Article

When Photographs Create False Memories

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Abstract

Photographs help people illustrate the stories of their lives and the significant stories of their society. However, photographs can do more than illustrate events; in this article, we show that photographs can distort memory for them. We describe the course of our "false-memory implantation" research, and review recent work showing that photographs can sometimes increase - while other times decrease - false memories. First, we discuss research showing that a doctored photo, showing subjects taking a completely fictitious hot-air-balloon ride, can cultivate false memories for that experience. We hypothesize that the photograph helps subjects to imagine details about the event that they later confuse with reality. Second, we show that although photographs are indeed powerful sources of influence on memory, they are not necessarily as powerful as narrative. In fact, in certain circumstances, photographs might constrain imagination. Third, we discuss research showing that true photographs can also cultivate false memories. Finally, we present recent work showing that photographs can create false memories for current events.

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... When examining photographs of a past event, they often act as a memory cue to recall the events of a specific day and time. In the past, photographs were seen as a reliable and undisputed memory cue, even as our own memories are considerably more unreliable (Dodhia & Metcalfe, 1999;Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Lindsay et al., 2004;Liv & Greenbaum, 2020;Wade et al., 2002). In fact, many studies examining the malleability of memories have used photographs to examine how autobiographical memories are affected (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Garry & Wade, 2005;Lindsay et al., 2004;Wade et al., 2002). ...
... In the past, photographs were seen as a reliable and undisputed memory cue, even as our own memories are considerably more unreliable (Dodhia & Metcalfe, 1999;Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Lindsay et al., 2004;Liv & Greenbaum, 2020;Wade et al., 2002). In fact, many studies examining the malleability of memories have used photographs to examine how autobiographical memories are affected (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Garry & Wade, 2005;Lindsay et al., 2004;Wade et al., 2002). Many studies found that even when there was no evidence that a person had experienced a specific event in their life, providing a photograph as a potential cue led many individuals to falsely report the event. ...
... Lastly, a rich literature examines the pervasive effects of photographs on memory, particularly false memory construction (see Garry & Gerrie, 2005, for a review). As noted previously, EFT construction relies on the contents of past experiences. ...
... Imagination in itself promotes perceptual and contextual detail inclusion in a remembered event, whether counterfactual (e.g., contrary to truth) or not. Photographs affect memory representations in the same way: encouraging embellishment of details included in an imagined past event representation (Garry & Gerrie, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Future episodic thinking relies on the reconstruction of remembered experiences. Photographs provide one means of remembering, acting as a “cognitive springboard” for generating related memory qualities. We wondered whether photographs would also invite embellishment of future thought qualities, particularly in the presence (or absence) of associated memories. In two studies participants generated future events in familiar (associated memories) and novel (no associated memories) locations. Half of the participants viewed scene location photographs during event generation. All participants then imagined the events for one minute and completed a self-report measure of content qualities. Results of the current set of studies suggested that for novel locations, no differences in qualities emerged; however, for familiar locations, photographs did not enhance qualities and, in some cases, actually constrained perceptual (Experiments 1 and 2) and sensory (Experiment 1) detail ratings of future thoughts. Thus, photographs did not invite embellishment of future thought details.
... Photographs represent a powerful dialectic between the past and the present. They provide critical retrieval cues about real or imagined personal memories (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Henkel, 2011;Wade, Garry, Read, & Lindsay, 2002) and constitute the frame through which people come to understand depicted persons, places, and events as news-worthy, relevant, and memorable in the first place (Schwalbe, 2006;Sturken, 1997). Personal photographs serve as external repositories of memory that can be effectively used to jog one's memory for forgotten information (e.g., Aschermann, Dannenberg, & Schulz, 1998;Glenberg & Grimes, 1995;Weiser, 2002). ...
... Personal photographs serve as external repositories of memory that can be effectively used to jog one's memory for forgotten information (e.g., Aschermann, Dannenberg, & Schulz, 1998;Glenberg & Grimes, 1995;Weiser, 2002). Although this relationship between photographs and memory has been studied extensively at the individual level (see Garry & Gerrie, 2005), few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. To the extent that it has been examined at the collective level, researchers find that photographs provide important cues that shape memories of political events (Frenda, Knowles, Saletan, & Loftus, 2013;Sacchi, Agnoli, & Loftus, 2007). ...
Article
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesized that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them. In Study 2, we manipulated participants’ gaze behavior by either directing visual attention toward racial retrieval cues, away from racial retrieval cues, or directing attention within photographs where racial retrieval cues were missing. Across Studies 1 and 2, visual attention to racial retrieval cues in photographs documenting historical segregation predicted social justice concept accessibility.
... Interestingly, comparisons of the differential impact of photos and narratives on the creation of memories for suggested events have found that although both pictures and narratives are associated with relatively high rates of false beliefs and memories, narratives are even more effective than are photos in leading participants to claim that they remember events that presumably did not in fact happen (Garry and Wade, 2005;Garry and Gerrie, 2005;Strange, Gerrie, and Garry, 2005). Garry and colleagues argue that narratives promote a stronger sense of familiarity and encourage cognitive operations that are more likely to lead to mental representations that are confused with actual experiences. ...
... On the other hand, when photographs are presented repeatedly rather than just once, the repetition may create a stronger mental representation for having seen a photograph, which people can then use as an indicator to "override" the familiarity and perceptual details that they would otherwise erroneously attribute to actual experience. This is similar to Garry and colleagues' argument as to why narratives lead to more false beliefs and memories of autobiographical experiences than did photographs (Garry and Wade, 2005;Garry and Gerrie, 2005;Strange, Gerrie, and Garry, 2005). ...
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Memory errors in everyday life are pervasive and can range from being minor inconveniences to having significant consequences. At the root of many memory errors are source misattributions in which a person mistakenly claims that the source of a remembered event was something other than what it actually was (e.g., a person claiming to have performed an action that he or she merely thought about completing; erroneously remembering that he or she saw an event when he or she actually only read about it or saw pictures of it). The present chapter examines how source misattributions can create false beliefs and memories in which people claim that they did things that they actually did not. The role of three different but related everyday experiences in the creation of such memory errors is explored in depth — hearing or talking about various experiences, engaging in mental imagery, and viewing photographs — followed by presentation of a new study examining how photographs can lead to false claims of having committed actions that were not actually performed.
... Years of research have demonstrated that misinformation exposure can result in false or distorted memories; for example, when an eyewitness's memory of a crime is influenced by a leading question [7], or when a participant is induced to remember a childhood event that never took place [8][9][10]. Similar observations have been made with respect to online misinformation, with various reports of false memories for fabricated events described in "fake news" articles [11][12][13][14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years there has been an explosion of research on misinformation, often involving experiments where participants are presented with fake news stories and subsequently debriefed. In order to avoid potential harm to participants or society, it is imperative that we establish whether debriefing procedures remove any lasting influence of misinformation. In the current study, we followed up with 1547 participants one week after they had been exposed to fake news stories about COVID-19 and then provided with a detailed debriefing. False memories and beliefs for previously-seen fake stories declined from the original study, suggesting that the debrief was effective. Moreover, the debriefing resulted in reduced false memories and beliefs for novel fake stories, suggesting a broader impact on participants' willingness to accept misinformation. Small effects of misinformation on planned health behaviours observed in the original study were also eliminated at follow-up. Our findings suggest that when a careful and thorough debriefing procedure is followed, researchers can safely and ethically conduct misinformation research on sensitive topics.
... Reviewing photos can also cause memory distortions. Altered photos have been shown to cause participants to report recollections of events or details that never actually occurred (Frenda, Knowles, Saletan, & Loftus, 2013;Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Wade, Garry, Don Read, & Lindsay, 2002). Wade et al. (2002), for example, showed participants doctored photos of the participant riding a hot air balloon as a child, an event that did not actually take place. ...
Preprint
Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Both internal and external memory are susceptible to physical damage; but external memory can be duplicated (i.e., backed up) across multiple locations, a precaution not available for internal memory. noted that external memory is vulnerable to active sabotage by other agents (e.g., your notes could be deleted or altered by others; photos could be doctored, Garry & Gerrie, 2005), and he claimed that internal memory is not vulnerable. However, we note that internal memory may also be sabotaged, though more subtly, by means of misinformation or gaslighting. ...
Article
Humans have access to both internal memory (information stored in the brain) and external memory (information stored in the environment). To what extent do we use each in everyday life? In two experiments, participants rated both internal and external memory for frequency of use, dependability, ease of use (Experiment 1), and likelihood of use (Experiment 2) across four purposes: episodic, semantic, procedural, and prospective. Experiment 1 showed that internal memory was favoured for episodic and procedural purposes, while external memory was favoured for semantic purposes. Experiment 2 further clarified that internal memory was favoured for episodic and common procedural purposes, while external memory was favoured for uncommon semantic, uncommon procedural, and far-term prospective purposes. This strategic division of labour plays to the strengths of both forms of memory. Participants also generally rated external memory as more dependable and easier to use. Results support the memory symbiosis framework.
