1997. Geschichte und Bestand der Vogelsammlung der Universität
Rostock: 1-152.— Schwerin.
Kistemaker, R.E., 2003. Seba und Ruysch - die Anfänge der petrinischen Kunstkammer - Peters Besuche
in Holland: 54-66.— In B. Buberl & M. Dückershoff, (eds.). Palast des Wissens - Die Kunst- und
Wunderkammer Zar Peters des Großen. Bd. 2 (Beiträge): 1-325. München.
Kittlitz, F.H. von, 1858. Denkwürdigkeiten einer Reise nach dem Russischen Amerika, nach Mikronesien
und durch Kamtschatka. 2 vols: I-XVI, 1-383, 1-463, 1-4 pls.— Gotha.
Klausewitz, W., 2000. Goethe und die Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft. II: Goethe und
Rüppell.— Natur und Museum.— Ber. Senckenb.Naturf. Gesells. 130(1): 1-12.
Knox, A.G. & M.P. Walters, 1992. Under the skin: the bird collections of the Natural History Museum.—
Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., Cent. Suppl. 112A: 169-190.
Knox, A.G. & M.P. Walters, 1994. Extinct and Endangered Birds in the collections of The Natural History
Museum.— Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl., Occ. Publ. 1: 1-292.
Kolb, A., 1983. 180 Jahre Naturkunde-Museum Bamberg Linder’sche Stiftung.— Ber. Naturf. Gesells.
Bamberg LVII: 130-150.
Largen, M.J., 1987. Bird specimens purchased by Lord Stanley at the sale of the Leverian Museum in
1806, including those still extant in the collections of the Liverpool Museum.— Arch. Nat. Hist.
14(3): 265-288.
Latham, J., 1781-1785. A General Synopsis of Birds. Vols. 1-3: I-VI, 1-788, I-II, 1-808, I-III, 1-628, I-CVI
pls.— London.
Latham, J., 1785. A General Synopsis of Birds. Vol. 3 (1): 1-328.— London.
Leach, W.E., 1816. Systematic catalogue of the specimens of the indigenous mammalia and birds that are
preserved in The British Museum: with their localities and authorities - to which is added a list of
the described species that are wanting to complete the collection of British mammalia and birds:
1-43.— London.
Ledru, A.P., 1810. Voyage aux Îles de Ténériffe, la Trinité, Saint-Thomas, Sainte-Croix et Porto-Ricco:
execute par ordre du Gouvernement Français, depuis le 30 Septembre 1796 jusqu’au 7 Juin 1798
[etc.]: I-XLVIII, 1-315.— Paris.
Lichtenstein, A.A.H., 1793. Catalogus rerum naturalium rarissimarum sectio prima continens mammalia
& aves […]: 1-60.— Hamburg.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
63
Lichtenstein, M.H.C., 1818. Ehrendenkmal des Herrn J.C.W. Illiger.— Abh. Königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin
1814-1815: 48-64.
Linné, C. von, 1758. […] Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera,
species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis […]. Editio decima reformata [10th edi-
tion]. Vol. 1: 1-824.— Holmia [Stockholm].
Linné, C. von, 1766. […] Systema Naturae, per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera,
species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis […]. Editio duodecima reformata [12th edi-
tion]. Vol. 1 pt. 1: 1-532.— Holmia [Stockholm].
Lönnberg, E., 1896. Linnean type-specimens of birds, reptiles, batrachians and fishes in the Zoological
Museum of the R. University in Uppsala.— Bih. Kongl. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 22, Sect. 4(1):
1-45.
Lönnberg, E., 1926. The ornithological collection of the Natural History Museum in Stockholm.— Auk
43: 434-445.
Lysaght, A.M., 1959. Some eighteenth century bird paintings in the library of Sir Joseph Banks (1743-
1820).— Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Hist. Ser. 1(6): 251-371.
Mäuser, M., 1995a. Das neue Naturkunde-Museum Bamberg.— Ber. Naturf. Gesells. Bamberg 69/1994:
121-132.
Mäuser, M., 1995b. Zur Gründung des Bamberger Naturalienkabinetts durch Fürstbischof Franz Lud-
wig von Erthal: 235-243.— In: R. Baumgärtel-Fleischmann, (ed.). Franz Ludwig von Erthal, Fürst-
bischof von Bamberg und Würzburg 1779-1795: 1-384. Bamberg.
Marenk, G. & G. Prinzewa, 2003. Fredericus Ruysch: 82-85.— In: B. Buberl & M. Dückershoff, (eds.).
Palast des Wissens - Die Kunst- und Wunderkammer Zar Peters des Großen. Bd. 1 (Katalog): 1-285.
München.
McCormick, T., (ed.) 1987. First views of Australia 1788-1825: a history of early Sydney: 1-340.— Chip-
pendale.
Mearns, B. & R. Mearns, 1998. The Bird Collectors: 1-472.— San Diego.
