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Chemical treatments of Eustoma cut flower cultivars for enhanced vase life

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Abstract

Effects of some chemical treatments (continuous methods) on two cultivars of eustoma (Eustoma grandiflora Mariachii. cv. Blue & E. grandiflora Maraichii. cv. Cream) cut flowers were studied. Cut flowers were kept in vases containing 2.5% sucrose solutions supplemented with aluminum sulfate (100, 150 & 200 ppm), 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate (200, 300 & 400 ppm), ethanol (2, 4 & 6%), cobalt chloride (200, 300 & 400 ppm), copper sulfate (100, 150 & 200 ppm), citric acid and aluminum sulfate (150 ppm each) and water (no chemical treatment). The vases were placed in chambers at 25 o C, relative humidity about 70% and 14 h photoperiod maintained using fluorescent lamps (light intensity of 15 µmol m -2 s -1) at the top of the corolla. Determinations were made for vase life, corolla fresh weight, ethylene production rate, solution uptake and analyzed statistically. Data revealed differential responses of both the cultivars to chemical treatments. Copper sulfate at 100 ppm and 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate at 300 ppm concentrations in sucrose were the most effectiveness in blue and cream eustoma cultivars, respectively in enhancing vase life and keeping quality.

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... En México, el lisianthus es una especie de reciente introducción cuya demanda va en aumento, por lo que se considera un cultivo con amplias perspectivas (Cruz et al., 2006). Se ha determinado que existe diferencia entre cultivares de lisianthus en cuanto longevidad y respuesta a tratamientos postcosecha (Harbaugh et al., 2000;Hojjati et al., 2007). La longevidad de cada flor y la velocidad de apertura son factores importantes para extender la vida en florero de la inflorescencia (Shimizu e Ichimura, 2010). ...
... It has been determined that there is a difference between cultivars of lisianthus as longevity and response to postharvest treatments (Harbaugh et al., 2000;Hojjati et al., 2007). Longevity of each flower and the opening speed are important factors to extend vase-life of the inflorescence (Shimizu and Ichimura, 2010). ...
... Researches have made where it is determined that the application of pulse solutions for 24 h containing sugars (sucrose and glucose) in a ratio of three to 20%, alone or combined with silver thiosulfate, benzyladenine, acid naftalenacético or aminoetilvinilglicina, increase their postharvest life Cho et al., 2001;Huang and Cheng et al., 2002;Cruz et al., 2006;Chamanni et al., 2009;Shimizu and Ichimura, 2010). Also the use of preservative solutions containing only sugars (sucrose between 2.5 and 6%) combined or not combined with aluminum sulfate (150 mg L -1 ), hydroxyquinoline sulphate and citrate (200-300 mg L -1 ), ethanol (2%), peroxyacetic acid (0.5%), citric acid (0.5 ml L -1 ), glutamine (3 mM), succinic acid, salicylic acid (4 mM + 2 mM), aluminium sulphate (160 mg L -1 ), silica (1.5 mM), malic acid + acetylsalicylic acid (2 mM + 1.5 mM) improve postharvest y citrato (200-300 mg L -1 ), etanol (2%), ácido peroxiacético (0.5%), ácido cítrico (0.5 ml L -1 ), glutamina (3 mM), ácido succínico + ácido salicílico (4 mM + 2 mM), sulfato de aluminio (160 mg L -1 ), sílice (1.5 mM), ácido málico + ácido acetilsalícilico (2 mM + 1.5 mM) mejoran la vida poscosecha de algunos cultivares de lisianthus (Liao et al., 2001;Farokhzad et al., 2005;Hojjati et al., 2007;de la Riva et al., 2009;Loyola y Guzmán, 2009;Hassanpour y Karimi, 2010;Kazemi y Shorki, 2011;Kioamohammadi y Hashemaabadi, 2011;Kazemi et al., 2012). ...
