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Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.

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Abstract

Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal, fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of "healthful" food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions. This is the first of four planned papers on the nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties of Moringa oleifera. In this introductory paper, the scientific evidence for health effects are summarized in tabular format, and the strength of evidence is discussed in very general terms. A second paper will address a select few uses of Moringa in greater detail than they can be dealt with in the context of this paper. A third paper will probe the phytochemical components of Moringa in more depth. A fourth paper will lay out a number of suggested research projects that can be initiated at a very small scale and with very limited resources, in geographic regions which are suitable for Moringa cultivation and utilization. In advance of this fourth paper in the series, the author solicits suggestions and will gladly acknowledge contributions that are incorporated into the final manuscript. It is the intent and hope of the journal's editors that such a network of small-scale, locally executed investigations might be successfully woven into a greater fabric which will have enhanced scientific power over similar small studies conducted and reported in isolation. Such an approach will have the added benefit that statistically sound planning, peer review, and multi-center coordination brings to a scientific investigation.
Trees for Life Journal
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Reviews
Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical
Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and
Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.
Jed W. Fahey, Sc.D.
Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Lewis B. and Dorothy
Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, 725 N. Wolfe Street, 406 WBSB, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 21205-2185
Abstract
Moringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive,
drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many
reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility
as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal,
fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural
product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a
panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous
scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held
to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short
supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most
fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the
published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and
from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest
directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions.
This is the first of four planned papers on the nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties of Moringa oleifera. In this
introductory paper, the scientific evidence for health effects are summarized in tabular format, and the strength of evidence is
discussed in very general terms. A second paper will address a select few uses of Moringa in greater detail than they can be dealt
with in the context of this paper. A third paper will probe the phytochemical
components of Moringa in more depth. A fourth paper will lay out a number
of suggested research projects that can be initiated at a very small scale and
with very limited resources, in geographic regions which are suitable for
Moringa cultivation and utilization. In advance of this fourth paper in the
series, the author solicits suggestions and will gladly acknowledge
contributions that are incorporated into the final manuscript. It is the intent
and hope of the journal’s editors that such a network of small-scale, locally
executed investigations might be successfully woven into a greater fabric which
will have enhanced scientific power over similar small studies conducted and
reported in isolation. Such an approach will have the added benefit that
statistically sound planning, peer review, and multi-center coordination brings
to a scientific investigation.
Copyright: ©2005 Jed W. Fahey
This is an Open Access article distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution
License which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
Contact: Jed W. Fahey
Email: jfahey@jhmi.edu
Received: September 15, 2005
Accepted: November 20, 2005
Published: December 1, 2005
The electronic version of this article is the
complete one and can be found online at:
http://www.TFLJournal.org/article.php/200512011
24931586
Trees for Life Journal 2005, 1:5
PEER REVIEWED
The following paper is intended to be useful for both scientific and lay
audiences. Since various terms used herein are likely not familiar to the lay
reader, nor are many of the references readily available to either scientific or lay
audiences, we encourage active on-line dialog between readers and both the
author and the journal staff. Both will attempt to answer questions and to
direct readers to the experts in an open and public manner.
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
Introduction
Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species
of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, that is native
to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan,
Bangladesh and Afghanistan. This rapidly-growing tree
(also known as the horseradish tree, drumstick tree,
benzolive tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, moonga,
mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, sajna or Ben oil tree), was
utilized by the ancient Romans, Greeks and Egyptians;
it is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized
in many locations in the tropics. It is a perennial
softwood tree with timber of low quality, but which for
centuries has been advocated for traditional medicinal
and industrial uses. It is already an important crop in
India, Ethiopia, the Philippines and the Sudan, and is
being grown in West, East and South Africa, tropical
Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Florida and the
Pacific Islands. All parts of the Moringa tree are edible
and have long been consumed by humans. According
to Fuglie (47) the many uses for Moringa include: alley
cropping (biomass production), animal forage (leaves
and treated seed-cake), biogas (from leaves), domestic
cleaning agent (crushed leaves), blue dye (wood),
fencing (living trees), fertilizer (seed-cake), foliar
nutrient (juice expressed from the leaves), green manure
(from leaves), gum (from tree trunks), honey- and sugar
cane juice-clarifier (powdered seeds), honey (flower
nectar), medicine (all plant parts), ornamental plantings,
biopesticide (soil incorporation of leaves to prevent
seedling damping off), pulp (wood), rope (bark), tannin
for tanning hides (bark and gum), water purification
(powdered seeds). Moringa seed oil (yield 30-40% by
weight), also known as Ben oil, is a sweet non-sticking,
non-drying oil that resists rancidity. It has been used in
salads, for fine machine lubrication, and in the manu-
facture of perfume and hair care products (158). In the
West, one of the best known uses for Moringa is the use
of powdered seeds to flocculate contaminants and
purify drinking water (11,50,113), but the seeds are also
eaten green, roasted, powdered and steeped for tea or
used in curries (50). This tree has in recent times been
advocated as an outstanding indigenous source of
highly digestible protein, Ca, Fe, Vitamin C, and
carotenoids suitable for utilization in many of the so-
called “developing” regions of the world where
undernourishment is a major concern.
