ArticlePDF Available

On the Psychology of Passion: In Search of What Makes People's Lives Most Worth Living


Abstract and Figures

The purpose of the present paper is to present a new conceptualisation on passion for activities, the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) and an overview of related research. Passion is defined as a strong inclination toward an activity that people like, find important, and in which they invest time and energy. This model further posits the existence of two types of passion each associated with different outcomes and experiences. Harmonious passion originates from an autonomous internalisation of the activity in identity and leads people to choose to engage in the activity that they love. It is expected to mainly lead to more adaptive outcomes. Conversely, obsessive passion originates from a controlled internalisation in identity and leads people to experience an uncontrollable urge to engage in the activity. It is hypothesised to predict less adaptive outcomes. Results of several studies conducted with a variety of participants, activities, and outcomes provide support for the model. The development of passion was also addressed. These studies clearly support the significant role of passion in people's lives.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Presidential Address 2007 Allocution pre´sidentielle 2007
On the Psychology of Passion: In Search of What Makes
People’s Lives Most Worth Living
Laboratoire de Recherche sur le
Comportement Social, Universite´du
Que´bec a` Montre´al
The purpose of the present paper is to
present a new conceptualisation on passion
for activities, the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al.,
2003) and an overview of related research. Passion is defined as a
strong inclination toward an activity that people like, find impor-
tant, and in which they invest time and energy. This model further
posits the existence of two types of passion each associated with
different outcomes and experiences. Harmonious passion originates
from an autonomous internalisation of the activity in identity and
leads people to choose to engage in the activity that they love. It is
expected to mainly lead to more adaptive outcomes. Conversely,
obsessive passion originates from a controlled internalisation in
identity and leads people to experience an uncontrollable urge to
engage in the activity. It is hypothesised to predict less adaptive
outcomes. Results of several studies conducted with a variety of
participants, activities, and outcomes provide support for the model.
The development of passion was also addressed. These studies
clearly support the significant role of passion in people’s lives.
One of the high points of my year as President of the Canadian
Psychological Association (CPA) has been the opportunity to
interact with a great group of fun, competent, and highly commit-
ted people toward the cause of Canadian psychology. On numer-
ous occasions, I have seen CPA board members serving on a
variety of committees and for long hours. In light of such impor-
tant involvement in an activity like Canadian psychology, one is
left wondering about the psychological factors that enable people
to display such a high level of commitment and to remain dedi-
cated and passionate for a specific activity or cause for years, and
sometimes a lifetime. We propose that the concept of passion
(Vallerand et al., 2003) represents such a psychological factor.
Furthermore, as we will see, the type of passion one has for the
activity may have different consequences on cognition, affect,
behaviour, relationships, and even performance.
On the Psychology of Passion
A Dualistic Model of Passion
When we started our initial research in the late 1990s, very little
existed on passion from a psychological standpoint. While passion
had generated a lot of attention from philosophers (see Rony,
1990, for a review), it received little empirical attention in psy-
chology. In fact, until recently, the only empirical work in psy-
chology had focused on romantic passion (Hatfield & Walster,
1986). No research had been conducted on passion for an activity.
Vallerand and his colleagues (Vallerand et al., 2003; Vallerand &
Houlfort, 2003; Vallerand & Miquelon, 2007) have recently de-
veloped a model of passion that addresses this issue.
In line with Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan,
2000), we propose that people engage in various activities through-
out life in the hope of satisfying the basic psychological needs of
autonomy (a desire to feel a sense of personal initiative), compe-
tence (a desire to interact effectively with the environment), and
relatedness (a desire to feel connected to significant others). While
we don’t have much choice over engaging or not in some activities
such as school and work (we all have to study and work at some
point in life), we do over other activities that we engage in
especially during leisure time (e.g., sports, chess, music etc.).
Eventually, after a period of trial and error, most people will
eventually start to show preference for some activities, especially
those that are enjoyable and allow the satisfaction of the needs for
competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Of these activities, a
limited few will be perceived as particularly enjoyable and impor-
tant, and to have some resonance with how we see ourselves.
These activities become passionate activities. In line with the
above, Vallerand et al. (2003) define passion as a strong inclina-
tion toward a self-defining activity that one likes (or even loves),
This article is based on the author’s Presidential Address given at the
68th Canadian Psychological Association Annual Convention, in Ottawa,
Ontario, June 8, 2007.
I thank the numerous colleagues and students who have been involved
in the present research program on passion at one point or another. Without
their collaboration, such research could not have taken place.
This research program was supported by grants from the Fonds Que´be´-
cois pour la Recherche sur la Socie´te´ et la Culture (FQRSC) and the Social
Sciences Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Rob-
ert J. Vallerand, Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Comportement Social,
De´partement de Psychologie, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Montre´al, P.O.
Box. 8888, Station “Ctr-ville,” Montre´al, (Que´bec), Canada, H3C 3P8.
Canadian Psychology Copyright 2008 by the Canadian Psychological Association
2008, Vol. 49, No. 1, 1–13 0708-5591/08/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0708-5591.49.1.1
finds important, and in which one invests time and energy. These
activities come to be so self-defining that they represent central
features of one’s identity. For instance, those who have a passion
for playing basketball, playing the guitar, or writing poetry do not
merely engage in these activities. They are “basketball players,”
“guitar players,” and “poets.” This will be the case to the extent
that the activity is interesting and highly valued by the person
(Aron, Aron, & Smolan, 1992; Csikszentmihalyi et al., 1993).
Past research has shown that values and regulations concerning
noninteresting activities can be internalised in either a controlled
or an autonomous fashion (see Deci et al., 1994; Sheldon, 2002;
Vallerand, Fortier, & Guay, 1997). Similarly, it is posited that
activities that people like will also be internalised in the person’s
identity to the extent that these are highly valued and meaningful
for the person. Furthermore, it is proposed that there are two types
of passion, obsessive and harmonious, that can be distinguished in
terms of how the passionate activity has been internalised into
one’s identity. Obsessive passion, results from a controlled inter-
nalisation of the activity into one’s identity. Such an internalisation
process leads not only the activity representation to be part of the
person’s identity, but also to values and regulations associated with
the activity, to be at best partially internalised in the self, and at
worse to be internalised in the person’s identity but completely
outside the integrating self (Deci & Ryan, 2000). A controlled
internalisation originates from intra and/or interpersonal pressure
typically because certain contingencies are attached to the activity
such as feelings of social acceptance or self-esteem (e.g., Crocker
& Park, 2004), or because the sense of excitement derived from
activity engagement is uncontrollable. People with an obsessive
passion can thus find themselves in the position of experiencing an
uncontrollable urge to partake in the activity they view as impor-
tant and enjoyable. They cannot help but to engage in the passion-
ate activity. The passion must run its course as it controls the
person. Consequently, they risk experiencing conflicts and other
negative affective, cognitive, and behavioural consequences dur-
ing and after activity engagement. For instance, a university pro-
fessor with an obsessive passion for playing the guitar might not be
able to resist an invitation to jam with his friends the night before
presenting an important talk that still needs work. During the jam
session, he might feel upset with himself for playing music instead
of preparing the talk. He might therefore have difficulties focusing
on the task at hand (playing the music) and may not experience as
much positive affect and flow as he should while playing.
It is also proposed that individuals with an obsessive passion
come to display a rigid persistence toward the activity, as often-
times they can’t help but to engage in the passionate activity. This
is so because ego-invested rather than integrative self processes
(Hodgins & Knee, 2002) are at play with obsessive passion leading
the person to eventually becoming dependent on the activity.
While such persistence may lead to some benefits (e.g., improved
performance at the activity), it may also come at a cost for the
individual, potentially leading to less than optimal functioning
within the confines of the passionate activity because of the lack of
flexibility that it entails. In addition, such a rigid persistence may
lead the person to experience conflict with other aspects of his or
her life when engaging in the passionate activity (when one should
be doing something else, for instance), as well as to frustration and
rumination about the activity when prevented from engaging in it.
Thus, if the obsessively passionate musician/professor manages to
say no to his friends and the jam session, he still may end up
suffering because he may have difficulties concentrating on his
talk preparation because of ruminations about the lost opportunity
to play music.
Conversely, harmonious passion results from an autonomous
internalisation of the activity into the person’s identity. An auton-
omous internalisation occurs when individuals have freely ac-
cepted the activity as important for them without any contingen-
cies attached to it. This type of internalisation emanates from the
intrinsic and integrative tendencies of the self (Deci & Ryan, 2000;
Ryan & Deci, 2003) and produces a motivational force to engage
in the activity willingly and engenders a sense of volition and
personal endorsement about pursuing the activity. When harmo-
nious passion is at play, individuals do not experience an uncon-
trollable urge to engage in the passionate activity, but rather freely
choose to do so. With this type of passion, the activity occupies a
significant, but not overpowering, space in the person’s identity
and is in harmony with other aspects of the person’s life. In other
words, with harmonious passion the authentic integrating self
(Deci & Ryan, 2000) is at play allowing the person to fully partake
in the passionate activity with an openness that is conducive to
positive experiences (Hodgins & Knee, 2002). Consequently, with
harmonious passion people should be able to fully focus on the
task at hand and experience positive outcomes both during task
engagement (e.g., positive affect, concentration, flow etc.) and
after task engagement (general positive affect, satisfaction etc.).
Thus, there should be little or no conflict between the person’s
passionate activity and his or her other life activities. Furthermore,
when prevented from engaging in their passionate activity, people
with a harmonious passion should be able to adapt well to the
situation and focus their attention and energy on other tasks that
need to be done. Finally, with harmonious passion, the person is in
control of the activity and can decide when to and when not to
engage in the activity. Thus, when confronted with the possibility
of playing music (jamming) with his friends or preparing tomor-
row’s talk, the professor with a harmonious passion toward music
can readily tell his friends that he’ll take a rain check and proceed
to be fully immersed in the preparation of the talk without thinking
about the jam session. With harmonious passion people are able to
decide not to play on a given day if needed without suffering or
even to eventually terminate the relationship with the activity if
they decide it has become a permanent negative factor in their life.
Thus, behavioural engagement in the passionate activity can be
seen as flexible.
Passion and Related Constructs
The concept of passion has some ties with other concepts such
as those of flow (Ciskszentmihalyi, 1978), talent-related activities
(Rathunde, 1996; Rathunde & Ciskszentmihalyi, 1993), well-
developed interest (e.g., Renninger, 1992; Renninger & Hidi,
2002), and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 2000).