Meisner, F. & H.R. Schinz, 1815. Die Vögel der Schweiz, systematisch geordnet und beschrieben mit
Bemerkungen über ihre Lebensart und Aufenthalt: 1-328.— Zürich.
Medway, D.G., 1976. Extant Types of New Zealand Birds from Cook’s Voyages: The Type Specimens.—
Notornis 23(2): 120-137.
Medway, D.G., 1979. Some ornithological results of Cook’s third voyage.— J. Soc. Bibl. Nat. Hist. 9(3):
315-351.
Merrem, B., 1784. Beyträge zur besondern Geschichte der Vögel gesammelt von Blasius Merrem. Erstes
Heft: I-VIII, 1-24, 1-6 pls.— Göttingen, Leipzig.
Mey, E., 1988. Daten zur Geschichte des Naturhistorischen Museums Rudolstadt/Thür.— Rudolst.
Naturh. Schr. 1: 3-19.
Meyer, B. & J. Wolf, 1810. Taschenbuch der Deutschen Vogelkunde, oder kurze Beschreibung aller Vögel
Deutschlands, & c. 1-614, I-XVII.— Frankfurt a. M.
Middelkoop, N., 2003. Johan van Neck (um 1635-1714) - Die Anatomievorlesung des Dr. Frederik Ruysch,
1683: 81-82.— In: B. Buberl & M. Dückershoff, (eds.). Palast des Wissens - Die Kunst- und Wunder-
kammer Zar Peters des Großen. Bd. 1 (Katalog): 1-285. München.
Morris, P., 1981. The Antiquity of the Duchess of Richmond’s Parrot.— Mus. J. 81: 153-154.
Müller-Bahlke, T.J., 1998. Die Wunderkammer - Die Kunst- und Naturalienkammer der Franckeschen
Stiftungen zu Halle (Saale): 1-127.— Halle/Saale.
Mullens, M.A., 1917-1918. Some Museums of old London - II. William Bullock’s London Museum.—
Mus. J.: 51-56, 132-137, 180-187.
Olson, S.L., 1986. An early account of some birds from Mauke, Cook Islands, and the origin of the
‘Mysterious Starling’ Aplonis mavornata Buller.— Notornis 33: 197-208.
Oort, E.D. van, 1911. On the Catalogue of the Collection of Birds brought together by A. Vroeg.— Notes
Leyden Mus. 34(1): 66-69.
Os, P. van, (ed.), 1764. Beredeneerde Catalogus Van eene, by uitstek fraaye en weergaalooze Verzameling,
zoo van Inlandsche als Uitheemsche Vogelen, Viervoetige en Gekorvene Dieren […] door A. Vroeg:
1-16, 1-49, 1-7.— Gravenhage.
64 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Pallas, S.P., 1769a. Spicilegia Zoologica quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus,
descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur […]. Fasc. V: 1-34, I-V pls.— Berlin.
Pallas, S.P., 1769b. Spicilegia Zoologica quibus novae imprimis et obscurae animalium species iconibus,
descriptionibus atque commentariis illustrantur […]. Fasc. VI: 1-36, I-V pls.— Berlin.
Parkinson, P., 1988. William Swainson’s ornithological collections.— Arch. Nat. Hist. 15(1): 77-88.
Pax, F., 1923a. Eine Sammlung schlesischer Vögel aus dem Ende des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts.— Ber.
Ver. Schlesischer Orn. 9(2): 1-3.
Pax, F., 1923b. Führer durch die Schausammlung des Zoologischen Museums in Breslau: 1-35.— Breslau
[Wroclaw].
Pax, F., 1925. Sammlungen schlesischer Wirbeltiere.— Ostdeutscher Naturwart 1925(1): 44-51.
Pelzeln, A. von, 1873. On the Birds in the Imperial Collection at Vienna obtained from the Leverian
Museum.— Ibis 3: 14-54, 105-124.
Pelzeln, A. von & L. von Lorenz, 1886. Typen der ornithologischen Sammlung des k. k. naturhistorischen
Hofmuseums. I. Theil.— Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 1: 249-270.
Pelzeln, A. von & L. von Lorenz, 1887a. Typen der ornithologischen Sammlung des k. k. naturhistorischen
Hofmuseums. II. Theil.— Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 191-216.
Pelzeln, A. von & L. von Lorenz, 1887b. Typen der ornithologischen Sammlung des k. k. naturhistorischen
Hofmuseums. III. Theil.— Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 2: 339-352.
Pelzeln, A. von & L. von Lorenz, 1888. Typen der ornithologischen Sammlung des k. k. naturhistorischen
Hofmuseums. IV. Theil (Schluss).— Ann. K. K. Naturhist. Hofmus. 3: 37-62.
Peters, D.S., 1960. Ausgestorbene und seltene Vögel in den Zoologischen Museen von Breslau und
Warschau.— Bonn. Zool. Beitr. 11(1): 26-32.
Peters, J.L., 1937. Check-list of Birds of the World. III: 1-311.— Cambridge, Mass.