Nutrition
Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition,
especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three
non-governmental organizations in particular—Trees
for Life, Church World Service and Educational
Concerns for Hunger Organization—have advocated
Moringa as natural nutrition for the tropics.” Leaves
can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder
for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly
without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially
promising as a food source in the tropics because the
tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when
other foods are typically scarce.
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities
of Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the
popular literature. Any readers who are familiar with
Moringa will recognize the oft-reproduced
characterization made many years ago by the Trees for
Life organization, that “ounce-for-ounce, Moringa
leaves contain more Vitamin A than carrots, more
calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more
Vitamin C than oranges, and more potassium than
bananas,” and that the protein quality of Moringa leaves
rivals that of milk and eggs. These readers will also
recognize the oral histories recorded by Lowell Fuglie in
Senegal and throughout West Africa, who reports (and
has extensively documented on video) countless
instances of lifesaving nutritional rescue that are
attributed to Moringa (47,48). In fact, the nutritional
properties of Moringa are now so well known that there
seems to be little doubt of the substantial health benefit
to be realized by consumption of Moringa leaf powder
in situations where starvation is imminent. Nonetheless,
the outcomes of well controlled and well documented
clinical studies are still clearly of great value.
In many cultures throughout the tropics, different-
tiation between food and medicinal uses of plants (e.g.
bark, fruit, leaves, nuts, seeds, tubers, roots, flowers), is
very difficult since plant uses span both categories and
this is deeply ingrained in the traditions and the fabric
of the community (85). Thus, Table 1 in this review
captures both nutritional and medicinal references as
they relate to Moringa, whilst avoiding most of the
better known agro-forestry and water purification
applications of this plant. The interested reader is also
directed to the very comprehensive reviews of the
nutritional attributes of Moringa prepared by the NGOs
mentioned earlier (in particular, see references
47,123,157).
Phytochemistry
Phytochemicals are, in the strictest sense of the word,
chemicals produced by plants. Commonly, though, the
word refers to only those chemicals which may have an
impact on health, or on flavor, texture, smell, or color of
the plants, but are not required by humans as essential
nutrients. An examination of the phytochemicals of
Moringa species affords the opportunity to examine a
range of fairly unique compounds. In particular, this
plant family is rich in compounds containing the simple
sugar, rhamnose, and it is rich in a fairly unique group
of compounds called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates
(10,38). For example, specific components of Moringa
preparations that have been reported to have hypo-
tensive, anticancer, and antibacterial activity include 4-
(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocy-
anate [1], 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocy-
anate [2], niazimicin [3], pterygospermin [4], benzyl
isothiocyanate [5], and 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
benzyl glucosinolate [6]. While these compounds are
relatively unique to the Moringa family, it is also rich in
a number of vitamins and minerals as well as other
more commonly recognized phytochemicals such as the
carotenoids (including β-carotene or pro-vitamin A).
These attributes are all discussed extensively by Lowell
Fuglie (47) and others, and will be the subject of a future
review in this series.
O
OH
HO
O
HO
H3C
NCS
O
OH
HO
O
HOH3C
CH2NCOCH
2
HS
CH3
NCS
1
6
4
3
5
2
O
OH
HO
O
O
H3C
H3C
O
NCS
O
HO
OH
CH2OH
HO
OSO3
S
C
N
O
OH
HO
O
HO
H3C
CNO
CS
C
S
NCO
CN
CS
C
S
NC
OO
or
Figure 1. Structures of selected phytochemicals from Moringa spp.: 4-(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [1], 4-(-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [2],
niazimicin [3], pterygospermin [4], benzyl isothiocyanate [5], and 4-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl
glucosinolate [6]
Disease Treatment and Prevention
The benefits for the treatment or prevention of
disease or infection that may accrue from either dietary
or topical administration of Moringa preparations (e.g.
extracts, decoctions, poultices, creams, oils, emollients,
salves, powders, porridges) are not quite so well known
(116). Although the oral history here is also voluminous,
it has been subject to much less intense scientific
scrutiny, and it is useful to review the claims that have
been made and to assess the quality of evidence
available for the more well-documented claims. The
readers of this review are encouraged to examine two
recent papers that do an excellent job of contrasting the
dilemma of balancing evidence from complementary
and alternative medicine (e.g. traditional medicine,
tribal lore, oral histories and anecdotes) with the burden
of proof required in order to make sound scientific
judgments on the efficacy of these traditional cures
(138,154). Clearly much more research is justified, but
just as clearly this will be a very fruitful field of
endeavor for both basic and applied researchers over
the next decade.
Widespread claims of the medicinal effectiveness of
various Moringa tree preparations have encouraged the
author and his colleagues at The Johns Hopkins
University to further investigate some of these
possibilities. A plethora of traditional medicine refer-
ences attest to its curative power, and scientific
validation of these popular uses is developing to
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
support at least some of the claims. Moringa
preparations have been cited in the scientific literature
as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive,
antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-
cholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities, as well as
having considerable efficacy in water purification by
flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even
reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer (see Table 1).