Flow can be seen as a consequence of passion (see Vallerand et al.,
2003, Study 1). Thus, passionate people should experience more
flow than those less passionate. Furthermore, flow should result
mainly from one specific type of passion, namely harmonious
passion (see Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 1). In addition, other
concepts such as talent-related activities and well-developed inter-
ests share the elements of interest and value that characterise the
construct of passion. However, like flow, these concepts do not
make the distinction between two types of interest or talent that
reflect different types of engagement while the passion conceptu-
alisation does make such a distinction (i.e., harmonious and ob-
sessive passion). Finally, intrinsic motivation also shares some
conceptual similarity with passion, as both involve interest and
liking toward the activity. However, intrinsically motivated activ-
ities are typically not seen as being internalised in the person’s
identity (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and are best seen as emerging from
the person-task interaction at the short-term level (Koestner &
Losier, 2002). Furthermore, extrinsic motivation does not entail
performing the activity out of enjoyment, but for something out-
side of the activity. A fundamental difference between extrinsic
motivation and passion is thus the lack of liking for the activity
(see also Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 2).
In sum, while the passion framework does share some concep-
tual similarities with other motivational constructs, it also differs
from them in significant ways. Noteworthy, is that a complete
understanding of people’s engagement in an activity (such as the
cause of Canadian psychology discussed previously) necessitates
the distinction of two different types of heavy activity involve-
ment. We now turn to an investigation of the empirical evidence
for the Passion Model.
Research on Passion
Over the past few years, we have conducted a number of studies
on passion. These studies pertain to a variety of activities, settings,
participants, and outcomes. Below, we briefly review the results of
some of these studies that pertain to the concept of passion,
psychological adjustment, physical health, interpersonal relation-
ships, performance, and the development of passion.
On the Concept of Passion
In the initial study (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 1), we sought
to develop the Passion Scale and to test the validity of our defi-
nition of passion. To that end, college students (n 539) com-
pleted the Passion Scale with respect to an activity that they liked,
that they valued, and in which they invested time and energy (i.e.,
the passion definition), as well as other scales allowing to test
predictions derived from the Passion Model. Interestingly, 84% of
our participants indicated that they had at least a moderate level of
passion toward an activity in their lives. Passionate activities
ranged from physical activity and sports and music to watching
movies and reading. Participants reported engaging in their pas-
sionate activity for an average of 8.5 hours per week and had been
engaging in that activity for almost 6 years. Thus, clearly passion-
ate activities are meaningful to people and do not simply reflect a
fleeting interest. These results also suggest that for most partici-
pants, initiation with the passionate (self-defining) activity started
around adolescence. This would be in line with the position that
adolescence is a crucial period of identity construction (e.g.,
Eccles, Barber, Stone, & Hunt, 2003; Erikson, 1968).
Research from the Vallerand et al. (2003, Study 1) study has
provided empirical support for several aspects of the passion
conceptualisation. First, results from exploratory and confirmatory
factor analyses provided strong support for the existence of two
constructs corresponding to harmonious and obsessive passion.
The Passion Scale consists of two subscales of seven items each,
the Obsessive (e.g., “I almost have an obsessive feeling toward this
activity”) and Harmonious subscales (e.g., “This activity is in
harmony with other activities in my life”). Subsequent research has
supported the bifactor structure validity of the scale in a number of
life contexts including sports (Vallerand et al., 2006, Study 1),
gambling (Castelda, Mattson, MacKillop, Anderson, & Donovick,
2007; Rousseau, Vallerand, Ratelle, Mageau, & Provencher, 2002),
and work (Houlfort & Vallerand, 2006; Vallerand & Houlfort, 2003).
Furthermore, internal consistency analyses supported the reliability of
the scale.
Second, results from the Vallerand et al. (2003) Study 1 also
revealed that both harmonious and obsessive passions were posi-
tively associated (partial correlations, controlling for the common
variance between the two types of passion) with measures of
activity valuation and measures of the activity being perceived as
a passion, thereby providing support for the definition of passion.
In addition, while both types of passion were seen as being part of
one’s identity, only obsessive passion was positively related to a
measure of conflict with other life activities. Third, empirical
evidence (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 1) has also shown that
harmonious and obsessive passions were associated with different
affective experiences. For instance, results from partial correla-
tions between the two types of passion and affective variables have
shown that when controlling for obsessive passion, harmonious
passion is positively associated with positive experiences such as
flow and positive emotions during activity engagement, and pos-
itive emotions and the absence of negative affect following task
engagement. On the other hand, when controlling for harmonious
passion, obsessive passion is positively associated with negative
emotions (especially shame), both during and following activity
engagement. Particularly interesting is the finding that obsessive
passion has been found to be associated with negative affect
(notably shame and anxiety) and rumination when the person is
prevented from engaging in the passionate activity while harmo-
nious passion is unrelated to these negative experiences (Vallerand
et al., 2003, Study 1). These latter findings suggest that obsessive
passion entails some negative feelings akin to dependence toward
the activity, while harmonious passion does not. Finally, additional
research in the initial publication has also shown that obsessive
(but not harmonious) passion leads to rigid persistence in ill-
advised activities such as cycling over ice and snow in winter
(Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 3) and pursuing one’s engagement
in gambling even though it has become pathological in nature
(Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 4). We will return to this issue in a
later section.
In sum, initial research provided support for the concept of
harmonious and obsessive passion. We now turn to different lines
The original scale (Vallerand et al., 2003) consisted of two 7-item
subscales. A slightly revised scale consisting of two 6-item scales is now
used. These subscales correlate very highly with their respective original
subscale (r .80 and above) and yield the same findings with determinants
and outcomes. However, the correlation between the harmonious and
obsessive passion subscales is lower than that between the original ones. In
addition, we have used a 3-item version (Vallerand et al., 2007b, Study 2)
and even a 1-item version (Philippe & Vallerand, 2007) of each subscale
with much success.
of research that have explored some of the processes associated
with the passion construct.
Passion and Psychological Adjustment
An early study (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 2) revealed that
engaging in the passionate activity (football) out of harmonious
passion predicted an increase in general positive affect in one’s life
(as measured by the PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988)
over the course of the entire football season. Conversely, partici-
pating in the activity out of obsessive passion predicted an increase
of negative affect in one’s life during the same time interval. If the
two types of passion are conducive to increases in general affect
over time, it is thus possible that passion also affects one’s psy-
chological adjustment. Research provides support for this hypoth-
esis. For instance, in a study with elderly individuals, Rousseau
and Vallerand (2003) showed that harmonious passion positively
predicted positive indices of psychological adjustment (life satis-
faction, meaning in life, and vitality) but negatively predicted
negative indices (anxiety and depression). Conversely, obsessive
passion positively predicted anxiety and depression, was nega-
tively related to life satisfaction, and was unrelated to vitality and
meaning in life. Research with young adults and teenagers using
different measures has yielded similar findings. Specifically, har-
monious passion was positively related to life satisfaction and
vitality (Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007, Studies 1 and 2; Vallerand
et al., in press, Study 2), while obsessive passion was either
negatively related (Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007, Study 2) or
unrelated (Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007b, Study 1; Vallerand et al.,
in press, Study 2) to these indices.
If passion affects psychological adjustment, then what are the
processes mediating such effects. We feel that at least two pro-
cesses might be at play in this relationship. A first deals with the
repeated experience of situational (or state) positive affect during
the course of engagement (as well as after engagement) of the
passionate activity which should lead people to have access to a
broader set of cognitive and social skills, thereby facilitating
psychological adjustment (Fredrickson, 2003). Research on pas-
sion (e.g., Mageau et al., 2005; Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 1;
Vallerand et al., 2006, Studies 2 and 3) has shown that harmonious
passion does facilitate positive emotions both during and after
activity engagement. Furthermore, Fredrickson (1998, 2001, 2003)
has shown that the experience of positive emotions have the virtue
of broadening people’s thought-action repertoires (Fredrickson,
2001), thereby leading to the use of more adaptive behaviours, and
thus better psychological adjustment (on this issue, see Frederickson
& Joiner, 2002). Since passionate individuals engage on average for
about 8 hours per week in their passionate activity, this means that
harmonious passion can lead people to experience each week 8 hours
of cumulative positive affect and adaptive-related repertoire on top of
what may be experienced in other life domains. Such additional
cumulative positive experiences represent roughly 10% of our waking
time and may indeed spice up our week and have facilitative effects
on psychological adjustment.
Our research under this heading has used path analysis in order
to look at the role of positive affect experienced during task
engagement as a mediator of the harmonious passion-psychological
adjustment relationship. A recent research by Rousseau and Vallerand
(in press) provided support for this hypothesis with passion toward
physical activity. At Time 1, participants completed the Passion Scale
with respect to physical activity, as well as measures of psychological
adjustment. At Time 2, immediately following an exercise bout, they
completed situational measures of positive and negative affect. Fi-
nally, at Time 3, they completed measures of psychological adjust-
ment again. Results from a path analysis revealed that harmonious
passion positively predicted positive affect which led to increases in
psychological adjustment from Time 1 to Time 3. On the other hand,
obsessive passion was unrelated to positive affect but positively
predicted negative affect. The latter did not predict psychological
adjustment. These basic findings were replicated in another study
(Vallerand & Rousseau, 2007). Overall, these findings provide strong
support for the role of situational positive affect experienced during
task engagement as a mediator of the effect of harmonious passion on
psychological adjustment.
The above research suggests that harmonious passion positively
contributes to psychological adjustment through the repeated ex-
perience of situational positive affect. However, such research also
showed that although obsessive passion is negatively related to
psychological adjustment, neither situational positive nor situa-
tional negative affect mediate the obsessive passion-psychological
adjustment relationship. So, what is the mediator of such a rela-
tionship? We posit that rigid persistence in activities with negative
returns for the person represents the second process underlying the
negative influence of obsessive passion on psychological adjust-
ment. Because the passionate activity is very dear to the heart of
those who engage in it (after all it is part of their identity), people
are likely to persist in them for a rather long period of time.
However, as described previously, there would seem to be some
differences in the type of persistence associated with the two types
of passion. With harmonious passion, the person is in control of
the activity. As such, the person can decide when to and when not
to engage in the activity and should even be able to drop out of the
activity if the latter has become permanently negative for the
person. Thus, behavioural engagement and persistence can be seen
as flexible. Such is not the case with obsessive passion. Typically,
because the activity has taken control of the person, obsessive
passion would also be expected to lead to persistence. However,
such persistence can be seen as being rigid because it can take
place not only in the absence of positive emotional experience, but
even when important costs are accrued to the person. Such rigid
persistence can lead the person to persist in the passionate activity
even though some permanent negative consequences are experi-
enced, eventually leading to low levels of psychological adjust-
Recent research of ours in the realm of gambling provides
supports for this analysis. Such research has shown that obsessive
passion predicts pathological gambling while harmonious passion
is unrelated to it (Ratelle et al., 2004). Furthemore, in a recent study
on the prevalence of gambling problems (Philippe & Vallerand,
2007), it has also been shown that obsessive passion predicts the
occurrence of pathological gambling, presumably because obsessive
passion entails a rigid persistence in the activity that is out of the
person’s control. But is it the case? Is rigid persistence toward the
passionate activity really at play in psychological problems. In one
particular study (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 4), we tested this
hypothesis more directly. Specifically, in that particular study, we
compared the two types of passion of regular casino gamblers (who
played at least once a week) with those of people with gambling
problems so severe that they end up asking the Montreal Casino to bar
them from entry. Clearly, these individuals do have important prob-
lems (93% of the self-exclusion sample displayed pathological gam-
bling vs. 37% for the regular casino players). As such, the self-
exclusion gamblers should have stopped gambling a long time ago.