... Reviewing photos can also cause memory distortions. Altered photos have been shown to cause participants to report recollections of events or details that never actually occurred (Frenda, Knowles, Saletan, & Loftus, 2013;Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Wade, Garry, Don Read, & Lindsay, 2002). Wade et al. (2002), for example, showed participants doctored photos of the participant riding a hot air balloon as a child, an event that did not actually take place. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital technologies have changed the everyday use of human memory. When information is saved or made readily available online, there is less need to encode or maintain access to that information within the biological structures of memory. People increasingly depend on the Internet and various digital devices to learn and remember, but the implications and consequences of this dependence remain largely unknown. The present chapter provides an overview of research to date on memory in the digital age. It focuses in particular on issues related to transactive memory, cognitive offloading, photo taking, social media use, and learning in the classroom.
... Photographs clearly function in multiple and complex ways with our memory, often in the context of other contemporary non-visual (e.g. textual, verbal, social) information (reviewed in Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The strength of their potential influence led to the suggestion that photographs supporting memories can validate a sense of self (Heersmink & McCarroll, 2019, pp. ...
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I begin by examining perception of photographs from two directions: what we think photographs are, and the aspects of mind involved when viewing photographs. Traditional photographs are shown to be mnemonic tools, and memory identified as a key part of the process by which photographs are fully perceived. Second, I describe the metamorphogram; a non-traditional photograph which fits specific, author-defined criteria for being memory. The metamorphogram is shown to be analogous to a composite of all an individual’s episodic memories. Finally, using the metamorphogram in artistic works suggests a bi-directional relationship between individual autobiographical memory and shared cultural memory. A model of this relationship fails to align with existing definitions of cultural memory, and may represent a new form: sociobiographical memory. I propose that the experiences documented here make the case for promoting a mutually beneficial relationship between philosophy and other creative disciplines, including photography.
... Findings from Sacchi et al. [94] and from Nash [72] provide evidence that doctored evidence effects apply in the context of recent news events (semantic memory) as well as the previously described cases of episodic memory [34]. Doctored images can be convincing (and will likely only get better) -it's unsurprising therefore that individuals are often poor at identifying both when a photograph has been altered and the specific manipulations that have been made [83]. ...
Chapter
The technology and tools that we develop have always been transformative, but the pace of change, particularly in the last few decades is undoubtedly altering humans in ways we don’t understand. As researchers look to develop novel prosthetics and tools to enhance our memories and extend cognition, further consideration is needed to understand how technologies can help (or, indeed, hinder) our inherent abilities. In this chapter, we identify two distinct forms of cognitive risk associated with current and emerging technologies: memory inhibition and memory distortion. We describe how lifelogging, search engines, social media, satnavs and other developments are prompting us to retain less information for ourselves (inhibition), and present three specific examples of this phenomenon: the Google effect, photo-taking-impairment and alterations in spatial memory attributed to satnav use. We further consider cases in which technology actually increases the likelihood of errors in what and how we remember (distortion), including doctored evidence effects, creation of false memories for current or historical affairs (“fake news”) and retrieval-induced forgetting. Finally, we provide an exploration of these cognitive vulnerabilities in the context of human memory augmentation, including the reporting of a mixed design experiment with 48 participants in which we demonstrate both retrieval-induced forgetting and false memory creation for real-world experiences.
... Notably, photos biased people to believe they had performed a given action, regardless of whether they actually had or had not. This result is particularly surprising -while there is some evidence that photos can distort memory for recent actions, the photos in those studies are often combined with variables such as suggestion, elaboration, and repetition, all of which make it more difficult to discern whether a memory is real or not (Lindsay et al., 2004; for a review see Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The results from Cardwell et al. (2016) demonstrate that even a short exposure to non-probative photos in the absence of other suggestive techniques can lead to immediate mistakes in memory. ...
Book
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This open-access book examines the phenomenon of fake news by bringing together leading experts from different fields within psychology and related areas, and explores what has become a prominent feature of public discourse since the first Brexit referendum and the 2016 US election campaign. Thanks to funding from the Swiss National Science Foundation, all chapters can be downloaded free of charge at the publisher's website: https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/9780429295379 There is also an Amazon Kindle edition that's free of charge: https://www.amazon.com/Psychology-Fake-News-Correcting-Misinformation-ebook-dp-B08FF54H53/dp/B08FF54H53/ref=mt_other?_encoding=UTF8&me=&qid=
... Notably, photos biased people to believe they had performed a given action, regardless of whether they actually had or had not. This result is particularly surprising -while there is some evidence that photos can distort memory for recent actions, the photos in those studies are often combined with variables such as suggestion, elaboration, and repetition, all of which make it more difficult to discern whether a memory is real or not (Lindsay et al., 2004; for a review see Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The results from Cardwell et al. (2016) demonstrate that even a short exposure to non-probative photos in the absence of other suggestive techniques can lead to immediate mistakes in memory. ...
... Explored most thoroughly in Psychology (e.g., Garry & Wade, 2005), false memory is the idea that one comes to actually remember the past incorrectly. Narrative has been shown to play an important role in how individuals can develop false memories (Garry & Gerrie, 2005). A study by Wade, Garry, Read, and Lindsay (2002) shows that adults shown fake photoshopped pictures of themselves in a hot air balloon with a parent will often develop false memories of the day the balloon ride occurred. ...
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Narratives are the primary way by which people both understand themselves and how they communicate with others. The Narrative Policy Framework (NPF), a framework intended to help researchers make sense of the policy process, empirically studies the capacity for narratives to shape public policy at multiple levels of analyses. After what has now been a decade of empirical hypotheses testing, the NPF is employed in this article as a theoretical tool to engage the postmodern threat of President Donald Trump. While Trump’s misbehaviors are many, here we focus on his propensity to invent facts and engage in activities that seek to obscure truth. We argue these activities are an existential threat to democratic and scientific institutions, that these institutions require defending, and that the NPF can be deployed to that end. To make our case we first articulate the postmodern threat that Trump presents. We then leverage the NPF to provide ideas and strategies that we would expect to help us better understand Trump’s narrative tactics. The article concludes with some prescriptions flowing from the NPF, which are aimed at firmly anchoring the NPF to the normative assumptions and presuppositions of democracy and science.
... Some researchers state that that the main function of photography of the 'analog era', which serves as means of memory preservation, is no longer significant. Its leading functions nowadays are the communication as well as the shaping of the personality [3]. ...
... Yet, the visual texts developed by the users remain hidden under the guise of individual empowerment through their distribution on social media, even if their production required disengagement from the activity they were seeking to capture. Under these conditions, privileging the production of the visual text over the experiential situation seems to be resolved by the construction of a fabricated memory, which might be as vivid for the individual as if no visual documentation had been produced (Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The individual's experience of performing an action that is being documented is not that of the situation per se, but of documenting said situation. ...
... Notably, photos biased people to believe they had performed a given action, regardless of whether they actually had or had not. This result is particularly surprising-while there is some evidence that photos can distort memory for recent actions, the photos in those studies are often combined with variables such as suggestion, elaboration, and repetition, all of which make it more difficult to discern whether a memory is real or not (Lindsay et al., 2004; for a review see Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The results from Cardwell et al. (2016) demonstrate that even a short exposure to non-probative photos in the absence of other suggestive techniques, can lead to immediate mistakes in memory. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
True or false? “A woodpecker is the only bird that can fly backwards.” When such a claim appears with a related, but non-probative photo (e.g., a photo of a woodpecker perched on a tree) people are more likely to think the claim is true—a truthiness effect. This truthiness effect holds across a range of judgments, including judgments about general knowledge facts, predictions about future events, and judgments about our own episodic memories. Throughout, adding a photograph to a claim rapidly increases people’s belief in that claim. We review the literature on truthiness, documenting the ways in which photos and other kinds of non-probative information can rapidly change people’s beliefs, memories, and estimations of their own general knowledge. We also examine the mechanisms contributing to truthiness and explore the implications for misinformation and fake news.
... Such reminders are likely to be surprisingly pleasing (Zhang, Kim, Brooks, Gino, & Norton, 2014) while at the same time increasing memory for the events (Koutstaal, Schacter, Johnson, Angell, & Gross, 1998). Photos can, of course, also mislead memory-such as when doctored photos lead people to believe they experienced events that never happened (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Wade, Garry, Read, & Lindsay, 2002). One might doubt that posting completely fake photos is common, but at a minimum it is commonplace to use Snapchat or other filters to enhance one's photos, with unknown consequences for memory. ...
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... Both internal and external memory are susceptible to physical damage; but external memory can be duplicated (i.e., backed up) across multiple locations, a precaution not available for internal memory. noted that external memory is vulnerable to active sabotage by other agents (e.g., your notes could be deleted or altered by others; photos could be doctored, Garry & Gerrie, 2005), and he claimed that internal memory is not vulnerable. However, we note that internal memory may also be sabotaged, though more subtly, by means of misinformation or gaslighting. ...
Book
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... Constructed memory and symbolic elasticity Photography theory and research have long established an intimate albeit ambivalent connection between photography and memory (Barthes, 1993;Keightley and Pickering, 2014;Sontag, 1977;van Dijck, 2008). Photographs are a technical aid to personal memory in the face of forgetfulness, yet their very durability threatens to replace actual memories and memory as a human faculty (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Keenan, 1998). ...
