Article

Some costs of AmericaN Corporate Capitalism: A Psychological Exploration of Value and Goal Conflicts

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  • Australian Catholic University North Sydney
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Abstract

Psychology rarely examines the effects of economic systems on people's lives. In this target article, we set out to explore some of the costs of American corporate capitalism and its focus on self-interest, competition, hierarchical wage labor, and strong desires for financial profit and economic growth. Specifically, we apply recent cross-cultural research on goal and value systems (Schwartz, 1996; Grouzet et al. 2006), as well as a variety of other types of evidence, to demonstrate how the aims and practices that typify American corporate capitalism often conflict with pursuits such as caring about the broader world, having close relationships with others, and, for many people, feeling worthy and free. We hope that by bringing to light the value and goal conflicts inherent in this economic system, psychologists might begin to systematically investigate this pervasive yet paradoxically ignored feature of contemporary culture.

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... Although 52 of the largest 100 economies are corporations (i.e. 52 corporations' economic activity is greater than that of most nations; Kasser et al., 2007;Mander, Barker & Korten, 2001) -a sign of great success -questions have been raised about how so many of these corporations' acts that are selfbeneficial while causing harm to others are not crimes (Curran, 2018). Developing on the studies on growing risks (Beck, 1992(Beck, , 1999Giddens, 1990Giddens, , 1999 and inequalities (Atkinson, Piketty & Saez, 2011;Piketty, 2014), OI is defined as a relationship between agents (individuals, organizations or nation-states), where their actions commutatively generate risks and damages for others; however, distinct agents can minimize or avoid culpability (or responsibility) because of complications in tracing the harm to any one agents' harmful action (see Curran, 2015Curran, , 2018. ...
... Despite the economic advantages, capitalism does not always consider environmental costs, and may lead to exceptionally high-level inequitable wealth distribution between nations and capitalist countries' populations (O'Toole & Vogel, 2011). Nevertheless, capitalism has many strong points: Technological advancements, provision of valuable goods and services, newer and more effective means of communication, simplification of access to travel and medical treatments and advancements lead many to conclude that capitalism is the only way to successfully organize economic life and that 'there is no alternative' (TINA; Kasser et al., 2007). ...
... Firms within capitalist economies pursue extrinsic goals of achievement of wealth, power and financial dominance (George, 2014;Kasser et al., 2007). Arguments that these goals are the primary reason for technological and other innovations can be contested, since theories on creativity indicate that people creating novel and useful creations are intrinsically motivated (Hennessey & Amabile, 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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Benevolent intent has been stated to be psychologically opposed to capitalist goals of achievement and power. Corporations have been found to create suffering or harm for people in society; however, due to the organizational irresponsibility principle, responsibility has remained unattributable to the agents. Despite the ills created, the economic progress and technological advancements provided by capitalism has led its advocates to suggest that there is no alternative. Indeterminable responsibility has been defined as a network of agents (individuals or organisations), where agents produce suffering (or risk for others) in society. However, the reasons for suffering are attributed to the system (not to the agent), where suffering becomes an independent problem to solve. Building upon ideas of organizational irresponsibility, shared value, responsible innovation, and value creation, this study suggests that the focus of responsibility should be shifted from “who” to “what” by adopting products as units of value. This shift renders harm attributable to the product (or process or service), even if not the agent. This study proposes the concept of harmless value creation, which may be essential before conceptualising shared value initiatives and toward achieving the United Nation’s 2030 agenda. Citation Walia, C., and Sharif, A.M. (2020), Indeterminable responsibility, determinable harm: From organized irresponsibility to harmless value creation. Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of The British Academy of Management (BAM) 2020, Conference in The Cloud: Innovating for a Sustainable Future, London, United Kingdom, 2-4 September.Volume: PROCEEDINGS ISBN: 978-0-9956413-3-4
... Guided by extrinsic values, young people tend to adopt an outward orientation focused on impressing others by garnering external signs of self-worth (Williams et al., 2000). For example, young people's self-displays of highly regarded consumer possessions or use of impression management to cultivate a selective, enhanced self-image online, exemplify the macro-cultural emphases on extrinsic values where money, good looks, high achievements, and fame portray and validate the self (Kasser et al., 2007). ...
... As few people adopt an all-extrinsic or all-intrinsic value orientation, one central issue for young people's identity formation is the degree to which they will come to privilege extrinsic values in relation to intrinsic values in their overall value structure, rather than the absolute importance of either category (Vansteenkiste et al., 2008). Since status and identity-enhancing extrinsic values are so pervasive in AC cultures (e.g., Kasser et al., 2007;Schwartz, 2007;Greenfield, 2009;Twenge and Kasser, 2013), this paper argues that young people are required to develop an identity that situates their developing selves within this macrocultural context. The construct of a market-driven identity is compatible with emerging concerns in the developmental and mental-health literatures that young people's evolving sense of self in AC is pre-occupied with image-enhancement (Kasser, 2002;Côté, 2018;Luthar and Kumar, 2018), where the self is often portrayed as idealized (Dittmar, 2007) or perfectible (Verhaeghe, 2014;Curran and Hill, 2019). ...
... The development of young people's market-driven identities in AC is shaped by culturally promoted extrinsic values such as individualism, materialism, interpersonal competition and the pursuit of status (Kasser and Ryan, 1993;Kasser and Kanner, 2004;Kasser et al., 2007;Schwartz, 2007;Greenfield, 2009Greenfield, , 2013Twenge and Kasser, 2013;García et al., 2015;Shahrier et al., 2016). While the goal of prolonged investment in young people's embodied capital is to help them develop into productive and successful adults Lancaster and Kaplan, 2010), the knowledge and skill sets that are needed to successfully transition toward adult roles are less certain. ...
Article
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With the transition toward densely populated and urbanized market-based cultures over the past 200 years, young people’s development has been conditioned by the ascendancy of highly competitive skills-based labor markets that demand new forms of embodied capital (e.g., education) for young people to succeed. Life-history analysis reveals parental shifts toward greater investment in fewer children so parents can invest more in their children’s embodied capital for them to compete successfully. Concomitantly, the evolution of market-based capitalism has been associated with the rise of extrinsic values such as individualism, materialism and status-seeking, which have intensified over the last 40–50 years in consumer economies. The dominance of extrinsic values is consequential: when young people show disproportionate extrinsic relative to intrinsic values there is increased risk for mental health problems and poorer well-being. This paper hypothesizes that, concomitant with the macro-cultural promotion of extrinsic values, young people in advanced capitalism (AC) are obliged to develop an identity that is market-driven and embedded in self-narratives of success, status, and enhanced self-image. The prominence of extrinsic values in AC are synergistic with neuro-maturational and stage-salient developments of adolescence and embodied in prominent market-driven criterion such as physical attractiveness, displays of wealth and material success, and high (educational and extra-curricular) achievements. Cultural transmission of market-driven criterion is facilitated by evolutionary tendencies in young people to learn from older, successful and prestigious individuals ( prestige bias ) and to copy their peers. The paper concludes with an integrated socio-ecological evolutionary account of market-driven identities in young people, while highlighting methodological challenges that arise when attempting to bridge macro-cultural and individual development.
... A necessidade de autonomia refere-se à vontade, ao desejo de organizar as experiências e a conduta, e de realizar atividades que sejam congruentes com um sentido integrado de si mesmo Sheldon & Elliot, 1999). Não deve ser confundida com locus de controle interno (Bandura, 1999;Folkman & Lazarus, 1985), independência ou individualismo (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007), pois dentro desta perspectiva teórica, a autonomia refere-se a experiências escolhidas livremente, coerentes com o sentido que os indivíduos têm de si mesmos, e é um aspecto essencial para o funcionamento psicológico saudável . ...
