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Who benefits the most from a gratitude intervention in children and adolescents? Examining positive affect as a moderator

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Abstract

To date, nearly half of the work supporting the efficacy of gratitude interventions did so by making contrasts with techniques that induce negative affect (e.g., record your daily hassles). Gratitude interventions have shown limited benefits, if any, over control conditions. Thus, there is a need to better understand whether gratitude interventions are beyond a control condition and if there exists a subset of people who benefit. People high in positive affect (PA) may have reached an 'emotional ceiling' and, thus, are less susceptible to experiencing gains in well-being. People lower in PA, however, may need more positive events (like expressing gratitude to a benefactor) to 'catch up' to the positive experiences of their peers. We examined if PA moderated the effects of a gratitude intervention where youth were instructed to write a letter to someone whom they were grateful and deliver it to them in person. Eighty-nine children and adolescents were randomly assigned to the gratitude intervention or a control condition. Findings indicated that youth low in PA in the gratitude condition, compared with youth writing about daily events, reported greater gratitude and PA at post-treatment and greater PA at the 2-month follow-up.

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... Gratitude has also been found to be positively related to PWB. For instance, Froh et al. [23] and Wood, Joseph, et al. [24] found that grateful people demonstrated greater life satisfaction. Wood et al. [25] also found that gratitude was positively associated with a range of psychological wellbeing variables, including environmental mastery, personal growth, purpose in life, and self-acceptance, which supports the idea that gratitude contributes to flourishing and a meaningful life. ...
... Gratitude is also associated with improved outcomes in social functioning and positive relationships [28]. Grateful people tend to positively perceive the quality of their interpersonal relationships [27], are more willing to forgive and exhibit low narcissism [29,30], and report greater social support [23]. A grateful approach to life, therefore, broadens-and-builds a range of physical, emotional, psychological, and interpersonal benefits [11,14], which, in turn, could help to experience meaningful work. ...
... In addition, there exists a considerable body of research on the link between spirituality and gratitude (e.g., [3,58]). While there is evidence to suggest that gratitude can result in positive outcomes on a range of wellbeing indices, such as happiness, positive emotions, life satisfaction, purpose in life (i.e., flourishing), resilience to stress, and social support (e.g., [23][24][25]), less research has examined the mediating role of gratitude in the relationship between wellbeing and experiencing meaningful work. ...
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Poor mental wellbeing not only affects an individual and their family, but it also affects the workplace and the society as a whole. Consequently, it is crucial to investigate approaches that can promote a positive mindset in order to enhance wellbeing. This study aimed to explore the association between gratitude, wellbeing, spirituality, and experiencing meaningful work. A sample of 197 participants (69.5% female) completed measures of gratitude, experiencing meaningful work, spirituality, and several wellbeing indices. Gratitude was significantly positively associated with happiness, life satisfaction, flourishing, positive affect, spirituality, and experiencing meaningful work. A mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between wellbeing and experiencing meaningful work was partially mediated by gratitude. Additionally, spirituality did not moderate the relationship between gratitude and experiencing meaningful work. Overall, the findings indicate that fostering a grateful mindset could enhance wellbeing and work engagement, which in turn could lead to the experience of meaningful work.
... One such study looked at 4 gratitude visits as a classroom intervention to promote self-compassion, with positive results and a recommendation to implement gratitude visits in the classroom ((Lloyd-Hazlett & Maestri, 2013). Another study found that gratitude visit interventions implemented among children and adolescents in grades 3, 8, and 12 were related to enhanced levels of subjective well-being (Froh et al., 2009). Proyer et al., (2014) investigated the impacts of several positive psychology interventions, including gratitude visits. ...
... In one longitudinal study, gratitude and meaning in life predicted decreased depression levels (Disabato et al., 2017). Several studies investigating gratitude visit exercises have suggested the relationships between gratitude and life satisfaction and happiness (Brausen, 2017;Dowlatabadi et al., 2016;Froh et al., 2009), however, more research investigating the potential role and relationship between gratitude and meaning in life is needed. ...
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In this mixed-methods research, we examined the practice of writing and delivering letters of gratitude (gratitude visits) and its impact on well-being, happiness, meaning and relationships for students in an online graduate program in psychology. Participants completed assessments and inventories relating to happiness, well-being and meaning in life, including the Satisfaction with Life Scale, Meaning in Life Questionnaire, Approaches to Happiness Questionnaire and open-ended qualitative questions before and after they wrote and delivered gratitude letters. Quantitative analyses found significant increases in meaning in life, satisfaction with life, and approaches to happiness after the gratitude visit intervention. Using a grounded theory qualitative analysis of the data, eight primary themes emerged related to the impact and meaning of gratitude letters on graduate students: (1) the impact on the relationship; (2) positive emotions experienced; (3) experiencing a reciprocal expression of gratitude from the receiver; (4) overcoming uncomfortable emotions; (5) relief, release or liberation after sharing; (6) impact on spiritual growth; (7) unexpected responses; and (8) greater reflection on the meaning of life and a changed perspective. Overall, providing graduate students with the opportunity to engage in gratitude visit interventions was related to greater meaning and well-being. This study suggests implications and recommendations related to the use of positive psychology interventions in educational settings.
... Building on the promising research that has supported the effects of character strength interventions on adolescent mental-health outcomes, our team has focused on developing and testing a simple, scalable, lowstigma, and low-cost intervention called Shamiri (Kiswahili for "thrive") for Kenyan adolescents [20][21][22]. The Shamiri intervention includes three empirically supported brief character strength interventions: growth mindset [23][24][25][26][27], gratitude [28][29][30], and value affirmation [31,32], which were iteratively adapted through co-design with and feedback from local stakeholders [20,33] to be appropriate for use in Kenyan high schools. Shamiri is a group-based intervention delivered in naturalistic school settings by lay providers who are recent high school graduates without formal training in mental health [20,21]. ...
... Throughout the four 1-h small group (8-15 students) sessions, participants learn the concept of gratitude and apply the skills necessary for practicing gratitude in their interpersonal relations, academics, and other aspects of life. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that gratitude interventions can result in decreases in depressive symptoms and have benefits for wellbeing, mood, happiness, and life satisfaction [28,29]. Additionally, previous trials have shown positive relations between gratitude and wellbeing in early adolescence [30,37] and late adolescence [38]. ...
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Background Treatments for youth mental disorders are a public health priority, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where treatment options remain limited due to high cost, elevated stigma, and lack of trained mental health professionals. Brief, accessible, and non-stigmatizing community-based interventions delivered by lay providers may help address treatment needs in SSA. One such intervention, the Shamiri Intervention, consisting of three elements (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) has been tested in randomized controlled trials with school-going Kenyan adolescents. This three-element Shamiri Intervention has been shown to significantly reduce depression and anxiety symptoms and improve social support and academic performance relative to a control group. In this trial, we aim to investigate the effects of each element of the Shamiri Intervention. Methods In this five-arm randomized controlled trial, we will test each of the intervention components (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) against the full Shamiri Intervention and against a study skills control intervention. Students ( N planned = 1288) at participating secondary schools who are interested in participating in this universal intervention will be randomized in equal numbers into the five groups. The students will meet in groups of 8–15 students led by local high school graduate lay providers. These lay providers will receive a brief training, plus expert supervision once a week throughout the intervention delivery. Multi-level models will be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes in each intervention group to the control group. Multi-level models will also be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes of participants in the single-element interventions compared to the full Shamiri Intervention. Finally, effect sizes (calculated as mean gain scores) will be used to compare all groups on all measures. Discussion This trial will shed light on the mechanisms and outcomes targeted by each individual intervention, helping prioritize which mental health interventions are most important to disseminate. Trial registration PACTR Trial ID: PACTR202104716135752. Approved on 4/19/2021.
... These traits are manifested through thoughts, feelings and actions; can change throughout life; are measurable and are influenced by contextual, proximate and distal factors, so that character and its strengths are educable. Prudence, discretion, caution 18 Humility and modesty 19 Self-control 6 Transcendence 20 Appreciation of beauty and excellence 21 Spirituality, purpose, faith, religiosity 22 Gratitude 23 Humour and playfulness 24 Hope, optimism, foresight Positive psychology encourages education professionals to become better able to help people increase their well-being and flourish. This translates into improving people's quality of life and subjective well-being and developing their competencies [10]. ...
... Positive education is born of positive psychology's study of the optimal functioning of the human being in educational contexts [20]. It is supported by research on emotions in teaching and learning processes [21][22][23][24][25][26]. ...
Article
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Positive education, as a method for the positive development of students’ personality, embodies the 24 character strengths that Peterson and Seligman developed in their studies and that are necessary for new professional profiles. This new social and work landscape inspired supranational institutions, such as the European Union, to develop theories for new educational systems. These Key Competencies seek the comprehensive training of students, on not only the cognitive but the socioemotional plane, as occurs with arts education. With this literature review, we intend to demonstrate the relationship between the Key Competencies as catalysts for the development of character strengths in students through art education programmes. The results conclude that it is possible to define a relationship between the Key Competencies and character strengths and to outline the nature of these relationships, noting that certain patterns of combinations of strengths are repeated in the Key Competencies. Additionally, our work leads us to propose the need to increase the volume of research in this field and to design future studies that allow an empirical evaluation of the nature of these connections and whether they are efficient and enduring.
... Building on the promising research that has supported the effects of character strength interventions on adolescent mental-health outcomes, our team has focused on developing and testing a simple, scalable, low-stigma, and low-cost intervention called Shamiri (Kiswahili for "thrive") for Kenyan adolescents (20)(21)(22). The Shamiri intervention includes three empirically supported brief character strength interventions: growth mindset (23) (23)(24)(25)(26)(27), gratitude (28)(29)(30), and value affirmation (31,32). Shamiri is a group-based intervention delivered in naturalistic school-settings by lay-providers who are recent high-school graduates without formal training in mental health (20) (21). ...