Article
“Known for being known,” iconic photographs are widely circulated and symbolically powerful images that catalyze public discussion and are etched into the fabric of collective memory for succeeding generations—or so the literature postulates. Based on a multi-method research (including focus groups and a national survey), our study aimed to identify the most prevalent domestic-Israeli and foreign (non-Israeli) iconic news photographs that are recognized by the Israeli public, and to expose key features of their place in Israeli collective memory. We found that only a handful of images were recalled by a majority of people. These are images of conflict, trauma and triumph, which inspired mostly emotional reactions, especially among the eldest, who also demonstrated higher recognition scores. This article examines what such differences in recognition and reactions between photographs and between groups of individuals mean for theories of collective memory and the presumed mnemonic power of visual media.
... Garlick (2002) explains that photography has great significance on memory due to its intrinsic relation to time and space. However, authors also suggest that, due to recent advances in photographing and sharing technologies, it also acts as a communication and identity formation tool (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Van Dijck, 2008). In this vein, Van Dijck (2008) explains that communication and identity formation are not novel uses but have always been intrinsic functions of photography. ...
... Garlick (2002) explains that photography has great significance on memory due to its intrinsic relation to time and space. However, authors also suggest that, due to recent advances in photographing and sharing technologies, it also acts as a communication and identity formation tool (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Van Dijck, 2008). In this vein, Van Dijck (2008) explains that communication and identity formation are not novel uses but have always been intrinsic functions of photography. ...
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This study examines the nature involvement and green consumption values of nature photography tourists. A questionnaire, developed and based on the literature, was used to collect data from the members of nature photography associations located in Adana and Mersin, Turkey. A total of 277 usable responses were obtained. Results suggested that attractiveness, identity expression and social bonding were the main involvement reasons for nature photographers. Results also suggested that there was a strong correlation between nature photography tourists " nature involvement and their green consumption values. Conclusions and implications were drawn based on the findings.
... For example, studies into false autobiographical memories have recruited family members as credible sources of suggestion (Loftus & Pickrell, 1995;Ost, Foster, Costall, & Bull, 2005;Scoboria, Wysman, & Otgaar, 2012), whereas in typical misinformation studies, the credible sources are usually the experimenters themselves (Loftus & Palmer, 1974;Takarangi, Parker, & Garry, 2006). Another credible source of false information used in several studies is doctored photos (Garry & Gerrie, 2005). Such images are rather unique forms of suggestion, as they can provide seemingly authoritative "proof" of fictional events' occurrence. ...
Article
Doctored photographs can shape what people believe and remember about prominent public events, perhaps due to their apparent credibility. In three studies, subjects completed surveys about the 2012 London Olympic torch relay (Experiment 1) or the 2011 Royal Wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton (Experiments 2-3). Some were shown a genuine photo of the event; others saw a doctored photo that depicted protesters and unrest. A third group of subjects saw a doctored photo whose inauthenticity had been made explicit, either by adding a written disclaimer (Experiment 1) or by making the digital manipulation deliberately poor (Experiments 2-3). In all three studies, doctored photos had small effects on a subset of subjects' beliefs about the events. Of central interest though, comparable effects also emerged when the photos were overtly inauthentic. These findings suggest that cognitive mechanisms other than credibility - such as familiarity misattribution and mental imagery - can rapidly influence beliefs about past events even when the low credibility of a source is overt.
... Yet, the visual texts developed by the users remain hidden under the guise of individual empowerment through their distribution on social media, even if their production required disengagement from the activity they were seeking to capture. Under these conditions, privileging the production of the visual text over the experiential situation seems to be resolved by the construction of a fabricated memory, which might be as vivid for the individual as if no visual documentation had been produced (Garry & Gerrie, 2005). The individual's experience of performing an action that is being documented is not that of the situation per se, but of documenting said situation. ...
Research
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Co-edited special issue of media&time "Media, Communication and Nostalgia" by Manuel Menke and Christian Schwarzenegger with 10 articles: (1) Manuel Menke & Christian Schwarzenegger: Media, Communication and Nostalgia - Finding a better tomorrow in the yesterday?----- (2) Ekaterina Kalinina: What Do We Talk About When We Talk About Media and Nostalgia?----- (3) Steffen Lepa & Vlasis Tritakis: Not Every Vinyl Retromaniac is a Nostalgic - A social experiment on the pleasures of record listening in the digital age.----- (4) Lynne Hibberd & Zoë Tew-Thompson: Hills, Old People, and Sheep - Reflections of Holmfirth as the Summer Wine town.----- (5) Jakob Hörtnagl: “Why? Because It’s Classic!“ - Negotiated knowledge and group identity in the retrogaming-community “Project 1999”.----- (6) Ezequiel Korin: Nowstalgia - Articulating future pasts through selfies and GoPro-ing.----- (7) Mario Keller: Experienced Mood and Commodified Mode Forms of nostalgia in the television commercials of Manner.----- (8) Talitha Ferraz: Activating Nostalgia - Cinemagoers’ performances in Brazilian movie theatres reopening and protection cases.----- (9) Gabriele de Seta & Francesca Olivotti: Postcolonial Posts on Colonial Pasts - Constructing Hong Kong nostalgia on social media.----- (10) Marek Jeziński & Łukasz Wojtkowski: Nostalgia Commodified- Towards the marketization of the post-communist past through the new media.
... For the researcher / photographereducator (hereafter R/P-E), this requires developing research and teaching approaches in e-learning photographic practices that can engage a generation now immersed in visual culture, visual processing and the digital stream, and using apps such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook and Hipstamatic. Research reports that for many students, including digital photography students, the social function of photographic images has overridden the ability to see the photograph as an object (Garry & Gerrie, 2005;Harrison, 2002;Jones, 2010). Students constantly use the digital image as their primary communication tool, such as sending selfies. ...
Article
Full-text available
his article focuses on the use of Photographic Participatory Inquiry (PPI) in researching the teaching and learning of photography in the e-learning environment. It is an arts-informed method drawing on digital tools to capture collective information as digital artefacts, which can then be accessed and harnessed to build critical and reflective photographic practices. The multimedia tools employed (for example GoPro video and screen capture) are critically discussed for their potential to contribute understanding of photographic artistic practice and the learning of a digital generation. The article may also provide critical insights and inform more nuanced methods for research and scholarship when wishing to investigate the personalized, participatory, and productive pedagogies of a networked learning society.
... "Planting" false memories in around 25% of the participants is in line with other experiments on false childhood memories. This proportion is still increased if more information is presented that adds to the credibility of the event: When faced with a (merged) picture of them in a hot-air-balloon, 60% of participants produced false memories of the balloon ride (Lindsay, Hagen, Read, Wade, & Garry, 2004;Wade, Garry, Read, & Lindsay, 2002; for a review on recent work with this doctored photo procedure, see Garry & Gerrie, 2005). Even when the photo was only associated with (but not depicting) the suggested pseudoevent (school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled school-related childhood events), two-thirds of the participants developed false memories. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memories: The subjective experience of remembering something if that something did apparently not happen in reality. We review a range of findings concerning this phenomenon: False memories of details and of whole events by adults and children, as well as false memories of words in laboratory experiments (in the DRM paradigm). We also briefly discuss the converse phenomenon: Evidence of forgetting or repression of significant events, and evidence of recovered memories. Knowledge of both phenomena is needed for judging whether “new” memories are false, recovered, or whether both options are possible. More general as well as specific theories explaining false memories are discussed, and we close with implications for practice.
... "Planting" false memories in around 25% of the participants is in line with other experiments on false childhood memories. This proportion is still increased if more information is presented that adds to the credibility of the event: When faced with a (merged) picture of them in a hot-air-balloon, 60% of participants produced false memories of the balloon ride (Lindsay, Hagen, Read, Wade, & Garry, 2004;Wade, Garry, Read, & Lindsay, 2002; for a review on recent work with this doctored photo procedure, see Garry & Gerrie, 2005). Even when the photo was only associated with (but not depicting) the suggested pseudoevent (school classes' group photos from the years of the to-be-recalled school-related childhood events), two-thirds of the participants developed false memories. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, there has been an explosion of research on false memories: The subjective experience of remembering some- thing if that something did apparently not happen in reality. We review a range of findings concerning this phenomenon: False memories of details and of whole events by adults and children, as well as false memories of words in laboratory experiments (in the DRM paradigm). We also briefly discuss the converse phenomenon: Evidence of forgetting or repression of significant events, and evidence of recovered memories. Knowledge of both phenomena is needed for judging whether "new" memories are false, recovered, or whether both options are possible. More general as well as specific theories explaining false memories are discussed, and we close with implica- tions for practice.
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This volume places the spotlight on the role different media and communications systems played in informing the public about the pandemic, shaping their views about what was happening and contributing to behavioural compliances with pandemic-related restrictions.
Article
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In studies of cued recall, responses to photographic stimuli have often been examined in isolation of related photography practices (e.g. taking, organising, or sharing images), and without considering how photographs are used. In contrast, photo-elicitation methods position photographs not simply as cues, but as meaningful artefacts around which accounts of the past are constructed. Drawing on photo-elicitation interviews, I examine cued recall from a distributed cognition perspective, proposing that it consists of varying combinations of several, potentially-distributed processes. First, looking at photographs can catalyse remembering by surfacing relevant ideas, followed by: stimulation (of feelings and emotions), simulation and narrative production, association, inference, and meaning-making. Using examples from my interviews, I consider how each process is socially and materially configured. I then discuss the role of diverse photographic practices in the convergence of these processes, and the implications for conceptions of cueing, recall, and autobiographical memory.