And yet, they have not. The question is why?
The results revealed that the self-exclusion gamblers reported
significantly higher levels of obsessive passion than regular casino
gamblers. No difference existed on harmonious passion. Further-
more, for the self-exclusion group, their obsessive passion was
significantly higher than their harmonious passion. There were no
differences between the two scales for the control group. It would
thus appear that obsessive passion has led self-exclusion gamblers
to persist while they should not have. When one takes into con-
sideration the fact that pathological gambling has been found to
lead to a sleuth of problems that include divorce, losing one’s job,
and even suicide (Walker, 1992), clearly obsessive passion for an
activity such as gambling can send one on a path of severe
psychological problems. Longitudinal research involving other
types of negative activities (e.g., using drugs, Internet sex) is
needed in order to replicate the Vallerand et al. (2003, Study 4)
study findings.
In sum, preliminary evidence reveals that harmonious passion
may positively contribute to psychological adjustment through its
impact on situational positive affect. Obsessive passion, on the
other hand, does not contribute to psychological adjustment and
may even detract from it through rigid persistence in ill-advised
activities such as gambling.
Passion and Physical Health
Passion may also affect one’s physical health in a number of
ways. One of these entails leading one to engage in risky behav-
iour. Take cycling for instance. Cycling in the spring, summer, and
fall can be a lot of fun and can promote one’s health. However, the
reality in the winter is drastically different (at least in the Province
of Quebec). The roads are icy and full of snow, and they make
cycling a very hazardous affair that may lead to falls and injuries.
Clearly, it would be advisable not to cycle under such conditions.
If our hypothesis on the rigid persistence of obsessive passion is
correct, then obsessive passion should lead one to engage in risky
behaviours such as winter cycling. On the other hand, if we are
correct with respect to the flexible persistence of harmonious
passion, then the latter should not lead to engage in such a
behaviour. In a recent study (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 3), we
tested these hypotheses. Cyclists (n 59) completed the Passion
Scale in August with respect to cycling. Six months later, they
were contacted again through e-mail to determine who was still
cycling in the dead of winter (in February). Results showed that
only 30% of participants were still cycling in winter. It was found
that those persistent cyclists had reported higher levels of obses-
sive passion 6 months earlier than those who did not cycle in the
winter. No differences were found with respect to harmonious
passion. Thus, obsessive passion may potentially affect people’s
health by leading them to engage in certain risky activities while
they should not (such as cycling in subzero temperature on icy
The above study (Vallerand et al., 2003, Study 3) while inter-
esting, did not show that obsessive passion led to injuries as such.
It only showed that obsessive passion puts people at risk of
experiencing injuries when engaging in the passionate activity
when they should not. A recent study with dancers (Rip, Fortin, &
Vallerand, 2006) has looked at the passion-injury relationship
more closely. The important question with dancers is not whether
or not they get injured, but rather what happens once they do.
Obsessive passion, as we have seen earlier, is associated with rigid
persistence. Therefore, when injured, obsessive passion should
lead people to continue dancing, thereby leading to chronic inju-
ries. On the other hand, with harmonious passion, the person is in
control of the activity. Thus, persistence can be seen as flexible. As
such, when dancing out of harmonious passion, the dancer can
decide to stop dancing when injured if there is a risk of developing
a chronic injury. In the Rip et al. (2006), university dancing
students (n 80) completed the Passion Scale as well as questions
pertaining to their coping behaviour when injured. Results from
partial correlations revealed that both types of passion were neg-
atively related to acute injuries. This was to be expected as the
more passionate the dancers, the more likely they are to practice,
keep fit, and thus prevent the occurrence of acute injuries. The real
test of our hypothesis deals with chronic injury. These findings
appear in Table 1. Results revealed that obsessive passion was
positively related to the number of weeks missed because of
chronic injuries, while harmonious passion was unrelated to
chronic injuries. Furthermore, analyses with the behavioural items
revealed that harmonious passion was positively related to seeking
information on the injury and its treatment and being able to
completely stop dancing, but was negatively related to ignoring the
pain and hiding an injury. Conversely, obsessive passion was
unrelated to hiding an injury but positively predicted ignoring the
pain and having one’s pride interfere with treatment. These latter
two types of behaviour are particularly troublesome as they lead
dancers to neglect their physical condition and may lead to injury
In sum, harmonious and obsessive passion can lead to positive
and negative effects on one’s health, respectively, through the
different types of persistence and engagement in risky behaviour
that they engender. Future research is needed in order to reproduce
the present findings with more objective measures of injuries such
as medical records.
Table 1
Partial Correlations Involving Harmonious and Obsessive
Passion, Injuries, Coping, and Prevention
Duration of suffering from:
Acute injuries .44
.25 ns
Chronic injuries .01 .42
Coping with injury: when injured
I seek info on the injury and its treatment .34
I completely stop dance activities .26
I ignore the pain .33
I hide the injury .34
I partially stop dance activities .12 .30
Pride prevents adequate treatment .19
Note. Adapted from Rip et al. (2006).
p .10.
p .05.
p .01.
p .001.
23 dancers reported having at least 1 acute injury; 26 dancers reported
having at least 1 chronic injury.
Passion and Interpersonal Relationships
Our conceptualisation on passion posits that having an obsessive
passion toward an activity should lead to conflict and problems in
other life activities, while this should not be the case for harmo-
nious passion. Results from the Vallerand et al. (2003, Study 1)
provided preliminary evidence for this hypothesis by showing that
obsessive (but not harmonious) passion for an activity was posi-
tively associated with experiencing conflict between activity en-
gagement and other aspects of one’s life. We believe that this basic
hypothesis has important implications for the quality of interper-
sonal relationships that people may experience outside the realm of
the passionate activity. Let’s take people who have a passion for
surfing on the Internet. They may surf the net at night, and if
obsessive passion is at play, they may forget what time it is, even
ignoring their spouse’s call to come to bed for the night. If done on
a repeated basis, such behaviour is a recipe for disaster in a
couple’s relationship. Such should not be the case with harmonious
passion because the person can let go of the passionate activity
when needed and thus should not experience conflict between
the passionate activity and the couple’s relationship. A recent
study of ours (Se´guin-Le´vesque, Laliberte´, Pelletier,
Blanchard, & Vallerand, 2003) has specifically addressed this
issue. The results showed that controlling for the number of hours
that people engaged in the Internet, obsessive passion for the
Internet was positively related to conflict with one’s spouse, while
harmonious passion was unrelated to it. A subsequent study with
English soccer fans (Vallerand, Ntoumanis, et al., 2007, Study 3),
revealed that having an obsessive passion for supporting one’s
soccer team predicted conflict between soccer and the quality of
the couple relationship. Conflict, in turn, negatively predicted
satisfaction with the relationship. Harmonious passion was unre-
lated to conflict. Furthermore, individuals who were single were
asked to indicate if their passion for soccer was responsible for
their being single. Results revealed a strong positive correlation
between obsessive passion and this measure, but a negative cor-
relation for harmonious passion.
The above findings reveal that depending on one’s passion for a
given activity, one can experience conflict (or not) between that
activity and one’s relationships outside of the passionate activity,
thereby affecting the quality of such relationships. One question
not addressed by such research is whether one’s passion for a
given activity can affect the quality of relationships that one
develops in the purview of this activity. Research by Fredrickson
(2001; Waugh & Fredrickson, 2006) has shown that the experience
of situational positive affect is conducive to high quality of rela-
tionships. This is so because positive affect facilitates smiles,
positive sharing of the activity, connection, and openness toward
others that are conducive to positive relationships. Because har-
monious passion leads one to experience positive affect during
engagement in the passionate activity (e.g., Vallerand et al., 2003,
Study 1; Vallerand et al., 2006, Studies 2, 3), one would then
predict that it should therefore indirectly lead to high quality
relationships within the passionate activity. Conversely, because it
is typically unrelated to positive affect and correlated to negative
affect, obsessive passion would be expected to negatively affect
the quality of relationships that develop within the purview of the
passionate activity. Results from a series of studies conducted in a
variety of settings, including work and sports, has provided sup-
port for these hypotheses (Philippe, Vallerand, & Houlfort, 2007).
A third and last area where passion can affect relationships
pertains to the impact one’s passion for the loved one can have on
the quality of the intimate relationship. Past research (e.g., Hatfield
& Walster, 1978) has typically looked at passionate love as
roughly the equivalent of obsessive passion. However, as seen so
far, one can still be harmoniously passionate for an activity, and
this should apply to love relationships as well. Furthermore, as
found in past research on passion for activities, harmonious pas-
sion for the love relationship should predict a high quality rela-
tionship, while obsessive passion should be either negatively re-
lated or unrelated to the quality of the relationship. A first study
(Ratelle, Carbonneau, Mageau, & Vallerand, 2007, Study 1)
showed that harmonious passion positively predicted all dimen-
sions of the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976) while ob-
sessive passion was typically unrelated to the various subscales. In
a subsequent study (Ratelle et al., 2007, Study 3), both partners
completed the Passion Scale toward the love relationship, as well
as the Relationship Satisfaction Scale (Fletcher, Simpson, &
Thomas, 2000). Results revealed that both partners’ passion made
a significant contribution to the level of satisfaction toward the
relationship. For instance, both women and men’s harmonious
passion positively predicted women’s general satisfaction with the
relationship. Even better, men’s harmonious passion proved to be
a better positive predictor of women’s satisfaction with their sex
life than women’s own harmonious passion. Men’s obsessive
passion for the loved one was a significant negative predictor of
women’s satisfaction with their sex life. Similar findings were
obtained with men’s relationship satisfaction, although the predic-
tion from women’s passion was not as strong. These findings
suggest that having a balanced harmonious passion toward the
loved one can affect not only the quality of the relationship as we
experience it, but also as experienced by our partner. Future
research on this issue would appear particularly exciting, espe-
cially as pertains to the identification of the behaviours and pro-
cesses through which such interpersonal effects take place.
Passion and Performance
Research on expert performance reveals that high-level per-
formers spend several years of considerable engagement in an
activity with clear goals of improving on certain task components,
in order to reach excellence in their chosen field of expertise (what
is called deliberate practice, see Ericsson & Charness, 1994;
Starkes & Ericsson, 2003). What is the underlying motivational
force that leads individuals to spend so much time in perfecting
their skills in a given activity in order to achieve high proficiency?