... Throughout the four one-hour small group (8-15 student) sessions, participants learn the concept of gratitude and apply the skills necessary for practicing gratitude in their interpersonal relations, academics, and other aspects of life. Meta-analyses have demonstrated that gratitude interventions can result in decreases in depressive symptoms, and have benefits for well-being, mood, happiness, and life satisfaction (28) (29). Additionally, previous trials have shown positive relations between gratitude and well-being in early adolescence (30) (37) and late adolescence (38). ...
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Background: Treatments for youth mental disorders are a public health priority, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where treatment options remain limited due to high cost, elevated stigma, and lack of trained mental health professionals. Brief, accessible, and non-stigmatizing community-based interventions delivered by lay-providers may help address treatment needs in SSA. One such intervention, the Shamiri Intervention, consisting of three elements (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) has been tested in randomized controlled trials with school-going Kenyan adolescents. This three-element Shamiri Intervention has been shown to significantly reduce depression and anxiety symptoms and improve social support and academic performance relative to a control group. In this trial, we aim to investigate the effects of each element of the Shamiri Intervention.Methods: In this five-arm randomized controlled trial, we will test each of the intervention components (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) against the full Shamiri Intervention and against a study-skills control intervention. Students (Nplanned=1288) at participating secondary schools who are interested in participating in this universal intervention will be randomized in equal numbers into the five groups. The students will meet in groups of 8-15 students led by local high school graduate lay-providers. These lay-providers will receive 10 hours of training, plus expert supervision once a week throughout the intervention delivery. Multi-level models will be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes in each intervention group to the control group. Multi-level models will also be used to compare trajectories over time of the primary outcomes (depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, academic performance, and wellness) and secondary outcomes of those in the single-element interventions compared to the full Shamiri Intervention. Finally, effect sizes (calculated as mean gain scores) will be used to compare all groups on all measures. Discussion: This trial will shed light on the mechanisms and outcomes targeted by each individual intervention, helping prioritize which mental health interventions are most important to disseminate.
... While several studies have affirmed the positive link between gratitude and PA, it has not been consistent over time. Some studies have evidenced that gratitude is significantly and positively associated with PA (Cunha, Pellanda & Repold, 2019;Watkins et al., 2003;Uhder, 2016;Bernardo et al., 2018;Froh et al., 2009;Klibert et al., 2019;Rash et al., 2011). Gratitude is also negatively associated with NA (Watkins, 2014;Simons et al., 2020;Lau & Cheng, 2011). ...
... Consistent with previous studies, gratitude and spirituality revealed a positive link with PA, showing that people who scored high in gratitude and spirituality also showed high scores in PA (Uhder, 2016;Bernardo et al., 2018;Froh et al., 2009;Datu, 2014;Whitehead & Bergeman, 2012;Keefe et al., 2001). The present study, however, contradicts Fagley's (2018) finding that gratitude was not significantly linked with PA. ...
Article
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To expand studies linking gratitude, spirituality, and subjective well-being, this study aimed at examining the role of spirituality and gratitude on the affective aspects of subjective well-being (SWB), which are positive and negative. Gratitude is a grateful disposition measured by Gratitude Questionnaire. Spirituality refers to the feelings and sensations of daily spiritual life measured by Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Positive affect refers to the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active, and alert. Negative affect refers to the extent to which people feel stressed, upset, guilty, scared, hostile, irritable, ashamed, nervous, jittery, and afraid. PA and NA were measured by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale. The study's respondents were 415 Filipino adolescents and young adults who completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were females and Roman Catholics. Gratitude and spirituality were positively associated with positive affect. More grateful and more spiritual respondents reported increased frequency of positive affect. Negative association was found between gratitude and negative affect. Grateful respondents reported lower scores in negative affect. Interestingly, non-statistically significant positive association was found between spirituality and negative affect, which supports some previous studies with similar findings. Spirituality mediated the association between gratitude and positive affect. These findings revealed a differential impact of gratitude and spirituality on the affective aspects of SWB. Implications of the results are discussed in counselling contexts. Implications for future research are also discussed.
... Sheldon & Kashdan (2011) argued that since gratitude is an attitude of appreciating and acknowledging the pleasant events of life, it tends to be related to factors that are equally indicative of positive results such as well-being and life satisfaction. Froh & Bono (2008) view the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction as being based on gratitude helping in building resources such as purposefulness, intrinsic motivation and so on, for well-being. Algoe, Gable, & Maisel (2010) in support of the Broaden and Build Theory noted that the tendency of grateful individuals to thank those who have been of help to them and forgive others is capable of strengthening interpersonal relationships, leading to forming and preserving new relationships and relationship satisfaction. ...
... found among student samples that gratitude led to better well-being over a period of time.Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski & Miller (2009) also reported a similar association among college populations. Similarly,Sun et al. (2014) identified gratitude with higher levels of school well-being.Hill and Allemand (2011) hinted that gratitude improves satisfaction with life, positive mood, subjective well-being and reduces materialism(Lambert, Fincham, Stillman, & Dean, 2009). ...
Article
Gratitude has been linked with normal human functioning and well-being yet, its association with happiness and life satisfaction remains understudied among non clinical samples in collectivist cultures. Most studies on gratitude are focused on clinical settings and in individualist cultures. This study investigates the predictive strength of gratitude and purpose in life on life satisfaction among university undergraduates in Nigeria. Using a cross sectional research design, 390 university students were selected from 2 (public and private) universities. A questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, gratitude scale(r=0.84), purpose in life scale(r=0.96) and life satisfaction scale (r=0.90) was administered to participants. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Three hypotheses were tested. The results revealed that gratitude and purpose in life jointly and independently predicted life satisfaction (R 2 = .24; F = 62.56; p<.05). Being grateful and having purpose are crucial for a comprehensive examination of life satisfaction.
... In another investigation of Emmons and McCullough (2003) indicated that the individuals who were in gratitude condition were progressively vigorous, increasingly hopeful, progressively associated with others and bound to rest adequately. Froh et al. (2009a) told an example of young people and youngsters to compose a letter of gratitude to somebody for whom they were grateful and afterward give that letter face to face. In this investigation they found the individuals who were low in positive influence had the option to make more prominent degree of thankfulness and expanded positive effect after mediation. ...
... Gratitude enables them to feel more noteworthy level of SWB (Emmons and McCullough 2003;Park et al. 2004). Different analysts found that gratitude has been positively connected to life fulfillment (Lambert et al. 2009;Wood et al. 2009), and positive effect (Froh et al. 2009a, b). Walker and Pitts (1998) portrayed that Gratitude is a positive express that is related with positive feelings, for example, pride, expectation, satisfaction and happiness. ...
Article
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Positive Psychology emerged in the 1990s and new paradigm comes into existence for understanding human behaviour from human weaknesses to human strengths. Forgiveness and gratitude are constructs of Positive Psychology. Peterson and Seligman (2004) have classified forgiveness and gratitude as human virtues and strengths. There is something common in forgiveness and gratitude. Forgiveness is a positive psychological response to interpersonal harm and gratitude is a positive psychological response to interpersonal benefits (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). In positive psychology, gratitude as an emotion is not only being grateful, but also having greater appreciation for someone or something. Forgiveness happens when one offers mercy to the one who has wronged us instead of holding on to anger. Forgiveness and gratitude are personality qualities that can significantly improve physical and psychological well-being. Individuals, who learn to forgive, reported improvement in stress tolerance, sleeping habits and overall well-being. Gratitude also increases happiness, empathy feeling and decreases aggression and depression. Forgiveness and gratitude both are very essential to strengthen human relationship that is core behind to subjective well-being. In another words forgiveness and gratitude are positive characteristics of human that are connected to subjective well-being. The present paper is an attempt to incorporate the constructs of forgiveness and gratitude in connection to subjective well-being that have implications for health enhancements.
... Rights reserved. (Froh et al., 2009;Wood et al., 2016). For example, research found that practicing gratitude may become less meaningful and aligned with one's core values and interests over time due to "gratitude fatigue" (Emmons, 2007), or hedonic adaptation (Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006). ...
Article
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The psychological research into gratitude has overwhelmingly focused on the benefits of higher levels of gratitude. However, recent research suggests that positive psychology interventions to enhance gratitude are not always suitable and the effectiveness of an intervention depends on psycho-contextual factors, personal characteristics, and boundary conditions. The current study aimed to explore and compare the effect of two possible boundary conditions (prioritizing positivity and prioritizing meaning) on well-being levels, following a gratitude intervention. Replicating and extending the findings of the seminal 2005 study by Seligman et al., the current study explored the complex dynamics of gratitude and well-being in a sample of 448 participants. This study’s results replicated Seligman et al.’s finding suggesting a significant increase in satisfaction with life following a gratitude intervention. However, this trend was not significant when eudaimonic well-being was used as the dependent variable. Further analysis revealed that the intervention was most beneficial for people who prioritized both meaning and positivity in their lives, whereas those with different prioritizing patterns enjoyed only short-term gains. In addition, those who prioritize neither positivity nor meaning in their lives did not benefit from the intervention. This suggests implications for practitioners, mental health providers and organizations as consciously integrating the prioritization of meaning and positivity into one’s daily routines along with various gratitude activities which are aligned with one’s values and interests may contribute to gratitude interventions’ efficacy.
... While these findings are insufficient to draw claims about interventions, they may suggest why positive psychological interventions that target psychological wellbeing elements rather than psychopathology-such as the Shamiri ("thrive") intervention [30]-have been successful in treating depression and anxiety symptoms with Kenyan youths. For example, research on trait gratitude suggests that having a lot of things to be grateful for is associated with exhibiting positive states and outcomes that may buffer against depression and anxiety [68]. Perhaps interventions that make salient elements of psychological wellbeing like gratitude may be effective in reducing youth depression and anxiety symptoms [31,36,37] because they target central elements in the network of wellbeing and psychopathology (e.g., I have a lot to be grateful for). ...