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Machine-learning has enabled the creation of “deepfake videos”; highly-realistic footage that features a person saying or doing something they never did. In recent years, this technology has become more widespread and various apps now allow an average social-media user to create a deepfake video which can be shared online. There are concerns about how this may distort memory for public events, but to date no evidence to support this. Across two experiments, we presented participants (N = 682) with fake news stories in the format of text, text with a photograph or text with a deepfake video. Though participants rated the deepfake videos as convincing, dangerous, and unethical, and some participants did report false memories after viewing deepfakes, the deepfake video format did not consistently increase false memory rates relative to the text-only or text-with-photograph conditions. Further research is needed, but the current findings suggest that while deepfake videos can distort memory for public events, they may not always be more effective than simple misleading text.
Article
Modern technology allows people to easily doctor their own photos (e.g., cropping out unwanted objects, applying color-changing filters). We examined whether editing and reviewing photos alters people’s memory of their experiences. In three experiments, participants photographed scenes, then edited their photos. In Experiment 1 (n = 54), editing photos by cropping out objects or applying a grayscale filter did not impact memory for the original experience. In Experiment 2 (n = 55), cropping objects from photos focused attention on the remaining objects, thereby increasing memory for the intact objects regardless of whether they were reviewed or not. Reviewing unedited photos where details were intact increased memory. In Experiment 3 (n = 39), applying a grayscale filter to photos did not impact memory for the color and content of the original scene, but reviewing photos improved recognition memory and memory for the scene’s color and content. Depending on the type of edit and cognitive demands, reviewing or editing photos can shape what is remembered.
Article
Deep fakes have rapidly emerged as one of the most ominous concerns within modern society. The ability to easily and cheaply generate convincing images, audio, and video via artificial intelligence will have repercussions within politics, privacy, law, security, and broadly across all of society. In light of the widespread apprehension, numerous technological efforts aim to develop tools to distinguish between reliable audio/video and the fakes. These tools and strategies will be particularly effective for consumers when their guard is naturally up, for example during election cycles. However, recent research suggests that not only can deep fakes create credible representations of reality, but they can also be employed to create false memories. Memory malleability research has been around for some time, but it relied on doctored photographs or text to generate fraudulent recollections. These recollected but fake memories take advantage of our cognitive miserliness that favors selecting those recalled memories that evoke our preferred weltanschauung. Even responsible consumers can be duped when false but belief-consistent memories, implanted when we are least vigilant can, like a Trojan horse, be later elicited at crucial dates to confirm our pre-determined biases and influence us to accomplish nefarious goals. This paper seeks to understand the process of how such memories are created, and, based on that, proposing ethical and legal guidelines for the legitimate use of fake technologies.
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The aim of this chapter is to explore how multipurpose applications of smartphones combined with growing insights of socio-cultural transformations have affected personal photography of Hong Kong females. About 80 digital photographs taken and distributed via the social networking site Facebook were analysed within the social-semiotic theory of representation and communication. The major finding is that photographic images have shown a remarkable degree of homogeneity of representational practices used by females in Hong Kong for self-remodelling. Taking photographs seems no longer primarily to provide factual evidence of a human activity (‘image as record’), but is increasingly becoming a tool for an individual’s identity formation and communication (‘image as construct’). It is argued that the increased economic and social status of Hong Kong females has spawned new ways of manipulating digital photographs disseminated over the internet.
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La memoria es un proceso reconstructivo, donde distintos recuerdos buscan conformar una narrativa autobiográfica coherente. No obstante, dichos recuerdos no son completamente precisos, ya que en diversas investigaciones se ha encontrado que las personas tienden a reportar episodios de su pasado que sucedieron ya sea de manera distinta o que en realidad nunca ocurrieron. Tras considerar a la memoria autobiográfica como el mayor logro ontogenético humano, surge la interrogante respecto a cómo puede suceder un fenómeno tan impreciso como el de las memorias falsas. En el presente estudio teórico se revisa la principal evidencia científica respecto a la existencia de memorias falsas, se analiza su etiología y se profundiza en su posible rol adaptativo.
Chapter
In this chapter we draw on all of our empirical results (reported in Chapters 2, 3 and 4), our thorough review of the disparate literature (Chapters 5 and 6), and the theoretical framework we created (Chapter 7) to present a list of the most important dimensions of external memory for further study, as proposed previously by others and as proposed by us. We also discuss other exciting and important unanswered questions, including the question of whether technology is making internal memory worse. Internal and external memory have mutually shaped each other for tens of thousands of years and will continue to do so into the future. It is important to keep documenting and seeking to understand this interplay. With this book we have laid the groundwork for much-needed future work, both empirical and theoretical.
Article
Photographs have been found to affect a variety of psychological judgments. For example, nonprobative but semantically related photographs may increase beliefs in the truth of general knowledge statements (Newman, Garry, Bernstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(5), 969–974, 2012; Newman et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 41(5), 1337–1348, 2015). Photographs can also create illusions of memory (Cardwell, Henkel, Garry, Newman, & Foster, Memory & Cognition, 44(6), 883–896, 2016; Henkel, Applied Cognitive Psychology, 25(1), 78–86, 2011; Henkel & Carbuto, 2008). A candidate mechanism for these effects is that a photograph increases the fluency with which a statement or an event is processed. The present study was conducted to determine whether photos at test can induce illusions of recognition memory and to test the viability of a conceptual fluency explanation of these effects. The results of the present study suggest that photographs enhance the fluency of related words (Experiment 1), that false memories can be produced by the mere presence of a related photo on a recognition memory test for words (Experiments 2 & 3), and that these effects appear to be limited to conceptually based recognition tests (Experiments 4 & 5). The results support the notion that photograph-based illusions of memory stem from the ability of related photographs to increase the speed and ease of conceptual processing.
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A digitális fényképezés társadalmi gyakorlata Magyarországon
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This paper analyzes popular visual practices of the self-presentation in the visual content of social media in nowadays Russia. Our key question was to understand wide spreading and specificity of social practice of selfie. Using the iconographic method (E. Panofsky), we study visual content of selfie aiming to reveal the hidden rules of their reproduction. The results of an empirical study of random sample of 200 pictures are the following. First of all, selfie and similar visual practices are a means of gaining social approval and support. In order to provide the scientific view on the fascination with such practices the ways of information spreading as well as obtaining social support and approval must be taken into consideration. Secondly, in making selfie, the traditional function of photos such as preservation of memories of oneself at certain moment or memories of social circles together with situations is no longer important. Moreover, identification function of a picture is of fundamental importance, namely, obtaining social approval for the external qualities, imagination, compliance with standards of living, which are considered to be valuable and correct (for instance, geographic mobility, availability of exclusive places and things, originality).
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People are more likely to recall both true and false information that is consistent with their pre-existing stereotypes, schemata and desires. In addition, experts in a particular field are more likely to experience false memory in relation to their area of expertise. Here, we investigate whether level of interest, as distinct from level of knowledge, and in the absence of self-professed expertise, is associated with increased false memory. 489 participants were asked to rank 7 topics from most to least interesting. They were then asked if they remembered the events described in four news items related to the topic they selected as the most interesting and four items related to the topic selected as least interesting. In each case, three of the events depicted had really happened and one was fictional. A high level of interest in a topic increased true memories for the topic and doubled the frequency of false memories, even after controlling for level of knowledge. We interpret the results in the context of the source-monitoring framework and suggest that false memories arise as a result of interference from existing information stored in domain-related schemata.
Chapter
My Mum, Edna Wilton, died in July 2009. It was unexpected. She had been living independently. It’s true, she was short of breath, had a heart condition, a cracked pelvis and had had a fall—but she was rallying; getting better. Then, after four weeks of slow recovery, her body suddenly shut down. She was 90. The medical staff, friends, relatives; we all kept talking about a long life, a good life. It didn’t compensate. She was gone. As so often at times like this, my brothers, my sister, myself, our families, our relatives, our friends started to share memories. Her life, our father, our childhood. Her memorial service was full of memories. An oral history interview I had conducted twenty years before, complemented by her exquisitely eccentric diary of significant events from across her life, shaped the memory-picture we used to provide a framework for all of our other memories. Her mass of loose photographs and photograph albums offered up images and memories that could be shared through the wonders of modern technology. As we talked and remembered, there was Mum as a child, a Girl Guide, a young mother, a grandmother, a volunteer at the Royal Far West Children’s School,2 and so much more. Someone photographed the service. This mixing of photographs and memories continues to shape the ways in which we are coming to terms with our Mum’s absence; we are sharing stories and building a bank of family images that can be passed on to children, grandchildren, great grandchildren, cousins, and friends.