... A necessidade de competência, por outro lado, estaria definida como a propensão que se tem de ter um efeito sobre o ambiente assim como de alcançar resultados valorizados em si mesmos . Está relacionado com sentir-se eficiente no que faz para lidar com as diferentes situações que se possam ocorrer na vida, incluindo situações potencialmente problemáticas (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007). ...
... Finalmente, a necessidade de se relacionar com os outros (relatedness) refere-se ao desejo de se sentir conectado, de amar e cuidar, e de ser amado e cuidado em reciprocidade (Baumeister & Leary, 1995;. Está relacionado com ter relacionamentos satisfatório com a família e os amigos, nos quais as pessoas se sintam aceitas e aceitem os outros e, também, com o poder de estabelecer relacionamentos íntimos e comprometidos com outras pessoas (Kasser et al., 2007). ...
... Nevertheless, cooperative learning does not automatically lead to improved learning. The educational system, notwithstanding its formative mission, is fundamentally competitive [23,24], especially in the neo-liberal ideology in which most Western societies and educational institutions are embedded [25,26], and it is possible that this competitive atmosphere interferes with the effects of cooperative learning [27,28]. Indeed, a line of research carried out with university students has shown that focus on social comparison with a partner during cooperative learning may lead to a dual effect of partner's competence [29]. ...
... These results were found both with perceived partner's competence [29] and with the actual (manipulated via the quality of informational input) partner's competence [30]. Research on the pervasive presence of neo-liberal, competitive values in Western societies [26,80] has led to the interpretation of this effect by considering that students socialized in a competitive society and that the educational system may switch very easily to a competitive mode as soon as focus on social comparison is salient in the task-as is the case for working on identical informationdespite cooperative instruction [81]. The present research studied the generality of this interpretation by testing that, if it is true that competitive societal values have permeated the educational system [23], the paradoxical results described above should be likely to appear from the level of elementary school. ...
Article
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A partner’s competence should logically favor cooperative learning. However, research in cooperative learning has shown that a partner’s competence may or may not activate a threatening social comparison and yields dual effects: It is beneficial when students work on complementary information while it is detrimental when students work on identical information. Two studies conducted at elementary school (study 1 with 24 fourth graders working on encyclopedic texts, and study 2 with 28 fifth graders working on argumentative texts) replicated that interaction: Information distribution (complementary vs. identical information) moderated the relationship between partner’s competence and pupils’ learning outcomes. The relation between partner’s competence and students’ performances was positive when working on complementary information, but negative when working on identical information. A third study confirmed that working on identical information led to a competitive social comparison whereas complementary information reinforced the pupils’ cooperation perception. Contributions to cooperative learning research are discussed in terms of the competitive comparisons that may arise during cooperative learning at elementary school.
... Such orientation fulfills the functions of the educational system of contemporary societies (cf. Darnon, Dompnier, Delmas, Pulfrey, & Butera, 2009), whose aim is to achieve permanent economic development (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007). Thus, further studies should look at materialism of the school environment, e.g., teachers, as a predictor of performance orientation. ...
... na wyniki) spełnia funkcje systemu edukacji współczesnych społeczeństw (por. Darnon, Dompnier, Delmas, Pulfrey i Butera, 2009), których celem jest stałe osiąganie rozwoju gospodarczego (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner i Ryan, 2007). Z tego powodu przyszłe badania powinny uwzględniać materializm środowiska szkolnego, np. ...
Article
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W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badania dotyczącego związków między czynnikami środowiskowymi związanymi z rodziną (tj. materializmem matki, materializmem ojca, statusem socjoekonomicznym rodziny), czynnikami indywidualnymi (materializmem i samooceną nastolatka) i orientacjami na cele osiągnięć-sprawność (mastery goals orientation) i wykonanie (performance goals orientation). Przebadano 120 nastolatków wraz z obojgiem rodziców. Wyniki badania, w którym zastosowano pośredni (niejawny) pomiar orientacji na cele osiągnięć, wykazały, że (1) orientacja na sprawność wiąże się negatywnie z materializmem obojga rodziców, (2) predyktorami orientacji na sprawność są materializm matki i wysoki status socjoekonomiczny rodziny, (3) materializm matki wiąże się z orientacją na sprawność i materializmem nastolatka, (4) orientacja na wykonanie występuje częściej u chłopców. Nie stwierdzono istotnego związku między dwoma typami orientacji na osiągnięcia a materializmem i samooceną nastolatka. *** The paper presents the results of a study on the relationship between environmental family factors (i.e., mother’s and father’s materialism, and family SES), individual factors (i.e., self-esteem and materialism), and achievement goal orientations: perfor-mance and mastery. 120 teenagers and both their parents were surveyed. The results of the study using indirect (implicit) measurement of achievement orientation showed that (1) mastery orientation is negatively linked with both parents’ materialism and the predictors of mastery orientation are mother’s materialism and high family SES, (2) mother’s materialism is linked with mastery orientation and materialism, (3) per-formance orientation is more common among boys. No significant relationship was observed between the two types of achievement orientation and teenagers’ materialism and self-esteem.
... However, studies suggested that a relatively more extrinsic goal pursuit can not only result in certain personal costs, but also create poorer interpersonal relationships (Duriez et al., 2007;Kasser et al., 2007;Kasser & Ryan, 2001). This means that endorsing different goals may influence individuals' attitudes and behavioural patterns regarding the people that they usually interact with. ...
... This means that endorsing different goals may influence individuals' attitudes and behavioural patterns regarding the people that they usually interact with. Thus, it is incomplete to only consider the influences of individual goal pursuits on themselves, since it has emphasized that people oriented towards extrinsic goals may conduce towards objectification and interfere with quality interpersonal relationships (Kasser et al., 2007). Sijbom et al. (2019) found that leader performance-approach goals, which focus on an interpersonal standard (i.e., others), were positively related to employee burnout. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study is to examine whether a leader’s extrinsic relative to intrinsic goal orientation influences subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges and to describe the moderating effect of subordinates’ gender. Drawing on goal content theory and leader-member exchange theory, we propose that a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation is negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success through leader-member exchanges. We conducted a field survey study (N = 216; employees and their immediate supervisors from China) to test our model, and the results suggest that (1) leaders with relatively extrinsic goal orientations are negatively related to subordinates’ subjective career success; (2) leader-member exchanges mediate the negative relationship between a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation and employees’ subjective career success; and (3) subordinates’ gender moderates the indirect effect, whereby a leader’s relatively extrinsic goal orientation leads to lower levels of leader-member exchange for females than for males, leading to a lower level of subordinates’ subjective career success. This study contributes to the goal content and leader-member exchange literature.
... Al respecto, se aprecia que adolescentes con altos valores materiales se preocupan más por la comparación social, son más susceptibles a la influencia normativa de sus pares, prestan mucha atención a la aprobación o desaprobación de sus compras (Kasser et al., 2007) y comparan más sus posesiones con las de sus amigos (Likitapiwat et al., 2015). ...