Article
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Background The extent to which psychological wellbeing may play a preventive and therapeutic role in the development and maintenance of adolescent emotional disorders depends, in part, on the nature of the overlap between these two constructs. We estimated network analysis to examine the relationship between adolescent psychopathology (measured by depression and anxiety symptoms) and psychological wellbeing (measured by happiness, optimism, social support, perceived control, and gratitude). Methods This was a cross-sectional study with a large community sample of Kenyan adolescents (N = 2192, aged 13–18). Network analyses were conducted to examine the topology, stability, centrality, and bridge nodes of a network of psychopathology and psychological wellbeing measures. Results Two distinct community clusters emerged, one for psychopathology nodes and another for wellbeing nodes, suggesting that these are two distinct but connected concepts. Central and bridge nodes of the wellbeing and psychopathology network were identified. The most central nodes in the network were family provides emotional help and support and self-blame; the strongest negative edges between psychopathology and psychological wellbeing were depressed mood—I love life and irritability—I am a joyful person; the main bridge nodes were family helps me and I can talk to family about problems. Conclusions Our findings expand understanding of the relationship between psychopathology and wellbeing in an understudied population and are suggestive of how psychological wellbeing can inform psychopathological treatment and preventive efforts in low-income regions such as those in Sub Saharan Africa.
... Two early studies showed that, even using different questionnaires as measurements, trait gratitude was significantly and positively correlated with global happiness, positive affect, and life satisfaction (McCullough et al., 2002;Watkins et al., 2003). Subsequent studies replicated such findings in different populations and cultures (Chen & Kee, 2008;Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski, & Miller, 2009;Toussaint & Friedman, 2009). ...
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Backgrounds: Gratitude and pride are both benefit-related emotions, whereby the pride attributes success to oneself and gratitude to another. Gratitude and pride are vital to the function of a society, allowing one to create interpersonal relationships and build self-confidence. Despite growing interest in the neural underpinnings of positive emotions and subjective feelings, we know very little about how these emotions are represented in the brain and computationally updated over time by new experience. Aims of the study: We aimed to fill the gap by finding the specific neural representations of the dynamic emotional experience of gratitude and pride, and the functional neural substrates for updating positive emotions in general. Furthermore, we also aimed to find the best computational models to give the best explanations how these two emotions are updated as the environmental factors change. Methods: We developed a novel behavioral task based on the gameshow “Who Wants to be a Millionaire”, which we used together with functional MRI, and computational modeling. We investigated which brain regions are involved in representing gratitude and pride, how the human brain keeps track of these emotions over time and how it updates them when new information is available. 13 Results: We found that gratitude was more associated with neural activities in the bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ), which has previously been implicated in Theory of Mind. In contrast, pride was more associated with neural activities in the caudate nucleus, which is part of the reward system, and hippocampus. Importantly, when we look for neural activity parametrically modulated with the reported magnitude of gratitude feelings we found correlations mainly in the motor cortex (precentral gyrus), reward system (ventral striatum, putamen) and Theory of Mind network (temporal pole). In contrast, neural activity pertaining to the strength of the feeling of pride was found in the bilateral putamen. Moreover, activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was related to an emotional prediction error signal, suggesting that this region might be involved in the process of updating our level of gratitude and pride feelings. Computational modeling revealed different models for gratitude and pride. Gratitude model uniquely involved the prediction of others’ behavior, while pride model involved mainly the reward. Implications: Our findings delineate the computational mechanisms and neural circuitry for positive emotions that accompany the attribution of getting reward whether it is due to one's own effort or help of others. Besides, our studies contribute to theories of emotions in several different aspects, especially to the newest theory of constructed emotion. Our findings have clinical implications for developing new psychotherapies for patients with emotional disorders.
... These strategies within the social relationships category are outlined in Table 2. Literature reviews and metanalyses find that gratitude is strongly associated with social relationships, pro-social emotions, and well-being across the life course (Wood et al., 2010;Ma et al., 2017). Gratitude interventions can be particularly beneficial for children and adolescents with lower levels of positive affect (Froh et al., 2009) 2 | Simple strategies to promote child self-awareness, self-soothing, and social relationships. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has presented considerable disruptions to routines that have challenged emotional well-being for children and their caregivers. One direction for supporting emotional well-being includes strategies that help children feel their best in the moment, which can bolster their capacity to respond appropriately to thoughts and behaviors. Strengthening emotional well-being equitably, however, must include opportunities in settings that are easily accessible to all, such as schools. In this paper, we focus on simple, evidence-informed strategies that can be used in schools to promote positive feelings in the moment and build coping behaviors that facilitate tolerance of uncertainty. We focus on those strategies that educators can easily and routinely use across ages, stages, and activities. Selected strategies are primarily tied to cognitive behavioral theory, with our review broadly organized across categories of self-awareness, self-soothing, and social relationships. We review evidence for each, providing examples that illustrate ease of use in school settings.
... Module 4 includes mindfulness-based exercises that increase reward experiencing [11], including loving kindness, generosity, gratitude, and appreciation practices [66][67][68]. In the loving kindness meditation, for example, the patient focuses on wishing happiness, safety, and peace towards others and themselves. ...
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Accumulating psychobiological data implicate reward disturbances in the persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Evidence suggests that individuals with AN demonstrate decision-making deficits similar to those with mood and anxiety disorders that cause them to under-respond to many conventionally rewarding experiences (e.g., eating, interacting socially). In contrast, unlike individuals with other psychiatric disorders, individuals with AN simultaneously over-respond to rewards associated with eating-disorder behaviors (e.g., restrictive eating, exercising). This pattern of reward processing likely perpetuates eating-disorder symptoms, as the rewards derived from eating-disorder behaviors provide temporary relief from the anhedonia associated with limited responsivity to other rewards. Positive Affect Treatment (PAT) is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to target reward deficits that contribute to anhedonia in mood and anxiety disorders, including problems with reward anticipation, experiencing, and learning. PAT has been found to promote reward responsivity and clinical improvement in mood and anxiety disorders. This manuscript will: (1) present empirical evidence supporting the promise of PAT as an intervention for AN; (2) highlight nuances in the maintaining processes of AN that necessitate adaptations of PAT for this population; and (3) suggest future directions in research on PAT and other reward-based treatments that aim to enhance clinical outcomes for AN.
... An intervention means a theory-based intervention program that aims to influence students' development (see e.g. Froh et al., 2009;Vainikainen & Hautamäki 2020 ;Waters, 2011). Interventions usually include research that investigates the effects of the intervention and opportunities to implement the findings wider in practice. ...
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The purpose of this research was to implement the strength-based student guidance among ninth graders by using a Power Zone tool and to analyse what kind of impact the guidance had in students. The especial focus was on the analysis of positive psychological capital (PsyCap). The test group (n = 57 students) and the control group (n = 46 students) were selected from two ordinary mainstreaming comprehensive schools with grades from 1 to 9 located in West-Finland. In the test group, the students’ scores in PsyCap, strengths and resources, and student guidance increased positively and more than in the control group. The statistically significant change was found in the test group regarding their strengths and resources and a very significant change in the experiences of student guidance. The findings were encouraging. The positive changes encourage using the Power Zone tool in student guidance. It is possible to increase PsyCap through the strength-based guidance.
... Turn back to the positive emotions of the past 4. Gratitude ○ Introduce gratitude and its contribution to well-being through prosocial behavior (Froh et al., 2009) ○ Connect with and appreciate positive emotions ○ Learn to integrate actions and expressions of gratitude in their daily lives Flow activity: The Desert Island: "What would you bring with you to a desert island?" Importance of reminding themselves of the most important things in their life Central activity: Gratitude letter Group discussion: Voluntarily share the gratitude letter with the class group Closing: Remind why gratitude can be important for improving well-being. ...
Article
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Time attitudes, which refer to positive and negative feelings towards the past, present, and future, are a salient phenomenon in the developmental stage of adolescence and have been related to better well-being. Positive feelings towards time can be promoted in the school setting through empirically validated positive psychology interventions. However, the extent to which these interventions impact the time attitudes of adolescents remains unknown. The current study investigated the influence of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention on adolescents’ transitions between time attitude profiles and how these transitions are related to their emotional, social, and psychological well-being. Participants consisted of 220 ( M = 14.98; 47.3% female) adolescents from two Spanish high schools who participated in the six-week Get to Know Me+ program. Adolescents’ time attitudes and well-being were measured via the Adolescents and Adult Time Inventory–Time Attitudes and the Mental Health Continuum–Short Form, respectively, at pre- and postintervention. Participants were clustered in different profiles through a latent profile analysis, and the transitions were analyzed using a latent transition analysis. Five profiles were identified ( negative , present/future negative , past negative , optimistic , and positive ), and results indicated that adolescents who participated in the intervention were more likely to transition to positive profiles ( optimistic and positive ) and generally reported higher well-being, especially those in the negative , present/future negative , and optimistic profiles. Preliminary evidence showed that school-based multicomponent positive psychology interventions can have a positive impact on adolescents’ feelings towards time and well-being.
... Growth mindset interventions, which encourage viewing challenges as opportunities for growth, have been found to improve academic performance and reduce depression and anxiety symptoms in only one session (Schleider & Weisz, 2018;Yeager et al., 2016). Gratitude interventions, which promote recognizing and expressing gratitude, are typically brief and simple and have been shown to increase life satisfaction and prevent depression (Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski, & Miller, 2009). Value affirmation interventions, which prompt individuals to identify and act on their personal values, have been shown to boost academic performance and improve stress responses in a single-session (Cohen, Garcia, Purdie-Vaughns, Apfel, & Brzustoski, 2009;Creswell et al., 2005). ...