Article
Visual and multimedia digital technologies are transforming the practice of law: how lawyers construct and argue their cases, present evidence to juries, and communicate with each other. They are also changing how law is disseminated throughout and used by the general public. What are these technologies, how are they used and perceived in the courtroom and in wider culture, and how do they affect legal decision making? In this comprehensive survey and analysis of how new visual technologies are transforming both the practice and culture of American law, Neal Feigenson and Christina Spiesel explain how, when, and why legal practice moved from a largely words-only environment to one more dependent on and driven by images, and how rapidly developing technologies have further accelerated this change. They discuss older visual technologies, such as videotape evidence, and then current and future uses of visual and multimedia digital technologies, including trial presentation software and interactive multimedia. They also describe how law itself is going online, in the form of virtual courts, cyberjuries, and more, and explore the implications of law's movement to computer screens. Throughout Law on Display, the authors illustrate their analysis with examples from a wide range of actual trials.
Article
Region splicing is a simple and common digital image tampering operation, where a chosen region from one image is composited into another image with the aim to modify the original image's content. In this paper, we describe an effective method to expose region splicing by revealing inconsistencies in local noise levels, based on the fact that images of different origins may have different noise characteristics introduced by the sensors or post-processing steps. The basis of our region splicing detection method is a new blind noise estimation algorithm, which exploits a particular regular property of the kurtosis of nature images in band-pass domains and the relationship between noise characteristics and kurtosis. The estimation of noise statistics is formulated as an optimization problem with closed-form solution, and is further extended to an efficient estimation method of local noise statistics. We demonstrate the efficacy of our blind global and local noise estimation methods on natural images, and evaluate the performances and robustness of the region splicing detection method on forged images.
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Motivated by the unprecedented peak in photoblogs' popularity, in this paper we attempt to come to grips with the consequences of photoblog use for young people's development of identity. In particular we studied the case of Fotolog, a popular photoblog application in Chile. The results presented here are based on data from 32 in-depth interviews administered to 14-19 year olds in Santiago, Chile. Our results suggest that, at least for some adolescents, photoblogs are an important constituent of their daily media consumption which help them to fulfil several of the developmental needs typical of their age. In particular, we found out that adolescents employ Fotolog as a mechanism to receive social validation, to gain social control, to achieve self-clarification, and to maintain social relationships, four of the most important functions of self-disclosure during adolescence.
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Digital visual displays construct legal knowledge in new ways and reconstitute our notions of community both inside and outside of law. This article describes three problems that the proliferation of visuals poses for legal theory. The first concerns how to subsume the flood of images in court within a jurisprudence of words. The second probes how some visuals induce belief by seeming to combine access to the real with the allure of dreams. The third asks us to rethink what legal judgment may borrow from popular visual culture while still yielding acceptable justice. Each dimension of legal visuality creates tensions in our conceptions of what law and legal knowledge should be.
Article
Any analysis of how mass-mediated visuals are perceived and interpreted in multimodal contexts should be informed by a scientific understanding of the biological constraints on visual processing, as well as a solid culturally aware visual communication approach. This article focuses on the interdisciplinary combination of three methods - iconology, a qualitative method of visual analysis targeted at the meanings of visuals and based in the humanities, and eye-tracking and psychophysiological reaction measurement, both based in experimental psychology. The authors propose a Visual Communication Process Model as an integrative means for connecting different facets of the communication processes involved in visual mass communication. The goal of this new model is to widen and sharpen the focus on explaining (a) meaning-attribution processes, (b) visual perception and attention processes, and (c) psychophysiological reactions to mass-mediated visuals, illustrated in this article with examples of press photography.
Article
The artistic and theoretical foundations of my graduate work summarized in this creative component provide supportive narrative for my thesis exhibition, "Memory: Beauty, fragmentation and Image." This written element acts as a synthesis of my research topics, related inspirational artwork and personal artistic techniques and ideation. It also functions as an extension of the exhibition of photographic and integrated media art displayed at the Somerset Gallery in Ames, Iowa from April 1 to April 30, 2011. The artwork presented in this exhibition addresses the common theme of remembrance and memory conveyed in subject selection and through the layering of visual elements and objects.
Article
Animated documentary Waltz with Bashir (Ari Folman, 2008) became Israel's official entry for consideration for the 2009 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, for which it was eventually nominated. It was the first animated film in history to be so appointed by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. This paper attempts to move the literature concerning animated documentary a small step forward by positioning Ari Folman's film as not only a meditation on memory (as other commentators and Folman himself have characterized it) but also a critique of photographic realism. Superimposing Wells's (1997) taxonomy of animated documentary types (imitative, subjective, fantastic, and postmodern) over Roe's (2010) insistence that one must consider the function of animation in documentaries rather than types of animated documentaries, I suggest that Waltz with Bashir demonstrates within documentary a postmodern function for animation.
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A review of 2,647 studies of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) yielded 476 potential candidates for a meta-analysis of predictors of PTSD or of its symptoms. From these, 68 studies met criteria for inclusion in a meta-analysis of 7 predictors: (a) prior trauma, (b) prior psychological adjustment, (c) family history of psychopathology, (d) perceived life threat during the trauma, (e) posttrauma social support, (f) peritraumatic emotional responses, and (g) peritraumatic dissociation. All yielded significant effect sizes, with family history, prior trauma, and prior adjustment the smallest (weighted r = .17) and peritraumatic dissociation the largest (weighted r = .35). The results suggest that peritraumatic psychological processes, not prior characteristics, are the strongest predictors of PTSD.
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The belief that alcohol use leads to sexual risk behavior is nearly ubiquitous. To determine if this belief is warranted, we identify theory and research regarding the alcohol, risky-sex link. We focus our review on studies that use the event-level methodology because this approach provides a particularly sensitive but stringent test of the situational alcohol, risky-sex connection. Overall, the data from available event-level studies indicate that people who use condoms when they are sober also tend to use them when drinking; people who fail to use condoms when drinking probably also fail to use them when sober. We recognize several empirical exceptions to this rule and provide suggestions for future research.
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The contemporary view of perfectionism is that it is a multidimensional construct (e.g., Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990; Hewitt & Flett, 1991), and that the dimensions comprising perfectionism can have either adaptive or maladaptive influences upon cognition, affect, and behavior. Research in non-sport settings has consistently shown that maladaptive perfectionism is associated with lower levels of self-esteem. However, to date, no studies have examined the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem in sport. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem among a sample of inter-collegiate athletes (36 male, 51 female, M age = 19.65 years). Perfectionism was assessed with the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost-MPS; Frost et al., 1990). Self-esteem was assessed by Rosenberg’s (1965) Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and a modified sport-specific version of Heatherton and Polivy’s (1991) State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified SSES revealed two factors that were labeled Satisfaction with Current Sport Performance (SCSP) and Perceived Athletic Competence (PAC). Canonical correlation (RC) analysis was used to examine the multivariate relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem. One significant canonical function was extracted (RC = .74, p < .001). The pattern of canonical loadings suggested that athletes who adopted a maladaptive perfectionist orientation had low levels of self-esteem. Results are discussed around Hamachek’s (1978) distinction between adaptive and maladaptive forms of perfectionism. The importance of measuring perfectionism as a mutlidimensional construct in sport is also discussed.
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Objective: To examine the relationship between Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Social Physique Anxiety (SPA) and the extent to which these two variables predict disturbed eating attitudes in male and female elite athletes.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Athletes (n=316) completed measures of Positive and Negative Perfectionism, SPA, disordered eating and social desirability. Zero- and first-order (partial) correlations were examined to determine the relationship between Positive and Negative Perfectionism and SPA. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine how two individual difference variables, perfectionism and SPA, relate and contribute to disordered eating.Results: For both male and female athletes, Negative Perfectionism was significantly related to SPA. For males, Positive Perfectionism made a small, yet significant, contribution (i.e. 6%) in predicting disturbed eating attitudes. For females, Negative Perfectionism and SPA uniquely and in combination significantly contributed 41% of the variance in the prediction of disturbed eating attitudes.Discussion: These findings suggest that Negative Perfectionism is strongly linked with SPA and that, in females, SPA is an additional psychosocial variable to consider in the relationship between Negative Perfectionism and disordered eating.
