Article

Making Cycling Irresistible: Lessons from The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany

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Abstract

This article shows how the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany have made bicycling a safe, convenient and practical way to get around their cities. The analysis relies on national aggregate data as well as case studies of large and small cities in each country. The key to achieving high levels of cycling appears to be the provision of separate cycling facilities along heavily travelled roads and at intersections, combined with traffic calming of most residential neighbourhoods. Extensive cycling rights of way in the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany are complemented by ample bike parking, full integration with public transport, comprehensive traffic education and training of both cyclists and motor-ists, and a wide range of promotional events intended to generate enthusiasm and wide public support for cycling. In addition to their many pro-bike policies and programmes, the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany make driving expensive as well as inconvenient in central cities through a host of taxes and restrictions on car ownership, use and parking. Moreover, strict land-use policies foster compact, mixed-use developments that generate shorter and thus more bikeable trips. It is the coordinated implementation of this multi-faceted, mutually reinforcing set of policies that best explains the success of these three countries in promoting cycling. For comparison, the article portrays the marginal status of cycling in the UK and the USA, where only about 1% of trips are by bike.

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... The provision of secure, comfortable, and covered bicycle parking is essential to cyclists (Pucher and Buehler 2008b), and it is often associated with more bicycle commuting (Buehler 2012). In addition to serving cyclists, the provision of bicycle parking facilities minimises community complaints prompted by randomly scattered bicycles (Pucher and Buehler 2008b). ...
... The provision of secure, comfortable, and covered bicycle parking is essential to cyclists (Pucher and Buehler 2008b), and it is often associated with more bicycle commuting (Buehler 2012). In addition to serving cyclists, the provision of bicycle parking facilities minimises community complaints prompted by randomly scattered bicycles (Pucher and Buehler 2008b). Well-designed, simple-to-use, and easy-to-find bicycle parking facilities should be provided not only in apartment buildings and dormitories but also near transit centres, workplaces, and shopping malls. ...
... Finally, the orgware involves: defining the roles of different levels of governments; adopting pro-cycling legislation and regulation; and encouraging broad public participation. The ultimate goal is to make cycling "irresistible" while making cars less convenient (Pucher and Buehler 2008b). ...
... The second-generation of BSS developed on the short-comings of the firstgeneration, aiming to mitigate the issues of theft and vandalism through a coindeposit system, where bikes were kept locked until a refundable fee was paid (De-Maio and Gifford 2004;Shaheen et al. 2010;Pucher and Buehler 2008). The first of these systems were implemented in Copenhagen, Denmark, in 1995 and were called the 'Bycyken' or 'City Bike', with 1,100 bicycles and designated city parking racks (Shaheen et al. 2010). ...
... This enables secure payments and user validation, facilitating more responsible use (Fishman et al. 2013;Trépanier et al. 2004). These ICT developments and increased interest in greener modes of transport in urban areas have seen the implementation of these schemes in many cities around the world (Pucher and Buehler 2008;Bachand-Marleau et al. 2012;Pucher and Buehler 2012 These systems allow users to pick-up and drop-off bicycles without the necessity to park them in designated docking stations and can be tracked through embedded global positioning system (GPS) receivers in each bicycle, enabling them to be much more flexible in trips compared to third-generation BSS ). This has coincided with a rise in implementation of electric pedal-assistance within these bicycles, which has provided further motivation for new users to uptake this modernised mode of micromobility as it reduces the amount of user physical exertion. ...
... This enables secure payments and user validation, facilitating more responsible use (Fishman et al. 2013;Trépanier et al. 2004). These ICT developments and increased interest in greener modes of transport in urban areas have seen the implementation of these schemes in many cities around the world (Pucher and Buehler 2008;Bachand-Marleau et al. 2012;Pucher and Buehler 2012 These systems allow users to pick-up and drop-off bicycles without the necessity to park them in designated docking stations and can be tracked through embedded global positioning system (GPS) receivers in each bicycle, enabling them to be much more flexible in trips compared to third-generation BSS ). This has coincided with a rise in implementation of electric pedal-assistance within these bicycles, which has provided further motivation for new users to uptake this modernised mode of micromobility as it reduces the amount of user physical exertion. ...
Thesis
In cities all around the world, new forms of urban micromobility have observed rapid and wide-scale adoption due to their benefits as a shared mode that are environmentally friendly, convenient and accessible. Bicycle sharing systems are the most established among these modes, facilitating complete end-to-end journeys as well as forming a solution for the first/last mile issue that public transportation users face in getting to and from transit stations. They mark the beginnings of a gradual transition towards a more sustainable transportation model that include greater use of shared and active modes. As such, understanding the way in which these systems are used is essential in order to improve their management and efficiency. Given the lack of operator published data, this thesis aims to explore the utility of open bicycle sharing system data standards that are intended for real-time dissemination of bicycle locations in uncovering novel insights into their activity dynamics over varying temporal and geographical scales. The thesis starts by exploring bicycle sharing systems at a global-scale, uncovering their long-term growth and evolution through the development of data cleaning and metric creation heuristics that also form the foundations of the most comprehensive classification of systems. Having established the values of these metrics in conducting comparisons at scale, the thesis then analyses the medium-term impacts of mobility interventions in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, employing spatio-temporal and network analysis methods that highlight their adaptability and resilience. Finally, the thesis closes with the analysis of granular spatial and temporal dynamics within a dockless system in London that enable the identification of the variations in journey locations throughout different times of the day. In each of these cases, the research highlights the indispensable value of open data and the important role that bicycle sharing systems play in urban mobility.
... Since bikeability is a complex phenomenon, bikeability indexes can encounter issues when trying to incorporate the necessary number of built environment attributes. Previous literature has identified a significant number of built environment and contextual attributes that can be linked to cycling behaviour and they include bikeway density, bikeway width, bikeway exclusiveness, slopes or nearby green and blue areas, among others (Krenn et al., 2015b;Lin and Wei, 2018;Naess, 2012;Nielsen and Skov-Petersen, 2018;Pucher and Buehler, 2008;Winters et al., 2013). Additionally, biking has been found to be a means of transport that is susceptible to dynamic environmental factors, such as weather conditions or time of day (Hyland et al., 2018;Parkin et al., 2008;Wang et al., 2018;Winters et al., 2007). ...
... Pucher et al. (2010) found that cyclists prefer having dedicated bike lanes to riding in mixed traffic, to which McNeil (2011) added that is especially true if they are segregated from other road users. Traffic calming measures around the trip origin, such as road markings or signage, are also associated with higher rates of cycling (Pucher and Buehler, 2008;Winters et al., 2010a). However, a single bike lane will not increase bikeability in an area per se, as it must be part of a wider, more complete and more varied network of bicycling infrastructure (Dill, 2009;Muhs and Clifton, 2016;Pucher et al., 2010). ...
... In that context, women have been found to be less prone to cycling than men (Handy and Xing, 2011;Ma and Dill, 2017;Miralles-Guasch et al., 2022;Mitra and Nash, 2019;Parkin et al., 2008;Van Dyck et al., 2013;Winters et al., 2007). Older people are also more reluctant to cycling than their younger counterparts (Ma and Dill, 2017;Pucher and Buehler, 2008;Winters et al., 2007). Regarding social status, some studies consider that low-income people have a more negative perception of bikeability and lower cycling rates than wealthier individuals (Ma and Dill, 2017;Parkin et al., 2008), while others have found that cycling rates are negatively associated with income (Van Dyck et al., 2013;Winters et al., 2007). ...
Article
Background Many cities are putting cycling at the centre of their sustainable transportation policies after the COVID pandemic. Cycling is seen as a desirable mode of transport in dense and compact areas and needs to be promoted accordingly. However, to date, only a handful of different bikeability indexes exist attempting to map biking conditions and the built environment’s potential to promote biking as a modal choice on a city scale. Methods In this article, we use objective GIS data to map bikeability potential in the city of Barcelona. To do so we extracted the main bikeability components from an adhoc cycling survey and then create an index using ten spatial indicators. This bikeability index is mapped at a 100 × 100 m scale in the city of Barcelona. We then use actual travel behavior data extracted from a local representative travel survey to test the reliability of the index in predicting daily bike use. Results Results confirm the validity of the bikeability index as a predictor of the frequency of cycling. People living in areas with higher levels of built environment features associated with bikeability such as dedicated infrastructure, low accident rates and small slopes are more likely to use the bike more often. Conclusions Results validate our approach providing new methods to be used in further biking studies and a useful tool for policy and decision making. The use of our new bikeaiblity index is especially indicated for highly-dense, compact, Mediterranean-style cities.
... Les comparaisons internationales montrent que dans les pays ou la pratique du vélo est faible, comme les pays anglo-saxons, la pratique féminine est significativement plus faible, tandis que, dans les pays où la pratique est forte comme les Pays-Bas, l'Allemagne ou le Japon, elle est plus équilibrée entre les genres (Bonham, Wilson 2012 ;Garrard et al. 2012). Ainsi, les femmes ne réalisent que 21% des trajets à vélo en Australie, 25% aux États-Unis et 29% au Royaume-Uni, tandis que cette part monte à 45% au Danemark, 55% aux Pays-Bas ou 49% en Allemagne (Pucher, Buehler 2008). ...
... La part modale du vélo, qui était déjà de 22% en 2016, est passée à 35% en 2019, tandis que celle de la voiture a chuté dans le même temps, de 55 à 27% 1 . (Pucher, Buehler 2008) Bien que la France soit généralement plus timide sur cette question, il n'y a peut-être pas que du hasard dans le fait que les villes qui ont le mieux réussi à développer le vélo sont souvent celles qui ont su restreindre l'usage de la voiture. Le système de vélos en libreservice de La Rochelle mis en place en 1976, qui a contribué à en faire la ville cyclable qu'on connait, était conçu à l'origine comme une compensation de la piétonisation du secteur de la rue du Temple et de la modification du plan de circulation (Huré, Passalacqua 2015). ...