... Se observa relación entre materialismo y susceptibilidad a la influencia ejercida por el grupo de pares, donde aquellos adolescentes con altos valores materialistas también aparecen más preocupados por la comparación social y más susceptibles a la influencia normativa de sus pares, en relación con sus decisiones de compra y consumo (Kasser et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Introducción: El consumo se ha instaurado como medio de interacción social generando altos niveles de endeudamiento en la población chilena. Los adolescentes han sido especialmente sensibles a esto, producto que a través del consumo acceden a elementos simbólicos asociados a la construcción de la identidad. El objetivo de la presente investigación es determinar la existencia de relaciones entre valores materiales, susceptibilidad al efecto de pares y actitudes hacia el dinero con respecto a las actitudes hacia el endeudamiento hedónico en estudiantes secundarios chilenos. Método: La muestra es de 1297 estudiantes secundarios chilenos, el 46% es hombre y el 54% es mujer, correspondientes a las ciudades de La Serena, Coquimbo, Santiago y Temuco. Se aplicaron las escalas de Actitudes hacia el Endeudamiento, Materialismo para Adolescentes, Escala de Susceptibilidad a la Influencia de los Pares y la Escala de Actitudes hacia el Dinero. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una regresión lineal múltiple jerárquica. Resultados: Se evidencian relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre sexo, valores materiales, susceptibilidad al efecto de pares y las actitudes hacia el dinero con respecto al endeudamiento hedónico. Conclusiones: Los resultados obtenidos en este estudio entregan pistas al momento de abordar la educación financiera, donde debe considerarse que la cultura materialista del modelo económico neoliberal impacta en las actitudes, valores y propensión al endeudamiento de los adolescentes y posteriormente adultos.
... Though each in isolation is not unique to the region, examining the three in combination is particularly compelling because of the demonstrable influence each factor has had in shaping the values of the region's workforce. Traditional philosophies are shown to be linked to the approaches people take to working (Viengkham, Baumann, & Winzar, 2018), religiosity/spirituality have been shown to alleviate anxiety associated with uncertainty and business decisionmaking (Tsang, 2004), and economic orientation is linked to the characteristics of motivation and competition in the pursuit of material gains and profit maximization (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007), manifesting in Competitive Productivity; see Baumann, Cherry, and Chu (2019) and Hoadley (2021). What is less known is how managers meaningfully prioritize values associated with the dominant influential institutions in each society. ...
... Since sociocultural practices and ideologies often have enormous influence on people's motivations, self-concepts, behaviors, and relationships with each other, there is every reason to consider that the economic system also has a determining role in human interaction, motivation, and behavior (Kasser et al., 2007). Indeed, economic activities shape people's psychological lives, from directly influencing organizational operating capacity and contributing to firm success to defining the basic parameters of life at the individual level (e.g., welfare, innovation, consumption). ...
Article
This study brings together three institutional pillars that represent values in four East Asian societies-China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam-traditional philosophies, economic orientation, and religiosity/spirituality-where previous literature examined these values domains separately and independently. In the process, we challenge the more traditional approaches to measuring values, and testing for differences and similarities among cultural groups. Personal values, by definition, are important influences on behaviour, but some values are more important than others. The appropriate measure for relative influence is an ipsative measure rather than a normative measure, such as a Likert scale. Contrary to conclusions drawn from null-hypothesis significance tests, we show that the four societies have similar perceptions of Capitalism and Modernization, and have small differences on most other dimensions. We show that measures of effect size and "inter-ocular testing" (looking at the data) produce more nuanced interpretations of divergence and convergence in the Confucian Orbit.
... Within the broader SDT framework, goal contents theory (GCT; Ryan, Williams, Patrick, & Deci, 2009;Vansteenkiste et al., 2010) holds that goals can be defined as intrinsic (i.e., are inwardly focused on self-development and conducive to the satisfying of psychological needs) or extrinsic (i.e., are outwardly focused, related to self-evaluative concerns and unsatisfying of psychological needs) (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006). Research from this perspective has shown that where intrinsic aspirations (e.g., community contribution, physical fitness or social affiliation) are more central to people's lives than extrinsic aspirations (e.g., wealth, fame or appearance) they experience greater psychological well-being, less depression and anxiety, and reduced physical symptoms (see Kasser, 2002;Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, &Duriez, 2008, for reviews). Conversely, extrinsic, relative to intrinsic goal endorsement is negatively associated with well-being (Sheldon, Ryan, Deci, & Kasser, 2004) and positively associated with body image concerns (Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Ntoumanis, & Nikitaras, 2010), antisocial attitudes (Duriez, Vansteenkiste, Soenens, & De Witte, 2007;McHoskey, 1999) and behaviors (Sheldon & McGregor, 2000). ...
Book
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Mesopotamia is often considered to be the birthplace of law codes. In recognition of this fact and motivated by the perennial interest in the topic among Assyriologists, the 59th Rencontre Assyriologique Internationale was organized in Ghent in 2013 around the theme &;Law and (Dis)Order in the Ancient Near East.&; Based on papers delivered at that meeting, this volume contains twenty-six essays that focus on archaeological, philological, and historical topics related to order and chaos in the Ancient Near East. Written by a diverse array of international scholars, the contributions to this book explore laws and legal practices in the Ur III, Old Babylonian, Middle Assyrian, and Neo-Assyrian periods in Mesopotamia, as well as in Nuzi and the Hebrew Bible. Among the subjects covered are the Code of Hammurabi, legal phraseology, the archaeological traces of the organization of community life, and biblical law. The volume also contains essays that explore the concepts of chaos/disorder and law/order in divinatory texts and literature. Wide-ranging and cutting-edge, the essays in this collection will be of interest to Assyriologists, especially members of the International Association for Assyriology.
... Podkreśla się, że dla wielu pracowników wzorzec pracy/wypoczynku jest podobny do schematu dnia powszedniego/weekendu. Wiele osób twierdzi, że czuje się w pracy nieautonomicznie (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, Ryan, 2007). Teoria autodeterminacji uwzględnia podstawową psychologiczną potrzebę bliskości i związków z innymi . ...
Article
Mindfulness can be understood as a state, trait, or practice. For this reason, there are many uncertainties that result mainly from the lack of precision regarding the mindfulness model. Similar ambiguities exist in the field of research tools to measure mindfulness. As many researchers prove, these tools measure slightly different psychological constructs. For this reason, researchers attempt to distinguish two different aspects of mindfulness, the trait and state, and on this basis develop more accurate research tools. This article is a review of existing measures of mindfulness, taking into account Polish adaptations, showing their specificity.
... Similarly, more than half of dependent students who anticipate completing an associate's degree fail to do so within six years of graduating high school (Avery & Turner, 2012). According to Kasser et al. (2007), the existing literature provides no substantial body of empirical work or research surrounding capitalism's psychological influence on individuals in connection to possible outcomes (i.e., academic performance). Furthermore, academic success continues to exist as a challenge for students across various institutions and among different racial groups (Arroyo & Gasman, 2014;Arum & Roksa, 2011;Tinto, 2012); unfortunately, a race-based academic achievement gap persists. ...
Article
This study examines the capital identity projection (CIP) phenomena and the extent to which the presentation of “economic success” in historically Black college and university (HBCU) students contributes to their academic performance (students’ self-reported grade point average [GPA]). The present study adds to the literature by analyzing respondents’ financial literacy before graduation and examining the psychosocial desire for economic success, allowing for an understanding of said desires’ potential effect on collegiate success (e.g., academic performance/GPA). Findings indicate that positive CIP values (e.g., work-college balance and CIP for financial wellness) positively correlate with academic performance. Also, adverse CIP values (e.g., materialism, CIP for status projection, and CIP for ego inflation) negatively correlate with academic performance. Finally, the desire to display status indicative of acquired material goods, in an attempt to present an embellished or false image of economic success, coupled with financial literacy and wellness factors, proved predictive of students’ academic performance. Educational stakeholders are rightly working to afford all students equitable educational experiences, so we provide possible implications of CIP and offer possible solutions to address the social and educational inequities that operate outside the traditional realms of discussions around such topics.