Pfauch, W., 1990. J.M. Bechstein - Mitgestalter des mitteldeutschen Aufklärungszentrums Schnepfenthal
sowie Gründer der “Societät” 1795: 13-23.— In: Bezirksvorstand Suhl der Gesellschaft für Natur
und Umwelt im Kulturbund der DDR, (ed.). Zur Würdigung der wissenschaftlichen Leistungen
von Johann Matthäus Bechstein: 1-72. Suhl.
Pfauch, W. & W. Pfauch, 1984. Die Vogelsammlung im historischen Naturalienkabinett der Salzmann-
Schule.— Thür. Orn. Mitt. 32: 17-34.
Pfeiffer, A., 1887. Die Vogelsammlung in der Sternwarte zu Kremsmünster. Separatabdruck aus dem 37.
Programme des k.k. Ober-Gymnasiums zu Kremsmünster für das Schuljahr 1887: 1-47.— Linz.
Piechocki, R., 1982. Über die Geschichte der Präparation von Vögeln.— Falke 29(4): 114-122.
Popp, K.-G., (ed.), 1980. Cook der Entdecker: Georg Forster ‚Cook der Entdecker‘/Georg Christoph Lich-
tenberg‚ Einige Lebensumstände von Captain James Cook‘/Georg Forster‚ Fragmente über Kapitän
Cooks letzte Reise und sein Ende‘: 1-264.— Leipzig.
Prestwich, A.A., 1963. “I name this parrot...” - Brief biographies of men and women in whose honour
commemorative names have been given: 1-118, 1-43.— Edenbridge.
Riedl-Dorn, C., 1998. Das Haus der Wunder - Zur Geschichte des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien:
1-308.— Wien.
Roselaar, K., 2003. An inventory of major European bird collections: 253-337.— In: N.J. Collar, C.T. Fish-
er & C.J. Feare, (eds.). Why Museums Matter: Avian Archives in an Age of Extinction. Bull. Brit.
Orn. Cl., Suppl. 123A: 1-360.
Rounds, R.S., 1990. Men and Birds in South America 1492-1900: 1-190.— Fort Bragg.
Rovati, C. & P. Galeotti, (eds.), 1999. Il Museo di Lazzaro Spallanzani 1771-1799 - Una camera delle
meraviglie tra l’Arcadia e Linneo: 1-123.— Pavia.
Rüppell, E., 1837. Monographie der Gattung Otis, vorzüglich nach den im Senckenbergischen naturhis-
torischen Museum aufgestellten Individuen.— Mus. Senckenbergianum. Abh. Geb. Beschr. Naturg.
2(3): 207-248, XIII-XV pls.
Salvadori, T., 1891. Catalogue of the Psittaci, or Parrots, in the collection of the British Museum. British
Museum (Natural History): I-XVII, 1-658, I-XVIII pls.— London.
Salvadori, T., 1914. Notizie storiche interno alla collezione ornithologica del Museo Torino.— Mem. Accad.
Sci. Torino, ser. 2, 65(5): 1-50.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
65
Sarasin, F., 1940. Geschichte der Vogelsammlung des Basler Naturhistorischen Museums.— Verh.
Naturf. Gesells. Basel, Band II: 13-24.
Schifter, H., 1977. Zoologisches Kabinett/VII/4: 266-283.— In: Amt der OÖ Landesregierung Abteilung
Kultur & Benediktinerstift Kremsmünster, (eds.). 1200 Jahre Kremsmünster: 1-326. Linz.
Schifter, H., 1993. Johann Natterer und seine ornithologischen Entdeckungen in Brasilien, 1817-1835.—
Kat. OÖ. Landesmus., Neue Folge 61: 155-180.
Schifter, H., 1996. Vögel aus dem Tiergarten Schönbrunn im Naturhistorischen Museum Wien (III).—
Zool. Garten, Neue Folge 66: 13-52.
Schüz, E., 1967. 175 Jahre Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde in Stuttgart.— Jahresh. Ver. vaterl.
Naturk. Württemberg 122 (Anlage): 1-40.
Schulze-Hagen, K., F.D. Steinheimer, R. Kinzelbach & C. Gasser, 2003. Avian taxidermy in Europe from
the Middle Ages to the Renaissance.— J. Orn. 144 (4): 459-478.
Seiftert, A., 1935. Das Lincksche Naturalien- und Kunstkabinett in Leipzig (1670-1840) und seine teil-
weise Neuaufstellung im fürstlich Schönburgischen Naturalienkabinett in Waldenburg (Sachsen).—
Museumskunde Neue Folge 7(1): 1-15.
Sharpe, R.B., 1906. Birds: 79-515.— In: E.R. Lankester, (ed.). The History of the Collections contained in
the Natural History Departments of the British Museum. II (3): 1-515.— London.
Shaw, G., 1792. The Naturalist‘s miscellany, or coloured figures of natural objects; drawn and described
immediately from nature. Vol. 3.— London [cited in Peters, 1937].