Article
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Vase-life was evaluated in lisianthus inflorescences 'ABC Blue Rim' stored wet or dry for 5, 10 and 15 days at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH) in darkness; before storage, a solution at 3% of sucrose + 200 mg L-1 of Hydroxyquinoline citrate for 24 h was applied. Leaving low temperature, vase-life was evaluated in a chamber with a temperature of 20 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 2% RH, during 12 h light/dark and PAR of 173 ± 50 µmol m2s-1. A group of inflorescences was stored at low temperature (control); these inflorescences showed climacteric, a relative increased fresh weight (7.2%), water consumption (31.1 mL stem-1) and stomatal conductance (170 mmol m2 s-1); nine days after harvest, we had three open-flowers with uniform appearance and catalase activity incremented up to 6.3 Ug-1 fresh weight, whereas the activity of peroxidase was held constant for vase-life (between 0.1 and 0.4 Ug-1 weight). Flowers stored in water showed climacteric behaviour similar to that of the control, lower relative increase in fresh weight, similar water consumption and increased stomatal conductance than the controls; postharvest life went up to 19 days, the enzyme activity of catalase and peroxidase increased, similar to the controls. Dry storage was only feasible for five days.
... En México, el lisianthus es una especie de reciente introducción cuya demanda va en aumento, por lo que se considera un cultivo con amplias perspectivas (Cruz et al., 2006). Se ha determinado que existe diferencia entre cultivares de lisianthus en cuanto longevidad y respuesta a tratamientos postcosecha (Harbaugh et al., 2000;Hojjati et al., 2007). La longevidad de cada flor y la velocidad de apertura son factores importantes para extender la vida en florero de la inflorescencia (Shimizu e Ichimura, 2010). ...
... It has been determined that there is a difference between cultivars of lisianthus as longevity and response to postharvest treatments (Harbaugh et al., 2000;Hojjati et al., 2007). Longevity of each flower and the opening speed are important factors to extend vase-life of the inflorescence (Shimizu and Ichimura, 2010). ...
... Researches have made where it is determined that the application of pulse solutions for 24 h containing sugars (sucrose and glucose) in a ratio of three to 20%, alone or combined with silver thiosulfate, benzyladenine, acid naftalenacético or aminoetilvinilglicina, increase their postharvest life Cho et al., 2001;Huang and Cheng et al., 2002;Cruz et al., 2006;Chamanni et al., 2009;Shimizu and Ichimura, 2010). Also the use of preservative solutions containing only sugars (sucrose between 2.5 and 6%) combined or not combined with aluminum sulfate (150 mg L -1 ), hydroxyquinoline sulphate and citrate (200-300 mg L -1 ), ethanol (2%), peroxyacetic acid (0.5%), citric acid (0.5 ml L -1 ), glutamine (3 mM), succinic acid, salicylic acid (4 mM + 2 mM), aluminium sulphate (160 mg L -1 ), silica (1.5 mM), malic acid + acetylsalicylic acid (2 mM + 1.5 mM) improve postharvest y citrato (200-300 mg L -1 ), etanol (2%), ácido peroxiacético (0.5%), ácido cítrico (0.5 ml L -1 ), glutamina (3 mM), ácido succínico + ácido salicílico (4 mM + 2 mM), sulfato de aluminio (160 mg L -1 ), sílice (1.5 mM), ácido málico + ácido acetilsalícilico (2 mM + 1.5 mM) mejoran la vida poscosecha de algunos cultivares de lisianthus (Liao et al., 2001;Farokhzad et al., 2005;Hojjati et al., 2007;de la Riva et al., 2009;Loyola y Guzmán, 2009;Hassanpour y Karimi, 2010;Kazemi y Shorki, 2011;Kioamohammadi y Hashemaabadi, 2011;Kazemi et al., 2012). ...