... The absence of meaningful self-awareness is associated with the realization of the gap between the ideal (high standards) and the real (existent situation) self. Being unaware of inherent causes leading to this aspiration gap, materialists choose the path of "get what one wants" in an expectation to meet the high standards (Kasser et al., 2007). Not surprisingly, materialists are always in pursuit of deriving pleasure from external sources, including material possession and consumption. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and financial well-being (FWB) and the mediating role of materialism on this relationship. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual framework is provided to support the research hypotheses. A survey with 311 working professionals from India allowed the hypothesized relationship to be tested through regression-based models. Findings The findings reveal that the three dimensions of FWB – financial anxiety, current money management stress and perceived financial security – are predicted by mindfulness and materialism even after controlling for several demographic variables. Materialism mediates the relationship between mindfulness and FWB. Research limitations/implications The findings are subject to the usual cautions associated with self-reported cross-sectional data. Future research may incorporate mindfulness interventions to establish causal relationships. Practical implications The study provides theoretical guidance to the policymakers and the financial institutions, including banks, which may focus on malleable factors beyond merely income to enhance FWB. Mindfulness is not only a trait but also could be cultivated by various physical and online-based mindfulness practices. Banks may integrate tools promoting mindfulness within their interactive web framework in order to stimulate customers' control over their daily spending through enhancing mindful awareness of present financial actions and their impact on the financial future. Thus, organizations may institutionalize such programs within their framework to help their employees cultivate greater FWB. Mindfulness promotes less anxiety related to financial decisions, which may develop customers' value as well as business opportunities for banks. Originality/value Unlike other FWB dispositional antecedents, which become relatively stable at the formative stage, mindfulness levels can be enhanced in different age-groups. To our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically establish that mindfulness exerts its beneficial effects on FWB directly, and, through reducing materialistic motives.
... Theories of human motivation, particular those based on values and dealing with prosocial motivation (e.g. Bierhoff, 2007;Kasser, Cohn, Kanner & Ryan, 2007;Schwartz, 2009, also Chapter 4) can also help to build a more fine grained understanding of the 'social' component in social entrepreneurship and potentially explain variation within the population of social enterprises. Prosocial behaviour refers to actions that are taken in order to improve the situation of another person (Bierhoff, 2002) or benefiting another person (Piliavin & Charg, 1990). ...
... Not only does he discuss multiple social and socio-spatial relationships, but he also refers to concrete individuals (his nephews and children), categories ('people in the suburbs', 'the guy') and socialities ('the community') in specific places within São Paulo, and positions them within the broader political economy contexts of consumerism and capitalism, known for the deep socio-spatial inequalities they engender. A hierarchy of wellbeing forms is emerging here, Tim Schwanen -9781800370517 Downloaded from Elgar Online at 08/12/2021 01:25:31AM via free access one that is not grounded in the writings of one of antiquity's most well-known philosophers, but in the effects on people's lives and urban communities generated by the pursuit of different forms of wellbeing (in a manner that goes beyond discussions in the eudaimonic psychology literature; for example, Kasser et al., 2007;Richins, 2017). Pedro was certainly not the only participant in our study of community initiatives supporting walking and cycling in London and São Paulo to differentiate between 'wellbeings' in terms of the effects that their pursuit generates. ...
... Seringkali kesejahteraan masayarakat hanya dikaitkan dengan kekayaan atau akumulasi kekayaan dan kepemilikan harta benda. Sehingga kesejahteraan hanya dainggap sebagai kemampuan untuk melakukan konsumsi (Kasser et al. 2007). Pembangunan pedesaan di masa lampau menurut Rivera, et al. (2017) hanya berhubungan dengan masalah bagaimana melakukan modernisasi di sektor pertanian dan mengambil manfaat ekonomi langsung yang dihasilkan dari modernisasi tersebut. ...
... Dittmar 2008, Kasser 2002; see also Górnik-Durose and Jach 2020). The economic reality of developed capitalist societies stimulates consumption, because profit, as the overriding goal of the capitalist economy, depends to a large degree on the extent and intensity of what people consume (Kasser et al. 2007;Richins 2017). Economic, structural and socio-cultural factors produce a climate in which individuals are almost obliged to consume, and materialism is a force-external in nature-which directs people's desires and behaviours towards false gratifications. ...
Article
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The article concentrates on regulatory focus (promotion and prevention) as a factor involved in the relationships between materialism and well-being alongside two personality traits – emotionality and grandiose narcissism. In an empirical study two types of materialists – one with high emotionality and low narcissism, the other with high narcissism and low emotionality – were compared in relation to their regulatory orientation and well-being. Additionally, regression commonality analysis was utilised in order to explain the complex relationships between variables. Materialists, characterised by the high level of emotionality and low narcissism, appeared to be also more prevention-oriented and less promotion-oriented than the materialists, characterised by a high level of narcissism and a low level of emotionality. Among the five variables explaining well-being promotion focus connected with grandiose narcissism played the most important role. However in the case of the type of materialism associated with the high emotionality level and low narcissism the problem with well-being was due to the lack of promotion orientation, whereas in the case of the type of materialism associated with the low level of emotionality and high level of narcissism the promotion orientation connected with grandiose narcissism seemed to protect well-being. Materialism was related to well-being (negatively) only in the case of the first type of materialism and sustained its unique effect despite multicollinearity with other predictors. Generally materialism served as a variable which accentuated the role of promotion focus and grandiose narcissism in shaping well-being in both groups.
... According to Chirkov (2007), individuals may choose experiences that allow them to fulfill their need for autonomy within a collectivist environment as well as an individualistic one. The need for relatedness is met when a person has satisfying relations with friends and family, feels accepted by and is accepting of others for who they truly are, and is able to establish and maintain close and committed intimate relationships (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007). ...
... For example, economic systems and the metrics they attempt to maximize can be re-oriented such that they are more conducive to effective well-doing and the reduction of ill-doing (cf. Kasser et al., 2007;Stiglitz, 2019). ...
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People’s intentional pursuit of prosocial goals and values (i.e., well-doing) is critical to the flourishing of humanity in the long run. But some of the most socially-beneficial pursuits are often neglected because they are unintuitive. To choose such pursuits people have to apply critical thinking and far-sighted decision-making in the service of excellent moral values. This approach can be taught and facilitated. But there is only very little psychological research on effective well-doing and how it can be promoted. This makes developing interventions for promoting effective well-doing one of the most valuable contributions psychology can make in the 21st century. To seize this opportunity, we need to better understand the determinants and psychological mechanisms of effective well-doing, as well as the barriers to effective well-doing and how they can be overcome through interventions and personal development. We review relevant previous work and highlight important open questions. To stimulate more research on these questions, we propose a tentative list of 20 grand challenges for understanding and promoting well-doing, fostering personal growth, and reducing ill-doing. Finally, we survey some emerging approaches to these challenges.
... If we focus on the psychological consequences of living in a neoliberal environment, research has shown that making neoliberalism salient reduces feelings of bonding with, and trust toward others, both in traditionally capitalistic countries (Hartwich & Becker, 2019) and in a transition economy like China (Zhang & Xin, 2019). Kasser et al. (2007) ...
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In this chapter we delineate how competition circulates through education. First, we show how competitive ideologies, values and norms are transmitted from society to educational institutions, in particular ideologies and values such as meritocracy, the belief in a fair free market and neoliberalism, as well as norms such as productivism and employability. Second, we review the competitive structures and climates within educational institutions that shape students’ values, goals and behaviors, in particular structures such as normative assessment, tracking and numerus clausus, as well as climates such as classroom climate, goal structures and error climates. Third, we report research that documents the impact of students’ competitive values, goals and behaviors on educational outcomes, from learning and achievement to social relations. Finally, we conclude by reflecting on how such a socialization of students may impact society in a feedback loop, either in terms of maintenance of the status quo or in terms of social change.