Smit, P., A.P.M. Sanders & J.P.F. van der Veer, 1986. Hendrik Engel‘s Alphabetical List of Dutch Zoological
Cabinets and Menageries. Nieuwe Nederlandse Bijdragen tot de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde en
der Natuurwetenschappen 19: 1-340.— Amsterdam.
Stanbury, P. & J. Holland, (eds.), 1988. Mr. Macleay‘s celebrated cabinet: the history of the Macleays and
their museum: 1-171.— Sydney.
Steinbacher, J., 1967. Geschichte der ornithologischen Sektion.— Senckenbergiana biol. 48 Sonderh. B:
19-40.
Steinheimer, F.D., 2003a. A hummingbird nest from James Cook’s Endeavour voyage, 1768-1771.— Arch.
Nat. Hist. 30(1): 163-165.
Steinheimer, F.D., 2003b. The historical bird collection at Berlin Museum.— Bull. Brit. Orn. Cl. 123(3):
139.
Steinheimer, F.D., 2003c. Darwin, Rüppell, Landbeck & Co. - Important Historical Collections at the
Natural History Museum, Tring.— Bonner Zool. Beitr. 51(2-3): 175-188.
Steinheimer, F.D., 2003d. Bamberg’s Natural History Museum - Scientific Significance of Small Collec-
tions.— Bonner Zool. Beitr. 51(2-3): 141-146.
Steinheimer, F.D., 2003e. A second hornbill head from Sir Hans Sloane’s (1660-1753) Museum.— Bull.
Brit. Orn. Cl. 123(4): 287-288.
Steinheimer, F.D. & J.H. Cooper, 2003. Sir Hans Sloane’s Rhinoceros Hornbill skull: an avian remnant
from the founding period of the British Museum.— Arch. Nat. Hist. 30(1): 166-167.
Stephan, B., 1985. Die Geschichte der Ornithologie in Berlin.— Wissens. Zeitschr. Humboldt-Univ. Berlin,
Math.-Naturwissens. Reihe 34(3/4): 321-329.
Stephan, J.K., 1807a. Vom Königlichen Naturalien-Kabinete zu Bamberg.— Georgia - Zeit. Gebild. Welt
90: 714-718.
Stephan, J.K., 1807b. Vom Königlichen Naturalien-Kabinete zu Bamberg.— Georgia - Zeit. Gebild. Welt
93: 737-740.
Stephan, J.K., 1807c. Vom Königlichen Naturalien-Kabinete zu Bamberg.— Georgia - Zeit. Gebild. Welt
96: 761-764.
Stephan, J.K., 1807d. Vom Königlichen Naturalien-Kabinete zu Bamberg.— Georgia - Zeit. Gebild. Welt
100: 793-796.
Stephan, J.K., 1807e. Vom Königlichen Naturalien-Kabinete zu Bamberg.— Georgia - Zeit. Gebild. Welt
102: 809-812.
Stone, W., 1899. A study of the type specimens of birds in the collection of The Academy of Natural
Sciences of Philadelphia, with a brief history of the collection.— Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadelphia
[51]: 5-62.
66 Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
Stresemann, E., 1922. Die Entwicklung der Vogelsammlung des Berliner Museums unter Illiger und
Lichtenstein.— J. Orn. 70(4): 498-503.
Stresemann, E., 1923a. Die Anfänge ornithologischer Sammlungen.— J. Orn. 71(1): 112-126.
Stresemann, E., 1923b. Die Rothalsgans, Branta ruficollis (Pall.), bei Greifswald.— Orn. Monatsb. 31(1): 15.
Stresemann, E., 1925. Die ältesten Vogelbälge des Berliner Museums.— Orn. Monatsb. 33(1): 18.
Stresemann, E., 1948. Dr. C.H. Mercks ornithologische Aufzeichnungen während der Billingsschen Ex-
pedition von Ochotsk nach Alaska (1787-1791).— Zool. Jahrb. (Syst.) 78: 111-114.
Stresemann, E., 1949. Birds collected in the North Pacific area during Capt. James Cook’s last voyage
(1778 and 1779).— Ibis 91: 244-255.
Stresemann, E., 1950a. Birds collected during Capt. James Cook’s last Expedition (1776-1780).— Auk 67:
66-88.
Stresemann, E., 1950b. Die brasilianischen Vogelsammlungen des Grafen von Hoffmannsegg aus den
Jahren 1800-1812.— Bonner Zool. Beitr. 1: 43-51.
Stresemann, E., 1951. Die Entwicklung der Ornithologie von Aristoteles bis zur Gegenwart. F.: 1-431.—
Berlin.
Stresemann, E., 1952. On the birds collected by Pierre Poivre in Canton, Manila, India and Madagascar
(1751-1756).— Ibis 94: 499-523.
Stresemann, E., 1953a. Vögel gesammelt von Labillardière während der „Voyage à la Recherche de
Lapérouse“ (1791-1794).— Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 29: 75-106.