Unfortunately, many of these reports of efficacy in
human beings are not supported by placebo controlled,
randomized clinical trials, nor have they been published
in high visibility journals. For example, on the surface a
report published almost 25 years ago (141) appears to
establish Moringa as a powerful cure for urinary tract
infection, but it provides the reader with no source of
comparison (no control subjects). Thus, to the extent to
which this is antithetical to Western medicine, Moringa
has not yet been and will not be embraced by Western-
trained medical practitioners for either its medicinal or
nutritional properties.
In many cases, published in-vitro (cultured cells) and
in-vivo (animal) trials do provide a degree of
mechanistic support for some of the claims that have
sprung from the traditional medicine lore. For example,
numerous studies now point to the elevation of a
variety of detoxication and antioxidant enzymes and
biomarkers as a result of treatment with Moringa or
with phytochemicals isolated from Moringa
(39,40,76,131). I shall briefly introduce antibiosis and
cancer prevention as just two examples of areas of
Moringa research for which the existing scientific
evidence appears to be particularly strong.
Antibiotic Activity. This is clearly the area in which
the preponderance of evidence—both classical scientific
and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming.
The scientific evidence has now been available for over
50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to
western scientists. In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s a
team from the University of Bombay (BR Das),
Travancore University (PA Kurup), and the Department
of Biochemistry at the Indian Institute of Science in
Bangalore (PLN Rao), identified a compound they
called pterygospermin [4] a compound which they
reported readily dissociated into two molecules of
benzyl isothiocyanate [5] (23,24,25,26,77,78,79,80,81,108).
Benzyl isothiocyanate was already understood at that
time to have antimicrobial properties. This group not
only identified pterygospermin, but performed
extensive and elegant characterization of its mode of
antimicrobial action in the mid 1950’s. (They identified
the tree from which they isolated this substance as
Moringa pterygosperma,” now regarded as an archaic
designation for “M. oleifera.”) Although others were to
show that pterygospermin and extracts of the Moringa
plants from which it was isolated were antibacterial
against a variety of microbes, the identity of
pterygospermin has since been challenged (34) as an
artifact of isolation or structural determination.
Subsequent elegant and very thorough work,
published in 1964 as a PhD thesis by Bennie Badgett (a
student of the well known chemist Martin Ettlinger),
identified a number of glyosylated derivatives of benzyl
isothiocyanate [5] (e.g. compounds containing the 6-
carbon simple sugar, rhamnose) (8). The identity of
these compounds was not available in the refereed
scientific literature until “re-discovered” 15 years later
by Kjaer and co-workers (73). Seminal reports on the
antibiotic activity of the primary rhamnosylated
compound then followed, from U Eilert and colleagues
in Braunschweig, Germany (33,34). They re-isolated
and confirmed the identity of 4-(α-L-rhamnopy-
ranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6] and its cognate
isothiocyanate [2] and verified the activity of the latter
compound against a wide range of bacteria and fungi.
Extensive field reports and ecological studies (see
Table 1) forming part of a rich traditional medicine
history, claim efficacy of leaf, seed, root, bark, and
flowers against a variety of dermal and internal
infections. Unfortunately, many of the reports of
antibiotic efficacy in humans are not supported by
placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials. Again, in
keeping with Western medical prejudices, practitioners
may not be expected to embrace Moringa for its
antibiotic properties. In this case, however, the in-vitro
(bacterial cultures) and observational studies provide a
very plausible mechanistic underpinning for the
plethora of efficacy claims that have accumulated over
the years (see Table 1).
Aware of the reported antibiotic activity of [2], [5],
and other isothiocyanates and plants containing them,
we undertook to determine whether some of them were
also active as antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori. This
bacterium was not discovered until the mid-1980’s, a
discovery for which the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine
was just awarded. H. pylori is an omnipresent pathogen
of human beings in medically underserved areas of the
world, and amongst the poorest of poor populations
worldwide. It is a major cause of gastritis, and of gastric
and duodenal ulcers, and it is a major risk factor for
gastric cancer (having been classified as a carcinogen by
the W.H.O. in 1993). Cultures of H. pylori, it turned out,
were extraordinarily susceptible to [2], and to a number
of other isothiocyanates (37,60). These compounds had
antibiotic activity against H. pylori at concentrations up
to 1000-fold lower than those which had been used in
earlier studies against a wide range of bacteria and
fungi. The extension of this finding to human H. pylori
infection is now being pursued in the clinic, and the
prototypical isothiocyanate has already demonstrated
some efficacy in pilot studies (49,168).
Cancer Prevention. Since Moringa species have long
been recognized by folk medicine practitioners as
having value in tumor therapy (61), we examined
compounds [1] and [2] for their cancer preventive
potential (39). Recently, [1] and the related compound
[3] were shown to be potent inhibitors of phorbol ester
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
(TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen
activation in lymphoblastoid (Burkitt’s lymphoma) cells
(57,104). In one of these studies, [3] also inhibited tumor
promotion in a mouse two-stage DMBA-TPA tumor
model (104). In an even more recent study, Bharali and
colleagues have examined skin tumor prevention
following ingestion of drumstick (Moringa seedpod)
extracts (12). In this mouse model, which included
appropriate positive and negative controls, a dramatic
reduction in skin papillomas was demonstrated.