... The above element encourages people to work more and thus leads to them generating higher income simply for the purpose of financing greater consumption and higher living standards (Kasser et al., 2007). Materialism can be a motivation for individuals; however, growing concerns have been noted among researchers that it can yield more negative consequences to individuals, such as growing amount of debt, depression, and greed (Tsang et al., 2014). ...
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Financial problems faced by employees can affect their performance and life satisfaction, as well as impact people surrounding them. This study aimed at identifying the potential contributors to financial problems among employees, whereby multi-stage random sampling was used to sample employees working in the civil service sector of Peninsular Malaysia. The results obtained from 470 employees in this cross-sectional study revealed that psychological factors such as self-worth, future orientation, locus of control, and materialism were more prevalent in contributing to their financial problems. In particular, self-worth and future orientation negatively contributed to financial problems, whereas locus of control and materialism were contrastingly revealed as posing positive influences on the aspect. Meanwhile, financial behaviours such as savings and investment were not contributing directly to financial problem in consideration of psychological factors, wherein these employees’ perception of financial adequacy could be attributed instead. Hence, an intervention programme for employees focusing on these psychological factors can be developed by vigilant employers in enhancing their performance. Here, successfully overcoming employee’s financial problems may further benefit both parties, thereby leading to explosive economic growth.
... Variability at the intrastate level across many nations is beyond the scope of this chapter; however, notable increases in climate change skepticism increased in key Western countries around the end of the 2000s, most notably within the United States, but also in the United Kingdom and several other Anglophone countries including Australia, at least partly due to their corporate capitalism-based economic systems (Clark & York, 2005;Kasser et al., 2007;Painter & Ashe, 2012). Climate change is also politically polarized in some parts of the world; in the United States, for example, Democrats are more likely to support climate change mitigation policies and see climate change as existentially threatening than Republicans (Jost, 2017;Pew, 2020). ...
... This political shift in ideology and values is evident in classrooms and educational institutions, as increasing pressures to perform, conform, comply and compete prompt schools and teachers to adopt controlling managerial practices that stifle learning and creativity (Taylor et al., 2008;Halffman and Radder, 2015;Vaughan et al., 2019). Compounding these issues, the materialistic value orientations of neoliberal capitalism amplify interpersonal competition and dampen the intention (and opportunity) to collaborate (Sheldon et al., 2000;Kasser et al., 2007). In certain contexts, advertising, social media profiles and profit-driven educational institutions (i.e., privatized schools and academies) intensify individual competition, hierarchy, and extrinsic rewards, often to the detriment of autonomous motivation and psychological wellbeing (Kasser and Linn, 2016). ...
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In this paper, we consider how youth sport and (talent) development environments have adapted to, and are constrained by, social and cultural forces. Empirical evidence from an 18-month ethnographic case study highlights how social and cultural constraints influence the skill development and psychological wellbeing of young football players. We utilized novel ways of knowing (i.e., epistemologies) coupled to ecological frameworks (e.g., the theory of ecological dynamics and the skilled intentionality framework). A transdisciplinary inquiry was used to demonstrate that the values which athletes embody in sports are constrained by the character of the social institutions (sport club, governing body) and the social order (culture) in which they live. The constraining character of an athlete (talent) development environment is captured using ethnographic methods that illuminate a sociocultural value-directedness toward individual competition. The discussion highlights how an emphasis on individual competition overshadows opportunities (e.g., shared, and nested affordances) for collective collaboration in football. Conceptually, we argue that these findings characterize how a dominating sociocultural constraint may negatively influence the skill development, in game performance, and psychological wellbeing (via performance anxiety) of young football players in Stockholm. Viewing cultures and performance environments as embedded complex adaptive systems, with human development as ecological, it becomes clear that microenvironments and embedded relations underpinning athlete development in high performance sports organizations are deeply susceptible to broad cultural trends toward neoliberalism and competitive individualism. Weaving transdisciplinary lines of inquiry, it is clarified how a value directedness toward individual competition may overshadow collective collaboration, not only amplifying socio-cognitive related issues (anxiety, depression, emotional disturbances) but simultaneously limiting perceptual learning, skill development, team coordination and performance at all levels in a sport organization.
... El materialismo, o presencia de valores materiales, se define como la creencia en que el éxito y la felicidad en la vida dependen de la posesión de bienes materiales, lo que indica la importancia y valoración que los individuos le otorgan a las posesiones (Belk, 1985;Richins 1994;Clark et al., 2001;Chan & Prendergast, 2007). Por lo tanto, la acumulación de posesiones materiales si bien constituye un fin en sí mismo, es además un medio para alcanzar metas relacionadas con la autodefinición, la autorrealización y con la expresión y consolidación del autoconcepto, y de la identidad asociada a las creencias de los beneficios psicológicos que los bienes materiales podrían proporcionar (Belk, 1985;Csikszentmihalyi & Rochberg-Halton, 1981;Kasser & Kanner, 2004;Dittmar et al., 2007;Kasser et al., 2007). ...
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En esta investigación se compara el efecto del modelo de consumo neoliberal en adolescentes, hombres y mujeres, de Quito (Ecuador) y Santiago (Chile). El objetivo es describir estilos de consumo, actitud hacia el dinero y materialismo en adolescentes de ambas ciudades y comparar de acuerdo a país de procedencia y género de los participantes. La muestra abarca 799 adolescentes de entre 14 y 17 años de edad, de Ecuador y Chile, la cual se obtuvo a través de un muestreo por conglomerado bietápico. Los resultados indican diferencias por género y ciudad respecto a la impulsividad en la compra, con los hombres de Quito como quienes tienen una actitud más impulsiva. Y en relación con la actitud hacia la compra se hallaron diferencias significativas por género, observando que los hombres son quienes le dan mayor estatus de poder y felicidad personal.
... Repeated SDT research has shown that people are more likely to experience autonomous motivations when their basic psychological needs are satisfied by their social environments Ng et al., 2012 Chen et al., 2015), economic (e.g. Kasser et al., 2007) and political contexts (e.g. Chirkov & Ryan, 2001). ...
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Sustaining rural water supply (RWS) services in Malawi has proved difficult, compromising health, economic, and education benefits associated with improved supply. In Malawi, community-based management (CBM) is the dominant approach to manage RWS. In CBM, volunteer village water point committee members (‘members’) are responsible for RWS operation and maintenance. Despite their importance, member’s motivations to manage RWS have been poorly understood. This doctoral research determined the drivers, nature and impacts of members’ motivations. The research analysed: the types and quality of members’ motivations; the influence of context, including an asset-based community development (ABCD) program approach, in shaping these motivations; and the implications of motivations for committees’ management effectiveness. Self-Determination Theory, a theory of motivation, was used to analyse motivations. Findings showed that members’ high-quality autonomous motivations were supported by: a positive committee–user relationship; social and technical support from others; the relevance of RWS to community goals; and consultative donor approaches. These conditions supported internalised and autonomous motivations; and persistent, responsive management practices. By contrast, conflictual committee–user relationships; and top-down, pressuring donor–committee relationships were associated with more controlled, poor-quality motivations, and lower management effectiveness. A nuanced understanding of motivations is critical in sustaining RWS services. Thesis findings point to the importance of CBM approaches which support members’ autonomous motivations. When this is done, members’ motivations are likely to lead to improved management practices and RWS services, and subsequent well-being benefits.