Article
Objective Expanding mental healthcare for adolescents in low-income regions is a global health priority. Group interventions delivered by lay-providers may expand treatment options. Brief, positively-focused interventions conveying core concepts of adaptive functioning may help reduce adolescent symptoms of mental illness. In this trial, we tested three such interventions (growth mindset, gratitude, and value affirmation) as separate single-session interventions. Method Consenting adolescents (N = 895; Mage = 16.00) from two secondary schools in Kenya were randomized by classroom (24 classrooms; Mclass = 37.29 students) into single-session interventions: growth (N = 240), gratitude (N = 221), values (N = 244), or an active study-skills control (N = 190). Mixed-effects models controlling for age and gender were used to estimate individual-level intervention effects on anxiety and depression symptoms. Results Within the universal sample, the values intervention produced greater reductions in anxiety symptoms than the study-skills control (p < .05; d = 0.31 [0.13-0.50]). Within the clinical sub-sample (N = 299), the values (p < .01; d = 0.49 [0.09-0.89]) and growth interventions (p < .05; d = 0.39 [0.01-0.76]) produced greater reductions in anxiety symptoms. There were no significant effects on depression. Conclusions The values intervention reduced anxiety for the full sample, as did the growth mindset and values interventions for symptomatic youths. Future efforts should examine durability of these effects over time.
... Accordingly, recent gratitude interventions (Baumsteiger et al., 2019) have invited people to notice and savour their blessings (e.g., gratitude journal) and to express gratitude and respond to the giver (e.g., gratitude letter). These gratitude interventions have been found to increase the level of gratitude in adolescents (Baumsteiger et al., 2019;Froh et al., 2009;Kwok et al., 2016). ...
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The study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology program for adolescents with moderate levels of anxiety symptoms in Hong Kong, China. The program combined elements and techniques of gratitude and emotional intelligence intervention delivered in the group format. Adopting a two-armed randomized controlled trial research design, a total of 92 secondary school students who scored 9–11 in the Chinese Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups. After the seven-session program, participants of the intervention groups showed a significant decrease in anxiety and significant increase in subjective happiness. Furthermore, the two active components of this program, gratitude and emotional intelligence, mediated the relationship between the intervention and the change in subjective happiness. In addition, emotional intelligence mediated the effect of the intervention on the change in anxiety symptoms. Findings of this study shed light on the applicability and efficacy of multicomponent positive psychology programs in alleviating anxiety and enhancing subjective happiness of adolescents. Future research is called for to advance our understanding of multicomponent positive psychology programs across different types of active components, samples, and conditions.
... The self-reflective and interactive components of interventions are catered through these exercises. Furthermore the past researches with adolescents and young adults have applied these activities separately and found to be useful(Froh et al., 2009; Sheldon & Lyubomirsky, 2006). ...
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Positive and negative emotions are key contributors to sustain health and well-being of an individual. A young person's ability to recognize, regulate, and express emotions appropriately and effectively plays a crucial role in determining his or her ability to achieve personal or academic goals, as well as to cope with environmental and social challenges. These emotions can be inculcated through positive psychology interventions like gratitude interventions. However cross cultural validation is required before application in different settings. A total of 60 adolescents randomly assigned in experimental group (31) and control group (29) with mean age of 16 years studying in different public schools of Rawalpindi, Pakistan served in this intervention based research. A modified version of three gratitude interventions (count your blessings, writing gratitude letters & LKM) was delivered for four weeks. Pre & post assessment were carried out with the help of Urdu version of GQ-6, GAC & mDES. One way ANCOVA shows a significant effect of modified gratitude interventions on positive emotions after controlling baseline assessment, F (2, 57) = 10.98, p=.002, partial η2= .16. Furthermore the regression analysis showed that State (β=.34**) and Trait (β=.337**) Gratitude are significantly positive predictors of positive emotions.
... At the same time, it is important to assess if participants who are low in ability at the baseline will benefit more or less than participants who are high on the ability at baselinethis has important implications for policy decisions, as it influences the perceived fairness, and perceived utility of interventions in EI in general and of this intervention specifically. Based on findings from connected lines of research (i.e., positive psychology; Froh et al., 2009), we speculate that adolescents that are initially high on EI can experience an "emotional ceiling" effect. Therefore, they can be less susceptible to experience improvements in EI compared to those with low initial levels of EI. ...
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The current study explored the effects of an experiential intervention on emotional intelligence in adolescents. A sample of 238 teenagers and adolescents aged 16 and 19 years went through an emotional intelligence (EI) development programme comprising eight exercises. The exercises were developed based on the Mayer and Salovey four-branch ability model. Participants were assessed pre- and post-intervention with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. Scores on emotional intelligence and three of its four related branches were significantly increased after the intervention. Additionally, findings revealed that the improvements in scores were stronger for participants with initially average scores on EI. Adolescents with low levels of EI can benefit from an experiential-oriented intervention to improve their abilities in perceiving and managing their emotions in relation with themselves and others. Further conclusions, limitations, and future research prospects are also discussed.
... She strategised about writing and delivering a gratitude letter. This activity is said to increase happiness and stimulate positive behaviour change (Froh et al., 2009;Seligman et al., 2005). Moreover, in the context of broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2004), gratitude can serve to build social bonds. ...
... In this vein, gratitude facilitates goal contagion, making people adopt the goal implied by a social other's behavior (Jia et al., 2014). Gratitude is associated with perceived support from peers and family members (Froh et al., 2009a(Froh et al., , 2009b, and predicts increased relationship commitment, quality, maintenance, and satisfaction between the benefactors and the gift recipients (Algoe et al., 2008;Joel et al., 2013;Kubacka et al., 2011;Park et al., 2019). Meanwhile, when people show a reduced intention for social connection and bonding, considering or even acknowledging others' personhood becomes less relevant and thus objectification can occur (e.g., Powers et al., 2014;Waytz & Epley, 2012). ...
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Objectification, treating others merely as things or tools while denying their personhood, results in severe consequences. While prior research predominantly focused on the triggers of objectification, we aimed to investigate a possible intervention. We hypothesized that gratitude could reduce objectification toward general others (i.e., people who are not the benefactors). Across three studies (N = 1007), our hypothesis was supported. Study 1 showed that dispositional gratitude negatively predicted trait objectification. Studies 2 and 3 further found a causal relationship. Specifically, after heightening participants’ state of gratitude, participants showed a lower level of objectification towards others (Study 2). Using a scenario study that described a working context, we further showed the alleviating effect of gratitude on objectification toward a group of factory workers, targets often suffering from objectification (Study 3). Our reported effect is prevalent, such that it is observed across samples from two countries (i.e., the United States and China).
... One possibility raised in [37] to account for the lack of motivational effects was the relative low intensity of the one-shot, 10-min gratitude letter writing activity. Gratitude interventions typically range from a few days to a few weeks and typically involve repeated and regular engagement with a gratitude activity [13,31,72]. Even though the dose response relationship for different types of gratitude intervention still needs to be clearly established [24], there seems to be a tendency that interventions that continuously and repeatedly engage participants are more likely to result in significant effects [6]. ...
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Background Past studies have associated gratitude interventions with a host of positive outcomes. However, there is a dearth of research regarding the impact such interventions have on the academic motivation of university students, thought to be a primary determinant of academic achievement and overall satisfaction with school activities. Here, we examined the effects of a 2-week online gratitude journal intervention on the academic motivation of university students. Methods Eighty-four students were randomly assigned to either an active manipulation group (gratitude group) or a neutral control group. In the first 6 days of each week, participants in the gratitude group were asked to log in to the online system once a day and list up to five things they had felt grateful for. They were also requested to evaluate various aspects of their daily lives. Participants in the control group were only requested to perform the daily self-evaluations. Academic motivation was assessed using the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which conceptualizes motivation in academic settings as being composed by three different components, i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and amotivation, the latter being associated with the perceived lack of contingency between actions and outcomes. Responses were collected 5 times: before group assignment (baseline), 1 week after the start of the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and at two follow-ups, 1 and 3 months after the intervention. Results Analysis using a self-determination index derived from the AMS components showed that participants who regularly engaged with the gratitude journal task displayed significant enhancements in academic motivation. Additional analysis revealed that the enhancements were driven by decreases in the levels of amotivation. Furthermore, follow-up data showed that there were no signs that such enhancements had receded 3 months after the end of the intervention. Improvements in academic motivation were not observed among participants in the control group. Conclusions The current results provide evidence that gratitude interventions can positively impact the academic motivation of university students. More broadly, they show that the effects extend well beyond the realm of typically assessed measures of individual well-being, and can effectively regulate a fundamental component of goal-directed behavior such as motivation.
... These factors may also explain the curriculum's differential impact on participants from the two schools. In the context of a wellbeing focused intervention (centred on gratitude), Froh et al. (2009) established that youth lower in positive emotions derive more significant gains from the intervention than those higher on positive emotions. Drawing upon similar logic, we suggest the possibility that there is increased scope for improvement on outcome variables among the government school participants (as compared to private school students who exhibited higher scores on variables of interest at baseline). ...
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The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of Strengths Gym (Proctor & Fox Eades, in Strengths gym: Year 8, Positive Psychology Research Centre, Pennsylvania, 2009; Proctor et al., in J Posit Psychol, 6:377–388, 2011)—an intervention based on the Values in Action (VIA; Peterson & Seligman in Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004) classification of character strengths among Indian students. Participants in this classroom-based intervention were 121 students from grades 7 and 8 (Age = 11–13 years, M = 11.22 years, SD = 1.61, 53% male) from two schools in the National Capital Region of India. Using quasi-experimental design, participating classrooms in each school were randomized into intervention or control conditions. Intervention group engaged in 24 sessions—one corresponding to each character strength, spread over 12 weeks. All participants completed a questionnaire comprising measures of well-being, life satisfaction, happiness, affect, and self-esteem at pre- and post-test. Participants reported significant gains in happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect at post-test. Findings suggest promising evidence for character strength interventions among Indian students, while also contributing to research evidence about cross-cultural relevance and validity of an existing intervention. Fostering character strengths and well-being among Indian students emerges as an area of tremendous importance in the face of the stressors and challenges faced by this demographic group in the present times.