Thus, traditional practice has long suggested that
cancer prevention and therapy may be achievable with
native plants. Modern practitioners have used crude
extracts and isolated bioactive compounds. The proof
required by modern medicine has not been realized
because neither the prevention of cancer nor the
modification of relevant biomarkers of the protected
state has been adequately demonstrated in human
subjects. Does this mean that it doesn’t work? No. It
may well work, but more rigorous study is required in
order to achieve a level of proof required for full
biomedical endorsement of Moringa as, in this case, a
cancer preventative plant.
Acknowledgements
I thank Dr. Mark Olson for his encouragement and
collaboration early in my research involvement with
Moringa (joint publications are still pending). I
gratefully acknowledge the Lewis B. and Dorothy
Cullman Foundation for providing unrestricted
research funds that facilitated preparation of this review
and work on Moringa in my laboratory; funding was
also provided by the American Institute for Cancer
Research and the NCI (Grant # R01 CA93780).
TABLE 1. REPORTED NUTRITIONAL, THERAPEUTIC & PROPHYLACTIC USES OF
M
ORINGA OLEIFERA
Traditional Use
Condition/EffectaPlant PartbReferencesc
(ANT) Antimicrobial / Biocidal LFSPRBGO 8, 13, 19, 24, 27, 31, 34, 64, 68, 100, 104, 114, 115, 126, 140, 151
160, 161, 162
Bacterial LFS 25, 26, 55, 63, 77 - 81, 149
Dental Caries/Toothache RBG 47
Infection LF 47
Syphilis G 47
Typhoid G 47
Urinary Tract Infection L 141
Fungal/ Mycoses O 111
Thrush 88, 111
Viral
Common cold FRB 47
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) L 104
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) L 84
HIV-AIDS L 1, 124
Warts S 47
Parasites
Dranunculiasis (guinea-worm) 36
Helminths LFP 47
Schistosomes S 113
Trypanosomes LR 95
Other / Not Attributed to a Specific
Pathogen
Bronchitis L 47
Earache G 47
External Sores/Ulcers LFRB 15
Fever LRGS 47
Hepatic L 6
Skin (Dermal) O S 15
Throat Infection F 47
Water treatment (general) S 11, 50, 75, 86, 169
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AST Asthma RG 47
CAN Cancer Therapy / Protection LFPBS 12, 17, 28, 39, 45, 59, 61, 64, 104, 115
Anti-tumor LFSB 45, 48, 57, 61, 87
Prostate L 47, 48
Radioprotective L 132
Skin P 12
CIR Circulatory/Endocrine
Disorders LFSPR 56, 93
Anti-anemic L 47, 125
Anti-hypertensive LP 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 53, 83, 137
Cardiotonic R 47
Diabetes/hypoglycemia LP 6, 45, 71, 87, 101, 167
Diuretic LFRG 6, 14, 62
Hypocholestemia L 52, 94
Thyroid L 153
Tonic F 47
Hepatorenal LR 93, 120
DET Detoxification BO 76, 135, 166
Antipyretic 148
Purgative O 47
Snakebite B 47
Scorpion-bite B 47
DIG Digestive Disorders LSRBG 53
For TRTMNT of:
Colitis LB 47
Diarrhea LR 47, 62, 64
Digestif B 47
Dysentery LG 47
Flatulence R 47
Ulcer / Gastritis LS 3, 115, 136
INF Inflammation LFSPRG 14, 28, 35, 45, 62, 64, 68, 110, 131, 160, 161
Rheumatism LFSPRG 28
Joint Pain P 47
Edema R 47
Arthritis S 47
IMM Immunity SO 69
Immune-stimulant S 69
Lupus O 28
NER Nervous Disorders LFRBGO 58, 59, 62, 96
Anti-spasmodic SR 14, 53
Epilepsy RB 47
Hysteria FRBO 47
Headache LRBG 47
NUT Nuritional LSBO 6, 7, 18, 22, 28, 30, 31, 32, 46, 47, 48, 51, 65, 66, 67, 70, 92, 102,
112, 116, 133, 163
Antinutritional factors B 88, 89, 90, 110, 127, 128, 139, 156, 164, 165
Antioxidant LO 110, 147
Carotenoids L 29, 105, 152
Energy LSO 85
Goitrogen S 2
Iron deficiency LS 16
Oil quality O 5, 98, 110, 158, 159
Protein LS 47
Vitamin/Mineral deficiency LS 7, 9, 54, 56, 85, 119
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
REP Reproductive Health LFPRBGO 44, 53, 64, 121, 122
Abortifacient FRBG 106, 107, 155
Aphrodisiac RB 47
Birth Control B 45, 53, 142 - 146,
Lactation Enhancer L 47
Prostate function O 47
SKI Skin Disorders LRSG 160, 161
Antiseptic L 47
Astringent R 47
Pyodermia S 15
Rubefacient RG 47
Vesicant R 47
GEN General Disorders/Conditions LFSPRBO 4, 6, 8, 20, 21, 45, 48, 64, 66, 67, 68, 73, 74, 82, 91, 92, 99, 102,
103, 109, 116, 117, 118, 123, 125, 128, 129, 130, 134, 150, 163
Bladder OS 47
Catarrh LF 47
Gout RO 47
Hepatamegaly R 47
Lactation L 47
Low.Back/Kidney Pain R 47
Scurvy LSRBO 47
Splenomegaly R 47
“Tonic” LFPSO 47
a It is very difficult in some cases to separate the effects of severe nutritional deficiencies (e.g. Vitamin C) from sequelae (e.g.