... Podkreśla się, że dla wielu pracowników wzorzec pracy/wypoczynku jest podobny do schematu dnia powszedniego/weekendu. Wiele osób twierdzi, że czuje się w pracy nieautonomicznie (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, Ryan, 2007). Teoria autodeterminacji uwzględnia podstawową psychologiczną potrzebę bliskości i związków z innymi . ...
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Uważność może być rozumiana jako stan lub cecha. Z tego powodu istnieje wiele niejasności, które wynikają głównie z braku precyzji dotyczącej zakładanego modelu uważności. Podobne rozbieżności dotyczą stosowanych narzędzi badawczych służących do pomiaru nasilenia uważności. Jak dowodzą liczne badania, narzędzia te mierzą nieco odmienne konstrukty psychologiczne. Dlatego badacze coraz częściej podejmują próby wyróżnienia oraz bardziej precyzyjnego rozdzielenia dwóch odmiennych aspektów uważności, tj. cechy i stanu, oraz opracowania na tej podstawie bardziej trafnych narzędzi badawczych. Niniejszy artykuł to przegląd istniejących miar uważności, z uwzględnieniem polskich adaptacji i ukazaniem ich specyfiki.
... Podkreśla się, że dla wielu pracowników wzorzec pracy/wypoczynku jest podobny do schematu dnia powszedniego/weekendu. Wiele osób twierdzi, że czuje się w pracy nieautonomicznie (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, Ryan, 2007). Teoria autodeterminacji uwzględnia podstawową psychologiczną potrzebę bliskości i związków z innymi . ...
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Celem artykułu była polska adaptacja kwestionariusza MINDSENS, służącego do pomiaru zaawansowania w uważności oraz innych technik opartych na medytacji. Próbę badawczą stanowiły dwie grupy osób: 1) z doświadczeniem w medytacji (N = 656, tj. 74,6%, w tym medytacja chrześcijańska – 33,5%; uważność – 24,4%; techniki koncentracyjne, m.in. joga i medytacja transcendentalna – 16,2%) oraz 2) bez doświadczenia medytacyjnego (N = 226, tj. 25,4%), kontrolowane pod względem długości i częstotliwości praktykowania oraz zaburzeń. Przeprowadzona procedura walidacyjna wykazała, że polska adaptacja MINDSENS, tj. Kwestionariusz zaawansowania w uważności (Obserwowanie, Niereaktywność i Decentracja) charakteryzuje się dobrymi właściwościami psychometrycznymi pod względem rzetelności łącznej (0,74 ≤ CR ≤ 0,93) i zbieżnej (0,82 ≤ H ≤ 0,93), stabilności bezwzględnej (0,76 ≤ rtt ≤ 0,82), trafności wewnętrznej (model 3-czynnikowy z bifaktorem) oraz zewnętrznej. Kwestionariusz ten może więc być użytecznym narzędziem służącym do pomiaru zaawansowania w uważności w stosunku do osób z doświadczeniem medytacyjnym, a pochodzących zarówno z populacji klinicznych, jak i pozaklinicznych, w wieku od 15 do 72 lat.
... Nous prenons le parti d'écarter styles temporels et frugalité pour deux ensembles de raisons : L'influence avérée du matérialisme sur la satisfaction dans la vie et le bien-être (Kasser et Kanner, 2004 ;Ladwein, 2005 ;Kasser et al., 2007 ;Dittmar, 2008 ;Ladwein, 2017 : 69) entraîne seulement une influence potentielle indirecte sur les comportements d'épargne. 92 Quel que soit le sujet considéré, alors que le construit de référence est multidimensionnel, avec des dimensions modérément corrélées entre elles, les relations avec les autres construits ont souvent été mesurées globalement, ce qui limite l'analyse. ...
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L’épargne revêt des enjeux majeurs, individuels et collectifs, économiques et sociétaux. Elle supporte les investissements technologiques et économiques, les systèmes de retraite et de protection sociale. Depuis plusieurs décennies, les consommateurs épargnent moins ou insuffisamment. Malgré les recherches et les initiatives, les comportements des épargnants restent mal compris, les leviers et déterminants connus semblent insuffisants. C’est pourquoi, dans cette recherche, nous avons voulu évaluer l’impact de facteurs psychosociologiques sur la mise en œuvre des décisions d’épargne et des actes d’épargne. Nous essayons de renouveler l’analyse des comportements d’épargne, en envisageant une relecture de l’épargne en tant que comportement de consommation. En découpant plus finement le processus d’épargne, notre revue de littérature a tenté d’appréhender l’épargne dans l’ensemble de ses phases - et non exclusivement la décision - et de ses composantes - fonctionnelles comme symboliques ou hédoniques. Elle s’est appuyée sur plusieurs approches théoriques mobilisées dans la littérature marketing. Ces réflexions nous ont conduit à proposer un modèle conceptuel et à émettre des hypothèses.Nos résultats indiquent que les actes d’épargne sont influencés par l’implication, l’estime de soi, le bien être financier et l’appréciation des actes d’épargne passés, davantage que par les déterminants des décisions d’épargne : styles temporels, attitudes envers les risques, culture financière ou sentiment d’efficacité personnelle par exemple. Nous montrons que certaines étapes des comportements d’épargne sont peu étudiées et mal comprises. Cette recherche indique l’intérêt théorique et managérial de renouveler l’analyse de l’épargne en la centrant sur le consommateur. Elle souligne la fécondité d’un élargissement de la réflexion sur l’épargne : vers la préservation ou la consumation de l’épargne et en direction de l’épargne non-institutionnelle ou non monétaire.
... Another significant aspect of our work is that it may offer an important perspective for better understanding results observed in the two meta-analyses, which demonstrated that cooperative learning methods were less effective within Western cultures (Balta et al., 2017;Kyndt et al., 2013) in which SE values were emphasised than within collectivist ones (Kasser et al., 2007;Sagiv & Schwartz, 2007). Our findings also corroborate previous educational research showing that perceived contextual pressures can restrain teachers from acting according to their own personal preferences (Hornstra et al., 2015;Pelletier & Sharp, 2009;Ruys et al., 2014;Tal & Yinon, 2002). ...
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The implementation of cooperative learning methods remains disparate in primary schools despite their widely recognised benefits. To explain this paradox, we first examined whether teachers’ inclination towards cooperative methods is motivated by their values. Second, we tested whether motivational connections between personal values and cooperative methods are undermined when conflictual values are activated in context. Study 1 demonstrated that pre-service teachers strongly endorsed self-transcendence (ST) values (expressing compatible motivations with cooperation) relative to self-enhancement (SE) values (expressing conflictual motivations with cooperation). Adherence to ST values was also positively associated with their beliefs and attitudes regarding cooperative methods. In Studies 2, 3 and 4, educational sciences students were experimentally exposed to different contexts, wherein ST, SE or neutral values were promoted. Our findings indicate that when SE values were emphasised in the context, the positive association between ST values and beliefs/attitudes regarding cooperative methods disappeared. Although the results of Study 4 regarding the intention to use cooperative methods were not statistically significant, the pattern was similar. Finally, Study 5 showed that primary school teachers’ ST values positively predicted the self-reported use of cooperative methods when they perceived their school to weakly endorse SE values, but not when they perceived it to strongly endorse them.
... This is because these are the ways in which these people ensure their survival, which is due to the current global inequality and resulting poverty. Under capitalism, many populations in developed countries are also subject to competitive lifestyles [125]. For both of these reasons, humans should consider instituting the policy of universal basic income, which guarantees decent lives [91]. ...