... Pour conclure ces deux sections, nous pensons avoir montré que le développement du vélo tient à de nombreux facteurs : (Pucher, Buehler 2008) Soulignons d'ailleurs que, à côté des politiques visibles (planification, circulation, infrastructures), nombre de politiques moins visibles ont une réelle influence sur l'usage du vélo, comme la politique foncière et de logement ou la fiscalité sur les carburants. De nombreux champs de l'action publique sont donc à considérer pour développer le vélo avec une vision systémique. ...
Thesis
Cette thèse interroge les liens entre fabrique des politiques cyclables et instruments de connaissance et d’évaluation, en se basant principalement sur l’étude du cas de l’agglomération toulousaine. En effet, alors que le vélo fait un retour en France et dans les pays occidentaux à la faveur du nouveau paradigme de la mobilité durable, les outils manquent pour observer sa pratique et évaluer les politiques. Grâce à une analyse socio-historique, ce travail montre comment les outils actuels de connaissance des mobilités ont été forgés par une longue domination des modes motorisés, qu’ils contribuent à leur tour à favoriser par des effets de cadrage, de catégorisation et d’inertie. Puis, en s’appuyant sur une immersion au sein du système toulousain et national d’acteurs du vélo ainsi que sur un corpus d’entretien, il interroge l’impact du retour du vélo sur cette relation. Celui-ci engendre en effet de nouveaux outils de connaissance (compteurs automatiques, traces GPS…), principalement dans un objectif de valorisation des politiques cyclables. Ces dispositifs ne sont pas sans reproduire les écueils du retour du vélo en termes de diffusion géographique, d’inclusivité et d’organisation institutionnelle. Prêter attention à ces problématiques est donc l’une des clés permettant d’ancrer le vélo comme solution de mobilité durable.
... During the pandemic, several cities have designed street and public spaces for cyclists through the implementation of pro-bike interventions like pop-up bicycle lanes (Kraus & Koch, 2021;Shirgaokar et al., 2021), traffic calming measures and the dissemination and improvement of bicycle sharing systems (BSS) (Nikitas et al., 2021). In addition, since the bicycle is a flexible, low-carbon, affordable and healthy mode of transport (Pucher & Buehler, 2008), it has the potential to increase access to opportunities for disadvantaged and minority groups (Cunha & Silva, 2022). ...
... In cycling maturated countries, such as the Netherland, Germany and Denmark, the bicycle appears as an equitable transport mode since cycling trips for different daily purposes are distributed evenly across distinct income, age, and gender groups (Pucher & Buehler, 2008). However, in starter cycling cities in the global north and south, there is evidence that the distribution of bicycle-related benefits tends to favour wealthy and advantaged representatives (Cunha & Silva, 2022), disregarding the needs and constraints of disadvantaged and vulnerable groups. ...
... In contrast, female users considered GIRA to be safer to use than a personal bike, especially before COVID-19. Thus, our findings suggest that bike sharing can have an important role to play in reducing the gender gap between male and female cyclists registered in cities with low cycling shares (Pucher & Buehler, 2008), as BSS may potentially attract women to take up cycling who otherwise would not cycle. Indeed, comparing the share of female cyclists in bike counts conducted by Lisbon Municipality (Moura et al., 2020) both with our survey and with GIRA's user database (Moura & Félix, 2019), the share of female BSS users is significantly higher (39.5 % and 37 % versus 23 %). ...
Article
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Women are among the groups most affected by the pandemic as they are more likely to be dependent on public transport (PT), which was heavily restricted during COVID-19. Thus, there is a need to consider transport alternatives such as bike sharing that can ensure their mobility needs. By conducting a survey to the bike sharing system (BSS) of Lisbon, we explored differences in travel behaviour and attitudes between female and male users before and during COVID-19. We found men to have higher bike ownership rates, a higher modal share of personal bicycle regarding commuting, and more likely to use their own bikes if BSS was unavailable. Conversely, women more frequently combined BSS with PT and were more likely to use PT if BSS was unavailable. Moreover, while men were using BSS more frequently than women pre-pandemic, during COVID-19 women are using BSS as frequently as men. Our research provides evidence on the potential role of BSS as a transport alternative during pandemics, inducing women to take up cycling who otherwise would not cycle, therefore, potentially decreasing the current cycling gender gap. Findings suggest that introducing family/friend discounts and promoting BSS for exercising may be increase the share of female cyclists.
... A handful of papers have been particularly influential in determining the relevant variables in the consumer's choice to cycle. By showing that 27% of commuter trips in the Netherlands are done by bike, compared to just 2% in Canada and 1% in the USA, Pucher and Buehler (2008) reveal that there is room for substantial improvement in terms of bicycle use in North America. Pucher and Buehler emphasize the need for "carrot and stick" policies that both incentivize cycling and reduce the benefits of driving. ...
... Pucher and Buehler emphasize the need for "carrot and stick" policies that both incentivize cycling and reduce the benefits of driving. Such measures or policies target factors such as: access to bikes, trip planning, public awareness (particularly health and community programs including competitions), public participation in planning, automobile speed limitations, road and parking capacity limitations, taxation of automobiles (including purchase, ownership, petrol sales, parking rates), and strict land-use planning policies (Pucher & Buehler, 2008). ...
... Past research also shows the clear benefits of cycling infrastructure towards both safety and participation rates. The most important factor in bicycle use, according to Pucher and Buehler (2008), is perceived safety; citing a lack of bike lanes and multi-use paths as making large urban centers in the USA "extremely hostile to cycling" (Pucher & Buehler, 2008, p. 524). Research conducted by Ricci (2015) and Dung Tram et. ...
Article
This paper analyses the substitution effects between commuter bicycling and the price of gasoline. A multiple regression analysis is conducted to determine the elasticity of demand for bicycles from gasoline as well as other relevant variables, availability of bike sharing, population density, bike paths, median income, days below zero degrees Celsius, precipitation, and the CPI for recreational vehicles (including bicycles) and public transportation. The analysis is conducted using both pooled average and random effects regression models. The modelling showed that there is indeed a substitution effect on the demand for commuter cycling due to the price of gasoline. The study also shows asymmetrical results for male and female cyclists, showing that male and female cycling habits are influenced by different variables. This analysis suggests that policy makers can influence rates of cycling by manipulating the cost of its alternatives as well as the opportunity costs of cycling itself.
... Additionally, designated as "soft" modes of transportation, they can include different forms of mobility, including walking, cycling, or using other non-motorized devices such as scooters or skates (eventually with different denominations but not using non-renewable forms of energy and not contributing to CO 2 emissions, along with the absence of noise). With increasing applications and developments in many contemporary cities, these forms of transportation are also increasingly adopted in tourism mobility [1,24]. ...
... Although several previous studies looked into the preference for soft modes of transportation in urban tourism destinations, the focus was mostly on the characteristics of the cities and related infrastructures and services, both for bicycles [24,28] and for pedestrians [32][33][34][35], rather than the characteristics, motivations, or sources of information of the travelers. Our analysis offers an innovative contribution to the literature by revealing the significant impacts of these aspects in the city of Barcelona. ...
Article
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Non-motorized forms of transportation are increasingly perceived as an option that can contribute to reducing the ecological impact of the transportation of tourists while offering satisfactory opportunities to appreciate the urban environment. Walking, bicycles, and other forms of non-motorized transport are increasingly used in urban contexts, both by residents and tourists. By looking into the characteristics and trip motivations of international tourists visiting the city of Barcelona, our analysis identifies the groups of tourists more oriented to these soft forms of mobility and also takes into consideration how they obtained previous information about the destination. Based on an extensive survey conducted in the city, the results of our multinomial logistic regressions reveal a slight generational divide when looking at sources of information (with retired tourists less oriented to digital tools) and a strong generational divide when observing transport choices (younger tourists more oriented to both soft or collective forms of mobility). Our results also show that tourists traveling in groups and/or with trips organized by travel companies and other organizations tend to prefer the utilization of private cars. These results can be used to promote the non-motorized mobility of tourists in other urban destinations.
... Personal characteristics include age, gender, and experience [10]. Pucher and Buehler (2008) promoted cycling for the future by urging that cycling be made safe, convenient, and feasible for people of all ages and genders, while building a case for American municipalities to learn from European countries and embrace cycling [11]. The naturalistic investigation of cyclists discovered that the rider's age group directly impacts the safe use of the infrastructure. ...
... Personal characteristics include age, gender, and experience [10]. Pucher and Buehler (2008) promoted cycling for the future by urging that cycling be made safe, convenient, and feasible for people of all ages and genders, while building a case for American municipalities to learn from European countries and embrace cycling [11]. The naturalistic investigation of cyclists discovered that the rider's age group directly impacts the safe use of the infrastructure. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper develops an intelligent real-time learning framework for the last-mile delivery of mobility as a service in city planning, based upon safe infrastructure use. Through a hybrid approach integrating statistics and supervised machine learning techniques, knowledge-driven solutions based on the specific user rather than generalized safe mobility practices are suggested. One of the most important aspects influencing transport mode and route selection, and safe infrastructure usage, i.e., the age of the user, is simulated. This is because this variable has been described in the literature as a significant variable. Nonetheless, few works deal with such modelling or the learning system. The learning system was applied in the Northumbria region of England’s northeast as a case study. It comprised four building toolkits: (a) Input toolkit, (b) Safety Predictive toolkit, (c) Variable causation toolkit, and (d) Route choice toolkit. An accurate dynamic road safety model and understanding of the critical parameters influencing bicycle rider safety is created. The developed deep learning model’s average distinguishing power to reliably predict the riskiest age group was 95%, with a standard deviation of 0.02, suggesting a good prediction accuracy across all age groups. According to the study’s findings, different infrastructural networks represent varying risks to bicycle riders of different ages. The rider’s age impacts how other road users engage with them. The regional diversity in trip intent and traffic flow conditions were significant elements influencing the safe use of infrastructure for a specific age group. The study’s findings have the potential to considerably influence infrastructure route selection, modelling, and planning. The constructed model, which integrates the rider’s fragility, sensitivity to externalities, and the varied safety impact dependent on its features, may even be used for the infrastructure still in the planning/design phase. It is envisaged that this research would aid in adopting sustainable (green) transportation options and the last-mile delivery of mobility as a service. Future work should aim to uncover the sensitivities of a rider from different countries and make a baseline comparison scenario.