We believe that passion represents one answer to that question.
Indeed, if one is to engage in the activity for long hours over
several years and sometimes a lifetime, one must love the activity
dearly and have the desire to pursue engagement especially when
times are rough. Thus, the two types of passion (harmonious and
obsessive) should lead to engagement in deliberate practice that, in
turn, should lead to improved sport performance. This model was
tested in a study with basketball players (Vallerand et al., in press,
Study 1). Male and female basketball players completed scales
assessing their passion as well as deliberate practice (based on
Ericsson & Charness, 1994). Coaches independently rated the
athletes’ performance during the first game of an important tour-
nament. A path analysis provided support for the basic model.
Results revealed that both types of passion led to engagement in
deliberate practice that, in turn, led to objective performance.
These findings were replicated in a prospective design with dra-
matic arts performers (Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007, Study 1).
Also of interest is the finding that in the preceding study, harmo-
nious passion toward dramatic arts was positively and significantly
related to life satisfaction, while obsessive passion was unrelated
to it. This is in line with our work on passion and psychological
adjustment. It thus appears that both types of passion positively
contribute to deliberate practice and thus, indirectly, to perfor-
mance at least in the short term. However, it might very well be
that obsessive passion leads to some sense of “suffering” (or lower
levels of life satisfaction than harmonious passion) in the process
of pursuing high performance levels.
The results of the two performance studies presented above
established a direct relationship between passion and deliberate
practice, and an indirect relationship between passion and perfor-
mance (through deliberate practice). We conducted an additional
study (Vallerand et al., in press, Study 2) in order to examine the
psychological processes through which passion directly contrib-
utes to deliberate practice, and indirectly contributes to perfor-
mance. In line with Elliot (1997), we proposed that achievement
goals should represent important mediators between passion and
deliberate practice. Elliot and colleagues (Elliot & Church, 1997;
Elliot & Harackiewicz, 1996) have distinguished between three
types of achievement goals: mastery goals (which focus on the
development of personal competence and task mastery), perfor-
mance-approach goals (which focus on the attainment of personal
competence relative to others), and performance-avoidance goals
(which focus on avoiding incompetence relative to others). Passion
has been found to relate to affective and cognitive investment in an
activity, thereby implying that the individual is committed to
engaging in that activity in a competent manner. Harmonious
passion, being a rather pure autonomous form of regulation is
predicted to be positively related to mastery goals but not to
performance goals of either type. On the other hand, obsessive
passion, being a more pressured, internally controlling form of
regulation is likely to lead the individual to feel compelled to seek
any and all forms of success at the activity, and may even evoke
concerns about doing poorly. As such, obsessive passion should be
positively related to mastery and performance-approach goals, as
well as to performance-avoidance goals.
A study with water-polo and synchronized swimmers (including
some who were part of the junior national teams) was conducted
over an entire season to test the above model (Vallerand et al., in
press, Study 2). At Time 1 (the beginning of the season), individ-
uals completed the Passion Scale, the Achievement Goals Scale,
and scales assessing psychological adjustment. At Time 2, they
completed the Deliberate Practice Scale. Finally, at Time 3 (end of
the season), coaches assessed individuals’ performance over the
entire season. Results of a path analysis yielded support for the
proposed model. The results appear in Figure 1. As can be seen,
harmonious passion was found to lead to mastery goals that, in
turn, led to deliberate practice that positively predicted objective
performance. On the other hand, obsessive passion was positively
related to all three goals. While performance-approach goals did
not predict any variables in the model, performance-avoidance
goals negatively predicted performance. Finally, as in the Vallerand,
Salvy, et al. (2007, Study 1) study with the dramatic arts performers,
harmonious passion was positively associated with psychological
adjustment while obsessive passion was unrelated to it. This basic
model was replicated in another study involving students who had a
passion toward studying psychology as their future profession and
with objective exam scores in a psychology course as a measure of
performance (Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007, Study 2).
The above findings had been obtained with teenagers and young
adults who were at best at the national level (some of the water
polo players in the Vallerand et al. [in press, Study 2] study were
on the Junior Canadian team). It is thus of particular interest that
these findings have been replicated with adult high elite perform-
ers. Specifically, in a study with national and international classi-
cal musicians, Bonneville-Roussy and Vallerand (2007) were able
to replicate the model of Vallerand et al. (in press, Study 2—see
Figure 1). Thus, these findings would appear rather robust, even
with very high-level performers. Furthermore, once again, harmo-
nious passion positively predicted life satisfaction. Clearly, har-
monious passion does appear to be an important predictor of both
performance and psychological adjustment.
In sum, it appears that harmonious passion contributes to ob-
jective indices of performance. Such effect seems to take place
through mastery goals that lead to deliberate practice, that, in turn,
leads to performance. The role of obsessive passion in perfor-
mance is rather complex as it positively predicts mastery goals
(which leads to performance through deliberate practice) but also
performance-avoidance goals which may negatively influence per-
formance. These findings suggest that having the goal of beating
others at all costs may not only have some negative effects on
intrinsic motivation (e.g., Vallerand, Gauvin, & Halliwell, 1986)
but may also undermine performance. Because of the obvious
implications of these findings, additional research is warranted to
test its generalisation in other fields of endeavor over longer
periods of time.
On the Development of Passion
Thus far, we have documented the impact that passion can have
on a variety of processes and outcomes with harmonious passion
typically leading to more adaptive outcomes than obsessive pas-
Figure 1. The passion and performance model. From Vallerand et al. (in
press, Study 2). Printed with permission, Psychology of Sport and Exercise.
sion. If passion makes a difference in people’s lives, then it would
appear worthwhile to determine how it develops. Three processes
are hypothesised to influence the development of passion toward
an activity: activity selection, activity valuation, and the type of
internalisation of the activity representation in one’s identity. Ac-
tivity selection refers to the person’s preference for the activity
over other activities. To the extent that the person feels that such
selection reflects true choice and interests and is consonant with
one’s identity, it should promote the development of passion
toward that activity. Activity valuation (or the subjective impor-
tance given to the activity by the person) is expected to play an
important role in the internalisation of the activity in identity and
self. Research has indeed shown that when the object of interest is
highly valued and meaningful, one is inclined to internalise the
valued object, to make it part of him or herself (Aron, Aron, &
Smollan, 1992; Deci et al., 1994). The more important (or valued)
the activity, the more the activity will be internalised in the
person’s identity, and, consequently, the more passionate the per-
son will be toward this activity. Thus, activity valuation can be
seen as the intensity (or quantity) dimension (the fuel) underlying
activity internalisation and the development of passion.
It is further proposed that once an interesting activity becomes
highly valued, the type of passion that will ensue is determined by
the type of internalisation that takes place. This last process can be
seen as affecting the “quality” dimension or the type of passion
that will take place. A controlled internalisation of the activity
representation is expected to lead to the development of an obses-
sive passion and an autonomous internalisation to a harmonious
passion. It is further proposed that one important determinant of
the internalisation process is the extent to which the social envi-
ronment promotes the person’s autonomy (Deci & Ryan, 1987)
toward activity selection and activity valuation. Much research has
shown that autonomy support (or promoting choice and self-
initiation of another person’s behaviour) from parents and teachers
facilitates children’s autonomous internalisation of values and
regulations of noninteresting activities such as school (see
Grolnick & Ryan, 1989). Similarly, it is proposed that autonomy
support will facilitate the autonomous internalisation of the inter-
esting activity in one’s identity and self, thereby leading to har-
monious passion. Conversely, once a given activity has been
selected by the individual a controlling behaviour from important
social agents should facilitate a controlled internalisation of the
activity in one’s identity, thereby leading to an obsessive passion.
A recent study by Mageau et al. (2007, Study 3) has tested the
above hypotheses. In this study, first-year high school students
who had never played a musical instrument before and who were
taking their first music class completed a series of questionnaires
early in the term assessing activity selection and valuation (per-
ceived parental activity valuation and both perceived parental and
children activity specialisation), autonomy support from parents
and music teachers, as well as identity processes. By following
participants who were registered in their first music class over the
course of a full semester, we sought to predict who would develop
a passion for music at the end of the term, and, among those who
did, predict those who would develop a harmonious or an obses-
sive passion. Results of a discriminant analysis revealed that
students who ended up being passionate for music (36% of the
sample) at the end of the term had reported higher levels of activity
valuation and specialisation, identity processes, and parental and
teacher autonomy support earlier in the term than those students
who didn’t turn out to be passionate. Furthermore, it was found
that high autonomy support from close adults (parents and music
teachers) and activity valuation from the students’ port were condu-
cive to the development of harmonious passion. However, high levels
of parental perceived valuation for music and lack of autonomy
support were found to predict the development of obsessive passion.
In sum, the results of the Mageau et al. (2007, Study 3) provided
support for the role of activity selection and valuation, identity pro-
cesses, and autonomy support from significant adults in the develop-
ment of a passion for music in general, and harmonious and obsessive
passion in particular.
A second determinant of the internalisation process deals with
one’s personality (see Vallerand & Houlfort, 2003; Vallerand &
Miquelon, 2007; Vallerand et al., 2006). Past research (see Vallerand,
1997, 2001) has shown that an autonomous personality orientation
(having a tendency to do things out of pleasure and/or choice) leads
to the internalisation of noninteresting activities in the self. On the
other hand, having a controlled personality orientation (to do things
out of external and/or inner pressure) leads to the pressured internal-
isation of noninteresting activities in the person (Guay, Mageau, &
Vallerand, 2003; see also Vallerand, 1997, 2007). It thus appears that
an autonomous personality leads to an autonomous internalisation
style while a controlled personality facilitates a controlled internalisa-
tion style. In light of the above, to the extent that one highly values an
enjoyable activity, people with an autonomous personality should be
more likely to internalise the activity in their identity in an autono-
mous fashion (i.e., willingly, without any external or internal pres-
sure) thereby leading to harmonious passion. Similarly, a controlled
personality should be more conducive to the internalisation of an
enjoyable and valued activity in a controlled manner, thus leading to
obsessive passion.
Recent research by Vallerand et al. (2006, Studies 1 and 3)
conducted with athletes supported the above hypotheses. For in-
stance, Vallerand et al. (2006, Study 1) showed that results from a
path analysis revealed that valuation of the sport activity coupled
with an autonomous internalisation style (as assessed by the
Global Motivation Scale; Guay, Mageau, & Vallerand, 2003)
predicted harmonious passion. On the other hand, a controlled
internalisation style coupled with valuation of the activity led to an
obsessive passion. These findings appear in Figure 2. Furthermore,
these findings were replicated in a second study (Vallerand et al.,
2006, Study 3) using a short longitudinal design. Thus, personality
factors do play an important role in the prediction of the type of
passion that will develop.