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Today, the world is facing so many serious problems that any one of them could lead humanity down the path of destruction. All of humanity is aware of this fact, but drastic action cannot be taken while world leaders continue to protect only their own interests and not those of the populace. This research discusses what needs to be done to ensure humans do not destroy the planet. Here is the manual to save the world from the apocalypse. Today, most people harbour a pervading sense of dread about the world ending. Some of the main man-made problems include: Abnormal weather patterns [1]-[3]; increasing temperatures [4][5]; natural disasters [6][7]; wildfires on a large scale [8][9]; incomprehensible natural phenomena [10]; never-ending environmental destruction [11]; appalling levels of water [12] and air pollution [13]; fish ingesting plastic debris [14]; destructive deforestation practices [15]; an incredible amount of landfills [16]; disposal of hazardous substances [17]; desertification [18]; acid rain [19]; depletion of the ozone layer [20]; dramatic levels of wildlife extinction [21]; and more. Parallel to all these events, there is an increasing level of human-on-human violence, including indiscriminate mass shootings [22]; gun violence resulting in hundreds of weekly deaths [23]; incomprehensible crimes of extreme violence, such as serial murders [24]; national and international conflicts which result in large number of refugees [25]-[27]; racial violence [28];
... For instance, in the tourism industry, front-desk agents may have multiple roles, such as helping clients when they need assistance and also advertising to clients extra services that the hotel could profit from. The potentially contradictory values associated with 'helping' and 'financially benefiting from' others could result in work role identity conflict (Grouzet et al., 2005;Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007). In an alternative case of a manufacturing company, production operators can be expected to produce a large number of products while ensuring high levels of quality. ...
Article
While research has so far focused on role identity conflict’s adverse consequences at work, we know little about how it may contribute positively to organizational functioning. To address this gap, we present and empirically test a theoretical model that explains how and when employees’ work role identity conflict triggers their workplace creativity in hierarchical organizations. Drawing on the symbolic interactionism perspective of identity theory, we hypothesize that creative process engagement mediates the relationship between work role identity conflict and workplace creativity. We further suggest that this mediation effect is stronger when employees have high levels of relational identification with their supervisors. We test our hypotheses via a multi‐source dataset from employees and their direct supervisors. We discuss how unveiling mechanisms behind the constructive side of work role identity conflict inform theory and practice. When employees perceive that their multiple work roles are fundamentally in conflict with one another they enter a problem‐solving mode to reconcile these conflicts. It is crucial for organizations to ensure that employees feel identified with their supervisors so that when they attempt to generate ideas to improve the workplace, the ideas they come up with will indeed be creative.
... The specificity of the contemporary consumer reality causes people to repeatedly establish relationships that are referred to as "market relations" (Fiske, 1991(Fiske, , 2004Kasser et al., 2007;Sandel, 2012;Stanfield & Stanfield, 1997). As Fiske (1992) proposed almost 30 years ago, "Market pricing is so pervasive in Western society and so important in the Western cultural conceptions of human nature and society that many theorists have postulated that all human social behavior is based on more or less rational calculations of cost-benefit ratios in self-interested exchange. ...
Preprint
In a series of six experiments, we provided evidence that evoking the market mindset negatively affects trust. We found that the market mindset reduces trust compared to the communal mindset (Experiment 1) and compared to a neutral condition (Experiment 2). We excluded alternative explanations by demonstrating that the market mindset negatively affects trust, but not caution or cynicism (Experiment 3). Next, we examined the psychological mechanisms behind the detrimental effect of the market mindset on trust and found that this effect was due to enhanced motivation to use proportional thinking (Experiments 4 and 6) and reduced state empathy (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, in a preregistered Experiment 6, we showed that these two psychological mechanisms are relatively independent.
... The mechanism by which such transmissions take place is not clearly explicated in this study. However, it can be argued that that extrinsic values are largely social messages of the society and culture (or of their representative spokesperson, the mother) that are partially internalized or introjected by individuals into their sense of self (Kasser et al., 2007). Because extrinsic values do not originate from within the self, it makes sense to conclude that pre-adolescents' extrinsic values develop as internalized cognitive structures (i.e., beliefs). ...
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The purpose of the study was to examine longitudinally how intrinsic and extrinsic values develop during pread-olescence within a mother-child context by comparing three different developmental pathways-direct value transmission , indirect value transmission, and value origination. Two hundred and thirty-three Korean mother-child dyads of late elementary students (M age ¼ 11.4 years; 55% girls) participated in a year-long online questionnaire survey. A longitudinal structural equation modelling analysis revealed two contrasting developmental pathways for intrinsic and extrinsic values in preadolescents. Intrinsic values developed via value origination, while extrinsic values developed via direct transmission. In other words, intrinsic values originated from the child's own inner psychological experiences and developed in accordance with changes in psychological needs satisfaction, whereas extrinsic values were transmitted from mothers in accordance with the degree to which they endorsed extrinsic values.
... Cultures and economies also differ in the type of goals that prevail (Kasser, Cohn, Kanner, & Ryan, 2007), with some of these goals, if endorsed by citizens, contributing less to basic need satisfactions and well-being than others. As maintained within Goal Content Theory, another of SDT's mini-theories (Kasser & Ryan, 1996;Martela, Bradshaw, & Ryan, 2019;Vansteenkiste et al., 2010), the pursuit of extrinsic goals, such as garnering fame or becoming wealthy, typically do not yield the hoped for benefits (Sheldon, Gunz, Nichols, & Ferguson, 2010), even when attained Van Hiel & Vansteenkiste, 2009). ...
... For example, economic systems and the metrics they attempt to maximize can be re-oriented such that they are more conducive to effective well-doing and the reduction of ill-doing (cf. Kasser et al., 2007;Stiglitz, 2019). ...
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People's intentional pursuit of prosocial goals and values (i.e., well-doing) is critical to the flourishing of humanity in the long run. But some of the most socially beneficial pursuits are neglected because they are unintuitive. To choose such pursuits people have to apply critical thinking and far-sighted decision-making in the service of the long-term flourishing of humanity. We refer to using reason and evidence to do more good in better ways as effective well-doing. To promote effective well-doing, we need to better understand its determinants and psychological mechanisms, as well as the barriers to effective well-doing and how they can be overcome. In this article, we introduce a taxonomy of different forms of well-doing and introduce a conceptual model of the cognitive mechanisms of effective well-doing. We view effective well-doing as the upper end of a moral continuing whose lower half comprises behaviors that are harmful to humanity (ill-doing), and we argue that the capacity for effective well-doing has to be developed through personal growth. Research on these phenomena has so far been scattered across numerous disconnected literatures from multiple disciplines. To bring these communities together, we call for the establishment of a transdisciplinary research field focussed on understanding and promoting effective well-doing and personal growth and understanding and reducing ill-doing. We define this research field in terms of its goals and questions. We review what is already known about these questions in different disciplines and argue that laying the scientific foundation for promoting effective well-doing is one of the most valuable contributions that the behavioral sciences can make in the 21st century.
... Moreover, some effects may differ based on cross-cultural factors. For example, the U.S. is characterized by an American corporate capitalist system and fairly common ideological views that legitimize this system (Hennes et al., 2016;Kasser et al., 2007); other countries with different ideologies and economic views might differ concerning expectations about the effects of policy attributes on the economy. ...