... Previous research has identified effective mechanisms for enhancing gratitude (Berger et al., 2019). For example, Emmons and McCullough (2003) found that writing down or contemplating grateful things aided in felt gratitude and Froh et al. (2009) found that writing gratitude letters also enhanced gratitude. Practitioners, thus, can employ these simple interventions in their attempts to improve sojourners' thriving. ...
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While the ensuing COVID-19 pandemic has significantly altered individuals’ lives worldwide, it has been perhaps especially disruptive to the lives of sojourners as many have been unable to return home and are absent from their families, a familiar culture, and normal social support systems. While it is important to ask how such individuals can successfully survive in such a crisis, we were interested in extending our knowledge and understanding by asking “how can such individuals move beyond mere surviving to a state of thriving?” In answering this question, we utilized a positive psychology framework to develop a theoretical model wherein we expected higher/lower levels of perceived social support from host country people (i.e., host country support) to result in higher/lower levels of perceived gratitude, which would then result in higher/lower levels of thriving, and ethnocentrism moderated this indirect effect. To test our model, we utilized a sample of sojourners who responded to a survey measuring ethnocentrism (February 2020). We then administered daily surveys measuring perceived host country support, gratitude, and thriving over a nine-day period during the COVID-19 crisis (March 26–April 3, 2020). Results supported the indirect effect of host country support on thriving via gratitude. Further, we found that sojourners with lower levels of ethnocentrism exhibited stronger host country support- gratitude link, hence stronger indirect effect of host country support on thriving via gratitude. We close by offering implications for the existing literature, future research, and organizational practices.
... Women who act as wives and mothers tend to have higher gratitude than men because of the existence of social relations and freedom to pursue goals and the nature of openness in expressing feelings. 8 There are differences in the level of gratitude between women and men (p = 0.003); women have higher gratitude (M = 36.52) than men (M = 33.48) ...
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Background: In Central Kalimantan Province, housewives constitute the second largest group of people with HIV (+) (19.4%) after the private group. Most of them (61.4%) reported on the poor quality of life, especially in the domain of psychology due to frustration and poverty. In its management, the intervention program has not fully integrated the life quality of people with HIV toward the accepted treatment model because of the lack of information about the case. Therefore, the particular study aims to find out the relationship between quality of life and the level of immunity of housewives with HIV (+), which expect to have benefited the development of a program for managing ODHA in Central Kalimantan Province. Method: Cross-sectional study approach used in the research where the population is a housewife with HIV (+) who lives in Central Kalimantan Province. The purposive sampling technique used to select the sample with criteria of the subjects have a CD4 > 200 cell/µL and are excluded when experiencing psychiatric disorders and/or dying. There were 54 people as the sample. Data were analyzed bivariate using chi-square test and multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Result and conclusion :The results of statistical tests showed no significant relationship between quality of life and the level of immunity of participants in the physical domain (p = .2.071); psychological domain (p = 0.610); social domain (p = 0.595); environmental domain (p = 0.393); perception of health conditions (p = 0.317) and; perception of quality of life (p = 2.140).It needs further assessment toward the total number of CD4 before starting ART, treatment adherence, disease history and lifestyle of the participants. And, interventions can improve the quality of life and increase the immunity of participants
... Finally, families and schools should foster student resilience by promoting covitality and other positive psychological traits. There are some existing programs targeting gratitude (Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski, & Miller, 2009), and persistence/grit (Bernard & Walton, 2011). To promote these positive psychological traits, teachers can incorporate a well-being curriculum into classroom instruction by explicitly teaching students covitality related skills to enhance their positive emotions. ...
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Objective: Research suggests that low levels of school belonging and high levels of victimisation predict negative emotions, including loneliness. However, few studies have examined this relation among Chinese elementary school students. The protective role of covitality against victimisation and loneliness also remains unexplored. This study examines the relations between bullying victimisation, school belonging, covitality, and loneliness over 6 months, and whether covitality moderates the relations between victimisation and loneliness. Method: Eight hundred students from five elementary schools in China completed self‐report surveys at two time points (6 months apart). Results: Bullying victimisation, school belonging, and covitality predicted loneliness 6 months later. Students who experienced more bullying victimisation, lower levels of school belonging, and lower covitality reported more loneliness 6 months later. Covitality buffered the relation between verbal victimisation at Time 1 (T1) and loneliness at T1 but did not buffer the relation between victimisation T1 and loneliness at Time 2 (T2). Conclusions: Schools should prevent bullying, foster school belonging, and promote covitality (positive psychological traits) to reduce Chinese youths' feelings of loneliness. KEY POINTS What is already known about this topic: • (1) Victimisation is a risk factor for loneliness for children in the United States. • (2) School belonging is a protective factor for loneliness for children in United States. • (3) Covitality is a protective factor for youth. What this topic adds: • (1) Victimisation is a risk factor for loneliness for children in China. • (2) School belonging and covitality are protective factors against loneliness for children in China. • (3) Covitality moderates the relation between verbal victimisation and loneliness using cross‐sectional data only.
... Although such findings are encouraging, they are inconsistent (Davis et al., 2016;Wood et al., 2010). For example, some studies indicate these interventions are effective for depressive symptoms (e.g., Cheng et al., 2015), positive and negative affect (e.g., Emmons & McCullough 2003), whereas others fail to find similar effects (e.g., for positive and negative affect Froh et al., 2009, for depressive symptoms Kerr et al., 2015). These data suggest additional research in several important areas is justified. ...
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Outcomes of gratitude interventions are encouraging, but inconsistent across studies. In addition, both mechanisms of change and effect modifiers for these interventions are largely unknown. Recent data point toward potential candidates and suggest reward processing may be a promising mechanism underlying these interventions, while childhood adversity (CA) and trait gratitude may impact on them. However, existing research aimed at investigating these hypotheses is scarce. Building on these, we examined the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention for decreasing depressive symptoms and negative affect and increasing positive affect. We also investigated changes in reward processing following intervention and explored differences in adherence and drop-out between groups. Finally, we investigated the moderating role of CA and trait gratitude. Participants (N=237, ages between 18–56) were randomly allocated to a gratitude or active control condition (14 days). Following intervention, findings indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and negative affect in both conditions. While positive affect remained stable, a significant time effect emerged for reward processing. CA severity, but not multiplicity, moderated the effectiveness of the intervention, adherence and drop-out. Trait gratitude moderated the effectiveness of the gratitude intervention only on depressive symptoms. Gratitude interventions may not be the best fit for everyone. Thus, we recommend tailoring interventions, especially in individuals reporting a history of severe CA.
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmada öğretmen adaylarının minnettarlık eğilimlerinin cinsiyet ve vefakarlık düzeyi bakımından incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaçla, 205 Eğitim Fakültesi öğrencisinden, Minnettarlık Ölçeği (MÖ) ve Vefakarlık Ölçeği (VÖ) kullanılarak veri toplanmıştır. Veriler normal dağılım göstermediğinden, MÖ ve VÖ puanlarının cinsiyete göre incelenmesi için Mann Whitney U testi kullanılmış; MÖ ve VÖ puanları arasındaki ilişkilerin incelenmesi için ise Spearman Sıra Farkları Korelasyon analizi uygulanmıştır. MÖ puanları ile VÖ toplam puanları ve VÖ'nün inanma, yakınlara vefa, yurttaşlık değerlerine vefa, dostlara-arkadaşlara vefa alt-ölçek puanları arasında düşük ancak anlamlı düzeyde ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Sözünde durma, milli değerlere vefa ve sadakat puanları ise MÖ puanları ile ilişkili bulunmamıştır. Ayrıca bulgular hem MÖ hem de VÖ toplam puanı bakımından kızların erkeklerden anlamlı düzeyde daha yüksek puanlar aldıklarını göstermiştir. VÖ alt-ölçeklerinden inanma, sözünde durma, yakınlara vefa, yurttaşlık değerlerine vefa, dostlara-arkadaşlara vefa bakımından da kızların puanları erkeklerden anlamlı düzeyde yüksek bulunmuştur. Milli değerlere vefa bakımından erkeklerin puanlarının daha yüksek olmasına karşın bu farkın anlamlı bir düzeye ulaşmadığı; ayrıca sadakat alt-ölçek puanlarında da cinsiyete göre anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmadığı görülmüştür. Sonuçlar, öğretmen eğitimi açısından tartışılmıştır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Minnettarlık, vefakarlık, öğretmen adayları
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Urgent societal problems, including climate change, require innovation and can benefit from interdisciplinary solutions. A small body of research has demonstrated the potential of positive emotions (e.g., gratitude, awe) to promote creativity and prosocial behavior, which may help address these problems. This study integrates, for the first time, psychology research on a positive and prosocial emotion (i.e., gratitude) with engineering-design creativity research. In a pre-registered study design, engineering students and working engineers (pilot N = 49; full study N = 329) completed gratitude, positive-emotion control, or neutral-control inductions. Design creativity was assessed through rater scores of responses to an Alternate Uses Task (AUT) and a Wind-Turbine-Blade Repurposing Task (WRT). No significant differences among AUT scores emerged across conditions in either sample. While only the pilot-study manipulation of gratitude was successful, WRT results warrant further studies on the effect of gratitude on engineering-design creativity. The reported work may also inform other strategies to incorporate prosocial emotion to help engineers arrive at more original and effective concepts to tackle environmental sustainability, and in the future, other problems facing society.