Overall, results presented in this section provide support for our
position on the development of passion. Additional research is
needed in order to replicate these findings over a longer period of
time and to determine more clearly the psychological processes
leading to the development of passion toward a new activity.
Future Research
So far, in this article, we have reviewed several studies that
provide strong support for the proposed approach on passion with
respect to a number of important variables and with a variety of
activities and populations. While the research conducted to date is
indeed encouraging, additional research is necessary in order to
probe further the role of passion in people’s lives. Below, we
present certain directions for future research that would appear
particularly exciting.
On the Stages of Passion
A first area of research that would appear important deals with
the potential existence of stages of passion toward a given activity.
Is there a universal sequence such that initially the passion toward
a given activity is, for instance, obsessive, and then later on
becomes more harmonious? In other words, do the two types of
passion follow some stages? We do not have any conclusive
empirical evidence on this issue so far. Preliminary evidence
seems to indicate that such is not the case. In the Vallerand et al.
(2003, Study 1), we did not find any relationship between length of
involvement and the two types of passion. However, these findings
are limited in scope as the design used was not longitudinal in
nature. What is needed is to follow individuals from their begin-
nings in a given activity up to their decision to become heavily
involved in that activity. In other words, a follow up to the Mageau
et al. (2007) study discussed previously would appear in order.
Such a study would allow us to determine if a sequence exists and
if it changes over time.
On Passion, Competence, and Future Selves
A second fruitful area for future research deals with the potential
role that perceptions of competence and progression toward the
activity may have on the development of the ensuing passion.
Among other things, we need to assess whether perceptions of
competence and those of progression lead to the same impact on
passion. Indeed, people may see themselves as currently compe-
tent but not as progressing enough to reach the highest levels of
performance. Such perceptions might curtail the development of
one’s passion because people might feel that feelings of compe-
tence and excitement will be no longer forthcoming at some point.
However, individuals who perceive themselves as competent and
who expect a bright future in the passionate activity might be more
likely to increase or at least maintain their passion for the activity.
Furthermore, perceiving oneself as progressing and eventually
reaching a certain level of proficiency cannot only allow one to
satisfy the basic need for competence (Deci & Ryan, 2000) but also
lead one to see the activity as representing a meaningful “future self”
(Markus & Nurius, 1986), and eventually as contributing to one’s
identity. Since identity construction plays an important role in the
development of a passion toward a given activity (Mageau et al.,
2007), self-perceptions of progression may indirectly facilitate the
evolution of one’s passion through its impact on the identity construc-
tion process. Future research is needed on this issue.
On Long-Term Involvement and Psychological Adjustment
Another important research issue pertains to long-term involve-
ment in a given activity and the psychological adjustment that may
ensue. Research reveals that it may take as much as 10 years of
sustained and intense training in a given field to reach the highest
levels of one’s discipline such as music or sports (Ericsson &
Charness, 1994). What type of passion may best allow one to
sustain such long-term involvement and reach such high levels of
performance? What is the long-term impact on one’s psychologi-
cal adjustment to persist for such a long time in environments that
may be particularly competitive? Our research so far suggests that
there are two roads to excellence, the harmonious and the obses-
sive ones. While both may lead to high-level of performance, the
obsessive road may lead individuals to suffer psychologically
along the way, relative to harmoniously passionate performers.
Research in this area tends to support this hypothesis (Bonneville-
Roussy & Vallerand, 2007; Vallerand et al., in press, Study 2;
Vallerand, Salvy, et al., 2007). Thus, these findings would appear
rather robust, even with high-level performers. However, such
research was not longitudinal. Clearly future research is needed in
order to replicate the above findings over a sustained period of
One issue raised by the above findings pertains to the possibility
that obsessive passion leads participants to experience lower levels
of psychological adjustment and thus to eventually drop out before
reaching the highest levels of performance of the activity. How-
ever, recent research by Amiot, Vallerand, and Blanchard (2006)
with teen elite hockey players suggests that this may not neces-
sarily be the case. Results from their study revealed that obses-
sively passionate individuals were found to psychologically suffer
only in nonobsessive environments (less competitive leagues)
wherein task engagement was more limited. Obsessively passion-
ate individuals who were in obsessive environments (the more
competitive leagues) where they could devote themselves fully to
the passionate activity (hockey) fared much better psychologically
than harmoniously passionate hockey players in a similar environ-
ment. Thus, it is unclear at the moment whether obsessively
passionate people would indeed be at risk psychologically when
going up the ladder of excellence and if they would be more likely
to drop out of the activity. Based on past research on rigid
persistence (e.g., Vallerand et al., 2003, Studies 3 and 4), it is also
possible that they may stick with the activity no matter what
allowing them to be among the fortunate few who make it to the
top. Clearly, future longitudinal research is needed to address the
issue of long-term persistence and high-level performance and
psychological adjustment.
Figure 2. The role of valuation and personality processes in the predic-
tion of passion. From Vallerand et al. (2006, Study 1). Printed with
permission, Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.
On Passion for a Cause
For a number of people, the passionate activity they engage in
is related to a cause or an aspiration. For instance, the Red Cross
and Doctors Without Borders are organisations that have human-
itarian interests at heart. People who espouse such goals and values
often have a passion for the cause promoted by such organisations.
What are the consequences both for individuals and organisations
of having passionate people involved in such activities? Who is
more likely to take chances with one’s lives as well as that of
others under extreme conditions in order to reach objectives re-
lated to the cause? Who is more likely to come back with post-
traumatic stress experiences following such missions? Based on
the findings presented in this article, one would be inclined to
predict that obsessive passion would be more likely to lead to such
negative outcomes. Furthermore, because the cause is so important
for the individual, passion for the cause may lead at times to
extreme behaviours in order to reach the cause. This would be
expected to be the case particularly for obsessive passion at least
in part because the passionate activity then provides individuals a
high sense of self-esteem when they reach their goal (Mageau &
Vallerand, 2007). For instance, in a recent study with highly
politically involved individuals, Rip, Vallerand, Grenier, Lafre-
nie`re, and Charbonneau (2007) found that harmonious passion was
positively related to acceptable behaviours to reach the cause (e.g.,
participating in discussion groups to persuade people of the im-
portance of the political cause) but not to extreme ones (e.g., being
part of subversive groups to reach the political cause). The exact
opposite findings were obtained with obsessive passion where
strong positive relationships were found between obsessive pas-
sion and extreme forms of political behaviour. Because obses-
sively passionate individuals’ sense of self-esteem appears to be
contingent on reaching the cause (Mageau & Vallerand, 2007),
failure to reach such cause may not be an option for them. In the
end, the end justifies the means, and obsessively passionate indi-
viduals may engage in extreme behaviours in order to reach their
goal. Future research on these issues may have important impli-
cations for a host of areas, including politics and activism.
The purpose of the present article was to present the Dualistic
Model of Passion and review some of the related research. Passion
is defined as a strong inclination toward self-defining activity that
one loves, finds important, and devotes significant amount of time
and energy. Furthermore, two types of passion are proposed de-
pending on how the activity representation has been internalised in
one’s identity. While harmonious passion entails control of the
activity and an harmonious coexistence of the passionate activity
with other activities in identity, obsessive passion entails the
relative lack of control over the passionate activity, rigid persis-
tence, and conflict with other activities in one’s life. Strong sup-
port for the model was obtained. Specifically, a passion scale was
developed, assessing harmonious and obsessive passion. In addi-
tion, harmonious passion was found to promote more adaptive
outcomes than obsessive passion on a number of cognitive, affec-
tive, behavioural, interpersonal, and performance outcomes, on a
variety of activities and with various populations ranging from
children to the elderly. Finally, the processes through which pas-
sion develops were also discussed and directions for future re-
search were also proposed.
In concluding, two caveats are in order. First, much of the
research presented herein is correlational in nature. Thus, one
should not at this point make conclusive statements about causal-
ity. However, the evidence is highly consistent, always pointing in
the same direction (harmonious passion being positively correlated
with adaptive outcomes and obsessive passion with less adaptive
ones). Furthermore, research by Carbonneau, Vallerand, Fernet,
and Guay (in press) using a cross-lagged panel design showed that
while passion leads to changes in outcomes (e.g., work satisfac-
tion) over time, outcomes do not lead to changes in passion. This
last finding would tend to support the view that passion can
produce outcomes. A second caveat is that we would not want to
portray obsessive passion as being completely negative. While it
may not lead to outcomes as adaptive as those derived from
harmonious passion, obsessive passion is still more adaptive than
being nonmotivated or amotivated (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Indeed,
among other things, it promotes long-term commitment and persis-
tence in the passionate activity. Furthermore, future research may
show that it facilitates other kinds of positive outcomes. Thus, future
research is needed to place the passion construct in a broader moti-
vational framework, allowing researchers to more firmly determine
the positivity or negativity of the outcomes engendered by the two
types of passion relative to other motivational constructs.
In sum, positive psychology (Seligman & Csikscentmihalyi,
2000) has recently asked the question “How people’s lives can be
most worth living?” It is believed that one answer to that question
is by having in one’s life a harmonious passion toward a mean-
ingful activity or a cause. A prime example would be the harmo-
nious passion toward the cause of Canadian Psychology displayed
by colleagues on the CPA board of directors. I believe that such a
passion helps explain their intense involvement toward the cause
and why they have done so well advancing it. No wonder that with
such harmoniously passionate people my involvement in CPA was
so positive and memorable.
Au cours des dernie`res anne´es, Vallerand et ses colle`gues ont
de´veloppe´ le mode`le dualiste de la passion (Vallerand et al., 2003;
Vallerand & Houlfort, 2003; Vallerand & Miquelon 2007). La
passion repre´sente une vive inclination envers une activite´ qu’une
personne aime, juge importante et dans laquelle elle investit du
temps et de l’e´nergie. E
tant donne´ la valeur ainsi que la signifi-
cation accorde´es par l’individu a` son activite´ passionnante, cette
dernie`re en vient a` repre´senter un aspect central de son identite´. Le
mode`le postule deux types de passion : harmonieuse et obsessive,
selon le type d’inte´riorisation dont fera l’objet l’activite´ dans
l’identite´ de la personne. Le premier type de passion est une force
motivationnelle caracte´rise´e par le choix d’une personne de
s’investir dans l’activite´. Avoir une passion harmonieuse pour une
activite´ devrait ainsi permettre a` l’individu d’eˆtre en harmonie
avec les autres activite´s et aspects de sa vie en plus de vivre
plusieurs conse´quences comportementales, cognitives et affectives
positives dans le cadre de l’activite´ passionnante. La passion
obsessive quant a` elle implique que l’activite´ prend le controˆle de
la personne. Ainsi, l’individu ne peut s’empeˆcher de prendre part
a` son activite´ passionnante. Cette persistance rigide entraîne la
personne a` vivre moins d’e´motions positives dans le cadre de
l’activite´, ainsi que de la frustration et la rumination a` propos de
l’activite´ suite a` la pratique de l’activite´ ou si encore la personne
est empeˆche´e de participer a` celle-ci. Ce type de passion devrait
donc mener a` plusieurs conflits ainsi qu’a` des conse´quences intra
et interpersonnelles ne´gatives puisque l’individu ressent une pres-
sion a` faire l’activite´ qu’il aime.