... This assessment is justified by the indirect relationship of land use restriction initiatives with sustainable transport, for they are actions implemented as a way to discourage the use of private vehicles and the flow of freight vehicles in urban centers. Hence, methods for discouraging the use of private vehicles can be implemented, such as: restricting parking spaces and increasing driving costs through increasing the prices of fuel, car registration fees, and driving licenses, for example [57]. ...
Article
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The objective of this paper is to understand the interactions and functioning of the transportation of people and goods in the urban environment, and to propose an evaluation model in terms of sustainability and integrated transportation. Firstly, an in-depth literature review allowed us to understand the interactions and functioning of transport of people and goods in the urban environment, verifying the main initiatives to promote sustainability. The model was developed through a multi-criteria decision analysis methodology consisting of the application of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in a system specially developed for remote evaluation of the hierarchical model. The index was then applied to São Paulo, where two distinct periods were considered, and the results provided an assessment of the evolution of the city regarding the sustainability and integration of the passenger and freight systems. The conclusions indicate improve in the sustainability of the urban transport and logistics in the city, highlighting the importance of incentives to the use of active modes of transport and the communication channel with population.
... As a result, cycling is perhaps the most environmentally friendly mode of urban and rural transportation. It is very feasible for short trips and medium-distance trips (John Pucher, 2008). ...
... Nevertheless, most of this research focuses on linear cycling infrastructure rather than cycle parking, so planning practitioners' guidance is also limited (Heinen and Buehler, 2019). What research does exist on cycle parking usually focuses on a few key destinations such as schools (Kamargianni, 2015), workplaces (Hamre and Buehler, 2014) and public transport nodes (Pucher and Buehler, 2008); even though it is well established that the provision of cycle parking enables people to cycle more (Heinen et al., 2009;Turner, 2013). ...
Article
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A lack of cycle parking is a known barrier to promoting the uptake of cycling in urban areas. Unlike cars that can be parked on the roadside with little additional infrastructure, bikes usually require dedicated parking facilities. The existing research and guidance on where cycle parking should be provided primarily focuses on key destinations such as train stations or schools. Thus, there is a gap in knowledge about the amount of general-purpose cycle parking required and how it should be distributed across a city. This paper presents a novel method for analysing and prioritising the spatial distribution of cycle parking. The method draws on established portfolio management techniques but applies them in a spatial context. Using the case study of London, we demonstrate that it is possible to identify areas that have a deficit of cycle parking as well as locations that have the most significant potential for increasing cycling uptake by providing additional cycle parking.
... The CDP 2031 has proposals for six biking tracks totalling to 13.5 km in discontinuous stretches. Modal shifts to cycling can be made possible by integrating these tracks and thereby providing continuous separate biking track in the inner city, accompanied by bike parking zones and policies that would make driving expensive in the central cities during bike friendly seasons as found in the study (Pucher and Buehler, 2008 ...
Conference Paper
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Rourkela, a tier-II steel township in eastern India is the industrial capital of the state of Odisha. Apart from being home to the oldest integrated steel plant of the country, the city is home to two major universities and a private airport belonging to the Steel Authority soon to be upgraded to a domestic airport. The opening of the airport is likely to improve employment opportunities increasing population growth along with increased travel and housing demands. Also the city has pledged to reduce 30% of its emissions in the UN Energy Compact by 2030. The current Comprehensive Development Plan for 2031 was drafted before the airport up-gradation plan and the city level de-carbonization pledge. Hence our current study is aimed at analysing the impact of the upcoming airport oriented development, identifying strategies in the building sector and exploring scenarios in the transport sector towards decarbonisation pledge put forward by the city. The study also outlines an environmental planning roadmap in the city level considering the gap areas identified in the existing comprehensive development plan.
... Previous studies have also highlighted that, although cycling is overall highly accepted as a healthy means of transport with a beneficial value for mobility, sustainability and users' economy (Banerjee, Łukawska, Jensen & Haustein, 2021;Handy, van Wee & Kroesen, 2014), individual willingness to cycle can decrease for different reasons. Some of these issues commonly found in the literature are: difficult weather conditions (Iwińska et al., 2018), road conflicts and near misses with other users, especially drivers (Aldred, 2016;Møller & Haustein, 2017), poor infrastructures and/or lack of separation from motor traffic (Aldred et al., 2017), helmet-related constraints (Pucher & Buehler, 2007;Walker, 2007), and urban insecurity (Useche et al., 2019c). However, safety-related threats commonly stand out, especially in countries where 'cycling tradition'or bicycle-friendly cultures are relatively scarce (Thomas & DeRobertis, 2013). ...
Article
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Given different advances in applied literature, risky and positive behaviours keep gaining ground as key contributors for riding safety outcomes. In this regard, the Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire (CBQ) represents one of the tools available to assess the core dimensions of cycling behaviour and their relationship with road safety outcomes from a behavioural perspective. Nevertheless, it has never been psychometrically approached through a cross-cultural perspective. Therefore, this study aimed to perform the cross-cultural validation of the CBQ, examining
... This will involve the provision of NMT infrastructure which encompasses shared spaces, slow-speed, footpaths, cycle tracks, and greenways on which to travel. There is a strong association between NMT use and high-quality NMT infrastructure that is separated from fast and heavy motor vehicle traffic (Pucher and Buehler 2008). Therefore, accommodating NMT would mostly involve the provision of separate travel spaces and measures to reduce vehicle speed. ...
Chapter
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Smart, digital platforms or app-based mobility solutions are becoming common in global south cities. Over the last few years, major Transportation Network Companies (TNCs) have expanded their services into several African countries with unfolding disruptive consequences. The overarching aim of this chapter is to explore the geography of the diffusion of these new and emerging mobility services in Africa and their emerging socio-environmental impacts. Firstly, the chapter presents an inventory of and maps known app-based mobility services in Africa, to reveal, for the first time, the distribution of these ICT-mediated mobility solutions across the continent, and their key drivers. Secondly, drawing on a large sample survey conducted in two of Ghana’s major urban centres (i.e., Accra and Kumasi), the chapter provides empirical insights into the emerging impacts of app-based on-demand mobility solutions focusing on internet-based ride-hailing. To this end, the following key questions are addressed: (a) who are the users (and non-users) of app-based ride-hailing and the reasons for doing so? (b) what are the associated travel behaviour impacts, in terms of mode substitution and ride-hailing trip characteristics? (c) What are the safety and security impacts from the perspective of passengers? Finally, the chapter reflects on the implications of app-based mobility services for creating sustainable transport and mobility futures in urban Africa.
... Similarly, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), in the GSA, only 1.1% of trips are made by bicycle [18]. This level of modal share for bicycling is lower than in many countries around the world, such as the Netherlands (27%) and Denmark (16%) [19][20][21]. One of the main reasons for the insignificant number of bike trips is that there is more emphasis on motorized modes of transportation. ...
Article
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In recent times, cities have increasingly promoted bicycling as a mode of transport as part of their strategy to develop a more sustainable transportation system. Australia is one of the countries that seeks to promote bicycling in a significant manner. There are two primary barriers faced in this effort. The first is the organizational complexity of planning and of implementing cycling-related projects, which can span across different agencies in government at various levels, from federal to local. Second is the lack of a clear framework for effectively planning a bicycling network using multiple data and tools available to these agencies within a limited budget. This study investigates the use of a geo-design-based, collaborative, and data-driven framework for planning bicy-cling networks, which brings various stakeholders, such as transport planners, urban designers, and academics, into the planning practice, thus overcoming the mentioned barriers. Geo-design is an environmental design framework for complex problems involving the collaboration of different teams and stakeholders, supported by digital computing and communication technologies. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study in the literature applying the geo-design approach for bi-cycling planning. Therefore, this study aims to develop and test a geo-design framework for planning bicycling networks to examine possible design scenarios and facilitate decision-making processes. In this regard, this study developed a geo-design framework for planning for bicycling using various bicycling-related datasets and digital tools, such as the Agent-Based Model. Then, it applied the framework to design a real-world bicycle network through a geo-design workshop while examining the usefulness and effectiveness of the developed procedures and tools. Policymakers attended the geo-design workshop from the local government authority of the case study area, Pen-rith, and postgraduate level urban planning students from UNSW. Due to COVID-19-related restrictions , the workshop was held in a hybrid format, with half of the participants joining online. The results of this study revealed that by facilitating collaboration and applying data-driven approaches , the proposed geo-design bicycling framework could improve the process of planning for bicycling infrastructure. This study also enabled the research team to understand the strengths and limitations of the developed framework and associated tools, which will help to optimize them for other planning practices in the future.
... Bike use surged during the COVID-19 pandemic, and countries and cities should capitalize on that interest and prioritize cycling, the mode of transportation with the lowest carbon emissions after walking(Bernhard 2020;Yildiran 2022). European countries like Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany lead in creating safe, convenient, and accessible cycling conditions, while cities like Paris are setting bold aspirations for cyclability(Pucher and Buehler 2008; City of Paris 2021). In addition, recentFIGURE 32 | Historical progress toward 2030 target for number of kilometers of high-quality bike lanes per 1,000 inhabitants (in the top 50 emitting cities)Note: km/1M inhabitants = kilometers per 1 million inhabitants. ...