scurvy) which transcend categorization by organ systems or classification into single disease states.
b Plant parts are designated by their first letters (in bold):
Leaves
Flowers
Seeds
Pods (drumsticks)
Roots
Bark
Gum
Oil (from seeds)
c Many of the original citations have been collected by Lowell J. Fuglie, [and can be found in his excellent treatise entitled The
Miracle Tree, (47)] and by Manuel Palada (116), Julia Morton (102), and Trees For Life (157). Most other compendiums in
recent publications or on commercial websites appear to be highly derivative of these seminal works.
Trees for Life Journal | www.TFLJournal.org
References
(3-letter code in yellow at end of reference indicates major classification in Table 1)
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ANT
2. Abuye C, AM Omwega, JK Imungi (1999)
Familial tendency and dietary association of
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Medical Journal 76:447-451. NUT
3. Akhtar AH, KU Ahmad (1995) Anti-ulcerogenic
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4. Anderson DMW, PC Bell, et al. (1986). The gum
exudates from Chloroxylon swietenia, Sclerocarya
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5. Anwar F, and MI Bhanger (2003) Analytical
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NUT
6. Asres K (1995) The major constituents of the
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7. Babu SC (2000) Rural nutrition interventions
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http://www.bib.fsagx.ac.be/library/base/text/v4n
3/169.pdf. NUT
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... Moringa oleifera is generally known as 'horseradish tree' or 'drumstick tree' or 'cabbage tree' or 'miracle tree' (Koul and Chase, 2015) [11] . Moringa oleifera is native to India but it is widely distributed in Ethiopia, Pacific islands, Florida, Sudan Caribbean, Philippines, South Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Fahey 2005) [3] . In India Moringa, oleifera is known as 'drumstick tree' or 'horseradish tree'. ...
... Moringa oleifera is generally known as 'horseradish tree' or 'drumstick tree' or 'cabbage tree' or 'miracle tree' (Koul and Chase, 2015) [11] . Moringa oleifera is native to India but it is widely distributed in Ethiopia, Pacific islands, Florida, Sudan Caribbean, Philippines, South Africa, Asia, and Latin America (Fahey 2005) [3] . In India Moringa, oleifera is known as 'drumstick tree' or 'horseradish tree'. ...
... Moringa oleifera is one of the most popular species among the Moringaceae family. Moringa oleifera is a fast growing tree grown throughout tropics and subtropics and all over world; it is a drought tolerant, multipurpose and one of most valuable tree found on earth due to its medicinal and nutritional properties (Mekonnen 2006) [3] . It is commonly known as 'sahajan' in Hindi, 'sajna' in Garo and 'Drumstick tree' or 'Horseradish tree' in English (Mishra et al., 2011) [14] . ...
... Leaves and flowers of M. oleifera can also protect liver from damage, oxidation and toxicity, while seed oil can restore liver enzymes and increase liver's total protein content. In addition, leaves and seeds of M. oleifera contain glycosides (Fahey [9]) and N-α-L-rhamnophyranosyl vincosamide (Panda et al. [10]) that can help lower blood pressure and the leaf β-sitosterol was also used to lower cholesterol level [9]. In terms of agricultural applications, powder of M. oleifera seed can be used as a natural coagulant to purify water, while seed oil can be used as a plant fertilizer to increase crop yields (Ashfaq et al. [11]) and as an ingredient in feeding tilapia fish [12]. ...
... Leaves and flowers of M. oleifera can also protect liver from damage, oxidation and toxicity, while seed oil can restore liver enzymes and increase liver's total protein content. In addition, leaves and seeds of M. oleifera contain glycosides (Fahey [9]) and N-α-L-rhamnophyranosyl vincosamide (Panda et al. [10]) that can help lower blood pressure and the leaf β-sitosterol was also used to lower cholesterol level [9]. In terms of agricultural applications, powder of M. oleifera seed can be used as a natural coagulant to purify water, while seed oil can be used as a plant fertilizer to increase crop yields (Ashfaq et al. [11]) and as an ingredient in feeding tilapia fish [12]. ...
Article
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Metagenomic approach was used to detect microbial gene abundance and relative abundance in the rhizosphere of Moringa oleifera and surrounding bulk soil and to detect the response of soil microbes to watering. Expectedly, the number and abundance of non-redundant genes were extremely higher in bacteria followed by archaea, eukaryota and viruses. Results demonstrated unexpected high abundance of some microbes (ex., endophyte genus Nocardioides) in the rhizosphere that are supposed to exist mainly in other rhizocompartments. We suggest this differential distribution of microbes is due to the specific pattern of host-microbe interaction. Other endosymbiont microbes, ex., fungi Mucoromycota and Ascomycota, were highly abundant in the bulk soil possibly because they are phytopathogens where plant exudates might inhibit their growth or force these fungi to approach reverse chemotaxis. Our data indicated high abundance of other symbiont microbes in the rhizosphere of M. oleifera at phylum (ex., Actinobacteria) and genus (ex., Streptomyces) levels. Watering experiment indicated that phylum Actinobacteria and the descending genus Streptomyces are among the highest. Rhizobiome of M. oleifera seems to harbor a wealth of new species of the genus Streptomyces that are required to be deciphered for function in order to be eventually utilized in pharmaceutical and agricultural applications.