Article
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La refrigeración en húmedo y seco afecta la vida poscosecha de flores de corte de Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) 'ABC Blue Rim'* Wet and dry cooling affect the postharvest life of cut flowers of Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) 'ABC Blue Rim' Resumen Se evaluó la vida en florero de inflorescencias de lisianthus 'ABC Blue Rim' almacenadas en húmedo o seco durante 5, 10 y 15 días a 3 °C y 85% de humedad relativa (HR) en oscuridad; antes del almacenamiento se aplicó una solución pulso 3% de sacarosa + 200 mg L -1 de Hidroxiquinoleína citrato por 24 h. Al salir de temperatura baja, la vida en florero se evaluó en una cámara con una temperatura de 20 ± 1 °C y 80 ± 2% HR, periodo de 12 h luz/oscuridad y una PAR de 173 ± 50 µmol m 2 s -1 . Un grupo de inflorescencias no se almacenaron a temperatura baja (testigo); estas inflorescencias mostraron un comportamiento climatérico, un incremento de peso fresco relativo (7.2%), consumo de agua (31.1 mL tallo -1) y conductancia estomática (170 mmol m 2 s -1), a los nueve días después de cosecha se tuvieron tres flores abiertas con regular apariencia y la actividad en catalasa se incrementó hasta 6.3 U g -1 de peso fresco, en tanto que la actividad de peroxidasa se mantuvo constante durante la vida en florero (entre 0.1 y 0.4 U g -1 de peso). Las flores almacenadas en agua mostraron comportamiento climatérico similar al testigo, menor incremento de peso fresco relativo, similar consumo de agua y mayor conductancia estomática que las flores testigo; se incrementó la vida poscosecha hasta Abstract Vase-life was evaluated in lisianthus inflorescences 'ABC Blue Rim' stored wet or dry for 5, 10 and 15 days at 3 °C and 85% relative humidity (RH) in darkness; before storage, a solution at 3% of sucrose + 200 mg L -1 of Hydroxyquinoline citrate for 24 h was applied. Leaving low temperature, vase-life was evaluated in a chamber with a temperature of 20 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 2% RH, during 12 h light/dark and PAR of 173 ± 50 µmol m 2 s -1 . A group of inflorescences was stored at low temperature (control); these inflorescences showed climacteric, a relative increased fresh weight (7.2%), water consumption (31.1 mL stem-1) and stomatal conductance (170 mmol m 2 s -1); nine days after harvest, we had three open-flowers with uniform appearance and catalase activity incremented up to 6.3 Ug -1 fresh weight, whereas the activity of peroxidase was held constant for vase-life (between 0.1 and 0.4 Ug -1 weight). Flowers stored in water showed climacteric behaviour similar to that of the control, lower relative increase in fresh weight, similar water consumption and increased stomatal conductance than the controls; postharvest life went up to 19 days, the enzyme activity of catalase and peroxidase increased, similar to the controls. Dry storage was only feasible for five days.
... Different types of preservatives or vase solution ingredients are currently used to extend the vase life of flowers and foliage products (Thambugala et al., 2010). Copper is a multifunctional biocide, which is involved in enzymatic reactions related to biosynthesis and action of ethylene (Hojjati et al., 2007), reduces bacterial growth and multiplication, and inhibits enzymes involved in physiological stem occlusion (Damunupola and Joyce, 2008). Among many chemical preservatives, sucrose is the most commonly used vase solution ingredient as it improves the water balance and osmotic potential of cut flowers (Lal et al., 1990). ...
... When considering the vase life data, there was no significant difference between DW and CuSO 4 (0.25 mM), CuSO 4 (1.0 mM) treatments. However, CuSO 4 (0.5 mM) and DW had a significant difference on vase life and this may be due to the action of copper involved in enzymatic reactions related to biosynthesis and action of ethylene (Hojjati et al., 2007) and/or its involvement in stem end wound reaction inhibition. Furthermore, as a multifunctional biocide, copper may inhibits the enzymes involved in physiological stem occlusion (Damunupola and Joyce, 2008), thus enhancing the vase life of O. japonicus cut foliage. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ophiopogon japonicus (L.f.) Ker-Gawl (family Liliaceae) is an export-oriented foliage plant with attractive white-green strips. The vase life of this cut foliage ends when the leaves loose turgidity and/ or bright green colour. Thus, to enhance the vase life of O. japonicus, effect of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mM CuSO 4 .5H 2 O, 10, 20, and 30 g/L sucrose and combination of sucrose with 0.5 mM CuSO 4 .5H 2 O as holding treatments, 20 g/L and 30 g/L sucrose solutions as 24 h pulsing treatments and 6-Benzylaminopurine 5, 10, 20 mg/L BAP were tested. Relative fresh weight of leaves, solution uptake rate and vase life were assessed. Vase solution bacterial enumerations were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of CuSO 4 .5H 2 O as a biocide. To investigate the function of BAP, amount of chlorophyll was quantified using leaf pigment extracts. The vase life of O. japonicus could be extended from 5.1 days to 12.5 days by giving BAP based vase solutions. Chlorophyll contents of leaves dipped in BAP solutions were significantly higher than the control (distilled water). CuSO 4 solutions did not show any significant antibacterial effects compared to the control. According to vase life data, the most effective vase solutions were CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (0.5 mM), sucrose 20 g/L with CuSO 4 .5H 2 O (0.5 mM) as holding treatments, sucrose 20 g/L and 30 g/L as pulsing treatments and BAP treatments (5, 10, 20 mg/L).