Stresemann, E., 1953b. Analyse von C.J. Temmincks „Catalogue Systématique“ (1807).— Zool. Med.
Leiden 31(29): 321-331.
Stresemann, E., 1958. Das Naturalienkabinett des Grafen Johann von Mattuschka und seine schlesischen
Raritäten.— Beitr.Vogelk. 5(5/6): 241-247.
Stresemann, E., 1975. Ornithology from Aristotle to the present; translated by Hans J. and Cathleen
Epstein, edited by G. William Cottrell, with a foreword and an epilogue on American ornithology
by Ernst Mayr: I-XII, 1-432.— Cambridge, Mass.
Sutorová, H., 1999. Budišov u Trˇebícˇe - Zoologický Depozitárˇ Moravského Zemského Muzea: 1-2.—
Brno.
Sutorová, H. & F. Hanák, 1997. Dermoplastické Preparáty v Zoologickém Depozitárˇi Moravského Zem-
ského Muzea v Budišoveˇ u Trˇebícˇe. I. Ptáci (Aves).— Suppl. Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sc. Nat. LXXXI
(1996): 1-62.
Sweet, J.M., 1970a. William Bullock’s collection and the University of Edinburgh, 1819.— Ann. Sc. 26(1):
23-32.
Sweet, J.M., 1970b. The collection of Louis Dufresne (1752-1832).— Ann. Sc. 26(1): 33-71.
Temminck, C.J., 1815. Histoire Naturelle Générale des Pigeons et des Gallinacés. 3: 1-757.— Amsterdam.
Thomsen, P. & E. Stresemann, 1957. Johann Friedrich Naumann - der Altmeister der deutschen Vogel-
kunde - Sein Leben und seine Werke: 1-212.— Leipzig.
Titschack, E., 1952. Kriegs- und Nachkriegsschäden der deutschen naturwissenschaftlichen Museen.—
Bund deutsch. Naturwissens. Mus., Abt. B deutsch. Museumsb., Flugbl. 41: 1-20.
Trunko, L., 1985. Vom fürstlichen Naturalienkabinett zum modernen Naturkundemuseum - Kurze
Chronik der Landessammlungen für Naturkunde: 7-34.— In: S. Rietschel, (ed.). Vom Naturalien-
kabinett zum Naturkundemuseum 1785-1985 - Geschichte der Landessammlungen für Naturkunde
Karlsruhe. 1-84.— Karlsruhe.
Violani, C., 1988. Un bestiario barocco - Quadri di piume del Seicento milanese: catalogo della mostra:
1-126.— Milano.
Wagstaffe, R., 1978. Type Specimens of Birds in the Merseyside County Museums (formerly City of
Liverpool Museums): 1-33.— Liverpool.
Wallin, L., 1996. Catalogue of type specimens - 2. General zoology: 1-67.— Uppsala.
Wallin, L., 1997. Catalogue of type specimens - 4. Linnaean specimens: 1-128.— Uppsala.
Wallin, L. & H. Wallin, 1994. Catalogue of type specimens - 1. C.P. Thunberg (1743-1828), Insecta: 1-78.—
Uppsala.
Walters, M., 2003. A Concise History of Ornithology - The lives and works of its founding figures: 1-
255.— London.
Steinheimer. The whereabouts of pre-nineteenth century bird specimens. Zool. Med. Leiden 79 (2005)
67
Walters, M., 2004. Birds depicted in a folio of eigteenth century watercolours by Sarah Stone.— Arch.
Nat. Hist. 31(1): 123-149.
Warren, R.L.M., 1966. Type-Specimens of Birds in the British Museum (Natural History) - Non-Pas-
serines. 1: 1-320.— London.
Warth, M. & B. Ziegler, 1991. Aus der Frühzeit des Naturalienkabinettes.— Stuttgarter Beitr. Naturk. 30,
Ser. C: 5-19.
White C.M.N. & M.D. Bruce, 1986. The Birds of Wallacea (Sulawesi, The Moluccas & Lesser Sunda Islands,
Indonesia): 1-524.— London.
White, J., 1790. Journal of a voyage to New South Wales with […] plates of non-descript animals, birds,
lizards, serpents, curious cones of trees and other natural productions: I-XV, 1-299, 1-35, 1-65 pls.—
London.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1969. Zoological Specimens from Captain Cook’s Voyages.— J. Soc. Bibl. Nat. Hist.
5(3): 161-201.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1970. Museums in the history of zoology. Part 1.— Mus. J. 70(2): 50-57.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1971. Museums in the history of zoology. Part 2.— Mus. J. 70(4): 155-160.
Whitehead, P.J.P., 1978. A guide to the Dispersal of zoological Material from Captain Cook’s voyages.—
Pacific Studies 2(1): 52-93.
Wilbur, S.R., 1978. The California Condor, 1966-76: A Look at its Past and Future. United States Depart-
ment of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, No. 72. 1-136.— Washington.