Article
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The State of Climate Action 2022 provides a comprehensive assessment of the global gap in climate action across the world’s highest-emitting systems, highlighting where recent progress made in reducing GHG emissions, scaling up carbon removal, and increasing climate finance must accelerate over the next decade to keep the Paris Agreement’s goal to limit warming to 1.5°C within reach.
... In some cities throughout the worldincluding regional citiespolitical leaders have committed to sustainable mobility and are enabling sustainable development. For example, in Freiburg Germany (FitzRoy and Smith, 1998) and other European cities, investments in public transport and cycling infrastructure (Pucher and Buehler, 2008) have been prioritised, and demand for driving has been managed by restricting the movement of private motor vehicles in the inner-city and the availability of parking. ...
Article
Spatial and area-level socioeconomic variation in urban liveability (access to social infrastructure, public transport, open space, healthy food choices, local employment, street connectivity, dwelling density, and housing affordability) was examined and mapped across 39,967 residential statistical areas in Australia's metropolitan (n = 7) and largest regional cities (n = 14). Urban liveability varied spatially, with inner-city areas more liveable than outer suburbs. Disadvantaged areas in larger metropolitan cities were less liveable than advantaged areas, but this pattern was reversed in smaller cities. Local data could inform policies to redress inequities, including those designed to avoid disadvantage being suburbanised as cities grow and gentrify.
... Consequently, there is a growing pressure to promote a more sustainable mobility through challenging the current automobility regime (Ogilvie et al., 2004;Urry, 2004;Graham-Rowe et al., 2011). In that regard, cycling is amongst the most promising solutions to tackle this car dependency, especially in urban areas (Pucher and Buehler, 2008), being amongst the most efficient decarbonization policies (Brand and Dons, 2021;Brand and Götschi, 2021). For instance, a recent study estimated that if countries cycled as much as the Netherlands, it could lead to a reduction of 686 million metric tons of CO 2 emissions and prevent 0.62 million deaths per year (Chen et al., 2022). ...
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The coronavirus pandemic may provoke an increase on our overreliance on private car usage due to a permanent loss of confidence on public transport (PT), threatening current decarbonization efforts of the transport sector. Thus, alternative modes like bike sharing systems (BSS) must be considered. In this study, through conducting 16 semi-structured interviews and by employing thematic analysis, we explore the users' perceptions of using Lisbon's BSS during this pandemic. Our findings show that the observed decrease on BSS usage during the COVID-19 lockdowns was mostly due to mandatory teleworking than to a perceived infection risk. Even during the height of the pandemic, users still turned to BSS to fulfil their essential trip needs. Users considered bike sharing to have a lower infection risk comparatively to PT, with some users joining BSS during the pandemic to specifically avoid using PT. Furthermore, users associate riding a shared bicycle with a pleasant activity that reduces their travel times and costs, while also providing health and environmental benefits. Consequently, bike sharing contributes to the resilience of transport systems by providing its users with a transport alternative perceived to have a low infection risk, ensuring their mobility needs during disruptive events. Findings from this research provide evidence that support policies, such as, expanding BSS coverage areas, optimizing rebalancing operations, introducing shared e-bikes, and implementing segregated cycling lanes alongside BSS. These policies may be particularly effective at increasing the competitiveness of BSS as an alternative mode during disruptive public health crises and beyond.
... It has the potential to address low levels of physical activity (Sahlqvist et al., 2012) and have beneficial health outcomes (Celis-Morales et al., 2017;Patterson et al., 2020). It is an accessible, low-cost, sustainable transport option (Ogilvie et al., 2008;Pucher & Buehler, 2008, 2017 that has societal benefits such as reduced air pollution, traffic congestion and healthcare costs (Woodcock et al., 2012). Evidence suggests that implementing environmental interventions that aim to promote AT can be important in encouraging AT behaviours (Scheepers et al., 2014;Stappers et al., 2018), such as introducing bicycle lanes and improving the walkability of an area. ...
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Infrastructure for active travel (AT) is receiving attention as a low-cost, sustainable transport option that promotes physical activity. However, the planning and implementation of new AT infrastructure often brings challenges. This review synthesises stakeholders’ views and experiences of developing guidance for, designing, commissioning and implementing environmental interventions to promote AT. Eight databases were searched for studies containing qualitative data from stakeholders with direct experience. Results were synthesised thematically. The risk of bias was assessed using the CASP checklist for qualitative research, and evidence quality using the GRADE-CERQual tool. A total of 21,703 articles were identified from database searches, with 35 studies included. Eighteen studies focused on infrastructure promoting walking and cycling, fourteen on cycling and three on walking. Fifteen studies were judged to have no/very minor concerns, 12 had minor concerns, four had moderate concerns and four were of serious concern. A variety of stakeholders were influential, most commonly supportive elected leaders and individuals in public and voluntary sectors. Inter-disciplinary collaboration facilitated sharing of expertise and resources, and upskilling was beneficial. Effective communication methods varied between stakeholders and reason for communication. Persuasive strategies included aligning with stakeholders priorities and making the best use of evidence. Opportune moments to implement AT infrastructure were alongside non-AT projects and exogenous events. Compliance with AT policies could increase by embedding in higher level legislation. Political support was important and fostered through not de-prioritising cars and gaining external funding. The GRADE-CERQual found high confidence in our findings, apart from the sub-themes “Methods of communication” and “Political will” that had moderate confidence. Our findings can assist stakeholders in successfully navigating the process from conception to implementation of AT infrastructure and inform future policy and decision-making.
... Bike riding is associated with better physical health (Nieuwenhuijsen, 2018;Oja et al., 2011), better mental wellbeing (Ma et al., 2021), and has the potential to significantly decrease traffic congestion, pollution, and greenhouse emissions (Pucher & Buehler, 2008;Pucher & Buehler, 2017). Yet despite these benefits, rates of cycling in Western nations such as the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia remain low (Avbulimen, 2018;Buehler & Pucher, 2012;Pucher et al., 2011;Transport for Victoria, 2018;Verlinden et al., 2019). ...
Article
Feeling unsafe, stressed, and uncomfortable while bike riding are key barriers that prevent people from riding more. Examining these perceptions is important for increasing bicycling. The recent rise in wearable devices has coincided with research using bike riders’ physiological responses to measure their subjective experiences while riding. However, the types of physiological responses used to quantify bike riders’ experiences and how well these responses compare to individual perceptions of riding experience gathered through interviews or surveys remains unknown. This scoping review aimed to address these knowledge gaps and identified five key findings: i) The main physiological responses used to measure subjective rider experience were heart rate variability, heart rate, and skin conductance; ii) Where physiological and non-physiological measures of subjective experience have been compared, statistical comparisons showed weak associations and descriptive comparisons showed moderate to large degrees of variation in the number of identified moments of stress; and iii) Physiological responses were predominantly used as measurements of psychological stress. We conclude that further work is needed to determine whether physiological responses are a valid measure of subjective riding experience, and to examine a wider range of feelings that people might experience while bike riding.
... As can be observed from Table 4, the provision of good infrastructure is a fundamental aspect of active travel and, in the participants' views, the lack of such materials makes them not choose these forms of travel. This supports other studies on active forms of travel, which have found provision of high quality infrastructure achieves higher level of cycling and walking (Moudon et al., 2005;Pucher and Buehler, 2008). Another important material element that this time is an enabler to active forms of travel are the short distances over which the participants need to travel to reach the sites of their activities. ...
Article
Transport has become locked into a pattern of unsustainable travel behaviours. One major barrier to limiting carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector is the dependence of mobility on the car. Modal shift to low-carbon transport is essential to the decarbonisation of transport, yet it has not been fully understood. Analysing travel behaviours from an in-depth understanding of social practices can provide new insights of what might be required for modal shift. The aim of the research is to provide an in-depth analysis of the current mobility practices in Malta, including the elements of mobility practices, how mobility practices are embedded within social life in Malta, and potential future steps. Semi-structured interviews are used to provide qualitative data on everyday mobility practices. The results show how improved infrastructure for active forms of travel, more extensive public transport, skills in cycling, ability to calculate distances when walking, and feeling of safety on the road, are essential elements for low-carbon modes to be performed and endured. The analysis is also valuable to demonstrate how other social practices, such as work, parental responsibilities and shopping, are related to mobility practices and influence recruitment to one form of mobility over another. The coordination between these social practices and the complexities of everyday lives opens new insights for reflection on the type of interventions aimed at decarbonising transport.
... This finding was unexpected and could indicate that "trying out cycling" might have a13 greater influence on new habit formation for women. As stated in the existing literature, women14 are often less likely to cycle compared to men(Pucher & Buehler, 2008, 2010 Sahlqvist & 15 Heesch, 2012) and women are also more likely to report barriers to cycling, including both16 physical and social barriers (Grimes et al., 2020; Van Bekkum et al., 2011). Consequently,17 Sahlqvist & Heesch (2012) argue that promoting cycling among women and other18 underrepresented cohorts, such as older adults, should be made a priority in order to reduce the 19 cycling gender-gap. ...
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Research has shown an increase in cycling during COVID-19. This study builds on previous work by exploring COVID’s impact on older cyclists (65+) residing in a small, auto-centric urban area. A survey (n = 198) demonstrated that, on average, cycling frequency decreased and average distance/trip increased. This suggests a less pronounced impact among older adults residing in a small urban area. However, interviews (n = 24) showed that cycling during the pandemic was associated with feelings of accomplishment, enjoyment, improved self-esteem, and increased freedom by allowing them to get out despite social distancing requirements. Further, among respondents reporting increased cycling (n=76), most (79%) plan to maintain cycling habits post-pandemic, citing reasons such as personal health, enjoyment, and the social aspect of cycling. These findings could support efforts promoting cycling among older adults, pointing to aspects for designing voluntary travel behavior change (VTBC) programs.