... Las soluciones preservadoras alargan la vida de las flores porque actúan sobre uno o varios procesos que determinan su senescencia. Actualmente se utilizan soluciones con carbohidratos, principalmente sacarosa y glucosa (Arriaga y Guerrero, 1995); soluciones con reguladores de crecimiento para prevenir el amarillamiento foliar (Hicklenton, 1991;Nell y Reid, 2000); soluciones con nitrato de plata para inhibir el crecimiento bacterial (Van Doorn et al.,1989;Van Doorn, 1997), y soluciones con inhibidores de etileno para prevenir los efectos de senescencia (Veen, 1986;Hojjati et al., 2007), entre los cuales se encuentra el cobalto. Pardha y Mohan (1989) lograron incrementar la vida en florero de Chrysanthemun morifolium (crisantemo) hasta por 14 días con 0.5 mM de cloruro de cobalto, y en combinación con sacarosa 0.1 M la longevidad se incrementó hasta 24 días. ...
... Preservative solutions extend the life of flowers because they act on one or more processes that determine their senescence. Nowadays, solutions with carbohydrates, mainly sucrose and glucose (Arriaga and Guerrero, 1995); solutions with growth regulators to prevent leaf yellowing (Hicklenton, 1991;Nell and Reid, 2000); silver nitrate solutions to inhibit bacterial growth (Van Doorn et al., 1989;Van Doorn, 1997), and solutions with ethylene inhibitors (cobalt) to prevent the effects of senescence (Veen, 1986;Hojjati et al., 2007), are used. Pardha and Mohan (1989) managed to increase the vase life of Chrysanthemun morifolium up to 14 days with 0.5 mM cobalt chloride, and in combination with 0.1 M sucrose longevity increased up to 24 days. ...
Article
The quality of cut flowers is affected due to long periods of exposure to warm temperatures, water stress and mechanical damages. Several studies have identified technical issues to prolong the life of cut flowers, standing out the use of preservative solutions which may also inhibit ethylene biosynthesis. Cobalt chloride (Co) effects on weight, consumption of solution, SPAD units in leaves, content of nitrogen, cobalt, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron, and postharvest life in stems of 'Star Gazer' and 'Star Fighter' Oriental Hybrid Lilium were evaluated. Floral stems were obtained from Villa Guerrero, Estado de México, and transported in dry conditions to the laboratory, where a 2 x 5 factorial experiment in a completely randomized design was conducted. Solutions containing sucrose as a carbon source at 4 % and the following Co concentrations: 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mM were used. This establishes that 0.1 and 0.2 mM Co delayed the symptoms of senescence in Lilium stems.
... The life of such flowers can be improved through manipulation of their production and sensitivity to ethylene (Amarjit, 2000). A rise in ethylene production that accelerates senescence has been found in cut carnations, roses and lisianthuses (Mayak and Halevy, 1980;Halevy and Mayak, 1981;Farokhzad et al., 2005;Hojjati et al., 2007). Cytokinins have been particularly effective in delaying senescence of cut carnation by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis (Cook et al., 1985). ...
... Cut flowers showed typical climacteric patterns of ethylene production during senescence. This present studies have reconfirmed the role of ethylene on the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers (Farokhzad et al., 2005;Hojjati et al., 2007). These results suggest that Eustoma grandiflorum cv. ...
Article
In this research, Benzyladenine (BA) was used for improving quality and vase life of cut Eustoma flowers. BA (0, 25, 50 or 75 mg L -1) was sprayed on the flowers with a fine mist to cover all surfaces of the flowers and foliage. BA extended the vase life at all concentrations, but at 25, 50 mg L -1 were the more effective treatments. Ethylene production of cut flowers increased flower senescence. BA delayed ethylene production compared with the control. The weight loss, chlorophyll and anthocyanin degradation were significantly reduced by the application of 25 and 50 mg L -1 BA. Water uptake was higher in all treatments. This results show that ethylene production is an important factor in determining the vase life of cut Eustoma flowers.
... Rosa which contains more than150 species and 1400 cultivars [12]. Flowers are considered to be silent entertainers. ...