Wilson, A., 1810. American Ornithology: or the natural history of the Birds of the United States. 2.—
Philadelphia [not seen by author; see Wilson & Bonaparte, 1831].
Wilson, A., 1812. American Ornithology: or the natural history of the Birds of the United States. 4.—
Philadelphia [not seen by author; see Wilson & Bonaparte, 1831].
Wilson, A., 1813. American Ornithology: or the natural history of the Birds of the United States. 7.—
Philadelphia [not seen by author; see Wilson & Bonaparte, 1831].
Wilson, A., 1814. American Ornithology: or the natural history of the Birds of the United States. 9.—
Philadelphia [not seen by author; see Wilson & Bonaparte, 1831].
Wilson, A. & Ch.L. Bonaparte, 1831. American Ornithology, or, The natural history of the birds of the
United States. 4 vols.— Edinburgh.
Wilson, W.E., 1990. Hebenstreit’s Museum Richterianum 1743.— Mineral. Rec. 21(5): 399-403.
Zimdahl, W., 1980. Naumanns Leistung - Naumanns Vermächtnis.— Falke 27(2): 42-44.
Received: 18.vi.2004
Accepted: 30.vii.2004
Edited: C. v. Achterberg & R.W.R.J. Dekker
... Expeditions made before 1800 which brought home large numbers of specimens were not rare (Jansen 2016(Jansen , 2018, but from only a few do fair numbers of specimens survive. To date, only 1500-3000 specimens collected before 1800 are still known to exist (Steinheimer 2005). The purpose of this research is to present the reader with data gathered from the Baudin expedition and to discuss the publications by Wetherbee (1985Wetherbee ( , 1986. ...
... Measurements were taken according to Svensson (1992). According to Steinheimer (2005), a total of 1500-3000 bird specimens collected prior to 1800 survive today. Among these, the 140 surviving specimens from the Baudin's Caribbean voyage comprise the largest collection still surviving from a single voyage that occurred before 1800. ...
Article
Full-text available
The results of archival and collection research into the expedition led by Nicolas-Thomas Baudin in 1796–1798 to Tenerife, St. Thomas, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico are herein presented. The expedition brought home at least 296 specimens and was the first to collect in St. Thomas, St. Croix, and Puerto Rico. Of these, at least 140 specimens still survive, the largest single-voyage collection from pre-1800 still available. Accounts of these specimens and those known to have vanished are presented here for the first time, adding to our knowledge of early Caribbean ornithology. The arguments of David K. Wetherbee (1985, 1986) that thefts by the Baudin expedition took place during a foray into Hispaniola are all shown to be suspect. Molecular and morphological work identified a Barn Owl (Tyto alba ssp) supposedly collected in Puerto Rico, thus providing the first possible documentation of the Barn Owl in Puerto Rico, but its exact taxonomic status remains unresolved. Our data thus cannot exclude the genuine Puerto Rican origin for this specimen.
... Extant pre-19th century bird specimens in museums were recently estimated to number just 1500-3000, the vast majority of them in just six, well-curated European institutions (Steinheimer, 2005;Gouraud, 2014) highlighted the relative importance of a seventh, otherwise relatively minor collection (Baillon, La Châtre, France) for such material. Overall, the world's museums have been estimated to house c. 9,000,000 bird specimens (Goodman & Lanyon, 1994), indicating just how few (scarcely 0.03%) from the 'Linnean and pre-Linnean eras' survive. ...
Article
Romilio (2021) used a taxonomic scoring system to compare differences between three species of geese (Anseriformes) depicted in the Chapel of Itet, one of which he speculated might represent an undescribed (presumably now extinct) species. Despite some apparently distinctive features, the depiction has traditionally been associated with the well-known modern species, red-breasted goose (Branta ruficollis). We discuss limitations in applying the Tobias et al. (2010) scoring system to cases such as this, for which it was not designed, and we outline the many pitfalls that must be considered when attempting to identify historical artwork of birds using examples discussed recently in the ornithological literature. We conclude that the illustrations proposed by Romilio to represent a new Branta goose species are within the range of known plumage variation and potential artistic licence for red-breasted goose, and that this very probably is the species upon which the artwork was based. More generally, we caution against applying the Tobias criteria to cases where a series of specimens cannot be measured, and highlight the difficulties of using illustrations to inform taxonomy.
... These early evidences recommend the preventive and curative measures with a wide range of chemicals (Martin 1886;Naumann 1848;Brown 1870). As Steinheimer (2005) describes, the invention of the arsenic soap by Jean-Baptiste Bécoeur (1718-1777) and publication by Louis Dufresne in 1803 was the major milestone in the development of bird collections. Since 1830, arsenic, in particular arsenic soap, has become a standard preservation agent, although Leonardo da Vinci has known the preservative effect of arsenic since 1500 and the use of arsenic for preparation of avian taxidermy had been employed in Germany 70 years before it was published by Dufresne (Schulze-Hagen et al. 2003). ...