... Some of the early themes have been revisited and further developed, including reductions in traffic capacity (Melia and Shergold 2018), pedestrianization and walkability (Ewing and Handy 2009;Frank et al. 2010;Adkins et al. 2012;Hass-Klau 2015) and streetscape design for reduced car usage (Carmona et al. 2018). Cycling provision has also received increased coverage, including effective network design (Pucher and Buehler 2008;Forsyth and Krizek 2011;Colville-Anderson 2018). The distribution of streetspace (Nello-Deakin 2019) and value of experimental approaches to street design (Bertolini 2020) are also examined as emerging themes, including issues of social equity and effective processes for implementation. ...
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Streetspace reallocation projects are often difficult to plan and implement, attracting great controversy with residents and other actors. This paper considers two streetspace reallocation projects, in Aldgate Square and Bank Junction, London. 15 in-depth interviews are used to explore the competing discourses on each project. The analysis covers the different viewpoints on perceived problems and opportunities, project impacts and effectiveness, distribution of benefits, technical assessment, participatory processes and the resulting sanctioned discourse. Using NVivo software, it examines the language used by the different actors in the process.
... Similar forms of differential, unequal access to cycling facilities also affect bike-sharing facilities, which end up being used mainly by educated and well-off people living in these areas (Tiznado et al., 2021;Mora & Moran, 2020;Saud & Thomopoulos, 2021;Cerutti et al., 2019). In contrast, European countries with lower levels of inequality, more compact cities, and more robust forms of planning have been able to widely promote the bicycle as a suitable modal choice for their inhabitants (Pucher & Buehler, 2008). The structural socio-spatial inequalities of a certain context may thus explain only partially the possibility of promoting sustainable mobility and the results of such strategies. ...
Article
Structural socio-economic and institutional limitations can affect the implementation of cycling infrastructure. More stringent cycling infrastructure standards aiming to solve deficiencies might exacerbate disparities, especially in poor districts with fragmentary governance. Using an audit and quantitative and spatial analysis of cycleways, this paper examines to what extent structural inequalities and governance issues affect the availability and quality of cycling infrastructure, considering new indicative and normative standards aiming at improving cycling infrastructure in Santiago, Chile. Our results show that the distribution of cycleways is unequal and only partially complies with national quality standards. All districts in the city have both high and low standard bicycle lanes, but since district finances have huge differences, this can lead to inequalities in cycle coverage and districts' capabilities to address current standard problems. This raises relevant challenges regarding governance and how to ensure an equitable distribution of cycling infrastructure in Global South cities.
Article
Publiczny transport zbiorowy oraz transport rowerowy postrzegane są jako zrównoważone alternatywy dla miejskich podróży samochodem. Narzędziem do zwiększenia popularności tych form transportu jest ich integracja w modelu bike-and-ride, polegającym na łączeniu przejazdu rowerem i środkiem transportu zbiorowego w ramach tej samej podróży. Jednym z istotnych aspektów tego modelu jest możliwość przewozu roweru w pojeździe (autobus, tramwaj). Taki sposób przemieszczania się nie tylko zwiększa zasięg podróży, ale stanowi również ważne rozwiązanie w sytuacji awaryjnej potrzeby przewozu roweru, gdy rowerzysta z różnych przyczyn nie ma możliwości kontynuacji jazdy na rowerze. Kluczowe dla transferu rowerów w innych pojazdach są jednak zasady przewozowe stosowane przez lokalnych operatorów transportu zbiorowego. Za cel pracy przyjęto analizę zapisów regulaminów przewozowych transportu w zakresie możliwości przewozu rowerów w pojazdach (autobusach, trolejbusach, tramwajach lub metrze). W artykule przeanalizowano 55 miast, dokonując porównania między krajami Europy Zachodniej (Danią i Holandią) a krajami Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej (Polską, Czechami i Słowacją). W badaniu wykazano duże zróżnicowanie w zakresie kompletności i restrykcyjności zapisów umożliwiających przewóz rowerów w pojazdach transportu publicznego. Oceniono jednak, że w niektórych przypadkach zasady przewozu są bardziej surowe w Europie Zachodniej niż w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej, co może wynikać z większego ruchu rowerowego w miastach tej części kontynentu i potrzeby wprowadzenia odpowiednich ograniczeń. Bicycles in public transport vehicles – a study of transport policies in selected European cities Public collective transport and cycling are seen as sustainable alternatives to urban car travel. A tool to increase the popularity of these forms of transport is their integration in the bike-and-ride model, consisting in combining cycling and public transport within the same journey. One important aspect of this model is the option to carry a bicycle on a public transport vehicle. Such a combination not only increases the range of journeys, but is also an important solution in an emergency situation when the cyclist is unable to continue cycling for various reasons. The transport rules applied by local public transport operators are crucial for the transfer of bikes on other vehicles. The aim of the study was to analyse the provisions of the public transport regulations concerning the possibility of carrying bikes on board the vehicles (buses, trolleybuses, trams, or underground). The article analysed the transport policies of 55 cities, making comparisons between Western European countries (Denmark and the Netherlands) and Central and Eastern European countries (Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia). The study showed a wide variation in the completeness and restrictiveness of provisions allowing for the carriage of bicycles on public transport vehicles. However, it was assessed that in some cases, the carriage rules are stricter in Western Europe than in Central and Eastern Europe, which may be due to the higher cycling traffic in the cities in this part of the continent and the need for relevant restrictions.
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The main objective of this study was to analyze bicycle accidents in Japan’s cities. The characteristics of this study are as follows: (1) Using aggregate data from the administrative district of government-designated cities, the relationship between the risk of bicycle accidents and urban structure was evaluated. (2) The characteristics of the risk of bicycle accidents in Japan; were determined. (3) Safety measures for the use of bicycles in Japan’s cities based on those in other countries are suggested. The analysis results revealed that most bicycle accidents in Japan as a whole occur in urban areas. Many of the accidents occur at intersections or on straight roads, resulting in a large number of fatalities and injuries. A regression analysis of the relationship between urban bicycle accidents and urban structure showed that the risk of bicycle accidents increases in cities with large populations and cities with many flat areas. Based on these results, bicycle safety measures for promoting bicycle use in Japan should focus on areas with large populations and topographical features that are likely to increase the rate of bicycle use. Specifically, bicycle lanes should be provided on major roads where there are many automobiles. However, to along with infrastructure improvements, it is also important to educate cyclists and motorists about traffic safety in order to ensure bicycle safety.
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In the field of cycle policy and planning, alongside ambitions to expand segregated cycle networks, there is a push across many countries for increasing the quality and quantity of cycle parking as a critical component of cycling infrastructure. In order to support these measures, planning guides have been developed to guide the expansion and improvement of cycle parking facilities. A common feature of these policies and guides for cycle parking interventions is an absence of dialogue with, or reference to, peer-reviewed research investigating cycle parking and the potential effectiveness of different approaches to cycle parking planning. The use of such research could help to create cycle parking that may be more effective in attracting and providing for people cycling. On this basis, we engage in a literature review of a select body of cycling research whose findings could contribute to more effective cycle parking planning practice. Drawing on our review, we propose a number of tentative ‘elements’ for effective public cycle parking planning practice: visibility, protection, accessibility, proximity, integration, and diversification. These elements could be used in conjunction with local knowledge and context-specific assessment measures to maximise the potential effectiveness of cycle parking planning in different regions, and can be situated as part of a wider struggle to acquire public space for cycling within car-dominant contexts.
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It is substantiated in the article that behavioural economics makes it possible one to move away from the idealized perception of a person as a completely rational decision-making subject who possesses all the information about the object; is able to form a clear hierarchy of own priorities, which is determined by the balance between benefits and costs; stable in his preferences and not susceptible to emotional influences. For this, it is necessary to take into account cognitive biases, systematic errors of thinking and the possibilities of their avoidance, which is actually what behavioural economics works with. The concepts of “choice architecture”, “nudging” and “libertarian paternalism” are considered. In its most general terms, choice architecture is the design of the environment in which people make decisions. By changing the decision-making environment, you can change the decision itself. Nudging is one of the strategies of behavioural economics, aimed at the behavior of subjects exclusively by changing the environment and context, that is, pushing tools are able to emphasize economic incentives and gently guide a person to optimal decisions without depriving him/her of a choice. It is shown that the toolkit of nudging began to be actively used in state policy to strengthen the effectiveness of regulatory actions, however, it was not limited to it, but rather quickly spread to other areas – environmental protection, health, the insurance and pension system, entrepreneurship, etc. Examples of the practical application of choice architecture and nudging tools in the field of state regulation, ecological use of resources, and personal choice are given. The focus is on the fact that imposing restrictions on options for action or directly implementing regulatory instruments can achieve the desired results, however, such influence on behaviour change is prescriptive rather than liberating. Nudging tools are able to emphasize economic incentives and gently guide a person to more rational decisions. The main needs are identifies for the satisfaction of which prompting and creating of an architecture of choice are effective and appropriate, for example, stimulating self-control or increasing the level of awareness of the need to take action.
Article
Malaysia’s energy consumptionis predicted to grow over time and the main contributor to the energy consumptionis in transport sector.It is also predictedthat energy for transport may expandsignificantly for the next 25 years. Therefore, it is vitalto create sustainable development in every energy-produced sectors, especially in transport sectors, nationallyand globally. One of the measures to reduce energy consumptions in transport sector is to promote sustainable transportationparticularly in promoting active transportation mode such as bicycle. This study aims to investigate subjective factors that influence the students’ decisions to use a bicyclefor movingoncampus.Probability sampling method using stratified sampling technique was appliedsince the study was conducted among Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia postgraduate students. Survey method via online questionnaire was used and quantitative method in conjunction with relevant statistical approachessuch as descriptive statistics and regression analyseswas applied to analyse the data. Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) wasapplied to test therelationships between thefactors.It is found that very few students have used bicycle for movementon campusfor participating in mandatory, maintenance and leisure activitiesin both weekdays and weekends. Regression results show thatsubjective factorswhich aresubjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and attitude arestrongly influence students’ decisionsto use bicycle for daily travels in campussignificantly.In addition, the perceived behavioural control that is ease of bicycle use on campus is significantly influenced the behaviour of cycling on campus with similar weightage found with the intention variable.