Article
A research study was conducted to evaluate the impact of Silver thiosulfate (STS) and sucrose on the vase life of rose cut flower CV. Cardinal, under room conditions with normal day light and natural ventilation. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. A combined solution of Silver thiosulfate (STS) with 0ppm (control), 15ppm, 20ppm, 25ppm and Sucrose 0% (control), 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% concentrations were applied to the rose cut flowers. Data collected on daily basis revealed that both STS and sucrose generally showed significant results at all concentrations. Furthermore, a chemical combination of 25ppm STS with 7.5% sucrose gave the promising results for all the parameters. Maximum flower longevity (10.12 days), flower diameter (7.01 cm), flower dry weight (4.38 g) and delayed flower opening period (6.87 days) were recorded for flowers placed in solution combination of 25ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose. Flower fresh weight was significantly increased (12.42 g) in solution having 20ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose. Likewise, solution combination of 25ppm STS and 7.5% sucrose results in a 15% less percent petal drop as compared to control (36.75%). Moreover, STS and sucrose as individual treatments also showed significant effects in some of the parameters. A significantly minimum flower percent fading (11.25%), maximum flower longevity (8.99 days), majorly delayed flower opening period (5.87 days) was recorded for flowers placed in 25ppm STS solution. In general, 7.5 % sucrose and 25ppm STS is the best considered solution combination to be used for long preserved vase life of cut rose flowers.
... Asimismo, la expresión del color de la flor es incrementada con el tratamiento de azúcar en algunas flores como claveles, rosas y Lisianthus. Los pigmentos de estas flores son principalmente antocianinas (Gilman y Steponkus, 1972;Parups y Molnar, 1972;Ichimura y Korenaga, 1998, Hojjati et al., 2007. Uddin et al., (2004) agregan que el uso de azúcar para promover el desarrollo de las flores y su pigmentación es una práctica común en la poscosecha de las flores cortadas. ...
Article
Full-text available
It has been determined that a third of the life of cut flowers is influenced by pre-harvest environment, while the remaining two thirds for the management and the conditions after cutting. The transport of flowers over long distances has increased because countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, Australia, Chile, Thailand, South Africa, Poland, India and China, have gone into production and have extensive flower for export programs, however distant from the main centers of trade and consumption as the United States of America, Europe and Japan. This implies the need to develop technologies to maintain the quality of cut flowers, such as low temperature storage, the use of chemical preservatives and biocides as chlorine, ethylene inhibitors (TSA), the main element that causes ripening and senescence of flowers and fruit, or the use of mechanical techniques such as cutting the stems under water, immersion in citric acid or water containing commercial products or Pokon, Florissima, among others. The quality of floral products demanded by European consumers is extremely high quality standards of the European Union are defined in the standard 316/68 laying down minimum requirements for cut flowers. This paper analyzes the causes of the senescence of cut flowers and clean preservatives to prolong their vase life as environmentally.
... Later, included Cu 2+ in a 'standard tap water' (STW) formulation. Pulse or vase solution treatments with Cu 2+ improved the vase lives of cut chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora 'Vyking'; van Doorn and Vaslier, 2002), bouvardia (Bouvardia x domestica 'van Zijverden; Vaslier and , rose (Rosa x hybrida 'Red One'), astilbe (Astilbe x arendsii 'Erica' and 'Glut'), viburnum (Viburnum opulus 'Roseum'; Loubaud and van Doorn, 2004), and eustoma (Eustoma grandiflora; Hojjati et al., 2007). The positive effects of Cu 2+ were generally attributed to either antimicrobial properties and/or to inhibitory action on plant induced oxidative enzymes, including peroxidase (POD; EC 1.11.1.x) ...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms of action of Cu2+ in improving the longevity of cut flowers and foliage have not been elucidated. Possible antimicrobial action of Cu2+ against stem end and vase solution colonising bacteria was investigated using Cu2+ treatments optimised for cut Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. ex G. Don foliage stems. These treatments were a 5 h pulse with 2.2 mM Cu2+ or a 0.5 mM Cu2+ vase solution versus a deionised water (no Cu2+) control. Bacterial growth over time was assessed by a standard plate count agar technique and with scanning electron microscopy. Cu2+ treatments significantly extended the cut foliage vase life. However, they did not have sustained antibacterial activity against stem end or vase solution colonising bacteria. Also, regular recutting of 1–2 cm from the stem ends did not substantially improve either cut stem water relations or longevity. The positive effects of Cu2+ treatments were unaffected by the repeated stem end recutting. It was concluded that the primary mechanism of Cu2+ was not antibacterial. Moreover, naturally growing vase solution and stem end microbial populations had relatively insignificant effects on cut A. holosericea vase life. Research into alternative mechanisms of Cu2+ is required.