Article
Chemical compounds such as arsenic, mercury and organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used as preventive and curative conservation treatments for cultural and biological collections to protect them from pest and mold infestations. Most of the aforementioned compounds have been classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic and represent a health risk for members of staff exposed to contaminated objects. The present study addresses the internal exposure of 28 museum employees in Museum für Naturkunde Berlin by measuring arsenic species and mercury in urine as well as hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (4,4′-DDT) and its main metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (4,4′-DDE), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in blood serum. This study was carried out in order to assess the internal exposure of Natural History Museum staff members to toxic metals and organochlorine pesticides. During a working week, two blood samples and five urine samples were taken from each participant, involving 8 women and 20 men. Information about work activity and exposure related factors such as dust development through work, use of personal protective equipment, as well as a nutrition diary were obtained through a questionnaire. Information on fish and seafood intakes as well as amalgam fillings was also available. The results of the study showed that the museum staff members had quantified concentrations of arsenic (median of 6.4 μg/l; maximum of 339 μg/l), mercury (median of 0.20 μg/l; max of 2.6 μg/l), β-HCH (median of 0.12 μg/l; max of 0.39 μg/l) and 4,4′-DDT (median of 0.050 μg/l; max of 0.82 μg/l). Despite that all the concentrations were below the established reference values, multivariate regression models were able to show that museum staff members are currently exposed to the aforementioned compounds while handling museum objects. To validate our findings, further studies are required.
... Many bird specimens from the 1700s and early 1800s are still extant in collections (Steinheimer 2005;Jansen & Steinheimer 2017). Examples include two kingfishers from the Society Islands, French Polynesia, in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria (NMW), and National Museums Liverpool, UK (LIVCM), respectively. ...
Article
Full-text available
We re-examined the putative type specimen of Society Kingfisher Todiramphus veneratus (J. F. Gmelin, 1788) in the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (NMW 50.633) and conclude based on plumage that it represents the taxon from Moorea, T. veneratus youngi Sharpe, 1892, rather than nominate T. veneratus veneratus from Tahiti. X-rays reveal that it was prepared using techniques common in the late 18th century, and that its preparation style matches that of other specimens collected during Cook’s three voyages. NMW 50.633 has been assumed to be the one, or one of a number of, specimen(s) used by Latham to describe and illustrate his ‘Venerated Kingfisher’ (present-day Society Kingfisher), which was the basis of the later valid introduction of the name Alcedo venerata by J. F. Gmelin. However, whereas the description and an unpublished illustration in Latham’s archives agree closely with veneratus from Tahiti, NMW 50.633 appears to represent Moorea youngi. While this finding does not compromise the definition of Society Kingfisher veneratus, it leaves it without a safely identified type specimen. We also examined a Moorea specimen in the National Museums Liverpool (LIVCM D2366) that is almost as old as NMW 50.633, but which X-rays suggest had a different origin than NMW 50.633.
... Although there are many remarkable examples of unlocking forgotten or hidden data and associations between historical specimens or orphaned collections (e.g. STEINHEIMER, 2015;JONES et al., 2019), such research primarily deals with historical aspects of the whereabouts of specimens while biologically relevant data usually cannot be retrieved any more if not documented in the first place. Typically, the use of historical specimens for contemporary research is constrained by recurring data limitations: beyond very basic collection data (e.g. ...
... These early evidences recommend the preventive and curative measures with a wide range of chemicals (Martin 1886;Naumann 1848;Brown 1870). As Steinheimer (2005) describes, the invention of the arsenic soap by Jean-Baptiste Bécoeur (1718-1777) and publication by Louis Dufresne in 1803 was the major milestone in the development of bird collections. Since 1830, arsenic, in particular arsenic soap, has become a standard preservation agent, although Leonardo da Vinci has known the preservative effect of arsenic since 1500 and the use of arsenic for preparation of avian taxidermy had been employed in Germany 70 years before it was published by Dufresne (Schulze-Hagen et al. 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
Chemical compounds such as arsenic, mercury and organochlorine pesticides have been extensively used as preventive and curative conservation treatments for cultural and biological collections to protect them from pest and mould infestations. Most of the aforementioned compounds have been classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic and represent a health risk for staff exposed to contaminated objects. A total of 30 compounds were analysed in settled dust, particulate matter and surrounding air collected at several locations in the natural history collections and adjacent rooms of the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (MfN, Natural History Museum, Berlin, Germany). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques were used to quantify dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4′-DDT; 4,4′-DDT) and their metabolites (2,4′-DDE; 4,4′-DDE; 2,4′-DDD; 4,4′-DDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 3 isomers of hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH), the degradation product of γ-HCH with similar toxicological profile, gamma-pentachlorocyclohexene (γ-PCH) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to analyse arsenic and mercury. In order to assess the pathways of contamination with biocides in dust, formations of particulate matter during individual daily work activities, particle number concentrations (PNCs) were measured. Heavy element concentrations found at the MfN were higher than the organochlorine compounds. The maximum concentration of arsenic and mercury in dust was 3507 mg/kg and 32 mg/kg, respectively, and in air, 48 ng/m3 and 1.6 ng/m3, respectively. The maximum concentration of the sum of DDTs in dust was 2 mg/kg (not detected in air); for PCP, the maximum levels in dust and air were 0.65 mg/kg and 10 ng/m3, respectively; for γ-HCH, 130 mg/kg and 320 ng/m3, respectively; and finally, for γ-PCH, 2.1 mg/kg and 230 ng/m3, respectively. Twelve PNC measurements were obtained from seven different collection rooms and the diaries of the participants’ activities. PNCs were highly variable between work activities. Higher personal PNCs were associated with activities like opening storage boxes with prepared animals, reading old books or handling objects. This study has shown that taxidermic objects in museum collection may be a cause for arsenic exposure during handling of objects.