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Bike-sharing systems allow occasional and regular users to travel by replacing other transport modes for the same trip or generating a new journey. Our research assesses the demand for Lisbon’s public dock-based bike-sharing system (BSS), named GIRA. This paper aims to identify the determinant factors that influence the potential of the BSS to generate new trips or replace previous modes using a conditional logit model based on a survey of 3112 BSS users. The survey results indicate that GIRA generated approximately 20% of the BSS trips, i.e., they would not have been realized if GIRA did not exist. The remaining BSS trips replaced other motorized (55%) and non-motorized (25%) trips. The main determinants explaining a higher likelihood of replacing different modes are having a yearly GIRA pass and a bike-sharing station within a 5-min walk. In contrast, regular car users are more likely to generate new trips, suggesting they use bike-sharing for recreational purposes. The findings provide policymakers with an assessment of determinants which may influence bike-sharing users to generate or replace trips from other modes and, consequently, define policies to potentially increase bike-sharing.
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While individual actions are extremely important, they need to be supported by policy, both to achieve greater impact and to prevent unintended consequences. Because policy is so important, one of the most significant actions individuals can take is to advocate for good climate policy. But developing good policy is not simple. The first part of this chapter ruminates on ways to create policy that achieves our climate goals and avoids unintended negative consequences. Drawing in part on the research on commons management, this chapter proposes four guiding principles for policy development: (1) develop clearly articulated and shared goals, (2) base policy on good science, (3) distribute the benefits and burdens of the policy equitably and fairly, and (4) include ways to monitor and enforce compliance with the policy.
Article
Employer-based travel demand management (TDM) programs have been implemented worldwide for decades, but rarely are longitudinal analyses implemented. This study utilizes a longitudinal dataset to assess the effectiveness of TDM measures on vehicle trip rates (VTRs) over time. The results suggest: (1) VTR grows over time, and TDM measures may decelerate the growth but cannot reverse the trend; (2) for organizational tools, collective bargaining is negatively associated with VTR; (3) distributing transit passes is negatively associated with VTR; (4) ride match is positively correlated with VTR; (5) guaranteed ride home measures, including emergency rides and employer-provided vehicles, are positively associated with VTR; (6) subsidies promoting multimodal transportation (transit, walking, biking) incentivize vehicle trip reduction; the more subsidies, the lower VTR, and such effects are reinforced over time; (7) in contrast, subsidies promoting carsharing are associated with more vehicle trips; (8) larger companies and areas with higher job densities have a lower VTR. To inform practice, when rewarding employees, distributing transit passes is a preferred strategy. Collective bargaining builds agreements between employers and employees and helps promote trip reduction. Carpooling-related and guaranteed ride-home measures should be applied with caution.
Article
This article investigates the effect of a decrease in the speed limit for motor vehicles on bicycle commuting in French cities. I use a difference-in-differences event study design to measure a possible causal effect of motor vehicle speed limits on changes in bicycle traffic. I do not find any effect of the reduction of the speed limit from 50 km/h to 30 km/h on bicycle commuting. This result is important for public policy design, since increasing the number of bicycles is one of the benefits that politicians expect from decreasing the speed limit for motor vehicles.
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Background: Walking and cycling to school have been extensively studied in urban settings, whereas data from rural areas remain sparse. This study examined perceptions of walking and cycling to school amongst adolescents living within 4.8 km of school in rural New Zealand. Methods: Adolescents (n=62; 53.2% females; 15.6±1.5 years; five schools) residing and attending a secondary school in a rural settings (population <1,000) completed an online survey about their perceptions of walking and cycling to school. Home-to-school distance was calculated using Geographic Information Systems shortest network path analysis. Results: Overall, 73% of adolescents walked and 11% cycled to school. Compared to cycling, adolescents reported a greater desire (57% vs 26%) and intention (74% vs 13%) to walk to school, and perceived more support from friends (37% vs 30%), parents (81% vs 40%), and schools (61% vs 34%) (all p<0.001). Adolescents also reported better physical infrastructure (presence/availability of footpaths vs cycle lanes) for walking versus cycling to school (86% vs 36%, p<0.001). Over 95% of adolescents perceived both walking and cycling to school as safe. Conclusions:Compared to cycling, walking to school was a more common and preferred transport mode, with greater social support and physical infrastructure, whereas both modes were perceived to be safe by rural adolescents living within 4.8 km of their school. The findings suggest that supportive social and built environments appear to encourage walking to school in rural areas. Mode-specific approaches may be required to encourage cycling to school for rural adolescents.
Article
This book is intended for researchers, policymakers, and practitioners interested in the dynamics and governance of low-carbon transitions. Drawing on the Multi-Level Perspective, it develops a whole system reconfiguration approach that explains how the incorporation of multiple innovations can cumulatively reconfigure existing systems. The book focuses on UK electricity, heat, and mobility systems, and it systematically analyses interactions between radical niche-innovations and existing (sub)systems across techno-economic, policy, and actor dimensions in the past three decades. Comparative analysis explains why the unfolding low-carbon transitions in these three systems vary in speed, scope, and depth. It evaluates to what degree these transitions qualify as Great Reconfigurations and assesses the future potential for, and barriers to, deeper low-carbon system transitions. Generalising across these systems, broader lessons are developed about the roles of incumbent firms, governance and politics, user engagement, wider public, and civil society organisations. This title is also available as Open Access on Cambridge Core.
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Non-motorised transport (NMT) modes are an important and integral component of urban transport across the world. Besides the provision of basic mobility, affordable transport and physical fitness, they serve to reduce negative environmental impacts of transportation. However, despite the NMT being a dominant mode of transport in most African rural and urban areas, it continues to be largely neglected in terms of relevant policies, planning and provision of infrastructures. Governments in African nations remain unsustainably focused on expanding the road networks and increasing motorization, with NMT as modes borne out of necessity for the poor. Non prioritization of NMT carries a huge road safety burden of fatalities and injuries to these vulnerable road users and an increasing car-culture. Thus, it is imperative that a future narrative is drawn for this key transport mode. This research seeks to examine the current challenges faced by NMT users in Sub-Saharan Africa and provide insightful policy ideas and infrastructure development strategies to make walking, cycling and other NMT transport modes more convenient, safe, pleasant and convincing in urban Africa. Through consultations with relevant stakeholders and experts, the book chapter recommends a pathway for the integration of NMT to urban mobility plans in African cities and towns.KeywordsNon-motorised transportInfrastructuresNairobiAccraLagosKampala
Article
Using survey data collected in New Jersey, we analyze the frequency of bicycling and respondent perceptions of the safety of various bicycling facilities. Data was collected via a mixed-mode survey design, including intercepts, bicycle hangers, flyers in bicycle shops, and a Facebook advertisement targeted towards bicyclists in New Jersey (N=1937). This provided us with a reasonable sample of respondents that included bicycle commuters and non-cyclists. Data on cycling frequency was collected for recreational and commute trips. Respondents ranked the relative safety of images of bicycle facilities, ranging from cycling on-street to off-road trails. We also collected attitudinal data on risk perceptions and world views linked to political perspectives. Our analysis suggested that feeling safer with on-street bicycle lanes and off-street bicycle paths is not associated with the frequency of bicycling, while feeling safer on-street in traffic is associated with the frequency of bicycling. In analyzing correlates associated with our images of bicycling infrastructure, we found those with more liberal/egalitarian world views prefer on-street bicycle lanes and off-street bicycle paths, while those with traditional community world views tend to not feel safe with on-street bicycle lanes and bicycling in traffic. Those who are risk takers also feel safer bicycling in traffic. Most other demographic controls in our models give us the expected results. Policy implications suggest that bicycle infrastructure will be less controversial when world views are more liberal/egalitarian, but that making all streets safer might be a useful approach for increasing the frequency of bicycling.
Article
Cyclists’ phone use can cause distractions and impose risks towards traffic safety. To prevent phone-related distractions, the Netherlands introduced a ban on handheld (HH) phone use for cyclists in July 2019. The effects of traffic rules on phone use and their underlying mechanisms are, however, uncertain. Comparing survey results from the Netherlands before (N = 553) and after (N = 484) the ban, using Denmark (before N = 568, after N = 519) as comparison group, this study explores whether introducing a ban is associated with changes in phone use, traffic rule beliefs, perceived risk, sense of guilt, and perceived annoyance. Comparison of phone function use before and after the Dutch ban revealed a significant decrease in the proportion using HH phone for conversation, while there was no change for other functions. In Denmark, proportions remained stable for all functions. Changes in the Netherlands possibly correspond to specific phone functions characteristics, e.g., how effortless one can pause and resume the function. The results additionally identified an increase in correct traffic rule identification, sense of guilt for HH phone use, and perceived annoyance, while there was no significant change in perceived risk of HH phone use. The study found that banning HH phone use was associated with increase in correct rule identification, but only to limited changes in HH phone use. Banning HH phone use might have greater effects in changing behaviours over time as a result of social mechanisms related to changes in sense of guilt and perceived annoyance.
Conference Paper
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The significance of the bicycle as a form of transport are becoming a part of the traffic management in enhancing sustainable mobility means in cities. The aim of this study is to reveal the natural route choice for bicyclists in the Norwegian city Bergen through snail-trailing. Obtained data through the observations gave us an overview of the cyclists’ actual route choices through the city centre. The most used cycle routes in Bergen’s city centre were compared with the results from space syntax analyses, the survey and the literature review. We could therefore conclude which cycle routes we believe should be built up with bicycle facilities, and which type of facilities should be built on the various sections. As the results show, bicyclists avoid steep hills, traffic lights and their route choice follow the integrated main routes with the highest values on the angular choice analysis with R=n. We believe a further focus on this first-hand data, will be able to contribute to increasing the bicycling as transport mode in Bergen´s city centre.