Les recherches re´alise´es jusqu’ici procure un soutien empirique
important pour le mode`le de la passion, et ce plusieurs niveaux.
Ainsi : (1) la structure bi-factorielle compose´e de facteurs repre´-
sentant la passion harmonieuse et la passion obsessive a e´te´ re-
produite a` maintes reprises avec des analyses factorielles explora-
toires et confirmatoires (p. ex., Rousseau et al., 2002; Vallerand et
al., 2003, E
tude 1; Vallerand et al., 2006, E
tude 1). (2) la passion
harmonieuse me`ne a` des e´motions plus positives que la passion
obsessive pendant et suite a` la pratique de l’activite´, ainsi que si la
personne ne peut pratiquer son activite´ passionnante (Mageau et
al., 2005; Ratelle et al., 2004; Vallerand et al., 2003, E
tude 1;
Vallerand et al., 2006, E
tudes 2 et 3). (3) La passion harmonieuse
pre´dit un meilleur ajustement psychologique que la passion obses-
sive (Rousseau & Vallerand, 2003, sous presse; Vallerand et al.,
2007, E
tudes 1 et 2; Vallerand et al., sous presse, E
tude 2). De
plus, cet effet semble me´die´ par les e´motions positives ve´cues dans
le cadre de l’activite´ (Rousseau & Vallerand, 2003, sous presse).
(4) La passion obsessive semble plus mener a` des proble`mes de
sante´ que la passion harmonieuse, probablement parce qu’elle
ame`ne la personne a`e´mettre des comportements risque´s (Valler-
and et al., 2003, E
tude 3) et a` perse´ve´rer de fac¸on rigide dans la
pratique de l’activite´ alors qu’elle devrait cesser momentane´ment
(lorsque blesse´, par exemple, Rip, Fortin, & Vallerand, 2006). (5)
La passion harmonieuse me`ne aussi a` de meilleures relations
interpersonnelles dans le cadre de l’activite´ (Philippe et al., 2007).
Il semblerait que le fait de vivre des e´motions positives dans le
cadre de l’activite´ faciliterait une meilleure connexion avec autrui
dans l’activite´. Par contre, la passion obsessive semble mener a` des
conflits interpersonnels a` l’exte´rieur de l’activite´, notamment avec
le conjoint (Se´guin-Le´vesque et al., 2003; Vallerand et al., 2007,
tude 3). (6) Les deux types de passion me`ne a` des niveaux de
performance e´leve´e dans leur activite´ parce qu’elles engendrent
une implication soutenue dans des activite´s de pratique de´libe´re´e
(Ericsson & Charness, 1994) dans lesquelles la personne cherche
activement a` ame´liorer ses faiblesses et a` atteindre l’excellence
(Vallerand et al., 2007, sous presse). Fait inte´ressant, cette recher-
che d’excellence lorsque mue par une passion harmonieuse pro-
cure aussi un bien-eˆtre psychologique accru. Enfin, (7) certains
processus psychologiques menant au de´veloppement de la passion
ont e´te´ identifie´s (Mageau et al., 2007). Ainsi, dans la mesure ou`
la personne juge l’activite´ comme importante, qu’elle entrevoit la
possibilite´ que celle-ci fasse partie de son identite´ un jour et qu’elle
ope`re dans un environnement soutenant son autonomie, elle de´ve-
loppera une passion envers l’activite´. Par surcroît, une passion
harmonieuse sera de´veloppe´e si en plus des variables mentionne´es
pre´ce´demment, l’environnement procure un soutien a` l’autonomie,
alors que si l’environnement (notamment les parents) est pres-
surisant, une passion obsessive se de´veloppera (Mageau et al.,
2007, E
tude 3).
En somme, nous croyons que l’e´tude de la passion puisse
apporter beaucoup a` notre compre´hension du comportement hu-
main. Entre autres, elle permet de re´pondre a` une question fonda-
mentale de la psychologie positive (Seligman & Csikscentmihalyi,
2000) a` savoir “Comment la vie peut-elle eˆtre rendue plus signif-
icative?”. Nous croyons que le fait d’avoir une passion har-
monieuse envers une activite´ qui nous est significative puisse
repre´senter une re´ponse importante a` cette question.
Amiot, C., Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. (2006). Passion and psycho-
logical adjustment: A test of the person-environment fit hypothesis.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 220 –229.
Aron, A., Aron, E. N., & Smollan, D. (1992). Inclusion of other in the self
scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 63, 596 612.
Bonneville-Roussy, A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007, May). Passion and
performance: A look at expert performers. Paper presented at the 3rd
International Congress on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Toronto,
Ontario, Canada.
Carbonneau, N., Vallerand, R. J., Fernet, C., & Guay, F. (in press). The role
of passion for teaching in intra and interpersonal outcomes. Journal of
Educational Psychology.
Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping
strategies: A theoretical based approach. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.
Castelda, B. A., Mattson, R. E., MacKillop, J., Anderson, E. J., &
Donovick, P. J. (2007). Psychometric validation of the Gambling Pas-
sion Scale in an English-Speaking university sample. International
Gambling Studies, 7, 173–182.
Crocker, J., & Park, L. E. (2004). The costly pursuit of self-esteem.
Psychological Bulletin, 130, 392– 414.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1978). Intrinsic rewards and emergent motivation.
In M. R. Lepper & D. Greene (Eds.), The hidden costs of reward (pp.
205–216). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating
internalization: The self-determination perspective. Journal of Person-
ality, 62, 119 –142.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1987). The support of autonomy and the
control of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53,
1024 –1037.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits:
Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological
Inquiry, 11, 227–268.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: Reflec-
tions and future directions. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Hand-
book of self-determination research (pp. 431– 441). Rochester, NY:
University of Rochester Press.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.) (2002). Handbook on self-determination
research: Theoretical and applied issues. Rochester, NY: University of
Rochester Press.
Elliot, A. J. (1997). Integrating the “classic” and “contemporary” ap-
proaches to achievement motivation: A hierarchical model of approach
and avoidance achievement motivation. In M. L. Maehr & P. R.
Pintrinch (Eds.), Advances in movitation and achievement—Vol. 10 (pp.
143–179). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Elliot, A. J., & Church, M. A. (1997). A hierarchical model of approach
and avoidance achievement motivation. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 72, 218 –232.
Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance
achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 968 –980.
Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure
and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 71–76.
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Fletcher, G. J. O., Simpson, J. A., & Thomas, G. (2000). The measurement
of perceived relationship quality components: A confirmatory factor
analytic approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 340
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of
General Psychology, 2, 300 –319.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive
psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Amer-
ican Psychologist, 56, 218 –226.
Frederickson, B. L., & Joiner, T. (2002). Positive emotions trigger upward
spirals toward emotional well-being. Psychological Science, 13, 172–
Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with
children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educa-
tional Psychology, 81, 143–154.
Guay, F., Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). On the hierarchical
structure of self-determined motivation: A test of top-down, bottom-up,
reciprocal, and horizontal effects. Personality and Social Psychology
Bulletin, 29, 992–1004.
Hatfield, E., & Walster, G. W. (1978). A new look at love. Reading, MA:
Addison Wesley.
Hodgins, H. S., & Knee, R. (2002). The integrating self and conscious
experience. In Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (Eds.), Handbook on self-
determination research: Theoretical and applied issues (pp. 87–100).
Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
Houlfort, N., & Vallerand, R. J. (2006). La passion envers le travail: les
deux coˆte´s de la me´daille. Revue Muldisciplinaire sur l’Emploi, le
Syndicalisme et le travail, 2, 4 –17.
Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical
model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.
Koestner, R., & Losier, G. F. (2002). Distinguishing three ways of being
highly motivated: A closer look at introjection, identification, and in-
trinsic motivation. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of
self-determination research (pp. 101–121). Rochester, NY: University
of Rochester Press.
Mageau, G. A., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Passion and self-esteem con-
tingency: A test of their relationship. Unpublished data, Universite´de
Mageau, G. A., Vallerand, R. J., Charest, J., Salvy, S-J., Lacaille, N.,
Bouffard. T., et al. (2007). On the development of harmonious and
obsessive passion: The role of autonomy support, activity valuation, and
identity processes. Paper submitted for publication.
Mageau, G. A., Vallerand, R. J., Rousseau, F. L., Ratelle, C. F., &
Provencher, P. J. (2005). Passion and gambling: Investigating the diver-
gent affective and cognitive consequences of gambling. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 35, 100 –118.
Markus, H., & Nurius, P. (1986). Possible selves. American Psychologist,
41, 954 –969.
Philippe, F., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007). Prevalence rates of gambling
problems in Montreal, Canada: A look at old adults and the role of
passion. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 275–283.
Philippe, F., Vallerand, R. J., & Houlfort, N. (2007). On passion and
quality of interpersonal relationships: The mediating role of positive
affect. Paper submitted for publication.
Ratelle, C. F., Carbonneau, N., Mageau, G., & Vallerand, R. J. (2007). A
new look at passion and romantic relationships. Paper submitted for
Ratelle, C. F., Vallerand, R. J., Mageau, G. A., Rousseau, F. L., &
Provencher, P. (2004). When passion leads to problematic outcomes: A
look at gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 105–119.
Rathunde, K. (1996). Family context and talented adolescents’ optimal
experience in school-related activities. Journal of Research in Adoles-
cence, 6, 605– 628.
Rathunde, K., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1993). Undivided interest and the
growth of talent: A longitudinal study of adolescents. Journal of Youth
and Adolescence, 22, 385–392.
Renninger, K. A. (1992). Interest, learning, and development. In K. A.
Renninger, S. Hidi, & A. Krapp (Eds.), The role of interest in learning
and development (pp. 3–25). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Renninger, K. A., & Hidi, S. (2002). Student interest and achievement:
Developmental issues raised by a case study. In A. Wigfield & J. S.
Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation: A volume in the
educational psychology series (pp. 173–195). San Diego, CA: Academic
Rip, B., Fortin, S., & Vallerand, R. J. (2006). The relationship between
passion and injury in dance students. Journal of Dance Medicine &
Science, 10, 14 –20.
Rip, B., Vallerand, R. J., Grenier, S., Lafrenie`re, M. K., & Charbonneau,
M-E. (2007, May). Passion for sovereignty: Harmonious and obsessive
passion in the political arena. Paper presented at the 3rd International
Congress on Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Toronto, Ontario, Can-
Rony, J-A. (1990). Les passions (The passions). Paris: Presses universita-
ires de France.