... The reputation and the lasting importance of Charles and Emile Parzudaki, is confirmed by the fact that they traded in species new to science, in species that were new to museums (see Sharpe 1906: 438), in specimens dating back to the eighteenth century (Steinheimer 2005), and species that are nowadays extinct or known from very few specimens. The great auk (Pinguinus impennis) currently housed in the American Museum of Natural History of New York can be traced back to Charles-Lucien Bonaparte (1803-1857) who sold it to "Parzudaki" (Fuller 1999: 232-233). ...
Article
Full-text available
Although Charles and Emile Parzudaki were important natural history dealers during the nineteenth century, little is known about them, their collections or their archives. We present here the first biographical account of Charles and his stepson Emile Parzudaki. The status of both Charles and Emile Parzudaki as travellers and collectors is discussed and analysed.
... By 1809 (Jansen 2015) only 102 specimens survived the fumigations (Stresemann 1952, Jouanin 1962. Steinheimer (2005) has '?' against the presence of surviving R eaumur and Brisson specimens in Paris, and Jansen (2015) could locate no specimens from either. It is most unlikely that Dufresne would have been able to sequester such a type if it had been in the Paris museum. ...
... Zool.). Arsenic soap was invented in the mid-eighteenth century and made popular in 1803 by Louis Dufresne, curator and taxidermist at the Paris Museum (Farber 1977;Steinheimer 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Dodo Raphus cucullatus, a giant flightless pigeon endemic to Mauritius, became extinct in the late seventeenth century, and so rapid was the birds’ disappearance, that by the beginning of the nineteenth century even its very existence was questioned. Only four specimens were then recorded in European museums, of which the most famous was the Tradescant or Oxford Dodo, now in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. It comprised the head and one foot, and unique soft tissue in the form of skin and traces of feathers. The history of this specimen is reviewed, including the still unresolved question of how it came to Britain, and we provide evidence to show that it was stuffed but probably never mounted. The changes of ownership, and its cataloguing and curation in the different museums are also described, along with its varying roles in entertainment, education and research from the earliest years until the nineteenth century. This is part one of a two-part article; the second deals with the Tradescant Dodo from its dissection in the 1840s until the present day.
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
In the present paper, we highlight the Entomological collection evolution of the Natural History Museum from Sibiu since its establishment till nowadays. On the 4th May 1849 the Transylvanian Society for Natural Sciences (Siebenbürgischer Verein für Naturwissenschaften zu Hermannstadt) was established following the approval by the Government of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Vienna. The Society had been founded following the desire of naturalists, who belonged to the Society for Research of Transylvania (Verein für Siebenbürgische Leandeskunde) and aimed to establish a narrower nature society (Pop, 1970). In the society status, the naturalists aimed at presenting and discussing the natural sciences aspects in meetings, building a natural science collection in Sibiu, acquisitioning of journals and books and setting up a library and publishing their results in the society journal (Dragulescu, 1998). The Society has successfully fulfilled its goals and manages to build valuable collections, including the Entomological one. The members' research fields were diverse, but in terms of insect collections they had mainly two well defined directions: beetles and butterflies. This was mainly because they were considered "the richest groups of insects, more diverse and more appealing to the eye, which exerted a stronger pull, polarizing around them a great number of naturalists, both professionals and amateurs" (Ienistea 1970). But they were also focused on other groups of insects and managed over time to successfully achieve their goals and contribute to research and build a natural science collection. After the nationalization, the work of the Society was continued by numerous researchers who have enriched the collection every year with numerous species from many insect groups. The Entomological collection is now one of the largest collections of the Natural History Museum of Sibiu, numbering 265.777specimens distributed in 14 collections and has a special value, both historically and scientifically-documentary. This is due to the large number of species and specimens collected form Transylvania and other Romanian regions, and it consists of many types (mostly beetles), but also rare and endemic species types. Moreover a significant number of exotic species (butterflies and beetles) are present in the collections. The origin of this material is due to collections made by members of the Society and through exchanges with other researchers of the world.