... Several studies were conducted on Moringa oleifera products especially in the area of nutrition:-Fahey [8], Reyes [9] and Nikolas et al. [10] conducted nutrition study on Moringa oleifera and confirmed that Moringa oleifera products have positive impacts on growth and development of man, animal and plants respectively. However, these studies did not determine the profitability of Moringa oleifera production. ...
... Markets are efficient when the ratio of the value of output to the value of input throughout the marketing system is maximized [22]. Performance of the market is the reflection of the impact of structure and conduct on product price, cost and the volume and quality of output [8]. If a market structure resembles monopoly rather than pure competition, one can expect poor market performance. ...
... The leaves of Moringa oleifera have also been reported to be a valuable source of macro-and micronutrients, rich source of â-carotene, protein, vitamin C, calcium, potassium and act as a good source of natural antioxidants ( S i d d h u r a j u a n d B e c k e r, 2 0 0 3 ) . Components of Moringa preparation have been reported to have antibacterial activity which include 4-(4'-O-acetyl-á-L r h a m n o p y r a n o s y l o x y ) b e n z y l i s i o t h i o c y a n a t e , n i a z i m i c i n , p t e r y g o s p e r m i n a n d 4 -( á -Lrhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl glucosinolate (Fahey et al., 2005). This study evaluated the effect of replacing the antibiotics in Beltsville thawing solution (a common boar extender) with Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) on Semen quality characteristics. ...
... At 48 hours of storage there was drop in MA, with the highest recorded at 0g MLE (3.45) (2007) who also reported similar results. The ability to maintain semen viability exhibited by MLE is in accordance with report by Fahey (2005) who reported the inhibitory effect of MLE. ...
Article
Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) contains antibacterial properties; this study evaluated the effect of including MLE, breed and storage time on semen quality of boars extended with Beltsville thawing solution (BTS). Semen samples were collected weekly from twelve boars (Four Duroc, four Large White and four Landrace). Samples were extended with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00g MLE inclusions. Parameters; volume and concentration were taken immediately after collection while pH, mass activity (%MA), progressive motility (%PM), liveability (%LA) and abnormality (%ABN) were taken at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance. All parameters considered except %ABN were significant (p<0.05). MA ranged between 3.31 (1.00gMLE) and 4.00 (0gMLE). Highest PM was 60.93% in 0.25gMLE, pH differed with 6.98 (0gMLE) and 6.90 (1.00gMLE), 0gMLE (89.64%) had higher LA compared to 0.25gMLE (86.40%), ABN ranged between3.94 to 4.60%. As storage time increased viability of all semen parameters reduced, between 48 and 72 hours parameters reduced below normal limits. Breed effect differed (p<0.05) for MA, Volume and Conc., Duroc (3.78) had higher MA compared to Large White (3.64) and Landrace (3.60). Semen volume (p<0.05) for Landrace (255.20g) was highest while Duroc (170.80g) was lowest. Large white concentration (201.8million spermatozoa/ml) was higher (p<0.05) than Landrace (187.4 million spermatozoa/ml) and Duroc (123.8million spermatozoa/ml). %LA ranged between 88.06% and 88.72% for Duroc and landrace respectively while %ABN was between 3.97-4.41% for Large White and Landrace. This study concluded that 0.75-1.00gMLE could replace synthetic antibiotic in BTS for 24 hours. L'extrait de feuille de Moringa oleifera (le 'MLE') contient des propriétés antibactériennes ; Cette étude a évalué l'effet de l'inclusion de 'MLE', de la race et du temps de stockage sur la qualité du sperme de verrats exotiques additionnés de solution de décongélation de Beltsville (le 'BTS'). Des échantillons de sperme ont été prises chaque semaine de douze verrats (quatre Duroc, quatre Large White et quatre Landrace). Les échantillons ont été étendus avec des inclusions de 0, 0,25, 0,50, 0,75 et 1,00 g de 'MLE'. Paramètres ; le volume et la concentration ont été prélevés immédiatement après le prélèvement tandis que le pH, l'activité massique (% 'MA'), la motilité progressive (% 'PM'), l'habitabilité (% LA) et l'anomalie (% ABN) ont été pris à 0, 24, 48 et 72 heures. Les données obtenues ont été soumises à une analyse de variance. Tous les paramètres considérés à l'exception du% ABN étaient significatifs (p <0,05). Le MA variait entre 3,31 (1,00 g MLE) et 4,00 (0 gMLE). La'PM la plus élevée était de 60,93% dans 0,25 gMLE, le pH différait de 6,98 (0 gMLE) et 6,90 (1,00 gMLE), 0 gMLE (89,64%) avait un LA plus élevé par rapport à 0,25 gMLE (86,40%), l''ABN' variait entre 3,94 et 4,60%. À mesure que la durée de stockage augmentait la viabilité de tous les paramètres du sperme, entre 48 et 72 heures, les paramètres étaient réduits en dessous des limites normales. L'effet de la race était différent (p <0,05) pour la MA, le volume et la concentration. Duroc (3,78) avait une MA plus élevée que le Large White (3,64) et le Landrace (3,60). Le volume de sperme (p <0,05) pour Landrace (255,20 g) était le plus élevé, tandis que Duroc (170,80 g) était le plus faible. La grande concentration de blanc (201,8 millions de spermatozoïdes / ml) était plus élevée (p <0,05) que Landrace (187,4 millions de spermatozoïdes / ml) et Duroc (123,8 millions de spermatozoïdes / ml). % LA variait entre 88,06% et 88,72% pour Duroc et landrace respectivement tandis que% ABN était entre 3,97-4,41% pour Large White et Landrace. Cette étude a conclu que 0,75-1,00 gMLE pouvait remplacer l'antibiotique synthétique dans le BTS pendant 24 heures.