Article
There are broad differences in popularity amongst different policies designed to address climate change. Across two studies, we explore systematic preferences across three policy attributes: 1) who is targeted: business versus individuals, 2) what is targeted: energy supply versus energy demand, and 3) how change is motivated: incentives versus disincentives. Additionally, in Study 2, we examine whether perceptions of policy impacts along the three pillars of sustainability (environment, economic, and social) can explain the effect of these policy attributes on the lay public's policy preferences. First, participants preferred policies that a) attempt to change the energy supply by changing the source of energy (e.g., more renewable energy) over policies that attempt to reduce the demand by reducing energy use (e.g., encourage energy efficiency). Second, participants preferred policies using incentives over policies using disincentives, especially when considering policies that targeted individuals (vs. businesses). The latter suggests that participants were more tolerant of the use of disincentives for businesses than individuals. Participants' expectations about policy consequences explained these patterns of preferences: Preferred types of policies were expected to have the most environmental benefits (suggesting that the policies would be effective) and the most net-positive economic and social impacts.
... Thus, although the accumulation of material possessions may be an end in itself, it is also seen as a means of achieving goals related with self-definition and self-realisation, in which the value attached to possessions is related with the expression, maintenance and consolidation of a person's self-concept (Belk 1985;Czikszentmihalyi & Rochberg-Halton, 1981;Hausen, 2019;Kasser & Kanner 2004). Thus, people with high material values not only focus on the acquisition of goods, they also construct beliefs on the psychological benefits that these can bring Kasser et al., 2007;Yu-Ting & Qing-Qi, 2020). ...
Article
Materialism has been recognized as an important variable in postmodern societies; however, most of the studies on this concept have focused on the adult population. The aim of the present study is to determine the possible association between materialism and life satisfaction, and the possible mediating role of attitudes towards money and peer influence in this association, in a sample of Chilean adolescents. A sample of 1325 Chilean secondary school students completed a questionnaire measuring materialism, attitudes in regards with money, susceptibility to peer influence, and satisfaction with life. First, a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to validate the scalers. Secondly, a theoretical model was tested using Hayes (2013) SPSS macro, PROCESS. The theoretical model included materialism as the predictor variable, satisfaction with life as the predicted variable, and attitudes towards money and susceptibility to peer influence as mediator variables. Results indicate that materialistic attitudes regarding money strengthens a negative relation between materialism and satisfaction with life. This tendency is not observed in susceptibility to peer influence despite being positively associated with materialism and attitudes regarding money. These findings suggest that the variables materialism and attitudes regarding money play a relevant role in the life satisfaction of Chilean adolescents.
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In social and economic sciences, materialism is considered to be an unambiguously cultural phenomenon. The authors of this paper present the possibility of looking at it in a different way, namely from the evolutionary point of view, which allows to ap-proach materialism in terms of its functionality in satisfying diverse needs. First, the fundamental conceptualisations of materialism are reviewed (the traditional ones by Belk, Richins & Dawson, and Kasser & Ryan, and a new one by Shrum). The descrip-tion of the cultural background of materialism which follows provides a starting point for presenting the proposition that materialism may also have a biological background, which encourages an analysis of the phenomenon through its functions and significance for solving specific problems appearing in the daily lives of humans. To support the proposition, evolutionary concepts and theories are quoted as well as empirical findings explaining the adaptive meaning of materialistic views and behaviors. In the conclusion, the authors discuss the consequences of materialism, presenting them from both the cultural and evolutionary points of view.
Article
Across four studies (n = 1689), this research contributes to an empirical understanding of the relationship between class-related attitudes and perceived work ethic. We tested contexts in which counterstereotypical cues of low socioeconomic status (SES) and White targets lead to more positive evaluations. In study 1, participants judged a low-SES candidate in a job hiring scenario as warmer and more competent than a high-SES candidate. A follow-up study found that trait words related to work ethic were salient in the hiring context, and particularly associated with this low-SES candidate. Study 2 orthogonally manipulated both income and perceptions of work ethic, with the work ethic manipulation impacting participant evaluations of both low- and high-income targets. Study 3 investigated a scenario in which no information on work ethic was provided. In study 4, a counterstereotypical low-income target (described as goal-oriented and studious) was evaluated as more hardworking than the average low-income person, average person on welfare, and average homeless person. Together, these results demonstrate that it is possible for a subtype of the “hardworking poor” to override more general stereotypes of low-SES targets as lazy or incompetent. This research suggests that interpersonal judgments based on SES are highly sensitive to work ethic cues. Additionally, we highlight the need for future research to further investigate experimental manipulations of social class and constructs related to work ethic, including dispositional and situational attributions.
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High consumers contribute to environmental degradation through their own consumption practices and the setting of societal material aspirations. This review of research on individual, social and structural aspects of high consumption shows that high consuming households remain largely unstudied, despite their likely significance for ensuring the well-being of current and future generations. The contradiction between the apparent impact of high consumers and their exclusion from research and policy initiatives highlights the need to initiate a research agenda on the topic of high consumption. This paper sets the scene for a research agenda which seeks to gain a better understanding of the role of high consumers in transitions to more sustainable consumption practices; the psychological, social and structural drivers of high consumption; the precise environmental impact of high consumers; their geographical distribution and the barriers to engaging them in sustainable consumption initiatives.
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Motivated information processing in group decision making: the case of hidden profiles When complex problems are to be solved, groups are often used to make decisions. A popular reason for this is the assumption that group members work in a cooperative way and, by consequence, they make more informed decisions. This article reconsiders the classic cooperation assumption and reviews the literature on hidden-profiles from the perspective of competitive motivations. By using recent experimental evidence, this article casts doubt on some classic results and opens new perspectives of research with regard to the role of cooperative and competitive motivations on group decision-making.
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Objective The literature onadolescent consumption behavior asserts that environmental features affect buying impulsiveness of the urban youth in Korea. This research assesses this assertion by examining adolescents’ buying impulsiveness through the integration of mediating and moderating effects that exert influence on them. Method We used a structural equation model to evaluate the relationships between all constructs and the measurement errors of multi-indicators, and to determine whether the proposed relationships are supported by the data. Results School as an environmental feature did not universally influence adolescents’ materialistic values, as its effect in this respect was instead moderated by students' level of exposure to mass media. When a high level of such exposure was present, school had a substantial impact on the presence and growth of materialistic values. In terms of another environmental feature, the influence of students' peers significantly increased their buying impulsiveness, while the influence of parents moderately decreased it. Conclusion This study contributes to the elaboration of a more comprehensive causal model of adolescents' buying impulsiveness.
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Representing the belief that material objects are important and valuable, materialism indicates to what extent individuals or groups attach importance to material assets. People exhibit high materialistic behavior if material assets are significant for them, and low materialistic behavior if they are insignificant. In materialism, consumer behavior is regarded as a multifaceted phenomenon that covers various scientific fields such as marketing, psychology, economics, advertising, and social sciences. Today, the materialistic values and the concepts of cognitive buying and post-purchase behavior have an undeniable focus on the consumers' shopping behaviors. These concepts are significant due to the relationship between themselves and their mutual effect. The main purpose of the research is to examine the effect of materialistic values on cognitive buying and post-purchase behavior. The material values, cognitive buying, and post-purchase behavior scales were used within the scope of the research. The research covers 1034 consumers in the provinces of Edirne, Tekirdağ, and Kırklareli. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 statistical software package and the structural equation model was analyzed using the AMOS 24 statistical software. According to the findings, the variables of success, centrality, and happiness, which are the sub-dimensions of the material values scale, were found to have a direct effect on the rationality variable, a sub-dimension of the cognitive buying scale. Success and centrality variables, which are sub-dimensions of the material values scale, were found to have a direct effect on the wisdom of purchase and concern over deal, which are sub-dimensions of the post-purchase cognitive dissonance scale.
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