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History & Memory 13.1 (2001) 19-59 For Geoffrey Wigoder, in memoriam Paul Auster, The Invention of Solitude The idea for this article arose following several instances of personal loss in my family that led to death becoming far less abstract for me. Even prior to these concrete triggers, however, which had forced me to rethink my ideas about death and memory, I was inspired by a story narrated during a dinner party in an Upper West Side New York City apartment. The hostess was a well-established television correspondent for an American corporation network, whose work entailed rushing to hot spots all over Latin America to report on political and natural disasters. Opposite her sat a photographer who had just completed a project about ancient Indian altars in Latin America that had survived destruction despite modern progress. Between the television reporter (who relied on startling events to shock the viewer into believing in the absolute significance of the present) and the photographer (who was engaged in eternalizing the distant past) sat our narrator and told us the true story of someone whose past had suddenly caught up with him in an unexpected way. Forty-nine years after the end of the Second World War, Stephen Bleyer walked into a bookshop in Montreal and came across a book of never before published photographs from the Russian archives, following the collapse of the communist block. As he leafed through the pages of the book, filled with photographs taken by Russian soldiers of concentration camp victims during the liberation of Auschwitz, he suddenly came across a photograph of a youth looking over his shoulder toward the camera (figure 1). The boy's skeletal body made him barely recognizable. Bleyer suddenly felt faint and had to sit down on the bookshop steps. After a moment, he started to roll up his sleeve in a jerky movement and uncovered the number tattooed on his arm. He compared this serial number (an impersonal proof of identity) with the "represented" and indexical number in the photograph, inscribed on a board below the wooden box that served as a seat for the young man. The numbers matched. Bleyer rose from the steps and approached the cashier, who was busy calculating other sorts of numbers on the cash register. She reached out her hand to take the book, expecting to clear the magnetic code that would identify the book and the price, but then looked utterly baffled by Bleyer's request: he asked her to verify the number on his arm against the number on the page. After buying the book he contacted the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum where these photographs were now stored and asked for a copy and for more information. According to our narrator, Bleyer was faxed the full-frame photograph on an official museum page that added another dimension to looking at the anonymous youth in the book. He was now represented by three registers: an image-portrait, a serial number and an archival record -- one identifying the photograph as a classified subject (Holocaust, camps, children, dates,) and placing it in a [Begin Page 22] larger collective context that historicized the personal portrait in relation to a scheme of genocide, providing visual proof of a past that many perpetrators had wished to deny and victims had wanted to forget or to recall selectively because of the pain that was involved in remembering. What did this process of identification entail as Bleyer looked at the ghost of his past in a photograph that presented him as a stereotype of a camp survivor whom he barely...
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Several recent studies have revealed substantial limitations in 2-year-olds' ability to search accurately for objects that have undergone unseen movement, even along highly constrained paths. In many of these studies, children observed a ball as it rolled down a track and behind an occluding panel that contained 4 doors. The track had a barrier that was partly visible and could be placed in locations corresponding to the doors. When the ball came to a rest against the barrier and behind the occluder, the child's task was to find the ball by opening the correct door. The search accuracy of 2-year-olds has not differed from chance across several variations of this task. This research was conducted to identify the source of 2-year-olds' limitation in this domain. Children were granted a full view of the event before the ball was occluded with a door panel. Children's performance was better under this condition, but was still not systematically accurate unless their gaze remained locked onto the correct location. Two-year-olds' weak performance in these search tasks appears to be more a consequence of limitations in spatial integration than in their representation of unseen movement.
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We conducted two experiments to investigate if college students would create false memories of childhood experiences in response to misleading information and repeated interviews. In both experiments we contacted parents to obtain information about events that happened to the students during childhood. In a series of interviews we asked the students to recall the parent-reported events and one experimenter-created false event. In the second experiment we varied the age at which we claimed the false event occurred. In both experiments we found that some individuals created false memories in these circumstances and in the second experiment we found no effect of age of attempted incorporation. In the second experiment we also found that those who discussed related background knowledge during the early interviews were more likely to create a false recall. Generalizations to therapy contexts are discussed.
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Infants were presented with two sounding objects of different sizes in light and dark, in which sound cued the object's identity. Reaching behavior was assessed to determine if object size influenced preparation for grasping the object. In both light and dark, infants aligned their hands when contacting the large object compared with the small object, which resulted in a reach with both hands extended for the large object and reach with one hand more extended for the small object. Infants contacted the large object more frequently on the bottom and sides rather than the top, where the sound source was located. Reaching in the dark by 6 1/2-month-olds is not merely directed toward a sound source but rather shows preparation in relation to the object's size. These findings were interpreted as evidence that mental representation of previously seen objects can guide subsequent motor action by 6 1/2-month-old infants.
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This article attempted to demonstrate that the perfectionism construct is multidimensional, comprising both personal and social components, and that these components contribute to severe levels of psychopathology. We describe three dimensions of perfectionism: self-oriented perfectionism, other-oriented perfectionism, and socially prescribed perfectionism. Four studies confirm the multidimensionality of the construct and show that these dimensions can be assessed in a reliable and valid manner. Finally, a study with 77 psychiatric patients shows that self-oriented, other-oriented, and socially prescribed perfectionism relate differentially to indices of personality disorders and other psychological maladjustment. A multidimensional approach to the study of perfectionism is warranted, particularly in terms of the association between perfectionism and maladjustment.
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This article explains how alcohol makes social responses more extreme, enhances important self-evaluations, and relieves anxiety and depression, effects that underlie both the social destructiveness of alcohol and the reinforcing effects that make it an addictive substance. The theories are based on alcohol's impairment of perception and thought--the myopia it causes--rather than on the ability of alcohol's pharmacology to directly cause specific reactions or on expectations associated with alcohol's use. Three conclusions are offered (a) Alcohol makes social behaviors more extreme by blocking a form of response conflict. (b) The same process can inflate self-evaluations. (c) Alcohol myopia, in combination with distracting activity, can reliably reduce anxiety and depression in all drinkers by making it difficult to allocate attention to the thoughts that provoke these states. These theories are discussed in terms of their significance for the prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse.
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The claim that a person's memory for an event may be altered by information encountered after the event has been influential in shaping current conceptions of memory. The basis for the claim is a series of studies showing that subjects who are given false or misleading information about a previously witnessed event perform more poorly on tests of memory for the event than subjects who are not misled. In this article we argue that the available evidence does not imply that misleading postevent information impairs memory for the original event, because the procedure used in previous studies is inappropriate for assessing effects of misleading information on memory. We then introduce a more appropriate procedure and report six experiments using this procedure. We conclude from the results that misleading postevent information has no effect on memory for the original event. We then review several recent studies that seem to contradict this conclusion, showing that the studies do not pose problems for our position. Finally, we discuss the implications of our conclusions for broader issues concerning memory.
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A meta-analysis was conducted on research investigating the effects of alcohol consumption and expectancy within the balanced-placebo design. Preliminary results indicated that both alcohol and expectancy have significant, although heterogeneous effects on behavior. Subsequent analyses were conducted to determine the factors responsible for the heterogeneity of effects. At the highest level of analysis, alcohol expectancy had strong effects on relatively deviant social behaviors and minimal effects on nonsocial behaviors. Alcohol consumption showed the opposite pattern of effects. The principal effects associated with alcohol expectancy involved increased alcohol consumption and increased sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli. On the other hand, alcohol consumption led to significant impairment of information processing and motor performance, induced a specific set of physical sensations, resulted in general improvements of mood, and tended to increase aggression. Finally, across all studies it was observed that alcohol consumption and expectancy interacted no more frequently than would be expected by chance. These results have implications for both the theories and methods of contemporary alcohol research.
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A new method was devised to test object permanence in young infants. Five- month-old infants were habituated to a screen that moved back and forth through a 180-degree arc, in the manner of a drawbridge. After infants reached habituation, a box was centered behind the screen. Infants were shown two test events: a possible event and an impossible event. In the possible event, the screen stopped when it reached the occluded box; in the impossible event, the screen moved through the space occupied by the box. The results indicated that infants looked reliably longer at the impossible than at the possible event. This finding suggested that infants (1) understood that the box continued to exist, in its same location, after it was occluded by the screen, and (2) expected the screen to stop against the occluded box and were surprised, or puzzled, when it failed to do so. A control experiment in which the box was placed next to the screen provided support for this interpretation of the results. Together, the results of these experiments indicate that, contrary to Piaget's (1954) claims, infants as young as 5 months of age understand that objects continue to exist when occluded. The results also indicate that 5-month-old infants realize that solid objects do not move through the space occupied by other solid objects.
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Data were obtained on the general population epidemiology of DSM-III-R posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), including information on estimated life-time prevalence, the kinds of traumas most often associated with PTSD, sociodemographic correlates, the comorbidity of PTSD with other lifetime psychiatric disorders, and the duration of an index episode. Modified versions of the DSM-III-R PTSD module from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to a representative national sample of 5877 persons aged 15 to 54 years in the part II subsample of the National Comorbidity Survey. The estimated lifetime prevalence of PTSD is 7.8%. Prevalence is elevated among women and the previously married. The traumas most commonly associated with PTSD are combat exposure and witnessing among men and rape and sexual molestation among women. Posttraumatic stress disorder is strongly comorbid with other lifetime DSM-III-R disorders. Survival analysis shows that more than one third of people with an index episode of PTSD fail to recover even after many years. Posttraumatic stress disorder is more prevalent than previously believed, and is often persistent. Progress in estimating age-at-onset distributions, cohort effects, and the conditional probabilities of PTSD from different types of trauma will require future epidemiologic studies to assess PTSD for all lifetime traumas rather than for only a small number of retrospectively reported "most serious" traumas.
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In this article the authors examine one possible factor in the creation of false beliefs among preschool-aged children, namely, source misattributions. The authors present the results from an ongoing program of research which suggest that source misattributions could be a mechanism underlying children's false beliefs about having experienced fictitious events. Findings from this program of research indicate that, although all children are susceptible to making source misattributions, very young children may be disproportionately vulnerable to these kinds of errors. This vulnerability leads younger preschoolers, on occasion, to claim that they remember actually experiencing events that they only thought about or were suggested by others. These results are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate over the veracity and durability of delayed reports of early memories, repressed memories, dissociative states, and the validity risks posed by therapeutic techniques that entail repeated visually guided imagery inductions.