Rousseau, F. L., & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). Le roˆle de la passion dans le
bien-eˆtre subjectif des ˆne´s [The role of passion in the subjective
well-being of the elderly]. Revue Que´be´coise de Psychologie, 24, 197
Rousseau, F. L., & Vallerand, R. J. (in press). An examination of the
relationship between passion and subjective well-being in older adults.
International Journal of Aging and Human Development.
Rousseau, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Ratelle, C. F., Mageau, G. A., & Provencher,
P. J. (2002). Passion and gambling: On the validation of the Gambling
Passion Scale (GPS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 45– 66.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2003). On assimilating identities of the self:
A Self-Determination Theory perspective on internalization and integ-
rity within cultures. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook
of self and identity (pp. 253–272). New York: Guilford Press.
Se´guin-Le´vesque, C., Laliberte´, M-L., Pelletier, L. G., Blanchard, C., &
Vallerand, R. J. (2003). Harmonious and obsessive passion for the
internet: Their associations with the couple’s relationships. Journal of
Applied Social Psychology, 33, 197–221.
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikscentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology:
An introduction. American Psychologist, 55, 5–14.
Sheldon, K. M. (2002). The Self-Concordance Model of healthy goal-
striving: When personal goals correctly represent the person. In E. L.
Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research
(pp. 65– 86). Rochester, NY: The University of Rochester Press.
Spanier, G. B. (1976). Measuring dyadic adjustment: New scales for
assessing the quality of marriage and similar dyads. Journal of Marriage
and the Family, 38, 15–38.
Starkes, J. L., & Ericsson, K. A. (Eds.). (2003). Expert performance in
sports: Advances in research on sport expertise. Champaign, IL: Human
Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation. Advances in Experimental and Social Psychology,
29, 271–360.
Vallerand, R. J. (2001). A hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic
motivation in sport and exercise. In G. Roberts (Ed.), Advances in
motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 263–319). Champaign, IL: Human
Vallerand, R. J. (2007). A Hierarchical Model of Intrinsic and Extrinsic
Motivation for sport and physical activity. In M. S. D. Hagger & N. L. D.
Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Self-determination theory in exercise and sport
(pp. 255–279). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C. M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle,
C. F., Le´onard, M. et al. (2003). Les passions de l’aˆme: On obsessive and
harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85,
756 –767.
Vallerand, R. J., Fortier, M. S., Guay, F. (1997). Self-determination and
persistence in a real-life setting: Toward a motivational model of high
school dropout. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72,
Vallerand, R. J., Gauvin, L. I., & Halliwell, W. R. (1986). Negative effects
of competition on children’s intrinsic motivation. Journal of Social
Psychology, 126, 649 657.
Vallerand, R. J., & Houlfort, N. (2003). Passion at work: Toward a new
conceptualization. In S. W. Gilliland, D. D. Steiner, & D. P. Skarlicki
(Eds.), Emerging perspectives on values in organizations (pp. 175–204).
Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.
Vallerand, R. J., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A., Dumais, A., Demers, M-A., &
Rousseau, F. L. (in press). Passion and performance attainment in sport.
Psychology of Sport & Exercise.
Vallerand, R. J., & Miquelon, P. (2007). Passion for sport in athletes. In D.
Lavalle´e, & S. Jowett (Eds.), Social psychology in sport (pp. 249 –262).
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Vallerand, R. J., Ntoumanis, N., Philippe, F., Lavigne, G., Carbonneau., N.,
Bonneville, A., et al. (2007). On being a sport fan: The role of passion
and a look at the 2006 World Soccer Cup. Paper submitted for publi-
Vallerand, R. J., & Ratelle, C. F. (2002). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation:
A hierarchical model. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of
self-determination research (pp. 37– 63) Rochester, NY: University of
Rochester Press.
Vallerand, R. J., & Rousseau, F. L. (2007). On passion, affect, and
psychological adjustment. Mansucript submitted for publication.
Vallerand, R. J., Rousseau, F. L., Grouzet, F. M. E., Dumais, A., &
Grenier, S. (2006). Passion in sport: A look at determinants and affective
experiences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 454 478.
Vallerand, R. J., Salvy, S. J., Mageau, G. A., Elliot, A. J., Denis, P.,
Grouzet, F. M. E., et al. (2007). On the role of passion in performance.
Journal of Personality, 75, 505–534.
Walker, M. B. (1992). The psychology of gambling. New York: Pergamon
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and vali-
dation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS
scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Waugh, C. E., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2006). Nice to know you: Positive
emotions, self-other overlap, and complex understanding in the forma-
tion of new relationships. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 93–106.
Received October 19, 2007
Revision received October 26, 2007
Accepted October 26, 2007
... The dualistic model of passion (DMP) covers two kinds of passion: harmonious (HP) and obsessive one (OP) worked out by Vallerand and his colleagues (e.g. Vallerand & Houlfort, 2003;Vallerand, 2008Vallerand, , 2015Vallerand, , 2017Chichekian & Vallerand, 2021;Paquette et al., 2023) still needs exploration by researchers who see the meaning of passion for personal and professional development, particularly in the perspective of human integral upbringing functions, according to Kunowski' s concept of human integral development leading to the human entity (Kunowski, 2000). That is why, it appears necessary, first of all, to present briefly the dualistic model of passion, then, the factors determining the human integral development, in short, next the correlation between the model and the concept of functions of human upbringing As far as the dualistic model of passion is concerned, V. Paquette et al. (2023) claim that this model "defines a passion as a strong proclivity toward a self-defining activity that one loves, values, finds meaningful, and in which one devotes a significant amount Maria Szymańska of time and energy". ...
... […] defined passion as a strong inclination toward a specific activity that one loves, highly values, invests time and energy in, and is part of one's identity". These activities are internalized in human "identity to the extent that these are highly valued and meaningful for the person" (Vallerand, 2008). The internalization can be autonomous -specific for harmonious passion or controlled -characteristic for obsessive one that takes place "outside the integrating self" (Vallerand, 2008). ...
... These activities are internalized in human "identity to the extent that these are highly valued and meaningful for the person" (Vallerand, 2008). The internalization can be autonomous -specific for harmonious passion or controlled -characteristic for obsessive one that takes place "outside the integrating self" (Vallerand, 2008). Here, the meaning of intra or interpersonal pressure that person experiences and associates with the outcomes of own passion activity, also, with self-esteem, dignity, and social acceptance, affects the person's functioning in life. ...
Full-text available
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The scientific aim of the article is to learn the relationship between the integral human development and the development of harmonious passion (HP) and the human integral development and upbringing. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: The research problem of the conducted research is contained in the question: What is the relationship between harmonious passion with the integral development of the educational entity. Answering this question enables the use of the hermeneutic method exploring the meaning of this phenomenological relationship. THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: The research process is epistemological in nature. It refers to the dualistic model of passion, particularly to the harmonious passion, and the integral human development. Noticing the correlation between the above-mentioned aspects can be a significant challenge for the teachers and students with their passionate attitude, discovering and forming their own identity. RESEARCH RESULTS: The analysis of the collected material indicated the importance of the development of a harmonious passion for the integral development of educational entities in the space of biological, psychological, social, cultural and spiritual life, and the formation of an autonomous identity. CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS: Theoretical research in the abovementioned area can draw the educators’ attention to the harmonious passion seen in a multidimensional perspective, reflected in the educational activity, what needs revising and updating educational programs that stimulate the actualization of creative potential of educational entities. This can be used to get to know oneself, others and the world more deeply on the path of autonomous self-becoming.
... Se postula que existen dos tipos de pasión, diferenciadas en la manera que la actividad se interioriza en la identidad de cada uno, y con diferentes consecuencias en la orientación hacia lo que apasiona. Por una parte, la pasión caracterizada como derivada de una internalización autónoma de la actividad en la identidad, lo que se asocia a la libre elección de la tarea, mejor focalización en la misma y experiencias más positivas [20,3]. Por otro lado, la pasión obsesiva, consecuencia de una internalización controlada de la actividad en la identidad de la persona, por lo que puede terminar ocupando un espacio desproporcionado en su vida y entrar en conflicto con el resto de sus actividades. ...
... Passion scale [20]: adaptación al castellano de [4]. Es utilizado para evaluar los niveles de pasión de una persona con relación a una actividad en particular. ...
Los videojuegos comenzaron a perfilarse en los últimos años como un campo de estudios de importancia para las investigaciones en Psicología, siendo la fortaleza mental una de las variables más estudiadas. El presente trabajo tuvo el objetivo de analizar correlaciones entre la fortaleza mental, la pasión y la intolerancia a la frustración, y determinar los mayores predictores de la misma. Se conformó una muestra de 380 jugadores de FPS, residentes de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y Provincia de Buenos Aires, a quienes se les administró un cuestionario sociodemográfico, la Escala de Intolerancia a la Frustración (EIF), la Escala de Pasión y la Escala de Fortaleza Mental (MTI). Los resultados mostraron correlaciones positivas con las dimensiones de la pasión y negativas con la intolerancia a la frustración, a la vez que de encontró que la pasión armoniosa fue el mayor predictor positivo para la fortaleza mental, como así también a la incertidumbre a la incomodidad y la incertidumbre emocional como los mayores predictores negativos.
... For harmonious passion, one engages in an activity with one's own free will, tends to be associated with positive characteristics. During obsessive passion, one engages in an activity because of intra-personal or inter-personal pressure (Vallerand, 2008;Vallerand et al., 2003Vallerand et al., , 2007. So, obsessive passion tends to be associated with negative characteristics (Stoeber et al., 2011). ...
Passion to learn well (PLW) is important. With limited time and resources, how instructors can pinpoint and prioritize students who need support and encouragement to learn well and achieve the desired class performance. Cumulative grade point average (CGPA) is one acceptable factor in evaluating students’ academic performance. This research studied the relationship between PLW and CGPA, and course levels. The study surveys students at an undergraduate Bangkok private university, business school, real estate major. The questionnaire surveys were conducted in November 2021, and employed quantitative methods and descriptive data analysis. The results show that the higher CGPA, the higher the levels of PLW. Students with a CGPA of 2.35 and below reflected the median level of PLW. Students with CGPA above 3.00 reflected PLW at high to the highest levels. Course levels also show a relationship with PLW. The higher the course levels – from junior to senior courses – the higher PLW. Senior courses had a higher proportion of PLW at high level than junior courses. The findings contribute by support with empirical evidence.
... Incorporating artistic concepts such as inspiration, passion, expression, and identity into performance psychology interventions could make support more appealing to musicians. These aspects could also have beneficial effects: for example, fostering harmonious passion (Vallerand, 2008) and autonomous motivation (Evans, 2015) could lead to optimal practice, performance, and wellbeing (Bonneville-Roussy et al., 2011;Evans & Bonneville-Roussy, 2016), while focusing on expression during practice and performance could improve performance quality (Miksza, 2015;Mornell & Wulf, 2019). ...