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Chapter
Gratitude is an emotion and state of being that recognizes a positive outcome as the result of external factors, thereby prompting internal and external responses of appreciation. As a positive psychology intervention (PPI), gratitude not only encourages positive affect and savoring of positive life experiences, it is associated with a reduction in psychological distress, improved sleep, better relationships, more engagement at work, and fewer physical ailments. In Islam, shukr (gratitude) is a fundamental virtue which, along with sabr (patience), provides a formula for Muslim wellbeing. In this chapter, we review the positive psychology literature on gratitude and define the concept of shukr from an Islamic perspective. We also provide suggestions for increasing gratitude through Islamically-integrated PPIs and discuss how such interventions can provide useful tools for Muslim wellness.
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ÖZET: Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin minnettarlık ile ilgili görüşlerinin belirlenmesi ve bu iki grubun görüşleri arasındaki benzerliklerin ve farklılıkların ortaya konulmasıdır. Araştırmada, nitel araştırma desenlerinden olgubilim yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu çalışma 2019-2020 yılları arasında Türkiye’nin değişik bölgelerinde yaşayan, farklı yaşlarda, mesleklerde ve öğrenim düzeylerinde yer alan; 20 beliren (18-25 yaş arası) ve 20 orta yetişkinlik (26-45 yaş arası) döneminde bulunan 40 katılımcı ile yürütülmüştür. Bu araştırmanın katılımcıları amaçlı örnekleme yöntemleri içerisinde yer alan tabakalı amaçsal örnekleme yöntemine göre seçilmiştir. Veriler araştırmacılar tarafından hazırlanan kişisel bilgi formu ve yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu aracılığıyla online olarak yapılan görüşmeler ile toplanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre beliren ve orta yetişkinlik döneminde bulunan bireylerin; minnettarlığın tanımı, minnettarlık hissedilen durumlar, minnettarlığın ifade edilmesi, minnettarlığın davranışsal ve duygusal karşılığı, sosyal yaşama katkısı ve önündeki engellere dair yaklaşımlarının büyük oranda benzer olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Ancak az da olsa bu iki grubun minnettarlığa bakış açılarının birbirlerinden ayrıldığı noktalar göze çarpmaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bu bulgular, alanyazın ışığında tartışılmış ve sonuçlarla ilgili öneriler geliştirilmiştir. & ABSTRACT: The main purpose of the current study is to determine the opinions of individuals who are in their emerging and middle adulthood periods about thankfulness and to elicit the similarities and differences between the opinions of these two groups. The current study employed the phenomenological design, one of the qualitative research designs. The current study was conducted with the participation of 20 individuals who were in their emerging adulthood period (18-25 years old) and 20 individuals who were in their middle adulthood period (26-45 years old); thus, a total of 40 participants, in the years 2019 and 2020. The participants were of the different ages, professions and education levels and lived in different regions of Turkey. The participants of the current study were selected by using the stratified purposeful sampling method, one of the purposive sampling methods. The data were collected by using the personal information form prepared by the researchers and a semi-structured interview form administered online. In the analysis of the collected data, content analysis method was used. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the individuals who were in their emerging adulthood and middle adulthood periods have largely similar opinions about the definition of thankfulness, the situations where thankfulness is felt, expression of thankfulness, behavioural and emotional exhibition of thankfulness, its contribution to social life and obstacles to it. Yet, there are some points where the two groups of participants’ perceptions of thankfulness differ. These findings obtained in the current study were discussed in reference to the literature and suggestions were made in light of the findings.
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Gratitude is an extremely necessary spiritual element in our lives. Grateful people experience life in a more peaceful, and happy way. The study was conducted on 762 students from two clusters of gifted and non-specialized high schools in Da Nang city to describe the current situation, perception of gratitude and factors affecting the level of gratitude in high school students. Research results show that 79% of students are not grateful. A special thing is that the factors such as academic ability, age, and gender do not completely affect the gratitude level of high school students. Based on the findings, the study proposes a number of measures that partially affect the educational methods of schools and families, as well as directly affect the survey subjects.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas penguatan kebersyukuran melalui intervensi menulis surat syukur terhadap peningkatan subjective well being siswa dalam interaksi sosial. Jenis penelitian ini adalah penelitian kuantitatif dan desain penelitian eksperimen. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 20 siswa SD, masing-masing adalah 10 siswa untuk kelompok eksperimen dan 10 siswa untuk kelompok kontrol. Kelompok eksperimen diberikan perlakuan menulis surat syukur. Pengumpulan data menggunakan skala Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) dan Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) untuk mengukur subjective well-being, sementara Gratitude, Resentment Appréciation Test-Short Form (GRAT-Short Form) digunakan untuk mengukur kebersyukuran siswa. Teknik analisis data menggunakan paired sample t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penguatan kebersyukuran melalui intervensi menulis surat syukur memberikan bukti dapat meningkatkan subjective well-being siswa khususnya dalam dua komponen utama subjective well-being (kepuasan hidup dan afek positif). Siswa yang mendapatkan intervensi menulis surat syukur menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan pada tingkat subjective well-being daripada siswa yang tidak menulis surat syukur.
Article
Gratitude science often conflates the processes of actors recalling and sharing gratitude, as well as neglecting to study targets (benefactors receiving gratitude) and witnesses (those witnessing gratitude). We explored the roles (actors, targets, and witnesses) and processes (recalling, sharing, receiving, and witnessing) involved in gratitude exchanges. In Study 1, undergraduate students (actors; N = 369) wrote letters about either gratitude or daily activities to their parents (targets; N = 247), with half instructed to share their letters with their parents, and half not to share. In Study 2, adolescents (witnesses; N = 267) read either gratitude, positive, or neutral letters written by hypothetical peers addressed to benefactors. Actors recalling gratitude showed improvements in state gratitude, mood, and satisfaction (partial rs = .11 to .15; Study 1); actors sharing gratitude experienced boosts in state gratitude and relationship closeness (rs = .13 to .19; Study 1); targets receiving gratitude demonstrated increases in state gratitude, indebtedness, and elevation (rs = .14 to .16; Study 1); and witnesses observing gratitude reported increased positive affect and elevation (rs = .24), but decreased state gratitude (r = −.12; Study 2). These studies provide initial evidence that different gratitude roles and processes have divergent effects.
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
Article
Gratitude can play a significant role in enhancing the well-being of emerging adults since it armors them from the cold waves of psychological distress associated with emerging adulthood. Therefore, this study explored the association between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults. Further, the study examined the process underlying the association between these concepts through the lens of spirituality. The study investigated proposed relationships on a sample of 413 emerging adults ranging from 18 to 25 years with a mean age of 21.27 (SD = 1.60). First, the study applied structural equation modeling to establish the validity of the model (measurement model validity), and then the model's hypothesized relationships were tested (structural model). The findings illustrated both gratitude and dimensions of spirituality share a positive and significant association with psychological well-being. Spirituality’s dimensions emerged as possible mediators in the association between gratitude and psychological well-being. These results lead to a deeper understanding of the relationship between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults, concluding that gratitude influences psychological well-being both directly (b = 0.34, p < .001) and indirectly (b = 0.20, p < .001) through spirituality. The study also addresses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
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Tujuan dari penelitian ini untuk mengetahui gambaran rasa syukur pekerja harian sektor pariwisata pada masa pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif deskriptif dengan teknik pengambilan subjek penelitian menggunakan snowball. Jumlah subjek penelitian sebanyak empat orang yang berprofesi sebagai tour guide dan supir travel. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini dilakukan dengan teknik wawancara, observasi, dan dokumentasi. Dari hasil penelitian ditemukan bahwa rasa syukur yang dimiliki oleh pekerja harian sektor pariwisata, baik secara transpersonal maupun personal, bersumber dari spritual dan dukungan teman seprofesi sehingga mampu bertahan menjalankan hidup pada masa pandemi Covid-19. Ungkapan rasa syukur pekerja harian sektor pariwisata pada masa pandemi Covid-19 tampak melalui penghargaan atas penghasilan yang mereka peroleh setiap hari, serta perasaan positif seperti bahagia dan menikmati hidup, dan beberapa tindakan positif lainnya seperti berjualan, berkumpul, beribadah, dan tetap menolong sesama yang lebih membutuhkan pertolongan.
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Most people want to be happy and many look out for opportunities to achieve a more satisfying life. Following a happiness training is an option, but the effectiveness of such training is being questioned. In this research synthesis we assessed: 1) whether happiness training techniques add to the happiness of their users, 2) how much happiness training techniques add to happiness, 3) how long the effect of happiness training lasts, 4) what kinds of training techniques work best, and 5) what types of groups of people profit from taking happiness training. We took stock of the available research and found 106 reports of effect studies on training techniques, which together yielded 314 findings. These findings are available in an online 'findings archive', the World Database of Happiness. Using links to this source allows us to condense information in tabular overviews, while providing the reader with access to much detail. Happiness training techniques seem to do what they are designed to do: 96% of the studies showed a gain in happiness post intervention and at follow-up, about half of the positive results were statistically significant. Studies with cross-sectional designs and studies that used control groups showed more mixed results. The average effect of happiness training was Prime Archives in Psychology: 2 nd Edition 3 www.videleaf.com approximately 5% of the scale range. We conclude that taking a form of happiness training is advisable for individuals looking for a more satisfying life. Since happier workers tend to be more productive, organizations would be wise to provide such training techniques for their workforce.
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Most people want to be happy and many look out for opportunities to achieve a more satisfying life. Following a happiness training is an option, but the effectiveness of such training is being questioned. In this research synthesis we assessed: 1) whether happiness training techniques add to the happiness of their users, 2) how much happiness training techniques add to happiness, 3) how long the effect of happiness training lasts, 4) what kinds of training techniques work best, and 5) what types of groups of people profit from taking happiness training. We took stock of the available research and found 106 reports of effect studies on training techniques, which together yielded 314 findings. These findings are available in an online ‘findings archive’, the World Database of Happiness. Using links to this source allows us to condense information in tabular overviews, while providing the reader with access to much detail. Happiness training techniques seem to do what they are designed to do: 96% of the studies showed a gain in happiness post intervention and at follow-up, about half of the positive results were statistically significant. Studies with cross-sectional designs and studies that used control groups showed more mixed results. The average effect of happiness training was approximately 5% of the scale range. We conclude that taking a form of happiness training is advisable for individuals looking for a more satisfying life. Since happier workers tend to be more productive, organizations would be wise to provide such training techniques for their workforce.