... Preservative solutions extend the life of flowers because they act on one or more processes that determine their senescence. Nowadays, solutions with carbohydrates, mainly sucrose and glucose (Arriaga and Guerrero, 1995); solutions with growth regulators to prevent leaf yellowing (Hicklenton, 1991; Nell and Reid, 2000 ); silver nitrate solutions to inhibit bacterial growth (Van Doorn et al., 1989; Van Doorn, 1997), and solutions with ethylene inhibitors (cobalt) to prevent the effects of senescence (Veen, 1986; Hojjati et al., 2007), are used. Pardha and Mohan (1989) managed to increase the vase life of Chrysanthemun morifolium up to 14 days with 0.5 mM cobalt chloride, and in combination with 0.1 M sucrose longevity increased up to 24 days. ...
Article
It has been determined that a third of the life of cut flowers is influenced by pre-harvest environment, while the remaining two thirds for the management and the conditions after cutting. The transport of flowers over long distances has increased because countries like Kenya, Zimbabwe, Australia, Chile, Thailand, South Africa, Poland, India and China, have gone into production and have extensive flower for export programs, however distant from the main centers of trade and consumption as the United States of America, Europe and Japan. This implies the need to develop technologies to maintain the quality of cut flowers, such as low temperature storage, the use of chemical preservatives and biocides as chlorine, ethylene inhibitors (TSA), the main element that causes ripening and senescence of flowers and fruit, or the use of mechanical techniques such as cutting the stems under water, immersion in citric acid or water containing commercial products or Pokon, Florissima, among others. The quality of floral products demanded by European consumers is extremely high quality standards of the European Union are defined in the standard 316/68 laying down minimum requirements for cut flowers. This paper analyzes the causes of the senescence of cut flowers and clean preservatives to prolong their vase life as environmentally.
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A vase solution for cut orchids has been developed by replacing silver nitrate with other chemicals which is safer for the environment. The result from preliminary experiments showed that vase solution with 100 mg·L -1 aluminum sulfate, 200 mg·L-1 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and 1.5% sucrose can extend vase life of three different cut Dendrobium hybrids when compared with distilled water. This experiment aimed to evaluate the quality of our vase solution compared with the commercial vase solution (Chrysal, Naarden, The Netherlands). Three cut Dendrobium hybrids, namely, Dendrobium 'Kao Sanan', Dendrobium 'Lovely Pink' and Dendrobium 'Suree Peach' were tested. The results showed that Dendrobium 'Kao Sanan' and Dendrobium 'Lovely Pink' have a longer vase life in the tested vase solution than in the commercial vase solution while Dendrobium 'Suree Peach' has a shorter vase life in the tested solution than in the commercial vase solution. In Dendrobium 'Kao Sanan', Dendrobium 'Lovely Pink' and Dendrobium 'Suree Peach' the vase life was extended to 14.8, 16.9 and 13.0 days respectively in the tested vase solution. Whereas, cut Dendrobium inflorescences treated with chrysal solution had 13.5, 10.1 and 14.6 days of vase life, respectively. There was no statistical difference in the vase life between the tested solution and commercial solution in Dendrobium 'Kao Sanan' and Dendrobium 'Suree Peach' but there was a statistical difference in the vase life between the tested solution and commercial solution in Dendrobium 'Lovely Pink'. These results suggested that our solution was able to improve the quality and extend the vase life of cut Dendrobium as well as the commercial solution.
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Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10,20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 +/- 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extract were 400 mg 14 and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg l(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pule glum L. and 8-HQS to extend vase life of cut rose (R. hybrida L.) flowers.