... As folhas ou partes delas são uma fonte de alimento bastante promissor, principalmente para os trópicos, porque essas árvores possuem folhas durante todo o período de estiagem (Fahey, 2005). As folhas frescas de Moringa têm excelentes qualidades nutricionais, sendo uma boa fonte protéica com 33,8% de proteínas (Gallão et al., 2008), possuindo em sua composição vitaminas A, B, C, minerais como: ferro, cálcio, fósforo, potássio e zinco (Moyo et al., 2013) possuindo uma digestibilidade in vitro de 79,7%, sendo considerado um excelente suplemento para animais (Sánchez et al., 2006 Donkor et al. (2013), ao avaliarem a utilização das folhas de Moringa olifera na dieta das aves e os potenciais minerais dessa planta. ...
... Estas últimas se deben a que contiene todos los aminoácidos esenciales, elevadas concentraciones de hierro, vitaminas A y C, calcio, entre otros, y ayuda a solucionar problemas alimenticios y patologías. Los tallos se emplean para alimentación animal (Fahey, 2005;Cannet et al ,2014). Martin et al (2013), menciona que las semillas de moringa tienen acción bactericida, lo que acredita su uso en la purificación del agua, y por su alto rendimiento de aceite, es excelente para la producción de biodiesel. ...
Article
Moringa oleifera Lam. es una planta con propiedades nutritivas y farmacológicas, que podría convertirse en una alternativa nutricional para el ser humano y método para la prevención de enfermedades. En Ecuador existe poca información acerca de sus parámetros de calidad, composición química y toxicidad, desconociéndose el índice de seguridad para su consumo. Se realizaron estudios farmacognósticos y toxicológicos preliminares del tallo, raíz y hojas de esta planta, cultivada en Machala, Ecuador. Se determinaron los porcentajes de humedad residual y cenizas para el tallo (8,38%; 6,68%), raíz (9,74 %; 8,34 %) y hojas (12,63%; 9,76%). Se calcularon las sustancias solubles en etanol al 30%, 50% y 70%. Todo según metodología establecida por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Se realizó un estudio químico preliminar a través de tamizaje fitoquímico siguiendo la metodología recomendada en la literatura y llevó a cabo el ensayo de toxicidad aguda por vía oral en ratas wistar, mediante el método clases tóxicas agudas de la Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nº423, con la dosis límite de 2000 mg/kg. Los estudios farmacognósticos estuvieron en concordancia con lo establecido en la literatura y el de sustancias solubles permitió seleccionar el etanol al 30% como mejor disolvente extractivo. Este extracto hidroalcohólico con Moringa oleifera Lam., a dosis límite, no produjo mortalidad ni indicadores de toxicidad. Moringa Oleifera Lam. is a plant with nutritional and pharmacological properties, which could become a nutritional alternative for humans and a method for disease prevention. In Ecuador there is little information about its parameters of quality, chemical composition and toxicity, without knowing the safety index for its consumption. Preliminary pharmacognostic and toxicological studies of stem, root and leaves of this plant, cultivated in Machala, Ecuador, were carried out. The percentages of residual moisture and ashes for the stem (8.38%, 6.68%), root (9.74%, 8.34%) and leaves (12.63%, 9.76%) were determined. Soluble substances in ethanol were calculated at 30%, 50% and 70%. All according to methodology established by the World Health Organization. A preliminary chemical study was carried out through phytochemical screening following the methodology recommended in the literature and carried out the oral acute toxicity test in wistar rats using the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) No. 423, with the limit dose of 2000 mg / kg. The pharmacognostic studies were in agreement with that established in the literature and the one of soluble substances allowed to select the ethanol to 30% like the best extractive solvent. This hydroalcoholic extract with Moringa Oleifera Lam., at a limit dose did not produce mortality nor toxicity indicators.
... Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated of the 13 known species of the monogenetic family, the Moringaceae. The Moringa is a multipurpose tree since nearly every part of it has some nutritional, medicinal and/or commercial bene ts [1][2][3][4][5][6]. Since the tree is adaptable to dry climates, it cannot only combat malnutrition, deserti cation and climate change and variability but also used for income generation for the farmers. ...