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Recent reports have suggested that the use of alcohol or drugs is related to sexual behavior that is high risk for HIV infection. If substance use leads to unsafe sexual activity, understanding the dynamics of this relationship can contribute to research and preventive and educational efforts to contain the spread of AIDS. In this article, we review research on the relationship between substance use and high-risk sexual behavior. We then consider the inherent limitations of the research designs used to study this relationship, outline some methodological concerns including measurement and sampling issues, and comment on causal interpretations of correlational research findings. We end with a consideration of potential avenues for future research and a discussion of implications of these findings for current AIDS prevention policies.
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Previous studies have used symptom provocation and positron emission tomography to delineate the brain systems that mediate various anxiety states. Using an analogous approach, the goal of this study was to measure regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Eight patients with PTSD, screened as physiologically responsive to a script-driven imagery symptom provocation paradigm, were exposed sequentially to audiotaped traumatic and neutral scripts in conjunction with positron emission tomography. Heart rate and subjective measures of emotional state were obtained for each condition. Statistical mapping techniques were used to determine locations of significant brain activation. Increases in normalized blood flow were found for the traumatic as compared with control conditions in right-sided limbic, paralimbic, and visual areas; decreases were found in left inferior frontal and middle temporal cortex. The results suggest that emotions associated with the PTSD symptomatic state are mediated by the limbic and paralimbic systems within the right hemisphere. Activation of visual cortex may correspond to the visual component of PTSD reexperiencing phenomena.
Chapter
This book brings a surprisingly wide range of intellectual disciplines to bear on the self-narrative and the self. The same ecological/cognitive approach that successfully organized Ulric Neisser's earlier volume on The Perceived Self now relates ideas from the experimental, developmental, and clinical study of memory to insights from post-modernism and literature. Although autobiographical remembering is an essential way of giving meaning to our lives, the memories we construct are never fully consistent and often simply wrong. In the first chapter, Neisser considers the so-called 'false memory syndrome' in this context; other contributors discuss the effects of amnesia, the development of remembering in childhood, the social construction of memory and its alleged self-servingness, and the contrast between literary and psychological models of the self. Jerome Bruner, Peggy Miller, Alan Baddeley, Kenneth Gergen and Daniel Albright are among the contributors to this unusual synthesis.
Article
This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern aver mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek's (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.
Article
This investigation employed Smith's (1996) model of performance-related anxiety to examine links between perfectionism, achievement goals, and the temporal patterning of multidimensional state anxiety in 119 high school runners. Instruments assessed achievement goals (Roberts & Balague, 1989), perfectionism (Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990), and multidimensional state anxiety (Martens, Burton, & Vealey, 1990) on 4 occasions prior to a cross-country meet. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that overall perfectionism was a consistent, significant predictor of cognitive anxiety. Perceived ability was a consistent predictor of confidence, and ego and task goals contributed to the prediction of cognitive anxiety and confidence, respectively. Concern over mistakes, doubts about action, and personal standards were consistent predictors of cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and confidence, respectively. The findings help further develop Smith's (1996) model and suggest that the appraisal process underlying multidimensional state anxiety is influenced by individual differences in a number of achievement-related constructs.
Article
In this paper we review the factors alleged to be responsible for the creation of inaccurate reports among preschool-aged children, focusing on so-called "source misattribution errors." We present the first round of results from an ongoing program of research that suggests that source misattributions could be a powerful mechanism underlying children′s false beliefs about having experienced fictitious events. Preliminary findings from this program of research indicate that all children of all ages are equally susceptible to making source misattributions. Data from a follow-up wave of data indicate that very young children may be disproportionately vulnerable to these kinds of errors when the procedure is changed slightly to create mental images more easily. This vulnerability leads younger preschoolers, on occasion, to claim that they actually experienced events that they only thought about. These preliminary findings are discussed in the context of the ongoing debate over the veracity and durability of delayed reports of early memories, repressed memories, dissociative states, and the validity risks posed by therapeutic techniques that entail repeated visually guided imagery inductions.
Article
A measure of sex-related alcohol expectancies was developed with a total of 916 sexually experienced adolescents (aged 13–19 yrs) who had ever consumed alcohol. The sample was 52.6% male, 48% White, and 44% Black. Expectancy items represented 3 domains: enhancement of sexual experience, increased sexual risk taking, and disinhibition of sexual behavior. Confirmatory analyses showed that a 3-factor model provided a good fit to the data. Adequate reliability and low-to-moderate correlation among the expectancy measures were also demonstrated. Expectancies for sexual risk taking and disinhibition were found to be more strongly endorsed by male than by female respondents, although these differences were stronger among Black than among White adolescents and increased with age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examines the neural basis of false memories through the study of 3 different but related phenomena: source amnesia, confabulation, and false recognition, focusing on patients with lesions to specific brain structures, and neuroimaging and behavioral studies of people with intact memory functions. Research shows that there is a linkage between source amnesia, frontal lobe functions and false memory. High level cognitive processes that normally monitor and evaluate mental contents are disturbed in confabulating patients. False recognition is also found to be related to frontal lobe pathology. The case of a 65 yr old man with patterns of false recognitions and infarction of the right frontal lobe is presented. Based on the observations it is suggested that frontal cortex, right frontal regions in particular, play a role in search processes that access event-specific knowledge from general event knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined the relationship of perfectionism with 40 female athletes' reactions to athletic competition and coaches' ratings of reactions to mistakes during competition. Athletes who rated high in concern over mistakes (one dimension of perfectionism) reported more anxiety and less self-confidence in sports, displayed a general failure orientation toward sports, reacted negatively to mistakes (by their report and by coaches' ratings), and reported more negative thinking in the 24 hrs before competition. A 2nd dimension of perfectionism, high personal standards, was associated with a success orientation toward sports and more dreams of perfection before competition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this experiment, we ask whether photographs can lead to false memories for elements of a newspaper story. Participants played the role of a newspaper editor, identifying minor typographical errors in three newspaper articles and marking the text where they thought an accompanying photo should be placed when the story was printed. The critical article described a hurricane's effects on a coastal region; the story made no mention of personal injury or death. We varied the accompanying critical photo: participants saw either a photo of a village before the hurricane hit or after. In a later memory test, both ‘Before’ and ‘After’ participants were equally good at correctly recognising old statements and rejecting weak lures. However, the ‘After’ participants claimed to have read information describing death and injury 32% of the time. By comparison, ‘Before’ participants claimed to have read these statements only 9% of the time. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In three experiments with difficult stimuli, it was found that the addition of a representative picture to a news item improves recall of that item. Second, as predicted by dual-coding theory (DCT), concrete news items were recalled better than abstract news items (Experiments 2 and 3). Furthermore, concrete news items benefited more from the addition of a news picture than did abstract news items (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, it was found that news concreteness was strongly correlated with various picture attributes, including visual-verbal overlap, which might in part explain the differential gain in recall from the addition of pictures to concrete and abstract news. The results are explained using Paivio's DCT.
Article
A complete understanding of the consequences of service in a war zone includes examining the lifetime and current prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and of partial PTSD. Cases of partial PTSD are persons who have clinically significant symptoms of PTSD, but who do not meet the full diagnostic criteria. The National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) estimated the lifetime prevalence of PTSD to be 30.9% among male theater veterans, 26.% among females; lifetime prevalence of partial PTSD was an additional 22.5% and 21.2%, respectively; current prevalence of partial PTSD was 11.1% in males and 7.8% in females. NVVRS findings indicate that of the 1.7 million veterans who ever experienced significant symptoms of PTSD after the Vietnam war, approximately 830,000 (49%) still experience clinically significant distress and disability from symptoms of PTSD. The contribution of partial PTSD represents an estimated additional 350,000 veterans.
Article
The intent of this article is to consider similarities between the research on the alteration of memory, and that on the modification of behavior through viewing edited self-modeling videotapes that depict exemplary behavior. A considerable number of studies unequivocally show that memory can be altered through several mechanisms, including visual techniques. However, there is limited research indicating that alteration of memory results in valued and adaptive behavioral change. This article explores a tenable explanation for the research finding that self-modeling is an effective intervention for students with behavior disorders. It was hypothesized that when participants view a change in their behavior, their memories and self-beliefs subsequently change to be in concert with that shown on the edited videotape. Perhaps as the individuals repeatedly view the videotapes, they alter their memory of engagement in past maladaptive behavior, with an adaptive memory of exemplary behavior. Further, they may come to believe that they were always capable of exhibiting such behavior. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Individual differences in memory and suggestibility were assessed in an experiment involving 1989 people who attended the Exploratorium, a science museum located in San Francisco. Subjects watched a brief film clip of an assault and later answered questions about it. Approximately half received misinformation about some critical items. Four demographic variables (gender, educational level, age, and occupation) were examined to determine their impact on memory performance. The principle of discrepancy detection predicts that, compared to individuals with a good memory, people who have poor memory to begin with will be relatively suggestible (that is susceptible to misinformation). Some of our findings were consistent with this principle. For example, children (5–10 years) and elderly (over 65) were relatively inaccurate and also relatively suggestible. Other findings were not consistent with the principle, for example the finding that artists and architects were relatively accurate, but they were also highly suggestible.