Article
Campaigning bodies and local actions and activism have significant impacts on the development of local infrastructural plans for cycling. These voices are frequently homogenized as presenting a unified voice. For strategic reasons, this may be an appropriate tactic. Yet in doing so, important dimensions of discussion can be missed, especially those that rethink the urban environment beyond the immediate focus of change. This paper examines a particular set of disputes between proponents of vehicular cycling and those concerned with a broader vision of mobility justice. Using ethnographic and autoethnographic methods, it shows how there are important issues of gender politics hidden in these discussions. A secondary concern of the study, arising from the research methodology, is to acknowledge and show the location of academic research within campaign communities. These analyses have implications for how planning and consultation processes are developed and implemented.
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Nagpur is in the process of developing a significant public transport mode, the Nagpur Metro. Along with the metro, various other facilities to integrate the metro system with different modes of transport to create a seamless public transport system are being planned. Under this, bicycle and walk are the major modes of transport. All along the metro corridor and along the city’s major roads, cycle tracks and footpaths have been proposed. This paper attempts to find the impact of facilities planned in the city on the ridership of the metro services. It also attempts to understand where the authority should develop these facilities first to increase the ridership at a faster pace. The results found that commercial places need footpaths and cycle tracks at the earliest, closely followed by the residential places. On the other hand, commuters from industrial areas do not seem keen on the services. The paper also stated that females were more willing to use such services than males.KeywordsCycle tracksFootpathsMetro
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ImRisikoEinführung Kap. 2 werdenGefahrEinführungverschiedeneGefährdungEinführung Risiken und Gefährdungen in Form von Beispielen und Zahlenangaben vorgestellt. Dabei werden länger andauernde Prozesse und kurzfristige Ereignisse gemischt. Teilweise überschneiden sich die Zuordnungen.
Article
Through the lens of the Social Identify Theory (Tajfel, 1974), this research aims to understand how social identity affects the perception of cycling as a mode of transport among women from different socio-income backgrounds. Using the case study of Tel-Aviv-Jaffa (Israel), we found that cycling is associated with distinct social categories rather than seen as a 'socially neutral' practice. In particular, we found cycling to be associated with 'being a Tel-Avivian' and with a healthy and active lifestyle. Such distinct identification of cycling is likely to enhance cycling uptake among more privileged groups, who are often able to identify with these social categories. In contrast, it may create a barrier for underprivileged groups, who do not identify with these social categories. In addition, we show how e-bikes – which are not identified with privileged groups – do not provide an identifiable alternative for women from all groups, as it is identified with “tough” and “violent” men. Furthermore, we show how cycling, in general, is perceived as “tough”, “dangerous” and as requiring a “constant struggle” over space with other road users, and hence fits a typical “masculine” behavior. Finally, we show how currently cycling is perceived by the underprivileged as a threat to their way of life or even as a symbol of them being pushed out of their neighborhood – a perception that limits cycling uptake among these social groups. These findings underscore the importance of accounting for social identity in cycling research and policymaking, especially in low-cycling contexts.
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This chapter uses macro-statistical data to analyse the transformation of lifestyle in transportation-related fields in China on the national level. We analyse the connections between Chinese residents’ lifestyles and transport from the perspectives of consumption, transport means, environmental facilities, activities, time use and value orientations.
Article
The objective of this research was to understand key levers that enabled city, regional, and national governments to improve non-motorized transport (NMT) infrastructure during the lockdowns necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research focused primarily on cycling and adopted a case study approach focusing on three cities: Bengaluru (India), Bogota (Colombia), and London (UK). The selected cities were chosen for diversity across geographies, country income levels, and the scale of interventions. Eight key levers were identified to understand how cycling interventions can be supported, implemented, sustained, and scaled up. These included institutional and organizational arrangements; technical capacity; financing; leadership; policy and regulatory framework; plans, strategies, and technical resources; role of civil society; and communications, messaging, and outreach. The research used secondary literature reviews and key informant interviews, which were validated through an online round table. Research revealed that certain levers were necessary in initiating and continuing successful NMT interventions. These included supportive leadership, participative civil society, and adequate financial and technical capacity. Communications and outreach helped bring behavioral change amongst residents while a coordinated institutional framework and plans and strategies were necessary to sustain momentum. This research contributes to urban mobility and public administration literature in understanding processes and enablers of sustainable mobility interventions. It is relevant for cities in low- and middle-income countries beginning to focus on NMT interventions to combat climate change and public health challenges.
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This chapter defines national-level planning and explains the reasons why it should be studied. It then presents some background geographic and demographic data on the sample countries, and ranks the countries by the degree of institutionalisation of national-level spatial planning. The chapter also examines the major trends in national-level planning. These trends are classified into five groups: (1) trends related to national political and administrative contexts; (2) trends in national comprehensive planning; (3) trends in national sectoral planning; (4) emerging styles of planning and implementation; and (5) shared problems and dilemmas.
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This paper compares the planning process in Germany and the United States. We note fundamental institutional and structural differences between the two countries and discuss recent trends and patterns. Contrary to the US, planning in Germany is mediated through a vertically integrated and consensus-oriented institutional framework. In response to the socio-economic consequences of unification and European integration, German planning has experimented with new regional associations. In the US, concerns over sprawl have led to increased state-level planning and intervention. We conclude that these trends are in response to different circumstances and are subject to different institutional constraints.
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We examined the public health consequences of unsafe and inconvenient walking and bicycling conditions in American cities to suggest improvements based on successful policies in The Netherlands and Germany. Secondary data from national travel and crash surveys were used to compute fatality trends from 1975 to 2001 and fatality and injury rates for pedestrians and cyclists in The Netherlands, Germany, and the United States in 2000. American pedestrians and cyclists were much more likely to be killed or injured than were Dutch and German pedestrians and cyclists, both on a per-trip and on a per-kilometer basis. A wide range of measures are available to improve the safety of walking and cycling in American cities, both to reduce fatalities and injuries and to encourage walking and cycling.
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The neglect of pedestrian and bicycling safety in the United States has made these modes dangerous ways of getting around. Pedestrian fatalities are 36 times higher than car occupant fatalities per kilometer (km) traveled, and bicycling fatalities are 11 times higher than car occupant fatalities per km. Walking and bicycling can be made quite safe, however, as clearly shown by the much lower fatality rates in The Netherlands and Germany. Pedestrian fatalities per billion km walked are less than a tenth as high as in the United States, and bicyclist fatalities per billion km cycled are only a fourth as high. The Netherlands and Germany have long recognized the importance of pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Over the past two decades, these countries have undertaken a wide range of measures to improve safety: better facilities for walking and bicycling; urban design sensitive to the needs of nonmotorists; traffic calming of residential neighborhoods; restrictions on motor vehicle use in cities; rigorous traffic education of both motorists and nonmotorists; and strict enforcement of traffic regulations protecting pedestrians and bicyclists. The United States could adopt many of the same measures to improve pedestrian and bicycling safety here. The necessary technology and methods are already available, with decades of successful experience in Europe.
Article
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Bicycling has increased dramatically in German cities over the past two decades, not only absolutely but even as a proportion of total travel. Overall, the bicycle share of urban trips in western Germany rose by 50% from 1972 to 1995. In many large cities, bicycling doubled or tripled, while the modal split share of auto travel fell, thus mitigating roadway congestion and pollution problems. The resurgence of bicycling as a practical mode of daily urban travel is due almost entirely to public policies that have greatly enhanced the safety, speed, and convenience of bicycling while making auto use more difficult and expensive. The bicycle has triumphed in Germany in spite of rapid suburbanization, rising auto ownership, increasing trip lengths, and rising per capita incomes. This article shows that, with the right set of public policies, bicycling can be increased almost anywhere.
Article
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To examine the relationship between the numbers of people walking or bicycling and the frequency of collisions between motorists and walkers or bicyclists. The common wisdom holds that the number of collisions varies directly with the amount of walking and bicycling. However, three published analyses of collision rates at specific intersections found a non-linear relationship, such that collisions rates declined with increases in the numbers of people walking or bicycling. This paper uses five additional data sets (three population level and two time series) to compare the amount of walking or bicycling and the injuries incurring in collisions with motor vehicles. The likelihood that a given person walking or bicycling will be struck by a motorist varies inversely with the amount of walking or bicycling. This pattern is consistent across communities of varying size, from specific intersections to cities and countries, and across time periods. This result is unexpected. Since it is unlikely that the people walking and bicycling become more cautious if their numbers are larger, it indicates that the behavior of motorists controls the likelihood of collisions with people walking and bicycling. It appears that motorists adjust their behavior in the presence of people walking and bicycling. There is an urgent need for further exploration of the human factors controlling motorist behavior in the presence of people walking and bicycling. A motorist is less likely to collide with a person walking and bicycling if more people walk or bicycle. Policies that increase the numbers of people walking and bicycling appear to be an effective route to improving the safety of people walking and bicycling.
Article
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To assess the secondary health impacts of a traffic calming scheme on a community. Prospective cohort study of a randomly selected sample of the local community using postal questionnaires and pedestrian counts on the affected road six months before and six months after the implementation of the scheme. The setting was a community in which a traffic calming scheme was built in the main road (2587 households). The Short Form 36 version 2 was included in the questionnaire and summary measures of physical health (physical component summary) and mental health (mental component summary) calculated. A random sample of 750 households was initially posted the pre-intervention questionnaire. There were increases in observed pedestrian activity in the area after the introduction of the traffic calming scheme. Physical health improved significantly but mental health did not change. Traffic related problems improved, while other local nuisances were reported to be worse. The introduction of a traffic calming scheme is associated with improvements in health and health related behaviours. It is feasible to prospectively evaluate broader health impacts of similar transport interventions although poor response rates may limit the validity of results.