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Combinations of glutamine, succinic acid, Salicylic acid and citric acid were used as preservative mixture for cut Lisianthus and their effect on regulation of senescence was examined. In this study, the recorded traits included vase life, total chlorophyll content (SPAD reading), anthocyanin leakage, malondialdehyde content and ACC-oxidase activity. The vase were placed in chambers at 19°C, relative humidity about 70% and 14 h photoperiod that was maintained using fluorescent lamps (light intensity of 15 μmol m -2 sec -1) at the top of the corolla. The results showed that glutamine, succinic acid and Salicylic acid treatments increased the vase life and decrease the percentage of wilting compared to the control. The vase solution containing 3 mM glutamine and 4 mM succinic acid with 2 mM salicylic acid significantly increased vase life compared to the control, in addition, the malondialdehyde accumulation and ACC-Oxidase activity reduced in the same solution while membrane stability was improved. Results suggest that glutamine, succinic acid and Salicylic acid increases vase life by affecting many of the age-related changes associated with Lisianthus petal senescence.
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Short postharvest vase life is one of the most important problems on the cut flowers. In this study we investigated the effect of some essential oils, citric acid, malic aid and nickel in extending the vase-life of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum Mariachii. cv. Blue) flowers. The treatments were distilled water, nickel (0, 1 and 2 mM), essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) (50, 100 and 150 mg L -1), citric acid (0, 100 and 150 mg L -1) and malic aid (0, 1.5 and 2.5 mM). Results showed that solution containing 2 mM nickel+2.5 mM malic acid and 150 mg L -1 essential oils of Thyme could increase flower longevity as compared to control. The results also revealed that malic acid and nickel treatments increased cut-flower water absorption while decreasing ACC-oxidase (Aminocyclopropanecarboxylate oxidase) activity and premeability together with total delay of senescence and peroxidation of lipids. Chlorophyll content and ACC-oxidase activity in the cut flower in solution containing citric acid and essential oils were not significantly different than control. It is suggested the application of nickel, essential oils of Thyme and malic aid in preservative solutions for Lisianthus flowers maintained the vase life of flowers for a longer period.
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The reduction of the ornamental value of cut flowers is mainly due to their short vase life. In this study we investigated the effect of cobalt, acetylsalicylic acid and Glutamine to extend the Vase-life of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. The treatments were distilled water, cobalt (0, 1.5, 3 mM), acetylsalicylic acid (0, 1.5, 3 mM) and glutamine (0, 1, 2 mM). Results show that solution containing 1.5 mM cobalt, 1.5 mM acetylsalicylic acid and 2 mM glutamine could increase flower longevity in compared to control. Vase life in solution containing 3 mM cobalt, 3 mM acetylsalicylic acid and their combination didn't have significantly difference than control and glutamine. The results showed that cobalt, acetylsalicylic acid and glutamine treatments increased cut flower water absorption, fresh weight and vase life, while decreasing MDA content, ACC-oxidase activity and membrane premeability together with total delay of senescence and peroxidation of lipids. Present results suggest the application of cobalt, acetylsalicylic acid and glutamine in preservative solutions for carnation flowers maintained the vase life of flowers for a longer period.
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In this study, effects of different concentrations of glutamin, malic acid, Salicylic acid and their interaction on extending the vase life, total chlorophyll content, ACC-Oxidase activity, anthocyanin leakage, membrane stability and malondialdehyde content of Cut Flowers of 'Prato' Lily was investigated. The vase were placed in chambers at 25°C, relative humidity about 70% and 14 h photoperiod that was maintained using fluorescent lamps (light intensity of 15 μ mol m -2 sec -1) at the top of the corolla. The results showed that glutamin, malic acid and Salicylic acid treatments increased the vase life and decrease the percentage of wilting compared to the control. The vase solution containing 3 mM glutamin and 4 mM malic acid with 2 mM Salicylic acid significantly increased vase life compared to the control, in addition, the malondialdehyde accumulation and ACC-Oxidase activity reduced in the same solution while membrane stability was improved. Results suggest that glutamin and malic acid along with salicylic acid increases vase life by affecting many of the age-related changes associated with Lily petal senescence.
Article
Continuous treatment with 8% ethanol doubled the vase life of `White Sim' carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flowers. Other alcohols, other concentrations of ethanol, or pulse treatments with up to 8% ethanol had little or no effect. Butanol and longer-chain alcohols shortened vase life and caused the flower stem to fold. During their eventual senescence, the petals of ethanol-treated flowers did not inroll; instead, individual petals dried slowly from their tips. Very little ethylene was produced by ethanol-treated flowers, and the normal increase in ACC content and EFE activity was also suppressed. Ethanol treatment also decreased the flowers' sensitivity to exogenous ethylene.