Article
The long-term outcome in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is a subject of increasing clinical attention. We performed a retrospective study of 64 patients, who were treated between 1972 and 1990 for biopsy-confirmed RPGN (median observation time 3.3 years). The incidence of RPGN displayed a linear increase with age, and 41 percent of the patients were older than 60 years (26/64). Fifty-one of the 64 patients (80%) were treated with immunosuppressives (steroid pulses, cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, prednisolone, plasma exchange). Of the 13 patients not receiving immunosuppresion, 12 were diagnosed as cases of idiopathic RPGN. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibodies (ANCA) were tested for in 6 of the 64 patients, of whom 2 with systemic immune disease were cANCA positive. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, the overall 5-year patient survival rate with the 95 percent confidence interval [95% CI] was 70 percent [47%–93%] and did not differ for immunosuppressed and nonspecifically treated patients. Kaplan-Meier probability of life-sustaining renal function was significantly better in 51 immunosuppressed patients (p=0.03) compared to 13 nonspecifically treated patients, and the efficacy of immunosuppression in patients older than 60 years was comparable to that in younger patients. After 5-years, the proportion of patients with maintained renal function was only 27 percent [0%–57%] in the immunousppressed patients. From the multivariate Cox model, it was evident that immunosuppression had no independent beneficial effect on renal function, whereas the 20 patients with initial oliguria (
Article
Perfectionism is a major diagnostic criterion for one DSM-III diagnosis, and it has been hypothesized to play a major role in a wide variety of psychopathologies. Yet there is no precise definition of, and there is a paucity of research on, this construct. Based on what has been theorized about perfectionism, a multidimensional measure was developed and several hypotheses regarding the nature of perfectionism were tested in four separate studies. The major dimension of this measure was excessive concern over making mistakes. Five other dimensions were identified, including high personal standards, the perception of high parental expectations, the perception of high parental criticism, the doubting of the quality of one's actions, and a preference for order and organization. Perfectionism and certain of its subscales were correlated with a wide variety of psychopathological symptoms. There was also an association between perfectionism and procrastination. Several subscales of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS), personal standards and organization, were associated with positive achievement striving and work habits. The MPS was highly correlated with one of the existing measures of perfectionism. Two other existing measures were only moderately correlated with the MPS and with each other. Future studies of perfectionism should take into account the multidimensional nature of the construct.
Article
The current paper describes the results of an experiment in which 200 students who varied in levels of trait perfectionism performed a laboratory task of varying levels of difficulty. Participants received either negative or positive performance feedback, independent of their actual level of performance. Analyses of pre-task and post-task measures of negative and positive affect showed that individuals with high self-oriented perfectionism experienced a general increase in negative affect after performing the task, and self-oriented perfectionists who received negative performance feedback were especially likely to report decreases in positive affect. Additional analyses showed that self-oriented perfectionists who received negative feedback responded with a cognitive orientation characterized by performance dissatisfaction, cognitive rumination, and irrational task importance. In contrast, there were relatively few significant differences involving other-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism. Collectively, our findings support the view that self-oriented perfectionism is a vulnerability factor involving negative cognitive and affective reactions following failure experiences that reflect poorly on the self.
Article
The setting of high standards is an integral part of elite sports, and often beneficial for the athlete's performance. However, individuals who are characterized by frequent cognitions about the attainment of ideal, perfectionistic standards, have been shown to be likely to experience heightened levels of anxiety, due to discrepancies between ideal and current self/situation. This could of course be detrimental to their sport performance. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between different patterns of perfectionistic dimensions and sport-related competitive anxiety and self-confidence, for elite athletes with different self-esteem strategies. The results revealed that the relation between self-esteem and perfectionism differs depending on which dimensions of self-esteem and perfectionism that are being considered. Athletes with a high self-esteem based on a respect and love for themselves had more positive patterns of perfectionism, whereas athletes who have a self-esteem that is dependent on competence aspects showed a more negative perfectionism. Further, negative patterns of perfectionism were in the present study related to higher levels of cognitive anxiety and lower levels of self-confidence. Hence, it seems that sport related anxiety is positively associated to certain patterns of perfectionism, patterns that are more common in individuals with specific self-esteem strategies.
Article
The paper reviews and considers the existing cognitive and behavioral accounts for the acquisition and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder. Mowrer's two-stage theory as applied to rape victims and Vietnam veterans is critically reviewed. It was concluded that traditional S-R learning theories can adequately account for fear and avoidance consequent to a traumatic event, as well as the greater generalization as compared to simple phobics. However, these theories do not explain the remaining PTSD symptoms. The literature on experimental neurosis predicts that uncontrollable and unpredictable events produce responses that are highly reminiscent of PTSD irrespective of stimulus intensity and complexity. An additional shortcoming of S-R theory is the difficulty in incorporating meaning concepts which are so central to PTSD. Evidence for the necessity of a theory to accommodate meaning concepts is the finding that perceived threat is a better predictor of PTSD than actual threat. Therefore, we have presented a theoretical framework developed by Foa & Kozak (1986) which accommodates meaning concepts in explaining mechanisms of fear reduction and adapted this theory to PTSD.
Article
Where does the mind stop and the rest of the world begin? The question invites two standard replies. Some accept the intuitive demarcations of skin and skull, and say that what is outside the body is outside the mind. Others are impressed by arguments suggesting that the meaning of our words "just ain't in the head", and hold that this externalism about meaning carries over into an externalism about mind. We propose to pursue a third position. We will advocate an externalism about mind, but one that is in no way grounded in the debatable role of external reference in fixing the contents of our mental states. Rather, we advocate an *active externalism*, based on the active role of the environment in driving cognitive processes.
Article
Experiments with young infants provide evidence for early-developing capacities to represent physical objects and to reason about object motion. Early physical reasoning accords with 2 constraints at the center of mature physical conceptions: continuity and solidity. It fails to accord with 2 constraints that may be peripheral to mature conceptions: gravity and inertia. These experiments suggest that cognition develops concurrently with perception and action and that development leads to the enrichment of conceptions around an unchanging core. The experiments challenge claims that cognition develops on a foundation of perceptual or motor experience, that initial conceptions are inappropriate to the world, and that initial conceptions are abandoned or radically changed with the growth of knowledge.
Article
Recent evidence indicates that infants as young as 3.5 months of age understand that objects continue to exist when hidden (Baillargeon, 1987a; Baillargeon & DeVos, 1990). Why, then, do infants fail to search for hidden objects until 7 to 8 months of age? The present experiments tested whether 5.5-month-old infants could distinguish between correct and incorrect search actions performed by an experimenter. In Experiment 1, a toy was placed in front of (possible event) or under (impossible event) a clear cover. Next, a screen was slid in front of the objects, hiding them from view. A hand then reached behind the screen and reappeared holding the toy. The infants looked reliably longer at the impossible than at the possible event, suggesting that they understood that the hand's direct reaching action was sufficient to retrieve the toy when it stood in front of but not under the clear cover. The same results were obtained in a second condition in which a toy was placed in front of (possible event) or behind (impossible event) a barrier. In Experiment 2, a toy was placed under the right (possible event) or the left (impossible event) of two covers. After a screen hid the objects, a hand reached behind the screen's right edge and reappeared first with the right cover and then with the toy. The infants looked reliably longer at the impossible than at the possible event, suggesting that they realized that the hand's sequence of action was sufficient to retrieve the toy when it stood under the right but not the left cover. A control condition supported this interpretation. Together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate that by 5.5 months of age, infants not only represent hidden objects, but are able to identify the actions necessary to retrieve these objects. The implications of these findings for a problem solving explanation of young infants' failure to retrieve hidden objects are considered.
Article
A framework for understanding source monitoring and relevant empirical evidence is described, and several related phenomena are discussed: old-new recognition, indirect tests, eyewitness testimony, misattributed familiarity, cryptomnesia, and incorporation of fiction into fact. Disruptions in source monitoring (e.g., from confabulation, amnesia, and aging) and the brain regions that are involved are also considered, and source monitoring within a general memory architecture is discussed. It is argued that source monitoring is based on qualities of experience resulting from combinations of perceptual and reflective processes, usually requires relatively differentiated phenomenal experience, and involves attributions varying in deliberateness. These judgments evaluate information according to flexible criteria and are subject to error and disruption. Furthermore, diencephalic and temporal regions may play different roles in source monitoring than do frontal regions of the brain.
Article
Using Steele's inhibitory conflict model (C.M. Steele & R.A. Josephs, 1990) as a framework, the present study investigated the link between alcohol use and the probability that intercourse occurred on 2 different 1st date occasions in a random sample of adolescents and young adults interviewed twice approximately 4 1/2 years apart (Ns = 1,678 and 1,780, respectively). As expected, both between-subjects/within-occasion and within-subjects/across-occasion analyses indicated that the probability of intercourse was significantly higher when the male couple member, but not his female counterpart, drank alcohol. Also consistent with Steele's model, alcohol effects on intercourse probability were found primarily among males who were highly conflicted about having intercourse on the date. Inconsistent with Steele's model, however, a similar effect was not found among highly conflicted females. Results are discussed in terms of a more general variant of Steele's model that allows for both alcohol-related disinhibition and inhibition.