Full-text available
Tertiary music students face a variety of challenges in their musical journeys. It is therefore promising that studies have begun to explore the potential of performance psychology interventions to help music students. However, less attention has been given to how such interventions should be designed and delivered for maximum efficacy. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring tertiary music students’ needs, preferences, and attitudes regarding performance psychology. Through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, 11 students shared their experiences of the psychological aspects of being a music student as well as their attitudes toward interventions. Analysis revealed that students currently gained most of their knowledge of performance psychology through experience and personal research. They discussed a range of factors that helped them, as well as personal and environmental factors that created challenges. Participants wanted sessions that were practical, individually tailored, and held in a safe space. Regarding consultants, students placed high importance on personal characteristics and musical background. Time constraints and stigma were the two main barriers that the participants believed may prevent them from benefiting from an intervention. Recommendations for future intervention studies are made based on current and existing findings.
... Existing research has confirmed that proactive personality and entrepreneurial passion are positively correlated with entrepreneurial intention. First, the research on passion shows that the strong positive emotion of passion can create individuals' desire to the venture and can mobilize energies (Cardon et al., 2005(Cardon et al., , 2009Vallerand, 2008). According to H. Ma and Tan (2006), the passion is essential for the entrepreneurs to create value and exert an influence. ...
Full-text available
The multiple mechanisms of entrepreneurial intention are still an open issue, and few have explored whether the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and proactive personality is influenced by entrepreneurial passion. This study aims to reveal the mediation role of entrepreneurial passion between proactive personality and entrepreneurial intention with the application of the classic structural equation modeling. A questionnaire survey was conducted on Chinese undergraduates and 647 questionnaires were collected for the further analysis. The main findings shed light on the mechanisms that underpin entrepreneurial passion and contribute to the growing body of knowledge on entrepreneurial intention and will raise implications for both academic entrepreneurial theory and practice.
... It is considered a motivating factor in spending their time, effort, and emotions to achieve their goals (Wakefield, 2016). Since passion is the emotion that makes people's lives the most valuable, it represents the central features of people's identities (Vallerand, 2008). It also draws attention as an internal tendency resulting in external actions (Wakefield, 2016). ...
Full-text available
Second screen usage by fans while watching sports events on TV has been increasing in recent years. Although second screens are frequently used in two-way communication with fans and sports clubs, few studies have examined the subject from a theoretical perspective to understand it better. This study aims to determine whether the fear of missing out (FoMO [personal FoMO and social FoMO]) mediates the relationship between fan passion (harmonious passion and obsessive passion) and second screen usage through the dualistic model of passion (DMP) perspective. For that purpose, we conducted an online survey for data collection along with fans in Turkey and analysed 300 valid responses (79.3% male, aged 18-59 years) via structural equation modelling. The results showed that harmonious and obsessive passion had no direct effect on second screen usage. However, they had indirect effect on second screen usage through personal FoMO. In addition, personal FoMO had a prediction on second screen usage. As a result, this study highlights the importance of the second screen in the sports industry and the effect of fans' passion and FoMO levels on second screen usage from the DMP view. To our knowledge, the present study provides the first empirical evidence for the mediating role of FoMO in the relationship between fan passion and second screen use.
... Individuals who have a low level of competence will easily feel anxious, frustrated, or apathetic, thereby hindering the experience of entrepreneurial passion [23]. In addition, someone with a low level of competition tends to be less able to show skills, knowledge, or attitudes in problemsolving so it is likely that their passion is limited in their development [24]. Therefore, perceived competence affects the entrepreneurial spirit, so referring to [13] and [21] identified a significant influence of perceived competence in maintaining their passion. ...
Full-text available
The goal of this study is to analyze the shaping of entrepreneurial passion among students in the practice of entrepreneurial learning at the one university in Jakarta, Indonesia. Exploring this passion is based on two exogenous variables namely emotional support and perceived competence. Students of the Management Program at the Faculty of Economics and Business of Universitas Tarumanagara were involved as source persons in this research. The purposive sampling method is considered for the selection of samples. Some testing stages were used to analyze data including validity, reliability, and structural regression by using the software of Smart-Pls. The result shows both exogenous variables giving significantly affect entrepreneurial passion. Further effects establish good reliability on these constructs and most indicators are valid. Otherwise, found some indicators got a less score on the loading factor so three items are not accurate to measure entrepreneurial passion and one item is less useful to indicate perceived competence. Based on these results, the entrepreneurial education ecosystem needs to improve these items, so students will be more understand the dynamics of entrepreneurial passion specifically for inventing, founding, and developing their venture. It is useful as a mechanism for encouraging the desire of students for entrepreneurial activity.
Full-text available
RESEARCH OBJECTIVE: The objective of the article was to justify the necessity of high-quality pedagogical interactions in school according to teachers and students. THE RESEARCH PROBLEM AND METHODS: The following issue was analyzed: what are the procedures shaping the pedagogical presence of teachers at school? Analytical method and critical review were used as the source materials are the basis for research. THE PROCESS OF ARGUMENTATION: The article outlined the role of three categories (relation, pedagogical tact, meeting) in the construction of teachers’ pedagogical presence. RESEARCH RESULTS: Teachers’ pedagogical presence must consist of teachers’ interest in the causes of children and youth problems. This is proprietary conceptualization. CONCLUSIONS, INNOVATIONS, REKOMMENDATIONS: The undertaken issue requires additional theoretical analysis and formulation of empirical studies structure.
Full-text available
This article examines how passion affects an entrepreneur’s business failure experiences. Our study explores the link between the type of passion an entrepreneur exhibits and the effect this has on the entrepreneurs’ attitudes and reactions to business failure. We analyse the way in which passion type informs entrepreneurs identification with their business, and the entrepreneurial process. Entrepreneurs who experienced harmonious passion maintained an emotional distance from their business failure. Harmoniously passionate entrepreneurs had a rational perspective and were reflective, self-aware, adaptive and future oriented. Entrepreneurs who experienced obsessive passion, were defensive and reactionary about their business failure. Obsessively passionate entrepreneurs attached contingencies and experienced increased stress and conflict. Our findings suggest promising opportunities for future research on the interplay between heterogeneous passions, adaptive/maladaptive entrepreneurial action and regulated goal pursuit.
Havacılık sektörü, sıfır hata yaklaşımıyla potansiyel tehditleri en aza indirmeyi hedefleyen vizyoner bir sektördür. Doğası gereği en yüksek standartları talep eder ve sürdürülebilir bir hizmet anlayışı için güçlü bir tutku ve motivasyon sergiler. Buna karşın, dikkat ve stres gibi birbirine zıt iki yoğun duygunun baskın olduğu havacılık sektöründe, çalışanların işlerine duydukları tutkunun düzeyi ve türünün, bu iki duygu arasındaki dengenin sağlanmasında önemli bir belirleyici olduğu düşünülmektedir. Çalışanların işe olan tutkunluklarının havacılık sektöründeki emniyet unsuruna etkisi konusunda sınırlı sayıda araştırma olması ve sektör çalışanları açısından tutkunun emniyetli davranış ve bireysel çıktılara etkisinin inceleme beklemesi bu araştırmanın gerisinde yatan nedenlerdir. Bu bağlamda çalışmanın amacı, havacılık sektörü çalışanlarının iş tutkunluğu düzeylerinin emniyetli davranış algıları üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu araştırmanın örneklemini Türk sivil havacılık sektörü çalışanları oluşturmaktadır (n=412). Araştırma verilerini toplamak için anket, kolayda örnekleme yöntemi kullanılarak havacılık sektöründeki çalışanlara elektronik olarak dağıtılmıştır. Araştırmanın model ve hipotezlerini test etmek için Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizi (DFA) ve Çoklu Regresyon Analizinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma bulgularına göre, iş tutkunluğu boyutlarından takıntılı tutkunluğun emniyetli davranış boyutlarından emniyete uyum üzerinde negatif ama anlamlı olmayan, ancak emniyete katılım üzerinde ise pozitif ve anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Diğer yandan iş tutkunluğu boyutlarından uyumlu tutkunluğun emniyetli davranış boyutlarından emniyete uyum ve emniyete katılım üzerinde pozitif ve anlamlı bir etkiye sahip olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Çalışma, araştırma bulgularından çıkarılan sonuçlarla son bulmakta, araştırmanın kısıtlarını vurgulamakta ve havacılık işletmeleri ve araştırmacılar için öneriler sunmaktadır.
Full-text available
Based on the Dualistic Model of Passion (Vallerand et al., 2003), a sequence involving the determinants and affective experiences associated with two types of passion (harmonious and obsessive) toward sport was proposed and tested. This sequence posits that high levels of sport valuation and an autonomous personality orientation lead to harmonious passion, whereas high levels of sport valuation and a controlled personality orientation facilitate obsessive passion. In turn, harmonious passion is expected to lead to positive affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to negative affective experiences. Conversely, obsessive passion is hypothesized to be positively related to negative affective experiences in sport but to be either negatively related or unrelated to positive affective experiences. Results of three studies conducted with recreational and competitive athletes involved in individual and team sports provided support for the proposed integrative sequence. These findings support the role of passion in sport and pave the way to new research.
Emotional processes influence a wide range of mental and physical systems, which makes them difficult to understand from a single perspective. In this special issue of the Review of General Psychology, contributing authors present 4 articles that draw from several areas within psychology in the service of understanding a topic relevant to emotion. In this overview, the authors argue that the long neglect of the scientific study of complex processes such as emotion might be linked, in part, to the fractionation of the field into specialized subdisciplines. Just as emotions were of central concern in the early years of psychology (which was a generalist's era), as psychology moves toward more integration in the late 20th century broad phenomena such as emotions are once again central interests. The 4 articles of this special issue are briefly reviewed as exemplars of an integrated approach to understanding emotional phenomena.
This study assessed three dimensions of parent style, autonomy support, involvement, and provision of structure in 64 mothers and 50 fathers of elementary-school children in Grades 3-6, using a structured interview. Construct validity data for the interview ratings suggested that the three parent dimensions were reliable, relatively independent, and correlated with other parent measures in hypothesized ways. Aspects of children's self-regulation and competence were measured through children's self-reports, teacher ratings, and objective indices. Parental autonomy support was positively related to children's self-reports of autonomous self-regulation, teacher-rated competence and adjustment, and school grades and achievement. Maternal involvement was related to achievement, teacher-rated competence, and some aspects of behavioral adjustment, but no significant relations were obtained for father involvement. The structure dimension was primarily related to children's control understanding. Results are discussed in terms of the motivational impact of the parent on school competence and adjustment and in terms of transactional models of influence.