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Objective: This study explored the awareness and utilization of Moringa oleifera for sustainable livelihoods in Kaisosi East and Sauyemwa West areas in Rundu in Kavango East region, Namibia Methodology: Purposive sampling was used to select two regions which are Kaisosi East and Sauyemwa West of Rundu in Kavango East region. Data on socio-demographics and uses of M. oleifera was collected using a structured interview questionnaire from 82 farmers that were randomly selected across the two selected areas of study. Results: Majority of farmers in the study area were female (56.1%) whereas for employment status 68.3% were unemployed and for educational, 51.2% had attained secondary school level of education. Results from the study revealed that majority of the respondents (48.8%) fell within the range of 20-39 years and 67.1% were single. The results also showed that the majority of the respondents were aware of the Moringa plant such that 34.7% use it for medicinal purposes and 19.5% as source of income generation through the sales of Moringaproducts. The results showed that there is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the use of Moringa between socio-demographic factors. The study further revealed that many of the farmers were aware of the plant and could identify the plant physically and by name. Recommendations: The study suggests that there is a large scope for increasing the cultivation and utilization of the M. oleifera in the study area. To achieve that objective, efforts are needed to improve farmers’ access to credit and markets as well as training production and processing of M. oleifera.
Article
The huge nutritional value and industrial potentials inherent in Moringa oleifera have not been fully tapped and used because of the labour intensive method of shelling and grinding the seeds into fine powder. A Roller Type Shelling Device (RTSD) Moringa oleifera seed sheller was designed, constructed and tested in this study. The hopper, shelling drum, shelling paddle, screen, cleaning fan, frame, seed outlet, chaff delivery chute, and electric motor made up this functional machine. The performance indices evaluated for the developed sheller were based on shelling efficiency, cleaning efficiency, throughput capacity, mechanical damage index and shelling performance index at moisture content levels of 7.64, 9.45, 17.53, 21.73 and 25.52% (w.b). The sheller had maximum shelling efficiency, cleaning efficiency, throughput capacity, mechanical damage index and shelling performance index of 88.14%, 89.41%, 12.48 kg/h, 12.75% and 87.66% respectively at moisture content levels of 7.64% (w.b). With the output of the sheller, full industrial processing of Moringa oleifera seed is feasible with minimal limitation.
Article
Melalui Instruksi Gubernur No. 10 Tahun 2019 tentang Konsumsi Kelor, maka seluruh masyarakat di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur diharuskan untuk setiap keluarga menanam pohon kelor dan memanfaatkan daun kelor serta diwajibkan untuk setiap ibu hamil dan ibu menyusui mengkonsumsi daun kelor dalam rangka mempersiapkan generasi Sumber Daya Manusia SDM yang sehat dan berkualitas. Tujuan : untuk meneliti pemberian daun kelor terhadap produksi ASI. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei analitik dengan pendekatan case control. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling dengan jumlah sampel sebanyak kelompok kasus 16 orang dan kelompok control 16 orang. Data dikumpulkan dengan kuisioner dengan menggunakan angket kemudian dianalisis menggunakan analisis univariabel dan bivariabel. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan dari 32 responden ibu menyusui di suku Timor yang terdiri dari dua kelompok yaitu kelompok intervensi jumlah responden 16 ibu nifas dan kelompok kontrol 16 responden ibu nifas, mayoritas pada kelompok intervensi produksi ASI cukup yaitu 14 ibu dan pada kelompok kontrol 7 ibu. Produksi ASI kurang pada kelompok intervensi yaitu 2 ibu dan pada kelompok kontrol 9 ibu. Hasil uji statistik didapatkan bahwa p (sig) adalah 0,009 < 0,05, maka dapat disimpulkan ada pengaruh konsumsi kelor terhadap pengeluaran produksi ASI pada ibu nifas di Kelurahan Manutapen. This research is that influence the utilization of PIK-M by students of D III Midwifery Stikes Maranatha, based on the level of knowledge, attitude, motivation, source of information, facility, socialization and promotion, and SDM PIK-M. Suggestion: increase the willingness of students to take advantage of PIK-M. Kata Kunci : Konsumsi kelor, produksi ASI, ibu nifas, suku timor. Daftar Pustaka : 15 buku, 8 jurnal (2009-2018)
Article
Ecological limitations, shortcomings of traditional cultivation and prsent utilisation of the tree are discussed and compared with Chinese Peranakan traditions in Malaysia and Singapore. Since Moringa trees are also promising as 'coagulant crops' for water treatment in southern China, cultivation trials with Moringa oleifera and M. stenopetala started in Raoping County (Guangdong) in collaboration with an engineer from South China University of Technology and the local Forestry Science Institute.
Article
A survey was conducted from March to July, 1987 in the rural areas of Districts of Lucknow and Farrukhabad to identify herbs commonly used by women for inducing abortions. Fourteen plains were found to be in common use.
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The effects of four indigenous plant extracts were studied for their wound healing properties, both on normal and steroid-depressed healing. The herbals not only promoted healing but were also able to overcome steroid- depressed healing. The increased lysyl oxidase activity induced by these plant preparations could be responsible for their wound healing activity. The increased nucleic acid levels indicate that the action may be at cellular level.