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Ist unser Bildungssystem ausreichend auf Krisen vorbereitet? Die COVID-19-Pandemie hat offengelegt, dass dies nur sehr bedingt der Fall ist. Komplexe Veränderungen der äußeren Bedingungen stellen Individuen und beziehungsreiche Systeme wie Bildungseinrichtungen vor die Herausforderung, sich schnell und effizient anzupassen. Die Fähigkeit, sich angesichts disruptiver oder kontinuierlicher Stressoren nicht nur zu erholen und in den ursprünglichen Zustand zurückzukehren, sondern daran zu wachsen oder sich weiterzuentwickeln, wird als Resilienz bezeichnet. Doch was genau zeichnet resiliente Individuen und ein resilientes Bildungssystem aus? Wie lässt sich die Resilienz des Bildungspersonals steigern und wie kann die Resilienz der Lernenden gestärkt werden? Der Aktionsrat Bildung beantwortet diese und weitere Fragen auf der Grundlage einer empirisch abgesicherten Bestandsaufnahme. Für die einzelnen Bildungsphasen wird aufgezeigt, welche Reformen wirksam dazu beitragen können, auch in Krisenzeiten gute Bildungsergebnisse zu erzielen. Der Aktionsrat Bildung leitet konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen ab und richtet diese an die politischen Entscheidungsträger.
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This study is a multi-component Positive Psychology Intervention (PPI) with the goal of improving daily happiness and classroom behavior in a sample at-risk high-school students. PPIs have increasingly been used in school settings to enhance student well-being, student success, and to increase positive affect. The current study utilized a multiple baseline design, across five adolescents, to examine whether a manualized PPI implemented in individual school-based counseling sessions with at-risk high-school students, would lead to increased happiness, improved classroom behavior, and life satisfaction, measured through a Daily Happiness survey, the Direct Behavior Rating (DBR), General Happiness Scale, Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Student Life Satisfaction Scale. Results demonstrated high variability in the data and an overall null effect of the intervention on the two dependent variables of daily happiness and classroom behavior. Limitations included individual impacts of outside factors on student reports and behavior. Due to the small scale of the study and lack of observed intervention effects, more research is needed to draw conclusions about the application of the intervention. However, social validity data revealed that school-based mental health professionals may still consider this intervention to teach students strategies to improve life satisfaction.
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Why it may be Impossible to Increase a Person's Happiness LevelWhy it may be Possible to Increase a Person's happiness level after allA New Conceptual Model of HappinessTesting the ModelHappiness-inducing InterventionsFuture Research and Recommendations for InterventionsFactors Influencing Participants' Acceptance of InterventionsRecommendations for HappinessConclusion
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two studies are reported on the question of whether children acquire concepts for more complex emotions, such as jealousy and pride, in an all-or-nothing manner rather than feature by feature. In the first study, 96 children between 4 and 7 years of age were asked to describe situations that would evoke happiness, pride, gratitude, shame, worry, and jealousy. Children were also asked whether each emotion felt good or bad. In the second study, 4 and 5-year-olds rated the same emotions for feelings of pleasure and arousal. Together, the results suggested that before a complete concept, children attain a partial conceptualisation of each complex emotion: They understand the pleasure and arousal associated with the emotion, but have no knowledge of the kind of situation that evokes it. Even 4-year-olds knew the pleasure and arousal associated with pride, gratitude, shame, worry, and jealousy-thus demonstrating that children's understanding quickly moves beyond the simpler emotions.
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The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated the psychometric properties of the revised Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children (PANAS-C; T. E. Joiner et al) in 228 nonclinical children and adolescents aged between 8 and 15 years. The results revealed that the PANAS-C possesses high internal consistency and encouraging convergent validity, as demonstrated by correlations with the theoretically related constructs of Neuroticism and Extraversion. Construct validity was supported through confirmatory factor analysis, which revealed a two dimensional structure comprising Negative and Positive Affect. Divergent validity was confirmed by the nonsignificant correlation between positive and negative affect. Thus, the PANAS-C was demonstrated to have good reliability and validity, subject to minor changes in item content. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examines children's acquisition of three politeness routines: hi, thanks, and goodbye. Twenty-two children, eleven boys and eleven girls, and their parents participated. At the end of a parent-child play session, an assistant entered the playroom with a gift to elicit routines from the children. Spontaneous production of the three routines was low, with thank you the most infrequent. Parents actively prompted their children to produce routines, however, and children usually complied. Further, parents themselves used the routines, with more mothers than fathers saying thank you and goodbye to the assistant. Results were discussed in relation to the role of parents in linguistic socialization and to the importance of routines in social interaction. (Routines; politeness formulas; linguistic socialization; parental teaching; mother-father differences; sex role socialization)
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Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
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This study investigated the relationships among different forms of peer victimization and prosocial experiences and early adolescent emotional well-being. A total of 571 students in grades 6–8 were administered the Positive and Negative Affect Scale–Children, Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Children's Self Experience Questionnaire–Self Report. Females reported more prosocial experiences; males reported more overt and relational victimization. Differential predictors were observed for the emotional well-being variables of life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect in a series of hierarchical multiple regression equations. Overt victimization experiences added significant variance to all three well-being equations. Relational victimization experiences added significant variance to the negative affect equation. After accounting for overt and relational experiences, prosocial experiences added significant variance to the life satisfaction and positive affect equations. The experience of prosocial peer interactions thus appears to serve as a protective factor with respect to the relationship between victimization and life satisfaction and positive affect for early adolescents. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 199–208, 2007.
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The acquisition of routines is one aspect of language development. Routines such as Bye-bye, in contrast to more referential language, appear to be among the earliest acquisitions and are congruent with the sensori-motor child's capacities. This study investigates performance of the highly constrained Hallowe'en Trick or treat routine in 115 children from 2 to 16 years of age. Changes in competence and the role of parental input are examined in relation to cognitive and social factors. (First routines; the Hallowe'en interaction; children's production; adult participation; adult metalanguage; implications for ethnographic research.)
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Using a ''subjectivist'' approach to the assessment of happiness, a new 4-item measure of global subjective happiness was developed and validated in 14 studies with a total of 2 732 participants. Data was collected in the United States from students on two college campuses and one high school campus, from community adults in two California cities, and from older adults. Students and community adults in Moscow, Russia also participated in this research. Results indicated that the Subjective Happiness Scale has high internal consistency, which was found to be stable across samples. Test-retest and self-peer correlations suggested good to excellent reliability, and construct validation studies of convergent and discriminant validity confirmed the use of this scale to measure the construct of subjective happiness. The rationale for developing a new measure of happiness, as well as advantages of this scale, are discussed.
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One possible reason for the continued neglect of statistical power analysis in research in the behavioral sciences is the inaccessibility of or difficulty with the standard material. A convenient, although not comprehensive, presentation of required sample sizes is provided. Effect-size indexes and conventional values for these are given for operationally defined small, medium, and large effects. The sample sizes necessary for .80 power to detect effects at these levels are tabled for 8 standard statistical tests: (1) the difference between independent means, (2) the significance of a product-moment correlation, (3) the difference between independent rs, (4) the sign test, (5) the difference between independent proportions, (6) chi-square tests for goodness of fit and contingency tables, (7) 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and (8) the significance of a multiple or multiple partial correlation.
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This article reviews current theory and research on adolescent friendship and offers a framework in which friendship is developmentally characterized by reciprocity, co-construction and consensual validation. Three areas of research are reviewed: (1) the relative influence of parents and peers, (2) popularity among peers, and (3) gender differences in friendship. These conclusions are drawn: (1) although peer influence increases during adolescence, parents remain strong socializing agents throughout adolescence; (2) popularity status is associated with social behavior. These behaviors are related to differential developmental outcomes for adolescents; (3) studies on the socialization of gender need to take into account the cultural context and historical changes in male-female distinctions. After years of neglect, social scientists have found friendship to be an important vehicle for psychological and psychiatric development. For example, a promising new development is the use of peer interaction as a therapeutic tool for troubled adolescents.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Article
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Chapter
This chapter examines how the conscious practice of gratitude can help transform individuals' emotional lives. It evaluates previous research that indicates that gratitude has a causal influence on mood, especially positive mood. It stresses the need for a critical examination of research on gratitude and well-being and argues that the cultivation of grateful emotions might be efficacious in the treatment and prevention of depressed affect.
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Positive emotions are essential for human behaviour and adaption. They help to envision goals and challenges, open the mind to thoughts and problem-solving, protect health by fostering resiliency, create attachments to significant others, lay the groundwork for individual self-regulation, and guide the behaviour of groups, social systems, and nations. In spite of their many functions, however, positive emotions have been neglected by psychology. Until recently, psychology has focused on the dark side of human life. Psycho-pathological behaviour, negative emotions emanating from stress, and coping with stress and negative emotions have been studied extensively, whereas adaptive behaviour, positive emotions, and proactive coping did not receive that much attention (cf. Frydenberg 1997; Fredrickson 2001). Furthermore, traditional theories addressing the functions of positive emotions for cognition and behaviour have focused on negative effects of positive emotions, instead of their regulatory benefits (cf. Aspinwall 1998). Educational settings are of specific importance for shaping human self-regulation and development, and students' and teachers' positive emotions can be assumed to be central to attaining these educational goals. However, educational psychology and educational research in general were no exception in neglecting positive emotions. Specifically, whereas students' test anxiety has been studied extensively, positive emotions related to learning and achievement have rarely been analysed. This seems to be true, in spite of the fact that anti-cipatory hope and pride relating to success and failure were deemed key determinants of achievement motivation and task behaviour by traditional theories of achievement moti-vation, along with anticipatory fear and shame (cf. Atkinson 1964; Heckhausen 1980). Studies on achievement motivation included items pertaining to these emotions in global measures of achievement motives, but rarely studied emotions in their own right. Specifically, this pertains to the positive emotions of hope and pride which were only regarded as components of the motive to achieve success. The motive to avoid failure, on' the other hand, has <;:>ften been equated with test anxiety on an operationallevel, having been assessed by test anxiety questionnaires in many studies (Atkinson 1964). Concerning positive emotions relating to learning, instruction, and achievement, the only major tradi-tion of research addressing such emotions directly was attributional theory originating from Bernard Weiner's programme of research on achievement emotions (cf. Weiner 1985). This research produced a sizable number of studies analysing links between causal attributions of success andJailure, and a variety of positive achievement-related emotions.