Article
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Over the past two decades, the number of bicycle trips in the United States has doubled. Since 48% of trips by all modes in American cities are shorter than three miles, the potential for further growth in bicycling seems enormous. So far, efforts to promote bicycling have focused on building bike paths and bike lanes. Although necessary, separate cycling facilities must be complemented by a comprehensive program to make all roads bikeable, through both physical adaptations and enforcement of cyclists' right to use the road. It seems likely that cycling will continue to grow in North America, but that its mode share will remain far lower than levels in northern Europe. Bicycling in Canada and especially the United States is impeded by the lack of a tradition of cycling for utilitarian purposes and by the marginal legal, cultural and infrastructure status of cyclists in both countries' automobile-based transport systems. As long as car use remains cheap and transportation policy remains...
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This book addresses the links between transport and sustainable urban development, from an analysis of the global picture to issues in transport and energy intensity, public policy and the institutional and organisational constraints on change. The central part of the book explores these links in more detail at city level, covering land use and development, economic measures, and the role that technology can play. The final part looks for inspiration from events in developing countries and the means by which we can move from the unsustainable present to a more sustainable future.
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This two-part article describes recent developments in urban passenger transport in the U.S.A. and Europe, focusing on the different roles and impacts of the public sector as these have varied by country and over time. The first part of the two-part series examines public policies for roadway systems and automobile transport, whereas the second part concentrates on public transport. After a review of demand and supply trends, the article evaluates government policies in terms of public versus private ownership and operation of transport systems, public regulation, financing responsibility by government level, types and amounts of subsidy, and impacts of ownership, regulation and financing arrangements on costs and productivity. Emphasis is on comparative analysis of the current situation and emerging developments, but historical trends are reviewed as background.
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In Germany a national travel survey (NTS) was planned for 2002 and was preceded by a pilot study in 2001. As part of this pilot study the state of the practice for NTS in several countries was examined through contact with relevant institutions and persons via the Internet. A structured questionnaire was used for these consultations. The participants in nine countries provided the relevant information describing their NTS. It was found that the core substance of the data gathered by the NTS is similar and that different additional aspects of travel may be covered in the surveys. However, the survey procedures and data collection instruments employed in the fieldwork show wide variety. Numerous survey design elements and combinations thereof are applied (mailback, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, personal interview). Institutional contexts appear to be important for the scope and continuity of the NTS.
Article
The paper outlines some preliminary results of an ongoing study on 'conditions of success in sustainable transport policies in cities'. The study consists of a comparative analysis of five case studies dealing with relatively successful European cities in three countries: Zurich, Basle (Switzerland), Amsterdam, Groningen (The Netherlands) and Freiburg (Germany). Having in mind the ongoing deterioration of traffic-related environmental problems in cities, the paper proceeds in a three-step approach: by describing the trends of transport of persons and the environment in general and of forerunner cities in particular, the opportunities and limits of sustainable urban transport developments are detected in a first step. In a second step, the degrees and patterns of environmentally oriented policy changes in relatively successful cities are outlined. The third step focuses on the reasons and ways policy windows open up for fundamental environmentally oriented changes of transport policies. It is argued that 'macro-windows' for such changes only open up due to strong and enduring forces originally from outside the local political system. Social crises and impressive political mandates were identified as important external factors that influenced the 'greening' of urban transport in the relatively successful cities. However, an open macro-window is only conceived as a political opportunity for change, a necessary but not sufficient condition. Whether or to what extent these opportunities are utilized depends on further factors.
Article
Bicycle use varies strongly between countries, and even between municipalities within the same country substantial variations may exist. This paper analyses to what extent municipality policies matter in explaining these variations. It appears that most of the inter-municipality variation in bicycle use is related to physical aspects such as altitude differences and city size, and features of the population (share of youngsters). Differences in ethnic composition also appear to matter. Important policy-related variables are: the number of stops cyclists have to make on their routes; hindrances in road use; and safety of cyclists. In addition the relative position of bicycles with respect to cars (speed, parking costs) also appears to matter. These results shed light on various components of the cyclists' generalised costs, such as those related to accidents and physical efforts, that are not usually considered. We also conclude that cultural tradition, possibly related to ethnicity deserves a more explicit role in travel surveys and the analysis of travel behaviour than it usually receives.
Article
The Department aims to improve transport provision for disabled people - whether as pedestrians, public and special transport users, or motorists - while also improving accessibility in public places. Their website provides access to information about their programs, consultation and research. [Country: United Kingdom]
Article
The British Government recently issued a white paper on its future transport strategy. Its central precept is unambiguous: current trends in traffic are unsustainable, from the point of view of the environment, business efficiency, health, and the unfeasibility of providing growth in road capacity that would keep pace with predicted growth in traffic. Much of the policy logic in the white paper stems from the explicit abandonment of 'predict-and-provide' as a desirable -- or possible -- strategy. This leads to a recognition of the importance of a co-ordinated approach to public transport, walking and cycling, together with policies aimed at reducing less necessary travel where possible; ensuring that the costs of congestion and environmental pollution are, as far as practical, met by those who cause them (in which the revenue from new pricing systems would be kept under local control and used for transport improvements); an emphasis on better maintenance and management of the road system rather than increasing its capacity; consideration of the effects on transport of other policies in land-use, health, education etc; development of institutional structures or contractual arrangements able to bring these changes about; and conditions in which people's everyday behaviour and attitudes may be in harmony with policy, finance and environmental constraints. These themes did not arise out of the blue following the general election in 1997. They evolved over many years, especially in nearly ten years of intense discussion connected with the previous two governments' recognition that the 1989 road programme ('Roads to Prosperity'), in spite of its size and expense, would still not be nearly sufficient to keep pace with traffic growth, as well as being environmentally damaging. The process of discussion and argument has not ceased with publication of the white paper. A very interesting feature of the current debate is that its central argument is widely (though not unanimously) accepted in the media, with great emphasis on the problems of implementation. The author argues that the policy shift is genuine and firmly grounded in research, though with a number of real problems in implementation, research and methodology that will have to be addressed.
Article
The Danish Road Directorate has conducted an experiment on traffic calming in three pilot towns. The problems caused by through traffic were reduced by using the new traffic management method called "Environmentally adapted through road." By using different kinds of speed reducing measures, vehicle speeds were slowed down. Priority was given to the local town environment, pedestrians, and cyclists. The aim was to increase safety, reduce the feeling of insecurity, and improve the local town environment. An extensive effect evaluation study programme was worked out by engineers together with architects, psychologists, economists, and biologists. The evaluation study included speeds, accidents, fence effect for pedestrians and cyclists, delays for through-going cars and side-road drivers, retail trade, noise and air pollution, energy consumption, costs, and users' opinions. The results show that vehicle speeds have been reduced significantly in the three pilot towns. The feeling of security and traffic safety have been increased. The town environments have been improved and the towns have become more attractive from the citizens' point of view.
Article
A transportation mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to perceived risk in the choice of mode for daily commute trips. This methodology provides a technique for examining, by means of disaggregate individual level data, risk-compensating effects in transportation systems. Various measures of perceived risk are examined for explaining modal choice. Other studies have described how safety regulations have resulted in increases in "driving intensity." This study defines one component of driving intensity to be the increased probability of commuting by automobile. The results show that modal shifts occur when risk perceptions for a given mode are reduced. To demonstrate potential risk-compensating effects within the transportation system, an estimate of changes in accident fatalities due to commuting is derived using rough estimates of fatalities per person-mile travelled. It is shown that a given change in the perceived risk of commuting by automobile results in a less than proportionate change in net commuting fatalities. The relative magnitude is dependent on how objective reductions in risk translate into perceived reductions in risk. This study also shows that perceived safety improvements in bicycle transportation have an aggregate elasticity value that is greater than one. This means that bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycle commuting (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting).
Article
A naturalistic experiment used an instrumented bicycle to gather proximity data from overtaking motorists. The relationship between rider position and overtaking proximity was the opposite to that generally believed, such that the further the rider was from the edge of the road, the closer vehicles passed. Additionally, wearing a bicycle helmet led to traffic getting significantly closer when overtaking. Professional drivers of large vehicles were particularly likely to leave narrow safety margins. Finally, when the (male) experimenter wore a long wig, so that he appeared female from behind, drivers left more space when passing. Overall, the results demonstrate that motorists exhibit behavioural sensitivity to aspects of a bicyclist's appearance during an encounter. In the light of previous research on drivers' attitudes to bicyclists, we suggest drivers approaching a bicyclist use physical appearance to judge the specific likelihood of the rider behaving predictably and alter their overtaking accordingly. However, the extent to which a bicyclist's moment-to-moment behaviour can be inferred from their appearance is questionable, and so the tendency for drivers to alter their passing proximity based on this appearance probably has implications for accident probability.
Article
Females are substantially less likely than males to cycle for transport in countries with low bicycle transport mode share. We investigated whether female commuter cyclists were more likely to use bicycle routes that provide separation from motor vehicle traffic. Census of cyclists observed at 15 locations (including off-road bicycle paths, on-road lanes and roads with no bicycle facilities) within a 7.4 km radius of the central business district (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia, during peak commuting times in February 2004. 6589 cyclists were observed, comprising 5229 males (79.4%) and 1360 females (20.6%). After adjustment for distance of the bicycle facility from the CBD, females showed a preference for using off-road paths rather than roads with no bicycle facilities (odds ratio [OR]=1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12, 1.83), or roads with on-road bicycle lanes (OR=1.34, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.75). Consistent with gender differences in risk aversion, female commuter cyclists preferred to use routes with maximum separation from motorized traffic. Improved cycling infrastructure in the form of bicycle paths and lanes that provide a high degree of separation from motor traffic is likely to be important for increasing transportation cycling amongst under-represented population groups such as women.
Portland, Oregon: Creating a World-Class Bicycling City
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