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Self-determination theory states that satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness promotes well-being, with each need making an independent contribution to well-being. Although this prediction has been supported in studies with college students and adults, no study has examined the contribution of each need to concurrent and future levels of well-being in children and adolescents. The current study examined the relation of need satisfaction to concurrent and future levels of well-being in a sample of 331 third and seventh graders. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy was associated with concurrent positive and negative affect. Satisfaction of the need for competence was associated with concurrent positive and negative affect and depressive symptoms, as well as future levels of negative affect and depressive symptoms. Satisfaction of the need for relatedness was associated with concurrent and future levels of positive affect. These results suggest that during middle childhood and early adolescence, as at other developmental stages, satisfaction of all three needs is associated with well-being.
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Proponents of positive psychology have argued for more comprehensive assessments incorporating positive measures (e.g., student strengths) as well as negative measures (e.g., psychological symptoms). However, few variable-centered studies have addressed the incremental validity of positive assessment data. The authors investigated the incremental validity of positive emotions relative to negative emotions in predicting adolescents' adaptive school functioning. Positive emotions demonstrated significant incremental validity in predicting school satisfaction, adaptive coping, and student engagement, but not self-reported GPA. The findings offer some support for the utility of positive measures in psychoeducational assessments.
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The importance in studying Quality of School Life (QSL) lies predominantly on research findings concerning its relationship with educational outcome. Although some studies have focused on factors affecting QSL, no study so far has assessed various factors of QSL simultaneously, with regard to secondary education, in order to construct a QSL model and establish its best predictors. The present research has attempted to study correlates of QSL including demographic, personality variables and school stress, and construct a consistent model of QSL, using data derived from pupils in two Scottish secondary pupils (n = 425). The model constructed was found able to account for 56% of the QSL variance. Overall results indicated that QSL is predominantly associated with personality factors, in particular school self-esteem. Results are discussed in relation to the 'trait' character of QSL and the educational implications of the model.
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In this paper we present a prototype approach to awe. We suggest that two appraisals are central and are present in all clear cases of awe: perceived vastness, and a need for accommodation, defined as an inability to assimilate an experience into current mental structures. Five additional appraisals account for variation in the hedonic tone of awe experiences: threat, beauty, exceptional ability, virtue, and the supernatural. We derive this perspective from a review of what has been written about awe in religion, philosophy, sociology, and psychology, and then we apply this perspective to an analysis of awe and related states such as admiration, elevation, and the epiphanic experience.
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In this paper we report a study examining Weiner's (1986) predictions concerning the relationships between attributional dimensions, emotions, and behaviour, using a causal modelling procedure (LISREL). In two studies, freshmen (N = 585 and 621) who had taken their midterm exams, reported the cause of their outcome, its dimensional properties, and their emotional reactions. These data were then related to subsequent performance at the final exams. In support of Weiner's predictions, results indicated distinct relationships between midterm outcome and the primary emotions of happiness and sadness; between internal attributions and the self-esteem emotions of pride and shame; between stable attributions and expectations and the anticipatory emotions of hope, despair, and anxiety; between attributions of personal control and the moral emotions of guilt; and between external control and the social emotions of gratitude and anger. Contrary to predictions, happiness and sadness were further intensified by internal attributions. No other significant linkages between attributions and emotions were found. As predicted, performance at the final exams was influenced by freshmen's expectations, but contrary to the predictions, performance remained generally unrelated to freshmen's emotions.
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In two studies, the development of children's knowledge of the situations that provoke emotion was examined. In the first study, English and Dutch children aged 5, 7, 10 and 14 years were presented with 20 common emotion terms and asked to describe situations likely to provoke each emotion. For children of both nationalities, knowledge of the determinants of emotion was not restricted to emotions that can be easily linked with a discrete facial expression. It rapidly extended to more complex emotions such as pride, worry, or jealousy. A second study undertaken with children living in an isolated Himalayan village confirmed and extended these basic findings. Additional analysis of both the accuracy with which children suggested determinants, and inter-relationships among those determinants suggested that children acquire such knowledge quite abruptly for any given emotion term.
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Over the past decade, promoting the psychological wellbeing of adolescents has been the subject of increasing interest. To this end, a number of scales have been constructed that specifically assess life satisfaction among adolescents. Using specific selection criteria, the present study reviewed the psychometric properties of five life satisfaction measures available for use with adolescent populations. These scales were the Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, the Perceived Life Satisfaction Scale, the Comprehensive Quality of Life Scale – School Version, and the Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale. Suggestions for future research are also discussed.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A child version of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson et al, see record 1988-31508-001), the PANAS-C, was developed using students in Grades 4–8 ( N = 707). Item selection was based on psychometric and theoretical grounds. The resulting Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) scales demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity with existing self-report measures of childhood anxiety and depression; the PANAS-C performed much like its adult namesake. Overall, the PANAS-C, like the adult PANAS, is a brief, useful measure that can be used to differentiate anxiety from depression in youngsters. As such, this instrument addresses the shortcomings of existing measures of childhood anxiety and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientific research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person's chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated whether preschoolers would spontaneously say thank you in a familiar context without their parents' presence. Two hundred and fifty 3 1/2- to 4 1/2-year-olds played a game with their teachers and received a reward from either an unfamiliar peer or adult. Across conditions, 37 percent of the children said thank you spontaneously, more than in previous studies. The frequency of the spontaneous use of thank you was assessed as a function of sex, socioeconomic status, and listener status. Preschool-aged girls said thank you spontaneously more than boys, χ2(1) = 7.95, p < .01. Also, children from families of low economic status said thank you spontaneously more than children from middle income families, χ2(1) = 7.17, p < .01. This finding does not appear to be due to racial differences. Finally, the preschoolers said thank you spontaneously more to the adult than to the peer, χ2(1) = 4.27, p < .05. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for pragmatic socialization and the acquisition of politeness formulas such as thank you. (Routines, politeness formulas, pragmatic socialization, sex differences, socioeconomic differences, language and status)
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This study investigated the interrelationships among global self-concept, life events, and positive subjective well-being (positive affect [PA], negative affect [NA], and life satisfaction [LS]) in a sample of 92 high school students. The results demonstrated that life events contributed significant variance to predictions of PA, NA, and LS, over and above that of global self-concept. Also, daily events contributed variance over and above that of major life events. Looking at the specific event types that related uniquely to the positive well-being measures, only negative daily events related significantly to PA and NA, and only positive daily events related significantly to LS. The results also indicated that the positive well-being constructs each contained unique variance and had different correlates, thus providing strong support for the multidimensionality of adolescent positive well-being reports. Implications for further research and intervention programs are discussed. © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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A 4-week experimental study (N = 67) examined the motivational predictors and positive emotion outcomes of regularly practicing two mental exercises: counting one's blessings (“gratitude”) and visualizing best possible selves (“BPS”). In a control exercise, participants attended to the details of their day. Undergraduates performed one of the three exercises during Session I and were asked to continue performing it at home until Session II (in 2 weeks) and again until Session III (in a further 2 weeks). Following previous theory and research, the practices of gratitude and BPS were expected to boost immediate positive affect, relative to the control condition. In addition, we hypothesized that continuing effortful performance of these exercises would be necessary to maintain the boosts (Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005a22. Lyubomirsky , S , Sheldon , KM and Schkade , D . 2005a. Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9: 111–131. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111–131). Finally, initial self-concordant motivation to perform the exercise was expected to predict actual performance and to moderate the effects of performance on increased mood. Results generally supported these hypotheses, and suggested that the BPS exercise may be most beneficial for raising and maintaining positive mood. Implications of the results for understanding the critical factors involved in increasing and sustaining positive affect are discussed.
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It is argued that insufficient attention has been paid to the nature and processes underlying positive experiences. An analogy is drawn between coping with negative events and the processes of taking advantage of, or capitalizing on, positive events. It was hypothesized that expressive displays (e.g., communicating the event to others, celebrating, etc.) and perceived control would be effective capitalizing responses after positive events. These responses were predicted to augment the benefits of the events on temporary moods and longer-term well-being. Two daily-diary studies of college undergraduates showed that expressive responses and perceived control were associated with positive affect above and beyond the benefits due to the valence of the positive events themselves.
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Although developmental psychology and developmental neuroscience share interests in common problems (e.g., the nature of thought, emotion, consciousness), there has been little cross-fertilization between these disciplines. To facilitate such communication, we discuss 2 major advances in the developmental brain sciences that have potentially profound implications for under standing behavioral development. The first concerns neuroimaging, and the second concerns the molecular and cellular events that give rise to the developing brain and the myriad ways in which the brain is modified by both positive and negative life experiences. Recurring themes are that (1) critical, new knowledge of behavioral development can be achieved by considering the neurobiological mechanisms that guide and influence child development, and (2) these neurobiological mechanisms are in turn influenced by behavior.
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Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people's longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents' emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being will both help us better understand SWB indictors and group differences in well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people's well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life